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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I
 Part II. Report of condition and...
 Part III






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00038
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Part I
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Fig growing in Florida
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        The sweet potato crop
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        What the farmers co-operative work stands for
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Kudzu - its value as a forage plant and as a legume
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Part II. Report of condition and prospective yield of crops
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Department of agriculture
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Part III
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Immature citrus fruit laws, rules and regulations
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Potash
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
        Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
Full Text






Volume 25 Number 4



FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULI ETIN
0 E
AGRICULTURE z DEPARTMENT

OCTC 1 1, 1915

W. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Fig Growing in Florida. The Sweet Potato Crop.
What the Farmers' Co-Operative Work Stands
For. Kudzu-Its Value as a Forage Plant and
as a Legume.
Part 2-Report of Condition and Prospective Yield of
Crops.
Part 3-Immature Citrus Fruit Laws, Rules and Regula-
tions. Potash-Hardwood and Palmetto Roots
as Source of. Soil Analysis. Rules and Regu-
lations for Sending Samples of Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-lass
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BUUFLINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, STATE POINTER
S TALLAHASSEE, LORIDA














COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.




















PART I.

Fig Growing in Florida.
The Sweet Potato Crop.
What the Farmers' Co-operative Work
Stands For.
Kudzu-Its Value as a Forage Plant
and as a Legume.











FIG GROWING IN FLORIDA.

By H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk, Department of
Agriculture.

That the fig has not long since been developed as a com-
mercial fruit may be attributed chiefly to the inability
thus far to produce a marketable dried fig, the fig of com-
merce, in the humid southern climate. Moreover, the
fresh fruit, which is highly esteemed both by those who
grow it and those who have acquired a taste for it, is
practically unknown in large commercial centers, being
an extremely poor shipper under usual conditions.

Fresh figs are not known or appreciated in the north-
ern markets, and consequently the demand is too limited
to encourage large shipments. The fruit is more perish-
able than any other that is generally marketed. It can
be handled only by the most careful and experienced per-
sons, and even then it is not in a condition to show its
best quality. Ripening in midsummer, when the northern
markets are crowded with many well-known fruits, and
not being especially attractive to the eye, fresh figs would
at best gain favor slowly.

As a domestic fruit, however, the fig is of prime impor-
tance, for in addition to its use direct from the tree, it
may be either canned or made into jams, marmalades,
jellies or preserves. It is a wholesome fruit and in the
older fig growing countries is an important food. The fig
should never be eaten until thoroughly ripe, since green
figs contain an acrid milky juice which not only has a
disagreeable flavor, but is unhealthful. This trouble dis-
appears when the fruit is ripe.

They are eaten fresh from the tree or are served on the
table with sugar and cream. They can also be stewed,
and made into p)uddings and pics, and when canned or











preserved they make an acceptable table delicacy through-
out the year.
For canning, figs should be picked when still firm
enough to hold their shape. To secure the best results
they require the use of more sugar than do some other
fruits. If undersweetened, they seem tasteless and lack-
ing in quality. The amount of sugar used and the method
of procedure vary greatly in different households. A
pound of sugar to three or four pounds of fruit would
probably suit most tastes, though some prefer the regular
"pound for pound" preserve. Ginger root or orange peel
is sometimes added to give variety of flavoring, and figs
are often made into sweet pickles by adding spices anl
vinegar. Figs are sometimes peeled before canning and
this is considered to increase their delicacy of flavor.
More frequently, however, they are cooked unpeeled and
with the stems on, just as they come from the tree. They
hold their shape better and look more attractive when
treated in this way, and the difference in flavor, if any, is
very slight.
Figs are occasionally dried for household use, but as
they ripen during the season of frequent summer show-
ers, this is so troublesome that it is not often attempted.
A nice product could doubtless be made by use of fruit
evaporators, but these are seldom used this far south.
The future commercial development of the fig in the
south probably lies in the shipment of selected fresh figs
to the larger towns within four hundred to eight hundred
miles or more from the source of production, and in the
consumption of the surplus crop, and inferior grades by
the canneries. Figs have been canned on a small scale for
many years in lower Mississippi and Louisiana, and the
industry is now being extensively developed along the
Texas coast. The canned product is liked by every one,
and the present limited output is disposed of at high
prices. According to recent press reports from Texas,












several hundred thousands of fig trees have been planted
by farmers and truck growers in the coast country of that
State during the past few years.
The fig will grow in a variety of soils and is generally
adapted for back yard and garden condition, flourishing
with little care or attention. There is a scarcity of ex-
perience in the south relative to its culture under field
conditions. It requires an abundance of plant food, how-
ever, and is relatively a surface feeder, the depth of the
feeding roots depending to a great extent on the distance
to moisture. It reaches its highest development on a fer-
tile, moist, but well drained loamy soil, containing an
abundant supply of lime. In general, low land soils
which do not overflow, or which can be readily drained to
a depth of three or more feet, will prove ideal for the fig
orchard.

Trees will make satisfactory growth on fertile soils
without the use of additional plant food. If either lime,
prosphoric acid, or potash is lacking it should be liberally
supplied especially when the trees reach the bearing
age.

A good annual mulch is the best fertilizer that can be
given the fig, supplemented when the trees are of bearing
age and the growth of wood is vigorous, by the addition
of phosphoric acid and potash. Five or six pounds of acid
phosphate and two to four pounds of muriate potash per
tree would not be too much. Eight pounds of kainit or a
peck or so of hardwood ashes may be substituted for the
muriate of potash and would prove profitable; but it
should be applied separately and never in conjunction or
mixed with either the mulch or commercial fertilizer.

The cuttings are taken during the winter from wood
grown the previous season. It is essential that the wood
be of the right degree of maturity or the rooting process
will not be successful. When the wood is cut the surface












of the wound should be moist and covered with small
drops of milky white sap. The length of the cuttings
depends upon the moisture of the soils. If the soil is
quite moist they may be as short as from 6 to 10 inches,
but if the surface soil be dry they must be long enough to
extend down into the moisture, if it be two or more feet.
Cuts should be made just at the joint, at both base and
top. This is important, for the fig has a solid stem at the
joint, but has a pith in the center of the stem between the
joints which quickly decays, and the wood will always die
back to the first joint. If decay once starts it is very
likely to extend beyond the first joint and destroy the
cuttings. Insert the cuttings to the top bud in rich moisi
well drained land. It is essential that the soil be well
packed at the base of the cutting, for if an air space be
left, the cutting will likely shrivel without rooting.

Where the climate is too severe to plant the cuttings
immediately in the open, they may be bundled and buried
until spring, as with grape cuttings. It is frequently
advised that the cuttings be planted in the site the tree is
to occupy permanently, as the fig is often severely set
back by transplanting. When transplanted to the orchard
from the nursery row the roots should be carefully pro-
tected from drying out. It is well to plant two or more
cuttings in each tree position. This will tend to lessen
vacancies in the orchard, and the excess number can be
taken out later. Planting distances differ with the varie-
ties grown, and with varying soil and climatic conditions.
Available figures indicate that 12 to 16 feet, with every
other row removed when the trees begin to crowd, will be
sufficient for most varieties. This would leave the perma-
nent planting 16 by 24 feet.

No general system of orchard cultivation has been
worked out for the fig. Some advocate as little culture
as possible, since the fig is a shallow feeder. If the pre-
paratory plowing, as well as subsequent cultivations are












made as deep as is consistent with the nature of the soil
in each case, the roots will be encouraged to feed more
deeply and the danger from mechanical injury confined
largely to thin soils.

On the thin soils which abound in many parts of the
State, it is difficult to cultivate without doing serious
injury to the roots. Mulching heavily near the tree with
any available material that will hold moisture and keep
down the weeds will be found a good plan. The middle
of the rows can be kept clean by a shallow plowing and
harrowing without disturbing the mulch and without
injury to the roots protected by it. When the weeds and
grass are not allowed to get too big a start, the small
toothed cultivator or an acme harrow will prove efficient
tools for surface culture. The practice in Texas, where
the soil is a heavy clay loam, has been to disk the orchard
lightly at frequent intervals during the spring and early
summer to keep down the weeds and conserve the mois-
ture. This method proved satisfactory for tree growth.

Frequent pruning is considered detrimental to the fig
tree. The quality of the fruit is not improved, and the
quality is usually decreased thereby. The general advice
is given to prune only sufficiently to shape the young
tree, to remove all injured wood, and to thin out the head
of the tree to admit air and sunlight. All cuts should be
made at a joint, and as a rule* the branches or canes
should be completely removed, rather than stubbed back.
When a branch is only partially removed, the numerous
shoots forming below the cut make the head irregular in
shape and necessitate more pruning later on. Where the
fig is to be grown as a standard tree, pinching back the
leader during the growing season will hasten the devel-
opment of the lateral branches. The use of low branch-
ing standards to shade the soil is advisable in sections
where long continued droughts occur. The same effect
may be produced by starting two or three main stems












from the ground. The latter form of tree is less liable
to break down under a heavy crop. In colder or exposed
sections, where the bush or stool form is grown, pruning
should be limited chiefly to the removal of weak or injured
canes.

The Celeste, Brown Turkey, Magnolia, Blue Genoa
Green Sachia and Brunswick appear to be the most widely
grown general-purpose varieties. The prospective grower,
however, will be assisted in the choice of varieties for dif-
ferent purposes and sections by consulting some of the lat-
est authorities on this fruit. He should also seek the ad-
vice of local practical growers, since varietal names are
not the same in all sections, and, furthermore, well-known
varieties are held in different esteem in different sections.
The Celestial or Celeste is preferred for canning in the
northern Gulf coast region, while a variety locally known
as the Magnolia but said to be identical with the Bruns-
wick grown at the Texas Station, is largely used for can-
ning in the coast region of that State.

The fig has thus far been relatively free from insect
pests and fungus diseases. Its worst enemies appear to
be wet weather and fruit depredators such as birds, june-
bugs, wasps, and other insects. The birds pay their score
most royally by the destruction they visit upon insects
injurious to other crops. Fungus affections are fortun-
ately few and do not effect a great amount of damage, if
we except the operation of the ferment production the fig
"sour" which is almost always a concomitant of prolonged
wet weather. A leaf rust sometimes prematurely defoi:-
ates the trees, but does not do much harm. Although the
cotton root-rot fungus (Ozonium auricomum) is said to
occur on the fig, no particular damage from this source
has been thus far reported.

The nematode (Heterodera radiciola) a minute worm
which causes the disease known as root knot by infesting












the soft fibrous roots, thrives best in moist sandy soils,
and is more or less troublesome throughout the entire
coast region, but they are not a serious drawback.
Figs develop so rapidly that a vacancy is soon filled,
and the chance of the malady, whatever it may be, in-
volving the rest of the plat, is thereby reduced. Yet it
is well to be first assured that some actively injurious
agency and not deficient nourishment is the operating
cause. Therefore noting any apparent weakness or deteri-
oration the sickly individual should receive a top-dressing
of nitrate of soda protected by a good mulch. If this fails
to renew its vigor and the tree still maintains an abnormal
appearance, grub it out and renew.

During the long continued rainy weather or nm wet soils
the crop often sours on the tree. Aside from attention to
drainage and using care not to over-irrigate, little can
be done for this trouble.

The fig should be thoroughly ripe when picked for im-
mediate home consumption, and only a trifle green when
picked for shipment.

It must be picked fully ripe to be worth eating and
cannot be gathered prematurely, like the peach or plum.
But a day's wilt somewhat improves its quality and in-
creases the sugar content, provided it is carefully handled.
After twenty-four hours, however, the danger line is
reached and fermentation is imminent. It must, there-
fore, be handled rapidly as well as tenderly.

Gathering the fig is a difficult and clumsy process when
the fruit can not be reached by hand from the ground,
on account of its very soft character. It is almost as
troublesome to gather safely as is the persimmon, and the
slightest fall ruins it. Yet the fig tree, while possessing
brittle wood, and therefore not to be climbed, is fortun-
ately not lofty, as a rule, and its fruit is readily reached













by the help of a stepladder. From the ground the fruit
can be conveniently reached by means of a home-made
"gatherer" or "fig cup," constructed very simply by tack-
ing a baking-powder can to a pole of any desired length,
first filing a portion of the rim of the can to a cutting
edge. For horizontal work-reaching out from the lad-
der for a distant fruit-a modification may be made by
tacking the can to a pole at a right angle to it, like a
dip net.

Shipping must be effected in either berry baskets or ex-
tremely shallow trays-preferably the former. The stan-
dard 24-quart strawberry crate is the best package to use.
Formerly, only nearby markets were practicable, but with
improved transportation facilities and refrigerator
cars they should be easily transported to market several
hundred miles distant.

It should be borne in mind, however, that although
figs grow successfully in almost every garden in the State,
there are as yet no extensive fig orchards in existence and
that every such planting will be, to a large extent, an ex-
periment in which the individual planter must work out
questions pertaining to soil, climate, and varieties as well
as many of the details of cultivation. In general it may
be said that other conditions being equal, the farther
south the fig is grown the greater will be the chance of
success.












THE SWEET POTATO CROP.

-By-

('. K. McQUARRIE, State Agent United States Farmers'
Co-operative Demonstration Work.

The sweet potato crop holds an important place
among the general farm crops of this State, being third
in point of value (running a close race with cotton, which
is second in the list). Its position is more important than
cotton, as it is a maintenance crop and for the most part
consumed at home and not subject to market fluctuations.

Because of its, adaptibility to all sections of the State,
the possibilities of this crop, from a money-making stand-
point, are great. The present yield could be largely in-
creased by adopting improved methods of production.
And if there is one crop more than any other that can be
depended upon year in and year out with a large degree
of certainty it is the sweet potato crop.

But to get maximum results and put this crop where
it belongs as one of the best farm crops of the State, cer-
tain factors in crop production must be studied and acted
upon. These are: Its place in crop rotation, soil prepara-
tion, the kind of fertilizer to be used, the quality of same,
methods of application, planting, care of the crop when
growing, the varieties best suited to the soil and to cli-
matic and local conditions and methods of harvesting
and care of the crop afterwards.

PLACE IN CROP ROTATION.

The sweet potato crop in the general rotation should
follow a crop that puts humus and fertility in the soil.
Humus enables the soil to store moisture, increase its
temperature, furnishes a certain amount of plant food.
retards the loss of fertility by leaching. stimulates chemi-












cal action, and fosters the bacterial life so essential to a
large crop yield. Crops such as velvet beans, cowpeas.
soy beans and beggarweed are ideal for this purpose, for
they not only increase the fertility of the soil by their
ability to collect the free nitrogen of the air and store
it on their roots in the form of nodules but the plowing
under of the aftermath of these crops puts humus in the
soil to keep the crop supplied with the needed moisture
while it is growing.
Where any of these crops have been plowed under in
the fall and a winter cover crop, such as rye or oats,
grown on the land (which is an excellent plant for con-
servation of moisture and fertility during the winter
months), and these crops again plowed under in the
green state early in spring, there will be ideal soil con
editions for a large crop of sweet potatoes. Some prefer
to let the oat crop get to the dough stage and cut and
cure it for hay and plow under the stubble. This is
also an excellent method, unless in localities where it
will be too late in the season before the oats are ready
for cutting to be in time to plant the sweet potato crop.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.

Plowing or breaking the land in the late fall for all
spring-planted crops is the best method to pursue, for if
we wait till spring the soil is apt to be too wet after the
winter rains to do good work, and the vegetation and ma-
terials plowed under in the spring will not have time to
rot and assimilate with the soil to form humus, and the
soil will not have time to pack back and get into the me-
chanical condition necessary for success in crop produce
tion. Therefore we want to do this breaking in the fall.
For this purpose a tool should be used capable of doing
good work and plowing completely under all vegetable
material on the top of the land. A disk or heavy turning
plow should be used for this purpose, aiming each time












to go a couple of inches or so deeper than the last break-
in.g was done. On old land that has been some years
in cultivation subsoiling can be profitably adopted. This
subsoiling can be done with an ordinary scooter stock
with a six-inch shovel for a plow, running right behind
the breaking plow and going as deep as it is possible to
go. This subsoiling opens and aerates the lower soil that
is not advisable to turn on top or mix with the already-
mnade soil. It also helps to retain the moisture received
front the rainfall, prevents, to a certain degree, surface
washing during heavy rains, and enables the crop to draw
on the lower moisture strata in the growing period when
moisture is the main factor to a large yield. It also
serves the purpose of soil aeration to a lower depth than
the breaking plow can do, thus tending to promote the
bacterial life of the soil on which crop production so much
depends.

In cases where no winter cover crop is grown on falt-
broken land, after every heavy rain a tool such as a
weeder or harrow should be used, running lightly over
the land and forming a dust mulch to prevent the rapid
evaporation of moisture that occurs if a crust is allowed
to remain long on the land. No deep running tool is
wanted for this work.

FERTILIZER FOR THE CROP.

An important point connected with this crop, is the
kind of fertilizer used, and it is advisable to consider this
from the plant-food standpoint and know the formula
that is likely to give us better results. Some of the Experi-
ment Stations of the South have given us definite infor-
mation along this line, which, coupled with results ob-
tained by a number of farmers in growing the crop, en-
ables us to suggest a formula that this crop will generally
do well with. A favorite formula contains 3 per cent
of ammonia, 7 per cent. phosphoric acid and about 8 per
2-BurL.












cent. potash. And in this connection we want to know
the raw materials that enter into the make-up of this
formula.

The raw material recommended for an ammoniate
source are either tankage, sulphate of ammonia, or blood
and bone; and for potash, sulphate of potash, or double
sulphate of potash and magnesia.

The farmer who plants a large acreage of the crop can
get the fertilizer manufacturers to compound for him any
formula he wants and of any preferred materials, but
the small grower has either to take what he can get on
the local market or do his own mixing, which is quite
easily done. To mix a ton of the formula given above
and of the materials recommended, he would have to use
about 900 pounds of blood and bone, or bone tankage, 800
pounds of phosphoric acid and 300 pounds of sulphate of
potash.

HOW MUCH FERTILIZER PER ACRE.

Land that is in good mechanical condition with con-
siderable humus in the soil will take care of more fer-
tilizer to advantage than poor thin soil devoid of humus.
The depth of plowing cuts quite a figure also along this
line. A good rule to adopt and one that has been found
satisfactory in practice is to use one hundred pounds per
acre of the right kind of plant food or the formula
already mentioned, for every inch of depth that the land
has been plowed. It is true economy to use enough fer-
tilizer of the.right kind to get the maximum yield with
the least cost of production per bushel.

METHODS OF APPLICATION

It is a well-known fact that the root system is the
foundation on which a crop is made, and the methods












of application of the fertilizer determine to a great extent
the vigor and number of the feeding rootlets of a crop.
Fertilizer applied in furrows, drills or hills tends to make
the soil streaked or spotted in its fertility, consequently
curtailing the root system because the roots of the crop
are not apt to spread through all the soil as they would
do if the fertility was uniformly distributed. Therefore
it is recommended that, on all well-prepared soils plowed
to a depth of six inches or more, the fertilizer be broad-
casted on freshly prepared land and worked into the soil
by means of harrow, weeder or cultivator, a few days
previous to planting the crop. On soils deficient in
humus, and plowed a few inches in depth, the application
of the fertilizer had best be in furrows; but in such a
case the quantity used must be small and the crop will
be of a corresponding degree, thus making the cost more
per bushel, for the labor required is the same in both
cases.

PLANTING THE CROP.

Whenever the "draws" in the seed-bed are ready for set-
ting out in the field, enough land should be prepared for
the purpose by making it into beds about four feet from
center to center. The height of these beds should be
determined by the nature of the land. On rolling land,
where there is ample drainage, these beds should not be
more than twelve to fifteen inches above the level of the
ground and made with a well-rounded top, not sharp. On
flat wood soils where drainage is deficient the beds should
be made higher, say two to three feet, so as to take care of
excessive rainfall in rainy weather, because the roots of
the crop should not be in stagnant water at any time.
The best tool for making the beds is a disk cultivator.
The disks can be arranged at different angles and depths
and make a far better bed and at considerably less cost
than those made by a turning plow and afterwards












smoothed off with a hoe, as is the general practice. It
is not advisable to make more beds than are required
at any one time, because a better stand is secured when
draws or vines are planted on fresh-made beds, on ac-
count of the settling of the soil about them as the bed
settles than when plants are put on beds a few days or a
week after they were made.

If draws are set out in April, the vines that are wanted
for the main planting will be ready to be cut for this pur-
pose in May. For it is generally conceded that the cut-
tings of the vines make a larger yield than where draws
are used, and it is the usual practice just to plant suffi
cient draws early in the season so as to give plenty of
vines for the main planting later on.

In the planting operation the vines should be cut to
lengths of twelve or fifteen inches (we don't want them
too long), and laid on top of the bed about fifteen inches
apart with butts all one way. By using a forked stick for
the purpose, we can insert them into the soil to a depth
of four to six inches, always taking care to have the butt
ends down. The practice of some .growers of pushing the
vines in the soil at the middle and leaving both ends
sticking out cannot be generally recommended, as in that
case the vine is ruptured and more than one joint will
root, this tends to a lower yield than where only one
joint roots, which is the case when the butt end is in-
serted.

If dry weather prevails at planting time and the soil
is deficient in moisture, watering the plants immediately
after setting them out is recommended. For this purpose
some vessel with a spout on it (such as an old copper
kettle) is best, pouring about half a pint of water in the
hole where the plant is set out, taking care to run the
wetted soil to the root of the plant. This should be done
in the evening, and next morning a little dry soil should












be thrown over these wet places to prevent the evapora-
tion of that watering.

VARIETIES.

More than one hundred so-called varieties of sweet po-
tatoes make up the list of what we have in the State.
Many of these are really the same, but under different
names in different localities.

In selecting a suitable variety two things should be kept
in mind, and the most important in this respect is the
market one is catering to, and another is the lateness or
earliness of the variety. As a general proposition, an
early variety does not give us the largest yield, and is not
such a good keeper when stored as a later variety which
matures thoroughly before harvesting. A variety in great
demand for early summer shipping to Northern markets
is the "Big Stein Jersey," but this variety is mostly con-
fined to the central and south-central part of the State,
where it is grown largely as a catch crop succeeding a
winter truck crop. It is not in much demand in the South-
ern market because of its dry, mealy nature, the Southern
markets calling for a soft sweet potato of the yam type.
The favorite early variety in the Northern belt is the
Triumph. Among the favorites for domestic use and of
medium earliness are the "Dooly Yam," and "Nancy Hall,"
The "White Spanish" sometimes called the "Tar Heel,"
is the earliest we have, but the .quality is inferior and
is not in much demand after other varieties come on the
market. "Southern Queen" and early "Pumpkin Yam"
are medium early varieties and are of excellent quality.
"Dewey," "Yellow Bunch Yam," "Vineland" and '"HRall
Golden" are also desirable types and are the latest ripen-
ing varieties for domestic use. These are good keepers
when allowed to ripen and stored properly.

Sweet potatoes are also much used for stock feel and












can be profitably grown for that purpose espe,.ally for
hogs and dairy stock. They can also be used to advan-
tage for horse and mule feed along with grain feeds. The
stock-feeding varieties grow to a larger size and are much
inferior in quality to those used for domestic purposes.
Among the best known in this class are the "white and
the "purple" West Indian Yams, "Brazilian Yam," "Nigger
Killer," "Hayti," "Spanish," "San Domingo," "Davis
Enormous" and a number of others Some of these do
better in some sections than others, so that one has to
consider and find out, if possible, the variety best suited
to his soil, location and climatic conditions. This applies
both to the domestic and to the stock-feed types.

CARE OF THE GROWING CROP.

Many of our native farmers think that the sweet potato
crop does not require any cultivation. If it is planted on
new land, little cultivation may be required, as grass and
weeds are not apt to be much in evidence. Nevertheless,
an occasional stirring of the soil, particularly in dry
weather, is useful for the conservation of moisture and
the aeration needed to produce a good crop.

On old land that has been several years in cultivation,
grass and weeds will get quite rampant shortly after
planting, particularly if a heavy application of fertilizer
has been used on the crop. To keep such in check, the
cultivator must be used quite freely until the vines com-
pletely cover the ground, when cultivation may cease, as
by that time the young potatoes will be forming in the
soil, and their growth would be interfered with if culti-
vation was continued any longer.

TOOLS TO USE.

The best tool for cultivating this crop that we know of
is a two-horse disk cultivator with the disks set at suita-












ble angles and different depths, so as to run along the
sides of the bed, scraping weeds and some soil into the
water furrow in the operation. After the ground has been
gone over in this way, the angles of the disks are reversed
and rebedding is done, leaving the beds in their previous
form. This work not only cleans up the weeds and grass.
but aerates the soil and tends to a larger yield.
To protect the young plants from being either torn or
covered in the operation, the fenders, with which all such
tools are provided, have to be attached to the frame of the
cultivator. These fenders have to be properly adjusted as
to width and depth to give the best results. Later on
when the vines begin running and interfere with the disks
in their work, a home-made attachment with fingers on it
to lift vines out of the way can be fastened to the culti-
vator and used to good advantage; this cultivation can be
carried on much later than if this was not used.

DISK CULTIVATOR BETTER THAN PLOW.

On those farms where cultivators are not used, the gen-
eral method practiced for keeping the weeds under con-
trol is to use a turning plow for barring off the beds, clean-
ing the tops by hoeing, and then bedding back again. This
takes more time, and is more expensive, because the plow
will not cover more than a couple of acres in a day,
whereas the disk cultivator will clean at least 8 to 10
acres a day. Fenders to protect the young plants cannot
be used on a plow, and in the rebedding operation a num-
ber of plants will be covered by soil, requiring an extra
farm hand to uncover them. When the vines begin run-
ning, an extra hand is also required to rake the vines out
of the way of the plow, thus adding fifteen to twenty per
cent. to the cost of producing the crop and the work will
not be as well done as by the cultivator, for the raking of
the vines out of the way of the plow and back again dam-
ages them and curtails the crop.












Care should always be exercised not to work the soil
when it is too wet, or when the vines are wet with either
dew or rain, for that tends to "scald" the leaves and is a
detriment to a good crop yield.

HARVESTING THE CROP.

The bulk of this crop is not generally harvested until
the first frost occurs. Then the field should be gone over,
and the vines cut from the crown of the hills by means of
a sharp hoe or sickle. This operation prevents the decay
in the frosted vines from being communicated to the pota-
toes, and so causing the soft rot which shows itself soon
after the potatoes are dug. If we follow this method the
potatoes can ripen in the ground before we dig them,, and
their keeping qualities will be improved.

In the digging operation, care should be exercised to
prevent injury to the tubers by cuts, scratches, or bruises.
which are another source of soft rot. Where a consider-
able acreage is to be harvested, it will be a point of econ-
omy to use a regular potato-digger. This works better
and quicker, avoids injury, and insures the getting of all
the crop from the ground.

After the digging, the crop should be allowed to lie on
the ground in rows for three or four days, so as to get
thoroughly dried and cured by the sun. It is as neces-
sary to cure potatoes, both Irish and sweet, as it is to
cure hay or forage.

STORING T'rllE ROP.

How to store the sweet potato crop in such a manner
as to insure against loss by decay, is a matter that seri-
ously concerns the farmers of the State. A considerable
loss occurs in this crop every winter from preventable
causes. The methods of harvesting the crop are responsi-












ble for a large amount of this loss, and the methods of
storing for most of the balance.
We have seldom, if ever, seen a successful sweet po-
tato house made by digging a hole in the ground and roof-
ing it in, or by imitating a smoke house; 'because both of
these lack ventilation. A common practice is to make
small conical piles about ten bushels quantity each, and
to cover them with soil and bark. As far as our observa-
tion goes, this method is frequently a failure, because the
contents of these piles are not properly secured against
rain, and are not properly ventilated. In our own prac-
tice we have found it best to store sweet potatoes in banks
on the lop of the ground conveniently near to the barn or
dwelling-house. A piece of ground running north and
south, of the desired length, and about four feet wide,
is leveled by means of a hoe or rake, and the potatoes
are piled on this, about five feet deep, tapering to a sharp
ridge. This makes a long A-shaped bank, and care is
taken to have the sides with a smooth and uniform slope.
After all the potatoes are piled in the bank, a good plan
is to allow them to have a few days' exposure to the
sun so as to become thoroughly dry, covering at night with
sacks or hay to keep off the dew. Then the whole bank
is covered two or three inches deep with some kind of
hay of fine texture, and over the hay a couple of inches
of soil are thrown. The hay absorbs the moisture that is
given off by the potatoes during the sweating that occurs
soon after the bank is entirely covered. The soil keeps
the hay in place and protects against cold. The bank
should be made water-tight by means of boards laid
lengthwise, with edges lapped to shed rain; or a temporary
frame of scantlings can be made over the bank, and
shingles or tar-paper used to keep the potatoes dry.
A bank thus made insures the maintenance of uniform
temperature which is very important as the sweet potato,
when stored, will not stand sudden changes in tempera-
ture without decaying.












If the crop is stored in this way it is less likely to rot
than with ordinary methods, and it can be held until late
in spring, when prices run high.

Of late years a potato house recommended by the De-
partment of Agriculture has been used with satisfactory
results in some parts of the State. (See Farmers' Bulle-
tin 772). This house is built in the ordinary way but
double-floored and double-sheathed, with sufficient
ventilation provided for, and one or more stoves in it
that can be fired in cold weather. Warm air arrange.
ments are provided by running a system of stove pipes all
around on the floor level. It is fitted with slat bins ca-
pable of holding 40 to 50 bushels each, making it con-
venient to ship a small or large lot at any time when
wanted. With a house of this kind it is an easy matter to
maintain a uniform temperature by firing the stove during
a cold snap and opening up the ventilators when occa-
sion demands it. A uniform temperature of about 50
degrees is about right and can be easily maintained in a
house so constructed.












WHAT THE FARMERS CO-OPERATIVE
WORK STANDS FOR.

BY C. K. McQUARRIE, STATE AGENT U. S. D. A.

At a very early period of human history it was found
necessary to evolve from the mass of ethical teachings, a
few general rules for living, called the Ten Command-
ments, by which a man could be moral without going
through a course in theology.

In order to instruct the average farmer how to suc-
cessfully conduct his farming operations for the purpose
of procuring net gain from the farm, it has been found
necessary to deduce from the mass of agricultural teach-
ings a few general rules of procedure. They are called
the Ten Commandments of Agriculture, by the practice of
which a man may become a good farmer without being a
graduate from a college of agriculture.

(Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, who inaugurated the Farm
Demonstration Work in Texas in 1904, is the author of
these ten commandments.)

1. Break your land in the fall to a depth of eight, ten,
twelve or more inches according to the soil, with
implements that will not bring too much of the
subsoil to the surface. Prepare a deep seed bed,
thoroughly drained.

2. Use seed of the best variety, individually selected,
and carefully planted.

3. In cultivated crops, give the rows and the plants in
the rows a space suited to the plants, the soil, and
the climate.












4. Use intensive tillage during the greater period of
the crop, using shallow working tools.

5. Secure high content of humus in the soil, by use of
legumes, barnyard manure, farm refuse, and com-
iiercial fertilizers, and plowing under all aftermath
of previous crops when preparing for another.

6. Carry out a systematic crop rotation with a winter
cover crop on all Southern farms.

7. Accomplish more work in a day by using more
horse-power and better implements.

S. Increase the farm stock to the extent of utilizing
all the waste products and idle lands of the farms.

9. Produce all the food required for the men and
animals on the farm; everything for household use
should be grown on the farm.

10. Keep an account of each farm product, in order to
know which crop gives best net profits.

BEGINNING OF THE FARMERS' CO-OPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION
WORK.

In 1903, the boll weevil had become so much of a pest
to the farmers of Southeastern Texas that they appealed
to the Government for aid to assist them in fighting this
insect pest. The situation in Texas was such that no
help could be given to the farmer to head off this insect,
and Dr. Knapp organized the Co-operative Demonstra-
tion Work so as to get the farmers to diversify their
crops and practice rotation. When the Farmers' Co-
operative Demonstration Work was first inaugurated, in
1904, Dr. Seaman A, Knapp was given full charge of it.












THE MAIN IDEA.

Along this line we would like to review the main idea
that Dr. Knapp had in his mind when he put a county
agent in charge of each of the eight counties in which the
work was started. He knew that there was much knowl-
edge applicable and helpful to crop production that was
annually worked out and made available by the experts
in agriculture and others on individual farms, which
knowledge was found to be sufficient if properly applied
to readjust agricultural practice and place it on a basis
of greater profit. The aim was to reconstruct the rural
home and to give to country life an attraction and a
potential influence it has never had before. This knowl-
edge could not be conveyed and delivered by any written
or oral message to the farmers of the State in such a way
that they would accept and adopt it. The issuing of bul-
letins and lectures on agriculture by scientists and ex-
perts was found not to reach the farmer in the best way
possible. While the farmer would attend lectures and
read bulletins; owing to his general surroundings, his
early education and other causes, he could not make this
information adaptable to the conditions on his own farm.
This could only be done by the personal touch of the prac-
tical demonstration agent, and be worked by the farm-
er himself, by making him an interested party in the
development of this new method, which was right under
his own eye and hands.

RESULTS ACHIEVED.

The results achieved along this line have been so won-
derful that they have justified the adoption of Dr. Knapp's
original methods by every State in the Union. The How
and Why of crop production, and the business end of
farming have in recent years become so complicated, and
experimental scientists to whom the farmers have looked












for direction are so numerous, and the urgent needs of
the world for a great quantity of material for food are
growing so rapidly, that the farmer of today must be-
come an expert in his calling if he is going to keep step
with the procession of agricultural progress.

STATE OF FLORIDA PECULIARLY ADAPTED TO THE WORK.

In the State of Florida it.has been found that with the
long season (about the whole twelve months) in which
to grow crops, this demonstration system can be carried
on to the fullest extent, in fact more so than in any other
State in the Union, since the State of Florida is blessed
with a climate second to none, and the soil is of a nature
that responds very readily to proper treatment. It has
been found that diversified farming can be conducted in
Florida on a more varied scale than anywhere in the
country, if not in the world. The one-crop system that
has been practiced so long by our native farmers must
give way to the three- or four-crop system, which, in the
long run, will help to build up the agriculture of the
State as nothing else can. Therefore, the idea of better
farm management is injected very strongly in the work.
Instead of the farmer running his business in a happy-
go-lucky or slip-shod way, the county agent gets him
pinned down to certain lines of crop production. We
would like to mention four of these which are stressed
particularly in the demonstration work in this State.

CROP ARRANGEMENT.

First of all, the farmer, trucker, or fruit-grower, should
arrange his crop production in such a way as to grow a
cash crop. Any crop that he can grow successfully and
convert readily into cash can be used for this purpose.
Secondly, he should grow a maintenance crop. What
we know as a maintenance crop supplies material for












household maintenance, feeds his live stock, and includes
everything that is necessary to be consumed on the farm,
thus saving sending off money to other markets for ma-
terial that should be raised at home.

In the third place, he should grow a series of crops
that would be soil-builders-preferably legumes. When
he grows soil-depleting crops, such as corn, potatoes, or
any of these crops that call for considerable soil fertility,
such crops should be followed by soil-building crops, as
we have in the legume family. Velvet beans are best for
this purpose. Cowpeas, soy beans, beggarweed, peanuts
and a few others are also good.

Fourth in line of the crops, he should grow, should be
all the hay and forage possible for stock-feeding.

All available land should be used for this purpose.
Thus the raw material produced on his farm is converted
into beef, milk and pork. In doing so, he will not only
be producing staple materials that are always in demand.
but will be getting fertilizer from the live stock that he
can use to good advantage for building up his soil. Such
material is superior to anything he can ever get out of
a guano sack.

STRESSING CERTAIN CROPS.

The fact should be impressed upon the farmers that
commercial fertilizers cannot be used for the purpose of
soil building. The aim of the farmer should be the addi-
tion of humus and fertility and the use of all means pos-
sible to that end. At some periods of the work it is ad-
visable to stress certain crops and stress certain methods
of handling these crops.












FALL PLOWING RECOMMENDED.

At this time of the year the County Agents are in-
structed to get their demonstrators in line to prepare
their land in time for winter cover crops. To this end
all present growing crops and all the spring and sum-
mer planted crops should be harvested in time to get the
land broken not later than the middle of November, and
prepared thoroughly by deep plowing, going a couple of
inches or so deeper than the land has ever been broken
before. Subsoiling the land is especially recommended
at this time. The best way to do this is by following the
turning plow in the same furrow with a subsoil plow.
This subsoiler need not be an expensive tool. A very
desirable tool to use is a scooter stock with a four-inch
shovel attached and set to run deep. This will open up
the subsoil and get it aerated so as to promote the micro-
organism life of the soil, eliminate the glazed plow-sole
that is present when a heavy turning plow is used, and
bring into action the sub-drainage so necessary when
heavy rains occur, thus conserving the rainfall for future
use by the crops instead of allowing it to run off in sur-
face washing. This deep plowing should be done in the
fall. It is not advisable to practice deep plowing in the
spring, for the heavy winter rains will have made the soil
too wet.

WINTER COVER CROPS.

The winter grain crops that are recommended to be
planted by the Florida farmer are oats, rye, and barley.
Good seed-beds should be made for these, and during the
winter after every heavy rain that occurs, whenever the
soil dries off sufficiently to allow the use of a team, the
crops should be cultivated by using a weeder or spike-
tooth harrow, for the purpose of aerating the soil and
assisting it to warm up in the early spring. On the poor-












est soils of the farm, we recommend the use of winter
legumes for winter cover crops, as they serve a double
purpose. They protect the soil during the winter and
add to its fertility by their ability to collect the free nitro-
gen of the atmosphere, and store it in the shape of nodules
on their roots during the growing period. The best crops
for this purpose are Crimson Clover, Bur Clover, and
Hairy Vetch. The seed of these should be inoculated
before sowing, as the family of bacteria necessary for
their development does not exist naturally in Florida
soils. Where English peas have been grown, vetch can
be planted, because the bacteria of English peas and
vetch are of the same variety.

USE OF WINTER COVER CROPS.

The best use that winter legumes can be put to is for
soil-building. Crimson Clover seed sown in the cotton
fields between rows in late September will prove a very
desirable method of increasing the fertility of the soil, if
clean cultivation of the crop has been maintained until
a quarter of the bolls are open. After the last working.
about twenty-five pounds of Crimson Clover seed per acre
should be sown broadcast, and the stalks removed after
tlh cotton crop has been gathered. This is one of the
best methods of handling this crop. If grass and weeds
are rank in the field it will be advisable to wait until the
cotton crop is entirely picked, and then plow everything
under, cotton stalks included, and sow the clover seed on
the plowed land, covering it very shallow, using a weeder
or harrow for this purpose. This work should not be de-
layed later than the first of October, and should be done
earlier if possible.

On land that has produced a sweet potato crop, if the
crop is harvested by the first of October, Crimson Clover
makes an ideal rotation crop. During the winter, if
heavy rains prevail, there will be a tendency of this crop
S-Br..












to mat or to get partly covered with soil. In such cases,
after the land has dried off sufficient to enable a team to
work, a weeder should be used to break the crust and
allow aeration of the soil. If the stand is good, the crop
can be grazed by cattle and hogs to a limited extent, tak-
ing care not teo .low them to graze too long so as to make
the land s~o bire that in case a frost should occur the roots
would be damaged.
Crimson Clover makes hay of average quality of cut just
as the first bloom shows. At that stage it makes good
feed for all live stock, but if allowed to get to the early
seed stage the hay might prove dangerous for horses and
mules.

The real mission of Crimson Clover is soil building,
and it should be plowed under before the bloom shows.
A winter cover crop of Crimson Clover plowed under at
the proper stage of growth will be equal to twenty dol-
lars worth of commercial'fertilizer per acre, not counting
the humus value to the soil.

BUR CLOVER.

This winter legume gives best results when grown in
conjunction with pasture crops such as Bermuda or Japan
Clover (Lespedeza). These two pasture crops freeze
down in winter, but if bur clover seed in the bur is broad-
casted on the land after disking several times, and this
done just before a rain, a good stand can be looked for.
It will require 60 pounds of seed in the bur to sow an
acre. Do not use cleaned seed, as it is not a success in
this State. The bur inoculates the soil, which cannot be
done by using cleaned seed.

HAIRY VETIH.

This legume does best when sown with a nurse crop
such as oats, rye or barley-preferably oats. If 25 pounds











of vetch seed and one and a half bushels of oats per acre
are sown in mid-October, and taken care of by the methods
recommended during winter, and the mixed crop cut for
hay when the first bloom shows on the Vetch, a very good
quality of hay will be the result.

Small grain crops are very desirable as winter cover
crops, because of their ability to resist very cold weather,
and also because of their deep rooting system. They are
thus somewhat independent of changing weather condi-
tions. Of this class of grain crops, three kinds are es-
pecially adapted to Florida soils and winter climate.

OATS.

The oat crop has always been the favorite with Florida
farmers, as it stands more neglect and poor treatment
than almost any other. It can be planted on poorly pre-
pared land and gives a better account of itself than any
other crop grown. It also responds readily to proper
methods of treatment, and can be made one of the most
profitable of outr general farm crops.

VARIETIES AND TYPES.

There are three distinct types of oats that are suited to
our soil and climate. The rust-proof type is the most
universally grown, of which the genuine Texas Rust-
proof is the progenitor. We have the "Texas-Rust-proof"
proper, the "Fulghum," the "Bancroft," the "Cook," and
the "One-hundred bushel" oat, all of which are near kin
to the original rust-proof variety. There is also the Vir-
ginia-Turf winter oat, which is the most suitable for
grazing purposes, and will stand lower temperatures than
the other types, but is not very well adapted to the sand-
ier soils of the State. It does well on the heavier and
clayey soils of the western and northern counties.











All the varieties mentioned should be sown on a well-
prepared seed-bed not later than the latter part of Oct-
ober. It is recommended that at planting time, from
four to six hundred pounds per acre of acid phosphate
should be applied broadcast and harrowed into the soil.
Where possible, a grain drill should be used for planting,
and a bushel and three pecks of seed at least used. On
the heavy stiff clay soils, if the land has been plowed ten
inches or more deep and is in good mechanical condition,
two bushels of seed would be a paying investment.

The third variety is what we know as the "Burt Oat,"
"May Oat," or "Ninety-day Oat." It is used for late win-
ter or early spring planting. It is a light weight oat and
its best use is for oat hay production. This variety is
well adapted for following a velvet bean crop that has
been used for stock grazing during late fall and winter.
- If the residue of the bean crop, after it is grazed, is com-
pletely plowed under about the first of February, and a
couple of bushels per acre of seed of this oat sown, a
couple of tons per acre of good oat hay can be reasonably
expected in May, at a time when good work-stock feed is
much in demand.

None of the varieties mentioned will stand much win-
ter grazing, except the Virginia turf oat, and that variety
should not be grazed too closely at any time, nor should
stock be allowed on the crop during rainy weather.

BARLEY.

Barley as a winter cover-crop gives universal satisfac-
tion on the heavier soils of the northern part of the State.
If seed is sown at the rate of two bushels per acre about
the middle of October, good grazing can be expected by
Christmas. The stooling qualities of barley when sub-
jected to grazing make it one of the most desirable of our
small-grain crops for this purpose; but the same caution











should be exercised when grazing it that applies to oats
and other crops, that is, not to allow stock on it too long
at any one time, and to keep stock off in rainy weather.

The Beardless variety is recommended; and if stock
are taken off in early March, a good crop of grain can be
had early in May; but like oats its best use is for making
into hay, cutting it just as it leaves the milk stage.
This crop also should be treated to a top dressing of
acid phosphate at planting time; and when grazing is
suspended in March, an application of 200 pounds per
acre of nitrate should be made broadcast and worked
into the soil by means of a weeder or spike-tooth harrow.

RYE.

This has long been a favorite winter cover-crop of the
old time Florida farmer. As a grazing crop it Is not
nearly as desirable as Turf Oats or Barley, in that it
grows too close to the ground and gets covered to a large
extent with sand in rainy weather, causing trouble when
being grazed by stock, or what is known as sanding, par-
ticularly of horses, mules, and young cattle, also when
the crop is allowed to mature the straw is useless for
feed and there is not much to the grain. So the best use
that a rye crop can be put to is to plow it under before
it roots in the spring. In doing this a large amount of
valuable humus is added to the soil which will help to
increase the yields of succeeding crops.

The Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration Work in the
State has been the means of increasing the acreage planted
to these winter cover crops by at least one hundred per
cent for oats and legume crops, and a very satisfactory
percentage for the others.






















\w I


A FIELD OF KUDZU-NEAR TALTAHASSEE-E. B. EPPES' FARM.


__ _~~_*lr~F*l












KUDZU-ITS VALUE AS A FORAGE
PLANT AND AS A LEGUME.

-By-

HoN. E. B. EPPES.

WHY NOT UTILIZE THE POTASH IN OUR SUB-
SOILS BY THE WELL KNOWN METHOD OF AP-
PLYING LIME AND GROWING DEEP ROOTED
LEGUMES, INSTEAD OF PURCHASING AT THE
EXORBITANT PRICES DUE TO THE EUROPEAN
WAR ?

Being now confronted by a potash famine that will con-
tinue until peace is restored in Europe, probably for sev-
eral years to come, we should develop domestic supplies
of this very necessary element. In doing so why neglect
the vast quantities that have been placed by nature in our
subsoil beyond the reach of ordinary crops but available
through plants with very deep roots that can draw up the
potash from the depths of the subsoil and place it in the
surface soil by the decay of the leaves and stems that
shed off during the annual growth of these plants, or
still better by using this forage for feeding domestic ani-
mals and utilizing their manure for fertilizer.

By using leguminous plants for the purpose we can
draw immense stores of potash and phosphorus from the
sub-soil and at the same time draw nitrogen from the air
and fix it in the soil by means of the bacteria in the tuber-
cles on their roots.

But few people realize the wonderful capacity of legum.
inous plants in deriving nitrogen from the atmosphere and
fixing it in the soil in combinations suitable for plant food;
nitrogen is generally lacking in all soils except muck lands












and plants will starve without it, this element is very ex-
pensive, one pound costing about twenty cents, making a
ton worth four hundred dollars. Yet about four-fifths of
the atmosphere is composed of nitrogen gas and there are
more than three thousand tons of free nitrogen floating
in the air over each acre of land, worth at present market
prices, if converted into forms suitable for plant food,
more than a million dollars.

Notwithstanding this abundant supply of nitrogen,
however, plants may starve for lack of it, just as ship-
wrecked sailors will die of thirst on the ocean with plenty
of water all around them, unless we can fix enough of it
into the soil for their use. Fortunately by means of legum-
inous plants and their bacteria we can add from one to
two hundred pounds, worth from twenty to forty dollars
per acre each season without buying it.
All leguminous plants have this power but the difficulty
consists in finding among them, plants with roots deep
enough to draw the potash and phosphorus from the sub-
soil and with foliage suitable for feeding horses and cat-
tle. Cow peas and velvet beans answer this purpose to
some extent but their roots are comparatively shallow and
they have to be planted each season; a perennial would
answer a better purpose for permanent pastures and hay
fields as it would live for many seasons without replant-
ing.
Japanese Kudzu has given better results with me than
any other plant, being well adapted to the climate and
prevailing soil types of the cotton growing States and
appears to be the most effective legume for these purposes,
its roots penetrate to a depth of several feet and form
a dense network that protects the soil from washing rains,
thereby preventing the loss of fertilizing elements by
leaching, and being permanent gives this protection at all
times instead of only in summer. Its vines and foliage
resembles the velvet bean but the roots live during the











wil:tcl in a dormant condition and commence growth with
the first wn;n weather in spring and continue to grow
vigorously until a killiM g freeze occurs in the fall. This
gives a growing season of about seven months during
Which several cuttings of hay can be made (some instances
have been known of where four cuttings, averaging two
and one-half tons each and making a total yield of ten
tons per acre of hay have been harvested in a single sea
son).
The best method of propogating is to transplant the
rooted joints of the vines as they carry with them the bac-
teria that are needed to inoculate the soil of the new field
in order to fix nitrogen from the air into the soil. I have
attempted to use seed for the purpose but with poor re-
sults as only a small proportion germinate and the young
plants make a feeble growth. The ground should first be
deeply plowed and harrowed, then run off rows with a
shovel plow seven feet apart and set the plants along this
drill as you would small fruit trees or strawberry plants
but let the crowns be placed about two inches below the
surface and covered with earth to protect them from dry-
ing out before growth commences in the spring. By put-
ting the plants six feet apart in the drill 1018 will set
an acre but I would advise putting them about three feet
apart in the drill, using two thousand per acre, in order
to cover the row quickly with vines. They should be
cultivated like melons the first season, keeping the vines
trained along the drill, where they will take root at the
joints and make a matted row of young plants. The fol-
lowing spring plow and harrow the land between these
matted rows of plants leaving it soft and level, and let
the vines run freely over the entire surface and root new
plants broadcast over the field. If weeds spring up among
them run a mowing machine over the field occasionally
with the bar raised a few inches above the surface, this
will clip off the weeds without injuring the kudzu vines.
After this the kudzu will thrive without further cultiva-












tion. Kudzu should only be transplanted while dormant,
December and January giving the best results. If the
land is poor some fertilizer will be required the first and
second seasons until it becomes well established, it will
then grow so rapidly as to choke out all other plants (even
such pests as nut grass, etc.), but can itself be killed by
cutting off the crowns of the plants just below the surface
during hot, dry weather in summer, if desired, as the root.
will not sprout if the crowns have been cut off. For this
reason there is no danger of kudzu ever becoming a
pest.

I do not, however, advise planting it on land that is not
intended for a permanent pasture or hay field, as it re-
quires several seasons to become well established on a hay
cutting basis. At first all of the vines run closely along
the surface of the ground in order to carry out nature's
plan of making as many new plants as possible by taking
root at the joints. The vines do not run upwards suffi-
ciently for hay cutting purposes until a very thick stand
of plants have taken root over the entire surface, the ne-
cessity for air and light then forces them to grow upward
in search of it and this gives the opportunity to mow
them conveniently. This should be done before the vines
have grown very long and tangled.

When used for grazing purposes the pasture should be
fenced into several fields and grazed alternately to give
the plants time to recover from it and renew their
growth.

Where a rotation of crops is desired we must be con-
tent with the annual legumes like the cow pea and velvet
bean, with the expense and inconvenience of being com-
pelled to plow and plant each season, and the risk of dry
weather preventing their gemination, or heavy rains wash-
ing away the newly plowed surface soil, but the advan-
tages of permanent pastures are so great that we can well












afford to give up the rotation system in this case, and
devote some of our land exclusively to kudzu and vetch.

Kudzu hay is of the best quality, being equal to cow
pea or alfalfa and much richer than timothy. The analy-
sis of the State Chemist of Florida shows protein 17.43
and starch and sugar 30.30 per cent., being a richer food
than wheat bran. It is well adapted to use in making
mixed feed stuffs and all other purposes that alfalfa is
used for, and is worth the same price, about twenty dol-
lars and upward in Florida. It has a delightful fra-
grance and horses and cattle are very fond of it.

The hay cures quickly, retaining its leaves and green
color instead of shedding and turning dark like cow peas
or velvet beans, for this reason it can be easily cured in
the field and stacked under duck covers, thereby avoiding
the expense of building barns. It can be cut with a mow-
ing machine and harvested like cowpeas or other hay and
is worth about twenty dollars per ton in Florida.

Kudzu is as good for grazing purposes as for hay and
will grow without cultivation after the first season and on
land that is too poor and rough for most other crops, pro-
vided the land is not too wet to grow corn or velvet beans
successfully. Like any other crop it will make a stronger
growth on rich land, but does well on poor land if fertil-
ized the first season until it can build up the fertility of
the soil by drawing in nitrogen from the air, and adding
humus to the soil and protecting it from washing rains
and the baking heat of the sunshine. This causes rapid
improvement in land that is growing kudzu and it soon
becomes like rich soil that has recently been cleared from
the virgin forest. In this way the soil becomes richer each
year instead of becoming exhausted as from growing
grasses for hay.
The roots of the kudzu penetrate so deeply as to make it
proof against any dry weather that is ever likely to pre-












vail here, they live to a great age and become stronger
and more vigorous as the years pass by. One planting is
sufficient and the yield of hay increases as the ground
becomes more thickly set with new plants from the vines
taking root at the joints. The great number of vines
struggling for air and light have a tendency to become
more slender aAd leafy also, and this improves the qual-
ity of the hay by eliminating any coarse vines, thereby
enabling horses and other live stock to eat it up cleanly
without wasting any of it. The vines that run along the
surface throw out roots at the joints that become new
plants and bind the soil firmly thereby preventing the
washing and erosion of hill-sides by heavy rains.

While this improvement is taking place the field is giv-
ing fine returns to its owners by the immense supply of
rich green forage, on which the live stock can graze, there-
by keeping fat and in fine health at a very small cost more
than half of the year. The vines remain green and grow-
ing during the entire term from spring to fall and the
hay can accordingly be cut at any time that is convenient
when weather conditions are suitable, as kudzu does not
become injured by waiting for good weather as other hay
crops do; this feature gives a great advantage.

While considered a new plant in America kudzu is really
an old and well known crop in Japan where its merits
have been conclusively proven by the experience of many
centuries, it being their national forage plant. They con-
sider it to be not only an excellent food for animals but
to have valuable medicinal qualities as well, calculated to
keep their animals in good health.

My experience with it for this purpose has been highly
satisfactory also, it appears to have every good quality
of alfalfa and yet to be entirely free from the tendency
to cause bloat in cattle and loose bowels in horses, that
interfere so seriously with the usefulness of alfalfa.











Kudzu soon makes the surface soil loose and mellow and
chqkes out weeds and nut grass, thereby fitting it for
"hairy vetch," a legume that will grow in winter, while
the kudzu is at rest, but requires a rich loamy soil. The
vetch is an excellent hay and grazing plant whose seed
will lie dormant in the soil through the summer and come
up when the kudzu stops growing in the fall and occupy
the land while the kudzu is at rest during the winter and
early spring. The pods nearest the ground ripen first and
shatter out while the vetch is still green and growing,
it can then be cut for hay along with the first cutting of
kudzu and these seed is lightly covered by the kudzu
leaves that shed during the summer and be ready to germi-
nate when the last cutting of kudzu hay is made in the
fall, so as to make a crop of vetch for the coming season.
This will ensure an automatic succession of leguminous
forage plants, making fine hay or grazing and drawing, in
nitrogen from the air all the year around, preventing this
nitrogen from leaching also by keeping the land constantly
covered with a growing crop. My experiments along this
line indicate successful results.

Cattle can be raised and fattened very cheaply on thi-,
forage and their manure used to fertilize other crops there
by avoiding the heavy expense of buying commercial fer-
tilizers to a great extent. By planting these other crops
adjacent to the kudzu pasture the land can be "cow-pen
ned" occasionally thus getting the benefit of the liquid
as well as the solid manure from the cattle.

If every Florida farmer would follow the policy of keep-
ing as many cattle as his circumstances will admit of,
instead of growing his crops with fertilizers purchased
at a heavy cost, he could by putting a large proportion of
his land in forage crops obtain enough manure to greatly
reduce the cost of his other crops as it would not be
needed to maintain the fertility of his legumes as would










46

be the case if growing grass or cane, for pasture and
forage.

We might become the greatest cattle state in the Union
and when we consider the rapidly increasing prices and
demand for them we can realize how much more prosper-
ous our farmers would become than under present con-
ditions. The development of Florida into a land of pas-
turage and consequent plenty is no idle dream of the
writer, but a reality that is rapidly assuming an ideal
condition always uppermost in the mind of the practical
agricultural and successful stock grower.



















PART II.

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPEC-
TIVE YIELD OF CROPS.












DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.


Following are the divisions of
ties contained in each:

Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Waktlla-11.

Western Division.

Bay,
Calhoun,
Escaimbia,
Holmes,
Jackson.
Okoloosa,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-9.


the State, and the coun-


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.


Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-10.


Southern Division.
Brevard,
Broward, Monroe,
Dade, Osceola,
DeSoto, Palm Beach,
Hillsborough, Pinellas,
Lee, Polk,
Manatee, St. Lucie-13.
4-BUI.












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.



NORTHERN DIVISION.-From careful reports by our cor-
respondents throughout this district, the conclusion is
readily arrived at that the crops generally, with one or
two exceptions, are from 20 to 50 per cent. better than
last year at this time. Cotton is the exception, and un-
doubtedly cotton shows the poorest condition and the
shortest indicated yield that it has shown for several
years. We, therefore, cannot help but conclude that the
cotton crop in this section will be the smallest yet pro-
duced, at least for ten or twelve years. The other crops,
as before stated, are considerably increased. Corn aver-
ages from 20 to 35 per cent. better than last year in both
condition and indicated yield. The season, so far, with
the exception of a short time in the beginning of the year,
has not been a favorable one for the growing of cotton
and it has had its effect in a small crop. This has also
been a favorable season for pastures and for live stock.
Although the season has been mostly a dry one, yet very
little inconvenience has been felt because of it. Stock
generally is in good condition and less complaint of the
effects of fatal diseases than there was last year. The best
crops we will have this year are the hay and forage crops
which, if properly used to advantage, are among the most
valuable of farm products when it comes to the support
and maintenance of the farm.

WESTERN DIVISION.-In this division conditions are
practically the same as in the foregoing division. Crops
of all kinds indicate about the same condition and yield.
The best crops noted in this section are corn, peanuts and
velvet beans. Cowpeas are good, but the rest of the crops,
including cotton and sweet potatoes, will be short about












the same percentage as in the foregoing section. Live
stock is reported in good condition and doing well. The
season has been favorable for the production of pastures
and forage plants. No fatal diseases have been reported.

NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.-In this division there is prac-
tically no difference in the condition and prospective yield
of the crops, especially the important ones. Cotton is
about the same in this division as in the previous ones, but
in this division sea island cotton predominates. Both va-
rieties of cotton, however, are shorter. Corn is about the
same. Sugar cane slightly better and the forage crops
average just about the same as in the former two. In
these conditions of cotton, we have the proof of the char-
acter of the season, especially when we compare it with
the condition of the indicated yield of th6-corn crop. One
requires uniformly warm and dry temperature, the other
uniformly moist and moderate temperature. The second
condition has prevailed throughout all the foregoing dis-
tricts. The fruit in this district indicates a slightly bet-
ter crop than last year, and the condition of live stock is
also good as in the former. No reports of diseases have
been made.

CENTRAL DIvISioN.-There is no appreciable difference
in the condition of crops in this division and those just
above considered. In this section of the State the citrus
fruit crops begin to show up in preponderance of the
others, but the usual farm crops adapted to that section
show about the same condition and indicated yield as the
former sections. It shows that there has been a remark-
able uniformity in climatic conditions throughout the
State for this to occur. There is little cotton grown in
this section, but what is grown is in about the same con-
dition as in the above named districts and indicates a
short yield. The condition of live stock in this section iP
also good.










53

SOUTHERN DIVISION.--In this division the climatic con-
ditions that prevailed were about the same as throughout
other sections of the State. There has been rain in some
sections and much less than was necessary for the regular
crops in others, but they have done tolerably well consid-
ering the precipitation that has fallen throughout the dis-
trict, and it is quite possible that with the improvement
of the last few weeks that the grapefruit and orange crops
will be somewhat better than at first supposed. It is,
however, possible that the citrus fruit crop of this season
will be short of that of last year by 25 to 40 per cent.













55

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS,
FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES, AND CONDITION OF LIVE STOCK,
FOR QUARTER ENDING SEPT. 30, 1915, AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR.


COUNTY. Upland Gotton. Sea Island Cotton.

Northern Division. I Condition. [Prospectivel Condition. (Prospective
1 | Yield. | Yield.
Franklin .............. ..... .. ................... .... ..... .'
Gadsden .............. 50 50 50 50
Jefferson ..............I 65 60 .. . ...
Lafayette ............. I.......... .......... 60 70
Leon ................. 50 50 .... .....
Liberty ............... 50 50 ..... ....
Madison .............. 50 50 60 60
Suwannee ............. 25 25 60 60
Taylor ................ .... 60 60
W akulla ............... 50 50 I ....... -. ..........
Div. Av. per cent ...... 49 1 48 58 60
Western Division.
Calhoun ................... 70 60 60 60
Escambia ....... . . . 90 40 ...............
Holmes ............... 60 50 .......... ..
Jackson .............. 65 60 .. . .
Santa Rosa ........... 80 70 90 75
W alton ............... 50 25 ..... ....
Washington ........... 55 40... .
Div. Av. per cent ...... 67 56 I 75 1 67
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............ .......... ........ 50 I 55
B aker ................ .......... .. ........ 75 75
Bradford ............. .. .............. .. 100 90
Clay ...... ........ ........... ........... I 00 85
Columbia ......... 5 78 80 7
Duval .......................... ........ ......... ......
Nassau ............... 100 | 100 100 100
Putnam .............. ....... .. .......... .......... ..........
St. Johns ............. ......... ... . .......... ....
Div. Av. per cent...... 93 -- 89 | 83 80
Central Division.
Citrus ........................... .......... ....................
Marion ................ 100 100 105
Orange ............... :::: ......... .:::::....:::: .......
P asco ................. ....... . .........
Sem inole ............... . . .. . -* *--- ,
Volusia ............... ....... . . .
Div. Av. per cent...... 100 I 100 I 105 105
Southern Division.


Brevard ........ ......
Broward .............. .......... ..........
Dade .......... .... .
D eSoto ......... ... .. ...... .......
Hillsborough .......... .. .. . ..........
L ee .................. .. .
M anatee ............ .. .... .
Osceola .. .. ........ ......
Palm Beach ......... .. .....
St. Lucie ........... . . .. .
Div. Av. per cent...... ......... ..........
State Av. per cent....... I 77 I 73


...... ..... ..........



S. . . . . . . . . . .


80 I 78













56

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Corn. Sugar Cane.

Northern Division. (Condition. IProspectivel Condition. Prospective
|I Yield. Yierld.
Franklin ............. 90 90 100 100
Gadsden .......... .... 100 100 50 60
Jefferson ............. 75 85 40 50
Lafayette .............. 75 80 45 50
Leon ................. 90 90 50 50
Liberty .................. 85 90 50 60
Madison ................ 90 95 75 80
Suwannee ............. 90 90 80 80
Taylor ................. 75 75 75 75
Wakulla ............... 80 80 60 65
Div. Av. per cent...... 85 I 88 ] 63 8 67
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. 175 75 60 50
Escambia .............. 100 150 80 95
Holmes ............ .. 100 140 100 110
Jackson ............... 100 110 90 85
Sapta Rosa ........... 100 100 100 100
Walton ................ 100 100 100 100
Washington ........... 100 120 80 80
Div. Av. per cent ...... 96 | 115 | 87 88
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 100 100 80 75
Baker ................. 100 115 I 100 100
Bradford ............. 100 1:'0 100 95
Clay ................. 100 100 s8 75
Columbia ............. 100 110 90 90
Duval ................. 100 125 100 150
Nassau ............ . 100 115 80 60
Putnam ............... 0 80 100 90
St. Johns ............. 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent ...... ~ 38 | 107 92 | 93
Central Division.
Citrus ................ [. 100 150 0I 0 95
Lake .................. 90 85 80 75
Marion .......... .... 100 I 12.5 100 110
Orange ............... 80 s 82 100 100
Pasco ................ 60 90 50 60
Seminole .............. 100 100 1100 100
Volusia ............... 90 80 100 100
Div. Av. per cent...... 89 | 102 89 | 91
Southern Division.
Brevard .............. I ......... ........... 85
Broward ............... .. .o 0 60
Dade ................. 100 1 110 100 .... 100
DeSoto ........ .... .. '0 110 100 100
Hillsborough .......... 100 120 90 80
Lee ................... 100 100 100 100
Manatee .............. 100 110 40 50
Osceola .............. . 100 110 100 100
Palm Beach ........... .......... ...... .. 100 100
St. Lucie ............. 100 11 10 )5 95
Div. Av. per cent...... 95 | 101 90 91
State Av. per rent...... 93 | 103 81 86













57

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Field Peas. Rice.

Northern Division. Condition. Prospective Condition. |Prospective
Yield. I I Yield.
Franklin ......... ..... 100 100 .1 i ..
Gadsden .............. 100 80 100 90
Jefferson ............. 80 80 .
Lafayette ............. 80 75 ...::.. :..... ..1
Leon .... .... 75 85 ... . .. ... .
Liberty ............... 80 80 .
M adison .............. 85 85 ... .
Suwannee ............. 90 90 00 SO
Taylor ................ 100 100 .. .. .
W akulla .............. 90 90 .. .1. .....
Div. Av. per cent...... 88 87 I 80 I 85
Western Division.
Cal oun ............... 90 0 .... ..... ..
Escambia ............. 50 50 100 100
Holmes ............ . 100 120 100 100
Jackson ......... .... .. :0 0 5 .......... ......
Santa Rosa ........... 100 i 100 100 100
\W alton ............. ... 75 I
Washington ........... 100 | 110 100 200
Div. Av. pr cent...... | 87 I 91 I 90 I 110
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .............. 100 .........
Baker ............... ... 20 100 100
EP adford .............. 100 110 100 110
Clay ................ 00 25 100 100
Columbia .............. 0I 110 1 95 90
Duval .......... ....... 100 100 .......... .
Nassau ............... . 110 100 125
Putnam ............... o I 90 I 100 110
St. Johns ............. . 100 100 I 100 I 100
Div. Av. per cent ..... 89 85 I 99 105
Central Di)risin.
Citrus ................ 100 90 ..... .... .........
Lake ................. l 85 ... ..... ..........
M arion ............... 1 100 .......... ..........
Orange ............... 0 100 I.................
Pasco ................. 8. S I 90 60 50
Seminole ....... . 100 100 .... . ....
Volusia ............... 100 100 100 95
Div. Av. per cent......[ 94 I 94 80 1 73
Southern Division.
Brvr...........................


B revard ............... I .......... I .......... ....... .
B row ard ...........-- .. [ ........ .... ..... .......... | ......... .
Dade ................... ..I 100 I 100 .
DeSoto ............... 100 100 100 100
Hillsborough .......... 85 80 . ........
Lee .............. .... 100 100 100 100
Manatee ............. 100 100 100 100
Osceola ............... 100 120 100 100
Palm Beach ........... 100 150 ..
St. Lucie ............. 50 50 ... ...
Div. Av. per cent .. ...I 02 i 100 I 100 I 100
State Av. per cent. .....I 90 I 91 I 90 | 94













58

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD--Continued.


COUNTY. Sweet Potatoes. Cassava.

Northern Division. Condition. |Prospective Condition. IProspective
____Yield. I Yield.
Franklin .............. 100 100 .......... .
Gadsden .............. ::100 110 .......... ...
Jefferson ............. 40 50 .......... .........
Lafayette ............. 50 60 .......... ........
L eon ................. 50 60 .......... .........
Liberty ............... 75 75 .......... ..........
M adison ...... ........ 70 75 .......... ..........
Suwannee ............. 80 80 .......... .........
Taylor ................ 80 80 ..........
Wakulla ....60 60 . . . . . .
Div. Av. per cent...... 71 75 1.......... ..........
Western Division.
lhoun .............. 60 65 .... ...
Escambia ................. 100 100 100 75
Holmes ............... 100 115
Jackson ............... 80 75 .. .....
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100. .....
Walton ................ 100 100 ......... ..........
Washington ........... 100 100 75 75
Div. Av. per cent......| 91 94 88 I 75
Northeastern Division.
Ala nua ............ .. 1. 0 .......... ..........
Baker ................. 100 110 .......... ... ......
Bradford ......... . 100 125 .......... ........
Clay ................ 100 100 ....................
Columbia ............ 100 120 ....................
D uval .............. 100 100 .............. ......
Nassau ................ 100 100 .......
Putuam ............... 80 85 ..........
St. Johns ............. 90 00 100 100
Div. Av. per cent ...... 97 I 103 100 I 100
Central Division.
Citrus ................ 100 100 ....
Lake ................. 85 70 ....: : : : : :
M arion ............... 95 95 .......... I..........
Orange ............... 65 60 ................
Pasco ......... .... 50 50 . . :
Seminole ............... 100 100 .......... ..........
Seminole . . . . . . 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 110 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent ...... 85 84 ..........I ..
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 85 90
Broward ..... ......... 70 70
D ade ........ ......... 100 100 .......... . ..
DeSoto ................ 100 100 .......... .........
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 ..........
Lee .... ......... ..... 100 100 .......... ..........
M anatee .............. 80 80 .......... I ..........
Oscebla ............... 100 150 120 1 100
Palm Beach ........... 100 150 .......... .....
St. Lucie ............. 090 90 .......... .......
Div. Av. per cent ...... 93 103 120 | 100
State Av. per cent...... 87 ] 92 103 92













59

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Peanuts. Broom Corn.

Northern Division. [ Condition. |Prospectivel Condition. [Prospective
_I Yield. I 1 Yield.
Franklin .............. ............................ .........
Gadsden .............. 100 125 1.......... ......
Jefferson .............. 80 85 ........... .........
Lafayette ............. 75 70 .......... ..........
Leon ................. 75 70 .
L ibeity ............... 75 75 ....... ......
Madison .............. 90 90 .......... .. .......
Suwannee ............ 100 100 i | 1i
Taylor ...... ......... 60 60 ........ .........
W akulla .............. 70 75 ........ ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... | 81 1 83 I 10 I 10
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 75 I 80 .......... ..........
Escambia ............. 100 125 I 1(I l0io
H olm es ...... ......... 100 115 i....................
Jackson ............... 90 90 I.......... ..........
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 .......... ..........
W alton ............... 100 100 .......... ..........
W ashington ........... 100 I 100 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent. ..... 95 ( 101 I 100 I100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 100 0. .
Baker .................. 100 120 ..... .
Bradford .............. 100 125 ... .
Clay ................. 100 100 ............
Columbia .............. 100 110 .......... ..........
Duval ...... .......... 100 100 .......... .
Nassau ............... 100 100 .......... .........
Putnam ...............I 60 75 I.......... .........
St. Johns ............. 100 100 .......... .........
Div. Av. per cent...... 96 I 103 .......... ..........
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 100 6T 00 ...................
Lake . ............. S0 I 70 ... ... . .....
M arion ... ........ 100 10 .......... .........
O ran ge ...... ... ....... . ........... .......... ..........
P asco .................. ......
Sem inole .............. I ... ... .. ;. .
Volusia ................ 100 | 100 I. .......
Div. Av. per cent ...... 88 8_ 9 .......... ..........
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... I ...-- ..
Broward ................. ...... ....... .. .
Dade ................. 100 100 .......... ..........
DeSoto ...... ......-.. .. . I ...............
Hillsborough ........... 100 ....100 . .
Leeanaee ....................100 100 ....... .. .... ...
Osceola .............. .. 100 00 | 100 100
Palm Beach .............. ....... .......... .......... ..........
St. L ucie ..... ........... .. .. ... . ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 100 100 100 I 100
State Av. per cent...... 92 I 95 | 70 | 70













60

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Hay-Native Grasses. Afatla.

Northern Division. [ Condition. Prospective Condition. Pr;apcetirv
| Yield. | Yield.
Franklin .............. ......... .......... .......... I ..........
Gadsden ............... 9.0 100 I.......... ..........
Jefferson .............. 80 80 .......... ..........
Lafayette ............. 75 75 .......... .
Leon ................... 85 .. .
Liberty ............... 85 0 I. .................
M adison .............. 900 90 ............
Suw nnee ............. 100 100 I 4 410
T aylor ................ 90 0 .......... ..........
W akulla ...............I 85 85 .......... .....
Div. Av. per cent...... 87 88 8 1 40 410
Western Division.
Caihoun ................ 0 .......... i .........
Escam bia ............. 100 100 I.......... ..........
H olm es ............... 105 100 .......... ..........
Jackson .............. 95 91 .......... ..........
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 1........... .........
W alton ............... 90 75 .......... ..........
W ashington ............ 100 110 1.......... ........
Div. Av. per cent...... 97 I 95 .......... ..........
Northeastern Division.
A lachua ................ 100 100 .......... ..........
Baker ................ 100 100 .......... ..
Bradford .............. 100 1 0 ......
Clay .................. 100 100 .
Columbia .............. 100 100
Duval ................. 100 150 1....... .. ..
Nassau ............... 100 100 ....... ..........
Putnam ............... 75 75 I...... I.......
St. Johns .............. 100 100 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 97 10 _.. .......... ..........
Central Division.
Citrus ................ 00t 1 100 .... .
Lake ................. 90 90 I.............. ...
Marion ............... 100 110
Orange ........... 90 90
Pasco ................... 70 80
Seminole .............. 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 110
Div. Av. per cent ...... 93 97 .......... ..........
Southern Division.
B revard ............... I ...... ............. .......... .....
Broward .............. 80 80 ..
Dade ................. 100 115 I....................
DeSoto ............ 100 100 ..... ....
Hillsborough ........ 0 90 ....... .... .
Lee ................... .................... .......... ..........
Manatee .................. ....... .. ................
Osceola ............... 120 100
Palm Beach .......... .50 100
St. Lucie ........ . .... 100 100 ..
.Div. Av. per cent...... 98 98 50 100
State Av. per cent......| 94 | 97 1 45 | 70












61

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Velvet Beans. Pastures.

Norlhein Division. Condition. Prospective Condition. Prospective
S______Yield. | Yield
Franklin .............. 0 80 0 ........
Gadsden ............... 100 00 100 .
Jefferson .............. 90 SO 90 ..........
Lafayette ........ 85 85 ..........
Leon ................. 9 90 85 ........ ..
Liberty ............... 85 00 9|....
Madison .............. 90 0 100 ..........
Suwannee ............. 90 0 100 ..........
Taylor .......... . ...... 90 0 0 .
W akulla .............. 80 8 0 ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 89 | 8 L 92 j|. ..
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. 85 Do0 90 ...
Escambia .............. 100 200 75 .........
Holmes ............... 100 110 90
Jackson ................ 100 100 900
Santa Rosa ......... 100 100 100
Walton ....... 100 100 .75 .........
Washington ........... 100 110 85 ..........
Dlv. Av. per cent ...... 98 11i 86 ..........
Northeastern Division.
Alacnua ............... 75 5 100 ..........
Baker ................ : 5 L 25 100 .
Bradford .............. i 05 90 125 ..
Clay ..................| 100 100 1 ..........
Columbia ......... .. . 100 | 1 110 ..........
Duval ................. . 100 100 150 .
Nassau ...............) 100 100 100
Putnam ............... 100 100 90 I..........
St. Johns ............. 100 100 100 ..........
Div. Av. Der cent ...... 88 108 I..........


Central Division.
Citrus ...... .......... 0 85 100 .. .
Lake ................. 85 75 80 .
Marion ...............I 100 105 100 ....
Orange ................ 70 70 100 .......
Pasco ................. 60 80 i0 ........
Seminole .............. 100 100 100 ..........
Volusia ...............| I 00 00 100 ..........
Div. Av. per cent ...... 85 S 91 .........
Southern Division.


Brevard ............... .......... .......... . ......... .
Broward ................................. 80 ..........
Dade ................. | 100 100 100 ..
DeSoto ................ . 100 100 .
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 | 90
Lee .................. 110 100 ..........
M anatee .............. ...... ... .......... .........
Osceola ............ 120 150 100 I.........
Palm Beach .... .. .... .................. ... .....
St. Lucie .............. 75 70 100 ..: .
Div. Av. per cent. ..... 101 103 94 ..........
State Av. per cent ...... 92 | 95 I 94 ..........












62

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Bananas. Mangoes.

Northern Division. Condition. Prospective Condition. Prospective
I Yield. I Yield.
Franklin ..... ........ 50 40 |.......... ..........
Gadsden ...... ... ................. .... .....
Jefferson .............. .......... .. ........ .. ........ ..........
Lafayette ............. .......... ................... ... .. .......
Leon ........................... ......... .......... ..........
Liberty ............... ........ .. ......... ..... . ..........
Madison .............. .......... ......... .......... ..........
Suw annee ............. .......... .......... ..... ..
Taylor ................ ........... .......... ......... ..........
W akulla .............. .......... .......... ...... .. ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... I O 410 |.......... ..........
Western Division.
csal oun ............ .. ........ .... ... ... .......
Escam bia ............ ........... ... ..... ... ..........
H olm es ................ ...... ..... ........ ........... .
Jackson .......................... ....... ..............
Santa Rosa ........... ........ ....... .
Walton ............... .......... .......... ...........
Washington ... .... ... ........ ................................
Div. Av. per cent........ ......... .......... ...... ..........
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........... .. .... ..... .. .... . ..... ...
Baker ........ ...... .... ... ........... .......... ......
Bradford .............. .......... .................... ... .......
Clay .................. .......... .......... ......... ..........
Columbia .......... ................... ....................
Duval............-
Nassau ............... : 100 100. ..........
Putnam ........... ... .............. ... ................. ..........
St. Johns ....... ..... ... .............. . . ..... ..
Div. Av. per cent ...... 100 100 .......... ..........
Central Division.

Lake .1:::::::::: ::::::::::
Marion ................ I ............................... .........
Orange ............... .......... ........... ....... ..........
Pascon ............... .......... ........... ..... .... ...
Pasco ......... . .... ......... ........ .......... ..........
Seminole ..............! .. ........ ........ ............ .........
Volusia ............... ......... .... . . .......... ......
D iv. A v. per lnt ... .. .......... .......... .......... ..........
Southern Division.
revard ............... ........ . ....... ... 90
Broward ................ S 80I I 0 90
Dade ................ 100 100 90 90
D eSoto ............... I ........ .. ...... . ...........
Hillsborough ........... I .......... ...... .. . ... .... ..
Lee ................ ....I 100 100 I.. ...... ..........
M anatee .............. .. ....... .... ...... ..... ..........
Oaceola ............... 14 0 200 120 150
Palm Beach ........... 1100 110 100 75
St. Lucie ............. 75 I 75 I 0 90
Div. Av. per cent ...... 99 111 | 97 89
State Av. per cent...... 83 I 84 I 97-1 89












G:

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Avocado Peara. Guavao .

Northern Division. Condition. IProspectivel Condition. jProspective
_I Yield. | | Yield.
Franklin .............9 90 40 35
Gadsden . ::::::. ...... .... ...... .
Jefferson .............. .......... .......... ..... ..........
Lafayette ............. .......... ... ....... ......... .... .......
Leon ................ ...... .. ........ ........ ......
L liberty ............... .......... ... ......... ..........
M adison .............. .......... .......... .......... .........
Suwannee ............. .... ... .......... ........ .........
T aylor ................ .......... .......... ......... ...... .... ..
W akulla .............................. ...... ......... ........
Div. Av. per cent...... 90 I 90 40 1 35
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. .......... .......... ..... ....
Escam bia ... .. ..... .... .... ...... ... ...... ....
H olm es ............... ...... .. .......... .... ..
Jackson ............... ......... .... ... ..... .. .. .........
Santa Rosa .... ... .......... ...... .... .......... ....
W alton ............... .......... i ........ .. ..... .
Washington .. ................... ..... .......
Div. Av. per cent...... ........... ..................
Northeastern Division.
A lachua ..... ....... .. ......... . ..
B aker ............. .. ....... .... .
B radford .............. .. ........ . .... ..........
Clay ...... ........... ....... ... ....... . ......... ..........
C olum bia ............. . ....... .......... .......
D u v al ................ ....... .. ....... .... .......... .........
N assau ............... ... ... .. .......... .......... ..........
P utnam ................ .......... .. ....... ........ ..
St. Johns ............. .. ....... .. .. .. .. .. ....
Div. Av. per cent...... .......... .......... .......... ......
Central Division.
Citrus ................ .......... .........
Lake .......... .... .......... .......... 90 90
Marion ....... ........ .. .. ........ ......
Orange .... . . . .. 52 40
Pasco ................. ....... ............ 40 50
Sem inole .............. I.......... ........ 100 100
Volusia ............... .......... .......... 100 120
Div. Av. per cent......I .......... .......... 76 80
Southern Division.


Brevard ...............
Broward ..............
Dade .................
DeSoto ... ...........
Hillsborough ...........
L ee ...................
Manatee ..............
Osceola ...............
Palm Beach ...........
St. Lucie .............
Div. Av. per cent......
State Av. per cent......


75
90
95

100

100
90
92


75 ---"-TO-O
70 90
95 90
.......... 100
100
.......... 100
......... 100
100
75 100
70 100
81 1 99


90
90
100
110
100
100
200
100
90
1 108


I 91 I 86 [ 72 1 74


I


*











(;4

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Orange Trees. Lemon Trees.

Northern Division. Condition. |Prospective Condition. (Prospective
I Yield. Yield.
Franklin ............ 90 90 80 I 80
Gadsden ....... .. ... ..... ........ ...... ........
Jefferson .............. 75 50 .......... ..........
Lafayette ............. .. ...
Leon ................. 5 50 ............. ..
L iberty ............... ........... .. ... ... ......
M adison .... ........ 40 40 .......... ..........
Suwannee ............. 40 40 .......... ........
Taylor ............ .. ..... .. .... .. .........
W akulla .......... ..... ........ ............ .... ......
Div. Av. per cent...... 64 | 54 [ 80 80
Wensern Division.
Calhoun .............. I 85 90 ..... .... .. ....
E scam bia ............. .... .. ........ .......... .. .
H olm es ............... .......... .......... ...... .. .
Jackson ............... ..... .......... ....... .. .........
Santa Rosa ........... .......... I.......... ...... . ..........
W alton ............... 75 5 .......... .
W ashington ........... .......... ..... ..... .......... ....... ...
Div. Av. per cent......I 80 83 .......... .........
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ...... ......... 100 75 .......... ......
Baker ................ 8 80 I 80 ........
Bradford .............. 100 90 .... .... ..
Clay ........... ... .100 100 ....
Colum bia ........... .... .. ....". . . .. . I... .
D uval ................ 100 100 .......... .. ..
Nassau ............... 100 100 ..........
Putnam .... ... 50 40 ....
St. Johns .......... 100 65 .......... .....
Div. Av. per cent...... 91 I 81 ..........)..........
Central Division.
Citrus ............... .. 9 75 .......... .. 6
Lake ................. 75 705 60
Marion ............... 100 100 100 100
Orange ............... 85 75 ..........
Pasco ................. 40 40 .... ........
Seminole .............. 100 75 100 75
Volusia ............... 95 70 .......... ..........
Div. Av. per cent...... 72 72 | 82 78
Southern Division.
Brevard .............. 7. ..0 60 60 65
Broward .............. 85 60 .. ..
Dade ................. 75 60 I 00 60
DeSoto ............... 90 75 I 0 I 80
Hllsborough .......... 100 85 . . I .
Lee ................... 100 65 10 I 70
Manatee .............. 100 50 .......... ..
Osceola ............... 100 65 100 I 60
Palm Beach. ...........1 90 80 .......... .. ..
St. Lucie ............. 90 70 100 70
Div. Av. per cent...... 90 67 | 83 68
State Av. per cent...... I 79 I 71 85 | 75












65

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTY. Lime Trees. Grapefruit Trees.

Northern Division. Condition. IProspective Condition. Prospective
Yield. Yield.
Franklin .............. ....... ............ 90 90
Gadsden .............. .......... ........ ... .....
Jefferson ............. .......... .. .. .1 70 50
Lafayette .............. I .....
Leony e ................ .............. .. ...... ..7. ..... 6
Liberty ............... .. ....... .......... ... .. .
M adison .............. .......... 60 60
Suwannee ............. ................. . 60 60
Taylor ................... .......I. .i ... ::: .. ......
Wakulla ........................ .......... .......... ..........
Div. Av. Der cent...... |......... ............ 71 64
Western Division,
Calhoun .............. .......... .......... 90 90
Escambia .............. ............................ ........
Holmes
Holmes ............... .......... ....... .......... ...........
Jackson ............... .................... .......... ..........
Santa Rosa ........... .... ........... ......... .......
W alton .......... ............. .
W ashington ........... .......... ... . .
Div. Av. per cent..... .... .... ..........1 90 77
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ....... .... .. .......... . ......... 100 I 75
B aker .......... .. .... .. .. ... .. ..... 75 75
Bradford .............. ...... . .. 100 90
Clay ................. ... .......... 110 10(
Columbia .............. .......... .......... .......... ..........
Duval ... ........... . .. ...... ............ 10" I 10
Nassau ........ ......... ....... 100 100
Putnam ................ . o 40
St. Johns ............. .......... I .......... 100 65
Div. Av. per cent...... .......... ................|I 91 81
Central Division.
citrus .............. ........ .......... 075
Lake ................. 7. 65 85 85
Marion ................. 00 100 | 100 100
Orange ............. ......... ......... .....1 100 50
Pasco ............................ .......... 40 40
Seminole ............... ......... .......... I 100 i
Volusia ............... ......... ......... 95I__ 45
Div. Av. per cent...... 881 83 1 8 67
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... .. ........ .......... 50 40
Broward ......... .......... 8 [ 60
Dade ................. 100 100 60 60
DeSoto .......................... ... .... .80 95
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 100 50
Lee ... .. 100 65 100 65
Manatee ..................... ....... 100 50
Oeceola ............... 100 100 100 55
Palm Beach ........... 90 85 85 80
St. Lucie ............. 100 60 90 60
Div. Av. per cent...... 098 I 85 85 I 62
State Av. per cent...... 9, I 84 85 | 70


-5- ri..




















PART III.

Immature Citrus Fruit Laws, Rules and
Regulations.
Potash---Hardwood and Palmetto Roots
as Source of.
Soil Analysis. Rules and Regulations
for Sending Samples of Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.













IMMATURE CITRUS FRUIT

Laws, Rules and Regulations




Rules, Regulations and Methods For Applying the
"Ratio of Acid to Total Solids" Test
By Inspectors


INSTRUCTIONS TO GROWERS FOR
APPLYING THE "RATIO OF ACID
TO TOTAL SOLIDS" TEST.




Necessary Apparatus, How to Prepare Alkaline Solutions
and Apply the "Ratio of Acid to Total Solids" Test





































APPARATUS.
No. 1-Brix Spindle (hydrometer). No. 2-Centigrade Thermometer. No. 3-25 C. C. Pipette. No. 4-50 C. C.
Burett, graduated 1-5 C. C. No. 5-Burett Support. No. 6-Glass Cylinder, 1Mx12 in. No. 7-Small Funnel. No. 8-
250 C. C. Erlenmeyer Flask. A-Bottle Alkaline Solution. B-Dropping Bottle, with Indicator. No. 9-Lemon
Squeezer. No. 10-Porcelain Pan for Juice. No. 11-Cheese Cloth for Straining Juice.
















STATE OF FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY

CITRUS FRUIT INSPECTORS: ASSISTANT STATE CHEMISTS:
N. O. Penny. Miami. L. Heimberger. B. S., M. S.,
W. J. Edwards. 0 ala. Foods and Drugs.
H. D. Berry, Winter Garden. E. Peck Greene, B. B.,
J. W. Knight, Lakelad. Stock Feed.
.Frank T. Wilson, B. S.,
Fertilizers.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist

Tallahassee, Sept. 30, 1915



NOTICE TO FLORIDA GROWERS

AND SHIPPERS OF CITRUS FRUITS

The following Citrus Fruit Standards were adopted by
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washing-
ton, D. C., Sept. 23, 1915, and will govern all Inter-
state shipments:

Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Chemistry,
Washington, D. C.

Sept. 23, 1915.

'SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS.

Definition of 'immature' as applied to grapefruit and
Florida oranges.











The Bureau of Chemistry has received repeated re
quests to define the terms 'immature' and 'maturity'
as applied to grapefruit and Florida oranges. Such a
definition seems desirable in view of the uncertainty now
existing regarding the meaning of those terms.

With the information now available 'the Bureau of
Chemistry considers all grapefruit to be immature if the
juice does not contain soluble solids equal to, or in ex-
cess of, 7 parts to each part of acid contained in the
juice, the acidity of the juice to be calculated as citric
acid without water of crystallization. The Bureau also
considers Florida oranges to be immature if the juice
does not contain soluble solids equal to, or in excess of,
8 parts to every part of acid contained in the juice, the
acidity to be calculated as citric acid without water of
crystallization.'

Owing to the fact that the investigations of the Bureau
have not been completed, the ratios set for all grapefruit
and for Florida oranges are lower than those which are
believed to be the lowest for properly matured fruit. It
may therefore be expected that the requirements will be
made more strict after data from several crops are avail-
able."












STATE OF FLORIDA
OFFICE OF THE
ATTORNEY GENERAL
Tallahassee, September 28th, 1915.
T. F. WEST
Attorney General

Hon, W. A. McRae,
Commissioner of AgricUlture,
Hon. R. E. Rose, State Chemist,
The Capitol, Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sirs:-
Your communication of the 28th, inst., has been re-
ceived.
I note your inquiry as follows:
"For the guidance of the Agricultural Department in
the execution of the Pure Food and Drugs Law of the
State, Chapter 6122, Acts of 1911, as amended by Chap.
ter 6541, Acts of 1913, approved June 13, 1913, and 'An
Act to Define Immature Citrus Fruit and to Fix Stand
ards for Mature Citrus Fruits; etc., 'Chapter 6515, Acts
of 1913, your opinion is respectfully requested.
"We would be pleased to have your opinion as to the
legality of the adoption by the Agricultural Department
of the State of Florida of the standards for immature cit-
rus fruit as promulgated by the U. S. Department of Ag-
riculture, September 23, 1915, a copy of which is at-
tached."
Section 15 of Chapter 6541, Acts of 1913, referred to by
you, is in the following language:
"That the definitions and standards of foods and drugs
prescribed by the Act of Congress approved June 30th,
1906, entitled 'An Act for Preventing the Manufacture,
Sale or Transportation of Adulterated or Misbranded or
Poisonous or Deleterious Foods, Drugs, Medicines or
Liquors and for Regulating Traffic Therein, and for other
purposes,' and amendments thereto, be and the same are












hereby adopted and declared to be the definitions and
standards of foods under the terms and meaning of this
Act, and that no article of food shall be deemed to be
adulterated under the terms of this Act other than those
defined and found to be adulterated, poisonous, deleteri-
ous or detriment to health under the provisions of the
Food and Drugs Act of Congress approved June thir-
teenth, nineteen hundred six, and amendments thereto.
That the Commissioner of Agriculture with the advice of
the State Chemist, shall establish such rules and regula-
tions as shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of
this Act; in conformity with the rules and regulations
formulated by the United States Department of Agricul-
ture, by authority of the National Food and Drugs Act
of June thirteenth, nineteenth and six, and amendments
thereto."

Section 2 of Chapter 6515, Acts of 1913, also referred
to by you, is in the following language:

"That the execution and the enforcement of this law
and the Immature Citrus Fruit Law, Chapter 6236, Laws
of Florida, shall be under the general provisions, rules
and regulations, of the Pure Food and Drug Law, Chap-
ter 6122, Laws of Florida, and amendments thereto."
In view of these statutes, and without undertaking to
compare and analyze the various statutes on this subject,
I beg to advise that, in my opinion, the standard for im
mature citrus fruits promulgated by the United States
Department of Agriculture September 23, 1915, may be
adopted as the standard of citrus fruits which go into in
terstate shipments from this State.

Respectfully submitted,

(Signed) T. F. WEST,

Attorney General.












-vPPARATUS FOR MAKING THE DETERMINA-
TIONS OF ACIDS AND SOLIDS IN
CITRUS FRUIT JUICE.

(1) A Brix Spindle, 00 to 30" in half degrees.
(2) A Centigrade Thermometer, graduated in whole
degrees.
(3) A 25 cubic centimeter pipette.
(4) A 50 cubic centimeter burette, graduated in
fifths of a c.c.
(5) A Burette support.
(6) A glass cylinder, without lip, 1 1-4 inches in di-
ameter by 12 inches high.
(7) A small funnel.
(8) Two 250 cubic centimeter Erlenmeyer flasks for
titrations.
(9) A lemon squeezer.
(10) A beaker or granite-ware cup of 1 quart ca-
pacity.
(11) A piece of cheese cloth for straining the juice.
(12) Tables giving the specific gravities correspond-
ing to each 1-10 degree Brix from 8.0 to 17.0 degrees,
and the corrections applied when the readings are not
taken at the temperature at which the instrument was
graduated, (17.5 degrees centigrade-equivalent to 63.5
degrees Fahrenheit.)

Solutions Needed.

(1) A standard solution of Sodium or Potassium
hydroxide, one cubic centimeter of which is equivalent to
ten milligrams of citric acid (without water of crystal-
lization.)












(2) A solution of phenolphthalein (Fe-no-tal-in) for
use as indicator (best contained in a two ounce dropping
bottle). The solution should be saturated.

Directions for Using Field Outfits.

(1) In order to make the sample as representative as
possible not less than 12 oranges are used, preferably
taken from several trees or boxes. They are halved or
quartered, depending upon the size, and the juice re
moved as thoroughly as possible with the lemon squeez-
er. Care should be taken to remove the juice from all
parts of the orange and as thoroughly as possible, as the
composition is not the same in the center and next to
the skin. The juice is well mixed and strained through
the cheese cloth.

(2) The glass cylinder is filled 3-4 full of the juice
and the Brix spindle placed in it. A sufficient amount
is then added to overflow the cylinder. The spindle is
allowed to remain for a few minutes, in order to allow
the air in the juice to escape, care being taken to see
that it does not touch the sides of the cylinder. The
reading is then taken, the line just at the top of the
liquid being the one read.

(3) The temperature of the solution is now noted,
the bulb of the thermometer being placed in the juice and
gently tapped against the sides of the container until the
mercury column becomes stationary.

(4) From the table the correction is found and added
to or substracted from the reading of the Brix spindle.

(5) The correction is added where the temperature
of the reading was above that which the instrument was
standardized, and subtracted if it was below. (The tern












perature of standardization is 17 1-2 degrees centigrade,
equivalent to 63.5 degrees Fahrenheidt.) The corrected
result is the percentage of soluble solids in the juice.

Example:-Reading of the spindle 10.0, temperature
of the juice 20 degrees, making the corrections .15 and
the Brix reading 10.15.

The percentage of soluble solids in the sample of juice
is therefore 10.15.

To ascertain the specific gravity of the juice refer to
the table using the first Brix reading, in the case cited
this is found to be 1.04014.

(6) To obtain the percentage of acid in the juice fill
the 25 c.c. pipette, by drawing it full of the juice, and
allow the excess flow back into the container until tbp
upper level of the juice is opposite the zero line.

Now permit the contents to flow into one of the titra-
tion flasks.

Do not hurry the flowing by blowing into the pipette.

Add 5 to 10 drops of the indicator solution, from the
dropping bottle, to the juice.

(7) Fill the burette with the standard solution until
the top of the liquid is level with the zero line.

(8) Add the solution from the burette, small quanti-
ties at a time, to the juice in the titration flask, shaking
the flask constantly.

(9) The orange juice will gradually assume a yellow
color, and finally attain a pinkish tint.

(10) When the latter is observed stop the flow of
solution from the burette and take the reading, using












the figure at the point opposite the height of the solu-
tion.

To ascertain the weight of acid in the juice, multiply
the amount of alkaline solution used by the factor for
one cubic centimeter of the standard solution. This fac-
tor is 0.01.
Example:-The height of the standard solution in the
burette has fallen from zero to 26-cc. This result, multi-
plied by 0.01, gives 0.26 of a gram. (26X0.01=26.)
To find the percentage of acid, divide the weight of acid
found by the weight of the juice. The weight of the juice
is found by multiplying the specific gravity 1.04014
(found in table two) corresponding to the original Brix
reading by the number of cubic centimeters of the juice
taken (25-cc.)
(25X1.04014-26.)
The weight of the acid .26 divided by the weight of the
juice, and multiplied by 100, gives the percentage of the
acid:
(.26-26=.OIX100=1.00%)
To determine the ratio of the acid to the soluble solids,
divide the per cent. of total solids by the per cent. of
total acids.
Example:-Percentage of total solids 10.15, divided by
1.00 equals 10.1, i. e., the ratio of acid to soluble solids
is 1 to 10.1.
NOTE :-A better end point can be obtained if two vol-
umes of pure water are added to the juice in the titration
flask before titrating. Care must be taken, however, that
the water is neither acid or alkaline. (Melted ice will af
ford pure water. By no means use artesian water.)

Keep the standard solution tightly stoppered when not
in use.

Wash out the burette and invert it in the support when
not in use.












Before measuring out the juice in the pipette rinse it
with a small quantity of the juice you are about to run.

Tables mentioned are to be found in Bulletin 107, re-
vised of the Bureau of Chemistry, pages 66 and 67.

Extracts from these tables corresponding to Florida
mean temperatures for September and October, with cor-
rections for Specific Gravities are as follows:


6-BUL.














TABLE ONE.

Table for correction of the readings of the Brix spindle, when
the reading is made at other than the standard temperature,
17.500 Centigrade.
For temperatures below 17.500 Centigrade (equal to 63.50 Fa
renheit) the correction is to be subtracted; above 17.50 Centigrade
the correction is added.

Approximate Degrees Brix
Temperature. Corrected to Temperature.


Co Fo 5o 100 15


13 55.4 .18 .19 .21
14 57.2 .15 .16 .17
15 59. .11 .12 .14 Correction subtracted.
16 60.8 .07 .08 .09
17 62.6 .02 .03 .03


64.4
66.2
68.
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2
77.
78.8
80.6
82.4
84.2
86.0


.03
.08
.14
.20
.26
.32
.38
.44
.50
.57
.64
.71
.78


.03
.08
.15
.22
.29
.35
.41
.47
.54
.61
.68
.75
.82


.03
.09
.17
.24
.31
.37
.43
.49
.56
.63
.70
.78
.87


Correction added.


NOTE-Brix readings are to be made for the nearest multiple
of 5*, thus for 7 read 50, for 8 read 100; for 12 read
13" read 15.














TABLE TWO.


Table for the comparison of
ties 8 Brix to 18 Brix.


Degrees
Brix
Per Cent
Solids.


S1
Gr


8.0 1.0
9.0 1.0
10.0 1.0
11.0 1.0
12.0 1.0
13.0 1.0
14.0 1.0
15.0 1.0
10.0 1.0
17.0 1.0
18.0 1.0


Degrees Brix, and Specific Gravi-


ecific
avity.



3187
13599
4014
4431
4852
5276
5703
6133
6566
17002
17441


NOTE-Fractional degrees Brix are read in the nearest de-
gree, Thus 8.60 is read 90, 8.40 is read 8, 10.4' is read 100.
10.6 is read 11.












ILLUSTRATION NO. 1.

(Grapefruit)

Brix Reading ................................... 9.00
Temperature 260 C.
Burett reading ................................ 42.c.c.
Specific gravity (table 2)............. 1.03599.



To Find Total Solids.

Brix .......................... ........... ... . 9.00
Temperature 26 C. correction (table one)........0.54%

Per cent total solids ..........................9.54%



To Find Weight of Juice.

Specific gravity (table two) .......... .1.03599
Multiplied by 25 (number of cubic centi-
meters juice taken.. .................. 25.9 grams.
(1.03599X25=25.9 weight of juice.)



To Find Total Acid.

Alkaline solution used from Burette ............. 42.c.c.
Multiplied by 0.01 the alkaline factor=0.42
(42X0.01=0.42 total acid.)


To Find Per Cent Acid.

0.42 total acid, divided by 25.9 weight of juice taken mul-
tiplied by 100. equals 1.62 % acid.
0.42- 25.9=0.0162X1100=1.62 7( acid.











To Find Ratio.

9.54 % total solids divided by 1.62 % acid=5.5
One part acid to 5.5 parts total solids.
Below standard, illegal.


ILLUSTRATIONS NO. 2.

(Grapefruit)

Brix reading ................................. 11.000
Temperature 200 C.
Burette reading .............................. 35.c.c.
Specific gravity (table two).............. 1.04431



To Find Total Solids.

B rix ....................................... 11.000
Temperature 200 C. correction (table one)....... 0.15

Per cent total solids .........................11.15'



To Find Weight of Juice.

Specific gravity (table two).............. 1.04431
Multiplied by 25 (number of cubic centi-
meters juice taken) ....................26.1 grams.
(1.04431X25=26-1 weight of juice.)



To Find Total Acid.

Alkaline solution used from Burette.............. 35.c.c.
Multiplied by 0.01 (the alkaline factor)=0.35 grams.
(35X0.01=0.35 grams total acid.)











To Find Per Cent Acid.
0.35 total acid divided by 26.1 (juice taken).
multiplied by 100, equals 1.34 % acid.
(0.35-26.1=0.0134X100=1.34 % acid.)



To Find Ratio.

11.15 % total solids, divided by 1.34 % acid=8.3.
Or one part acid, to 8.3 parts total solids.
Above standard, legal.



ILLUSTRATION NO. 3.

(Oranges)

Brix reading ................. ................. 9.00
Temperature 29' C.
Burette reading ............................... 44.c.c.
Specific gravity (table two) .............. 1.03599



To Find Total Solids.

B rix ........................................ 9.00
Temperature 290 C. Correction (table one)....... 0.75"

Per cent total solids........................... 9.75



To Find Weight of Juice.

Specific gravlty (table two).............. 1.03599
Multiplied by 25 (number of cubic centi-
meters juice taken) 25.9 grams.
(1.03599X25=25.9 weight of juice.)











To Find Total Acid.
Alkaline solution used from Burette............. 44.c.c.
Multiplied by 0.01 (the alkaline factor equals
0.44 acid.
(44X0.01=0.44 total acid.)


To Find Per Cent Acid.
0.44 total acid, divided by 25.9 weight of juice
taken, multiplied by 100 equals 1.70 %
acid.
(0.44---25.9X100=1.70 % acid.)


To Find Ratio.
9.75 % total solids divided by 1.70 % acid equals 5.7
One part acid to 5.7 parts total solids.
Below standard, illegal.



ILLUSTRATION NO. 4.

(Oranges)

Brix reading ................................. 12.000
Temperature 19 C.
Burette reading .............................. 30.00
Specific gravity (table two)............. 1.04852



To Find Total Solids.

B rix ............................... ...... 12.000
Temperature 190 C. correction (table one) .........0.08

Per cent total solids ....................... 12.08











To Find Weight of Juice.
Specify gravity (table two).............. 1.04852
Multiplied by 25 (number or cubic centi-
meters juice taken) 26.2 grams.
(1.04852X25=26.2 weight of juice.)


To Find Total Acid.
Alkaline solution used from Burette............. 30.00
Multiplied by 0.01 (the alkaline factor) equals 0.30 acid.
(30X0.01=0.30 total acid.)


To Find Per Cent Acid.

0.30 total acid, divided by 26.2 weight of juice
taken, multiplied by 100 equals 1.15 % acid.
(0.30--26.2X100=1.15 % acid.)


To Find Ratio.

12.08 % total solids, divided by 1.15 % acid equals 10.5
One part acid to 10.5 parts total solids.


Above standard legal.











IMMATURE CITRUS FRUIT LAW.

(CHAPTER 6236-No. 117).

AN ACT to Prohibit Certain Dispositions of Citrus
Fruits Which Are Immature or otherwise Unfit for
Consumption, and the Misbranding of Citrus Fruits.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Floridas

Section 1. That it shall be unlawful for any one to
sell, offer for sale, ship or deliver for shipment any citrus
fruits which are immature or otherwise unfit for consump-
tion, and for any one to receive any such fruits under a
contract of sale, or for the purpose of sale, or of offering
for sale, or for shipment or delivery or shipment. This
section shall not apply to sales or contracts for sale of
citrus fruits on the trees under this section; nor shall
it apply to common carriers or their agents who are not
interested in such fruits and who are merely receiving
the same for transportation.

Sec. 2. It shall be unlawful for any one to misbrand
any package or any wrapper containing citrus fruits;
and all citrus fruits shall be deemed misbranded if the
package or wrapper shall bear any statement, design or
device regarding the fruit therein contained which is
false or misleading either as to the name, size, quality or
brand of such fruit or as to the locality in which it was
grown.

Sec. 3. Whoever shall violate any of the provisions of
this Act shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one
thousand dollars or by imprisonment for not more than
six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, and
the fruit, whether immature or otherwise unfit for con-
sumption or misbranded shall be subject to seizure an I









90

disposition as in the case of adulterated or misbranded
foods and drugs.












EXTRACTS FROM LAWS

"Citrus Fruit Standard Law."

CHAPTER 6515-(No 95).

AN ACT to Define Immature Citrus Fruit and to Fix
Standards for Mature Citrus Fruit; to Place the Exe-
cution of the Immature Citrus Fruit Law, Chapter
6236, Laws of Florida, Under the General Provisions
of the Pure Food and Drug Law, Chapter 6122, Laws
of Florida, and Amendments Thereto, and to Make Ap-
propriation for the Enforcement Thereof.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Floridas

Section 1. (Modified by decision of Florida Supreme
Court, in Sligh v. Kirkwood, Sheriff of Orange County,
Florida. Judgment affirmed by U. S. Supreme Court,
April 5, 1914. Also by decision of U. S. Supreme Court in
McDermot, et als. v. Wisconsin, April 7, 1913).

Sec. 2. That the execution and the enforcement of
this law and the Immature Citrus Fruit Law, Chapter
6236, Laws of Florida, shall be under the general pro-
visions, rules and regulations, of the Pure Food and Drug
Law, Chapter 6122, Laws of Florida, and amendments
thereto.

Sec. 3. The Governor may at his discretion, appoint
four citrus fruit inspectors, for a period of extending from
September 1st to November 5th, of each year, for the
purpose of enforcing this law, who shall be governed by
the general provisions, rules and regulations as provided
for Inspectors under the Pure Food and Drugs Law,
Chapter 6122, Laws of Florida.












"Pure Food and Drug Laws of Florida."

CHAPTER 6122-1911

As Amended by

CHAPTER 6541-1913

Approved June 13, 1913

Sec. 9.-Said food, * inspectors *
shall have authority and it shall be their duty under in-
structions from the Commissioner of Agriculture and the
State Chemist, to inspect foods and other
material subject to inspection, as now provided by law,
throughout the State or any territory assigned to them,
and seize and attach all goods subject to inspection, as are
visibly misbranded, palpably adulterated, or offered for
sale in violation of the provisions of this Act, *
and place the same in the custody of the sheriff of the
County wherein found, subject to the order of the Com-
missioner of Agriculture, sending samples of such goods
to the State Chemist for examination or analysis.
* In the performance of their duties, in-
spectors shall have free access at all reasonable hours, to
any store, warehouse, factory, packing-house, or railway
depot, wherein commercial stock feed, or commercial fer-
tilizers, foods or drugs are stored, manufactured or pre-
pared for sale, for the purpose of examination or inspec-
tion and drawing samples of commercial fertilizers, food
stuffs, food or drugs.

If such access be refused by the owner, agent or man-
ager of such premises, the Inspector may apply for a
search warrant which shall be obtained in the same man-
ner as provided by law for the obtaining of search war-
rants in other cases. The refusal to admit an Inspector to
any of the above mentioned premises, during reasonable











hours, shall be construed as prima facie evidence of viola-
tion of this Act.

Sec. 15. That the definitions and standards of foods
and drugs prescribed by the Act of Congress approved
June 30th, 1900, entitled "An Act for Preventing the
Manufacture, Sale or Transportation of Adulterated or
Misbranded or Poisonous or Deleterious Foods, Drugs,
Medicines or Liquors, and for Regulating Traffic There-
in, and for Other Purposes," and amendments thereto,
be and the same are hereby adopted and declared to be
the definitions and standards of foods under the terms
and meaning of this Act, and that no article
of food shall be deemed to be adulterated under the terms
of this Act other than those defined and found to be adul-
terated, poisonous, deleterious or detriment to health un-
der the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act of Congress
approved June thirteenth, nineteen hundred six, and
amendments thereto. That the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture, with the advice of the State Chemist, shall establish
such rules and regulations as shall not be inconsistent
with the provisions of this Act; in conformity with the
rules and regulations formulated by the United States
Department of Agriculture, by authority of the National
Food and Drugs Act of June thirtieth, nineteen and six,
and amendments thereto.












REGULATIONS

For Applying the "Field Test, Ratio of Acid to

Total Solids" to Citrus Fruit.

Instructions to Inspectors of Citrus Fruit.

REGULATION NO. 1-DRAWING OF SAMPLES.

Inspectors shall draw samples for analysis in the pres-
ence of the owner, agent, manager or custodian of any
packing house, car, or other place where oranges or grape-
fruit are gathered or packed for shipment. Two sam-
ples of twelve average oranges or grapefruit, each fairly
representative of all the fruit at the time being inspected,
shall be drawn by the Inspector, assisted by either the
owner, agent or custodian of the fruit.



REGULATION NO. 2-APPLICATION OF TEST.

That one of the samples so drawn shall at once be
tested by the Inspector in the presence of the owner,
agent, or custodian of the fruit, in the manner hereinbe-
fore provided. Should the test show, in the case of
oranges, that the juice contains less than eight parts so-
luble solids, to each part anhydrous citric acid, the fruit
shall be considered immature. In the case of Grapefruit,
if the juice contains less than seven parts of soluble solids
to each part anhydrous citric acid, the fruit shall be con-
sidered immature.
The juice of oranges showing a greater ratio of total
solids than "eight parts of total soluble solids to one part
anhydrous citric acid," or the juice of Grapefruit showing
a greater ratio of total soluble solids than "seven part.












total soluble solids to one part anhydrous citric acid"
shall be considered mature. Provided, That should the
owner, agent or custodian demand an analysis by the State
Chemist, the duplicate sample, drawn in the presence of
the agent, owner or custodian (as directed in Regulation
1), shall be sent by express or parcel post prepaid to the
State Chemist, the sample to be identified and verified by
the signatures of the owner, agent or custodian and the
Inspector, the fruit in question under investigation to be
withheld from shipment until the result of the analysis
by the State Chemist is received by wire or otherwise.

REGULATION NO. 3-PREPARATION OF SAMPLES.

The methods of preparation of samples for analysis
and application of field tests shall be as follows: Twelve
average oranges or grapefruit fairly representative of all
the fruit under consideration, selected as prescribed in
Regulation No. 1 shall be peeled, cut across segments, the
juice extracted by an ordinary lemon squeezer, strained
through cheese cloth into a porcelain bowl.

REGULATION NO. 4-APPLICATION OF TEST.

(See examples and methods of applying tests herein
provided. Pages 8 to 11, inclusive.)

REGULATION NO. 5-ACCESS TO PREMISES.

(Section 9, Chapter 6122).

In the performance of their duties, Inspectors shall
have free access at all reasonable hours, to any warehouse,
packing house, railroad depot, or car, where citrus fruits
are sold, prepared for sale or stored for shipment or pre-
pared for sale or shipment, for the purpose of examina-
tion or inspection, and the drawing of samples of such











citrus fruit for the purpose of ascertaining if they be ma-
ture and and fit for shipment or immature and unfit for
shipment. If such access be refused by the owner, agent,
manager or custodian of such premises, the Inspector
may apply for a search warrant, which shall be obtained
in the same manner as provided by law for the obtaining
of search warrants in other cases. The refusal to admit
an Inspector to any of the above mentioned premises,
during reasonable hours, shall be construed as prima
facie evidence of violation of Chapter 6515, the Citrus
Standard Law; Chapter 6236, the "Immature Citrus
Fruit Law," or Chapter 6122, "the Pure Food and Drugs
Law" of Florida.

REGULATION NO. 6-ATTACHMENT OF
IMMATURE FRUIT.

(Section 9, Chapter 6515, June 13, 1913).

Inspectors shall have authority, and it shall be their
duty, under instructions from the Commissioner of Agri-
culture and the State Chemist, to inspect material sub-
ject to inspection (oranges and grapefruit) as now pro-
vided by law, throughout the State or any territory as-
signed to them, and to seize and atach all goods subject
to inspection as are visibly misbranded, or palpably adul-
terated, offered for sale or shipment, and place the same
in the custody of the Sheriff of the County wherein found.
subject to the order of the Commissioner of Agriculture,
sending samples of such goods to the State Chemist for
examination or analysis. Reporting the attachment to
the Commissioner of Agriculture, and the proper United
States Inspector in full, on blanks provided.
N. B.-Samples of such attached fruit shall be drawn
as provided in Regulation No. 1, in the presence of the
owner, agent, manager or custodian of the fruit, the In-
7--BUL.











spector, and two witnesses, who shall each verify the pack-
age by their signatures, with the date and place of the
taking of the sample.

REGULATION NO. 7-SAMPLES DRAWN BY
HEALTH OFFICER, SHERIFF OR CITIZENS.

(Section 12, Chapter 6122, June 5, 1911).

Any Health Officer, Sheriff or citizen of the State, may
submit fair samples of oranges or grapefruit to the State
Chemist for analysis, when drawn in the presence of the
owner or agent and two witnesses, in the manner pre-
scribed in Regulation No. 1; said witnesses to affix their
signatures to said packages, one to be delivered to the
person from whom it is taken, the other to be transmitted
to the State Chemist, charges prepaid, who shall analyze
the same and certify the results to the Commissioner of
Agriculture, who shall return to the sender a copy of
said certificate of analysis.
N. B.-Samples of oranges or grapefruit taken by Sher-
iffs, Health Officer, or citizens, NOT DRAWN AND TRANSMIT-
TED IN EXACT COMPLIANCE WITH THIS REGULATION, WILL
NOT BE ACCEPTED, NOR ANALYZED BY STATE LABORATORY.
Not less than twelve average oranges or grapefruit, of
one variety, will be accepted for analysis. In each case
the name of the sender, the locality where grown, the
date when gathered, the names and addresses of the two
witnesses, must be plainly and legibly placed on the out-
side of the package. Samples not fully complying with
this regulation will not be accepted.
R. E. Rose,
Approved: State Chemist.
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
Tallahassee, Fla., Sept. 30, 1915.









Issued April 6, 1911.


United States Department of Agriculture

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY.

FOOD INSPECTION DECISION 133.

THE COLORING OF GREEN CITRUS FRUITS.

The attention of the Board of Food and Drug Inspec-
tion has been directed to the shipment in interstate com-
merce of GREEN, IMMATURE CITRUS FRUITS, PARTICULARLY
ORANGES, WHICH HAVE BEEN ARTIFICIALLY COLORED BY HOLD-
ING IN A WARM, MOIST ATMOSPHERE FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF
TIME AFTER REMOVAL FROM THE TREE. Evidence is adduced
showing that such oranges do not change in sugar or acid
content after removal from the tree. Evidence further
shows that the same oranges remaining on the tree in-
crease markedly in sugar content and decrease in acid
content. Further, there is evidence to show that the con-
sumption of such immature oranges, especially by chil-
dren, is apt to be attended by serious disturbances of the
digestive system.

Under the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, an
article of food is adulterated "if it be mixed, colored, pow-
dered, coated, or stained in a manner whereby damage or
inferiority is concealed." IT IS THE OPINION OF THE BOARD
THAT ORANGES TREATED AS MENTIONED ABOVE ARE COLORED'
IN A MANNER WHEREBY INFERIORITY IS CONCEALED AND ARE,
THEREFORE, ADULTERATED.

before the color changes from green to yellow, and this
The Board recognizes the fact that certain varieties of
oranges attain maturity as to size, sweetness, and acidity


F. I. D. 133.










100

decision is not intended to interfere with the marketing
of such oranges.

H. W. WILEY,
F. L. DUNLAP,
GEo. P. MCCABE,
Board of Food and Drug Inspection.

Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., March 28, 1911.




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