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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Part I. Uses of ground limestone,...
 Part II. Crop and live stock...
 Part III. Farm drainage, soil analysis,...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00037
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Part I. Uses of ground limestone, growing of corn and cotton, etc.
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Uses and purposes of ground limestone
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Corn
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Cotton
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Part II. Crop and live stock conditions
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Department of agriculture
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Part III. Farm drainage, soil analysis, rules and regulations for sending samples, fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Perfect drainage of a farm lands necessary to successful farming
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
        Soil analysis
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
        Analysis of Florida muck soils
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Department of agriculture - Division of chemistry
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
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            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
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            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
Full Text





Volume 25 Number 3



FLORIDA

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


JULY 1, 1915


W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTTU
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Uses of Ground Limestoneb Growing of n and
Cotton, etc.
Part 2-Condition and Prospective Yield of Crups.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
% matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED fREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida
% --













COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.



















PART I.

Uses of Ground Limestone, Growing of Corn and
Cotton, Etc.














USES AND PURPOSES OF GROUND
LIMESTONE



IMPROVING ACID SOILS.

BY A. W. BLAIR.

Chemist Agricultural Experiment Station.

The soil in many sections of Florida are acid (sour),
which is unfavorable for the best development of many
crops. Soils that are low and wet, especially muck soils,
are likely to be acid. It is generally safe to assume that
our pine-land soils are more or less acid, if there is no
indication of phosphate rock, limestone, or marl, at or
near the surface. Hammock soils may also be acid,
though in some cases the hammocks have a layer of marl
a little below the surface.

CAUSES OF ACIDITY.

1. Alkaline materials, such as potash, soda, lime and
magnesia, which can neutralize or counteract acids, have,
to a large extent, been washed out of our soils by the
action of drainage waters. (The State Geologist, in
Bulletin No: 1, of the Geological Survey, stated that
dissolved material is being carried into the sea through
the Silver Springs at the rate of about 600 tons per day.)
In this dissolved matter, carbonate of lime greatly pre-
dominates.
2. Organic matter, such as grass, weeds, or stalks,
decays in the soil with the formation of organic acids,
which, on account of their slow solubility, tend to accu-











mulate in soils not well supplied with alkaline materials
like lime.
3. Certain fertilizing materials, sulphate of ammonia
in particular, tend to increase the acidity of soils that
are naturally deficient in alkaline materials, owing to
the plants using the ammonia to a greater extent than
they do the sulphuric acid.

CORRECTIVES.

Alkaline materials generally will counteract or neu-
tralize any acid. In improving an acid soil, the aim
should be to get an alkaline material that is cheap and
that can be easily handled. To a large extent, lime in
its different forms fulfills these requirements.
Carbonate of lime is the form that occurs naturally.
It is found as crystallized limestone or marble, as massive
limestone rock, as marl, and as shells. It also occurs in
certain soils in a newly divided state as the result of the
decomposition of some of the above named materials.
Examples of such soils are found in the Bluegrass regions
of Kentucky and Southwest Virginia. Carbonate of lime,
in any form, if ground fine and worked into an acid soil
in sufficient quantities, will correct the sourness. It will
not take effect as rapidly as quick-lime, nor is it as con-
centrated. It should, however, be much cheaper. One
hundred pounds of pure quick-lime are equivalent to 170
pounds of pure limestone; but, because of impurities, it
should perhaps be best to take 200 pounds of carbonate
of lime, in the form of ground limestone or ground shells,
as the equivalent of 100 pounds of pure quick lime.
Slaked Lime (hydrated lime) is made by slaking quick
lime with just enough water to convert it into a fine
powder. One hundred and thirty-two pounds of slaked
lime prepared in this way are equivalent to 100 pounds
of pure quick-lime.












Unbleached hardwood ashes contain about 25 to 30
per cent. of lime in addition to 4 to 6 per cent. of potash,
and when they can be had at a reasonable price they may
be used with profit on acid soils.
Basic, or Thomas, Slag contains about 40 per cent. of
lime in addition to 17 or 18 per cent. of phosphoric acid
and if a moderate application of lime is needed along
with a heavy application of phosphoric acid, this may be
used. In our experiments with pineapples, basic slag
has given good results.

APPLICATION.
If ground limestone or shells are used, and the soil is
found to be highly acid (by testing with litmus paper),
two tons per acre in two or three years will not be ex
cessive. If the soil is only slightly acid, 'one ton per
acre may suffice. Only half the amount need be applied
if quick-lime is used. Old, thoroughly air-slaked, lime
may be used in about the same amount as ground lime-
stone.
Lime may be applied at almost any time, though it
would perhaps be better to apply it during the late win-
ter or early spring, so that it may be thoroughly worked
into the soil before the rainy season sets in. If fertilizers
containing sulphate of ammonia are used, it would be
better to apply the lime one month before or one month
after the fertilizer application.

CROPS BENEFITED BY LIME.
Most vegetable and fruit crops are benefited by the use
of the lime where there is a tendency to acidity of the
soil. It has, however, been shown that watermelons do
best on an acid soil. It has also been shown that lime
makes the conditions more favorable for the development
of scab on the Irish potato.
With celery, lettuce, cabbage, citrus fruits, hay, and
forage crops, it niay be used liberally.












MATERIALS FOR CORRECTING SOIL ACIDITY.

BY P. H. ROLFS.

The entire State of Florida is underlaid with lime-
stone of such quality as to make, when ground, excellent
material for correcting the acidity of the soil. Various
limestone beds have been extensively studied by our
State Geologist (Dr. E. H. Sellards, Tallahassee), whose
reports may be had for the asking. In addition to lime-
stone, we also have in Florida extensive beds of marl,
many of them sufficiently pure to make good material
for correcting soil acidity. Finally, along the sea-coast,
around the larger lakes, and along most of our water-
ways, we find extensive shell mounds. The shells of these
mounds might well be ground and utilized for correcting
soil acidity.
Aside from these natural materials, several commer-
cial substances are available to us for neutralizing soil
acidity. In most cases, however, the results obtained
could be more cheaply accomplished by using the natural
supplies.

LIMESTONE AND LIME.

Ground Limestone is the safest and most satisfactory
material to use. It is a natural product, and may be
added to the soil in any quantity without serious danger
of doing harm. It should not be forgotten, however, that
there are special cases in which it would be inadvisable
to apply ground limestone. From one to three tons should
be used on soils showing slight acidity, and a larger
amount on soils that are decidedly acid; while on some
soils that are very acid the use of as much as eight to
twelve tons will be found profitable.
Hydrated Lime is made by slaking quick-lime with just
enough water to convert it into fine powder. Samples











analyzed at the Experiment Station show that commer-
cial hydrated lime is made up of oxide of lime, hydrate
of lime, and carbonate of lime. When most carefully pre-
pared, 74 pounds of hydrated lime are about equal to 100
pounds of limestone; so if we use about two-thirds the
quantity of hydrated lime in the place of ground lime-
stone we shall be nearly right.
Quick-Lime or Burnt Lime is made from limestone by
driving off the carbon dioxide gas. One hundred pounds
of pure limestone will make 56 pounds of quick-lime. If,
therefore, we wish to use quick-lime, we may apply ap-
proximately half as much as we would if we were using
ground limestone.
OTHER SUBSTANCES.

Hardwood Ashes have long been employed as a source
of potash, and more recently have been used to a consid-
erable extent for correcting soil acidity. There is much
variation in the amounts of potash and lime contained
in hardwood ashes. They contain generally about 3 to 6
per cent of potash, and may be used at the same rate as
we would ordinarily apply fertilizer to the soil.
Basic Slag, or Thonws Slag, as it is sometimes called,
has been employed to a considerable extent as a fertilizer
in Florida in recent years. This material is made from
the refuse from iron or steel mills. It contains about 40
per cent. of lime in addition to about 20 per cent. of
phosphoric acid. The lime in the mixture is a strong cor-
rector of acidity, being less effective in this direction
than the same amount of quick-lime or hydrated lime,
but having the advantage of also carrying phosphoric
acid. It was found a useful source of phosphorus in our
fertilizer experiments with pineapples.
Nitrate of Soda, when used in our fertilizer tests in
the citrus groves, was shown by Prof. Collison to correct
the acidity of the soil. The soda left in the soil after the
nitrate had been used by the plants acted as an alkali.











USING GROUND LIMESTONE.

BY P. H. ROLFS.

The amount of ground limestone to be used will vary
greatly, according to the acidity of the particular piece
of land, even different parts of the same acre showing
different degrees of acidity. A soil that is only slightly
acid will need from one to two tons of ground lime-
stone; soils that are decidedly acid will require about
twice as much; and some of our most acid soils will be
benefited by as much as 8 to 12 tons per acre. Many
farm crops are benefited by an application of ground
limestone, even when the soil does not show acidity.
Plants of the legume family are especially benefited by
such an application. Celery, lettuce, cabbage, citrus
fruits, hay and forage crops, generally prefer a large
quantity of lime in the soil. Watermelons, on the other
hand, do well on an acid soil.

WHEN TO APPLY GROUND LIMESTONE.

It is best to apply ground limestone to the soil a con-
siderable time before the crop is to be planted. The ap-
plication should be made before plowing, as this will
plication should be made before plowing, as this will
give an opportunity to incorporate the material more
evenly with the soil, and will give the beneficial soil
organisms an opportunity to increase to large numbers.
If it has not been possible to apply ground limestone
before the soil is broken up, it may be applied before
planting time. It is advisable, however, to apply it a
considerable time before one wishes to use fertilizer,
since the acid phosphate of the fertilizer on coming in
contact with the ground limestone is likely to be re-
verted more quickly than desirable.
Formerly it was considered necessary to have the lime-












stone ground into a very fine powder; later experimenta-
tion has shown that a rather more closely ground lime-
stone is quite as beneficial and more lasting. Dr. Hop-
kins, of the Illinois Experiment Station, considers that
the limestone is ground fine enough if it can pass through
a sieve with 10 meshes to the inch. Since there are in-
cluded in this material all the finer particles that are
produced in grinding, a sufficient amount of lime will
be available at once for the needs of the plants.

MOST FLORIDA SOILS ARE ACID.

The soils of Florida are for the most part made up of
silicious particles, and have no available alkali or base
to neutralize any acidity. In a few cases where an
abundance of limestone occurs in our surface soil it is
a corrector of acidity, but by far the larger percentage
of our sandy soils are acid.
Our muck soils are nearly all acid, there being very
few exceptions. These are not only acid, but very strongly
so, and frequently require a very large amount of ground
limestone to correct the acidity.
In addition to the fact that most of our soils are nat-
urally acid, this condition is intensified by some of our
fertilizers, especially where large amounts of sulphate
of ammonia are used. When such materials are broken
up, as they are in the process of being made available
to plants, the acid radical is left in the soil. This fact
was brought out in our experimental citrus grove and
noted in our Annual Report.

HOW TO TEST FOR SOIL ACIDITY.

Soil may be tested readily for acidity. This can best
be done in the field. Procure strips of litmus paper from
the drug-store, of both kinds, pink and blue. In using
this litmus paper, care should be taken that the fingers












do not touch it, since the perspiration from the hands
is usually acid enough to turn the blue to pink, and in
testing soil after the paper has been handled a false
reaction might occur. The soil to be tested must not be
too dry. A small amount of soil may be taken up, and
if it can be pressed into a good ball it usually contains
enough moisture to show the reaction. Break the ball of
soil open and place two strips of paper (blue and pink)
in the break, then press tightly together again. In the
course of ten minutes examine, and if the paper has been
thoroughly wetted the condition of the soil may be oltcd.
If the blue litmus paper has turned pink the sil is acid.
If the pink paper has turned blue the soil is alkaline. If
no change in color occurs the soil is neutral. The degree
of acidity can be told in a general way by the degree of
pinkness if the paper was formerly blue. The subsoil as
well as the soil should be tested.


GROUND LIMESTONE FOR SOUTHERN SOILS.

BY PROFESSOR CYRIL G. HOPKINS.

"A limestone country is a rich country." This is a
proverb and a trueism much older than American agri-
culture. But every soil can be made a- limestone soil,
simply by liberal applications of pulverized limestone.
The initial application of four tons per acre of ground
limestone, with subsequent applications of two tons per
acre every four years, will make and maintain a lime-
stone soil on every Southern farm; and this is the first
great economic step to be taken in that positive soil en-
richment which is needed to treble the average acre-yield
of the land now under cultivation and to restore to profit-
able agricultural use the vast areas of tillable land now
lying neglected or agriculturally abandoned in most
Southern States.











In the northern part of the Southland, especially in
the Piedmont and intermountain regions, some soils are
found for whose permanent improvement ground lime-
stone is all the farmer needs to buy, although as a gen-
eral rule phosphates must also be applied; and in many
cases, especially on the more sandy soils of the Coastal
Plain, potash salts must likewise be added. In a few
places soils have been found which, though deficient in
potassium (the important plant-food element contained
in potash salts), are naturally rich in phosphates (com-
pounds containing the element phosphorus), and thus
require the purchase of only limestone and potash salts.
Southern farm soils are almost invariably sour, or acid.
In other words, they contain essentially less than no
limestone, for moderate applications of limestone will be
destroyed by the soil acidity. Thus one may apply one
ton of ground limestone per acre to certain land and still
have no limestone in the soil, or a four-ton application
may leave only three tons for future benefit, after the
acidity existing in the plowed soil has been neutralized.

LIMESTONE AND LEGUMES.

With liberal applications of limestone (and phosphorus
or potassium added, if needed) most Southern soils can
be made to produce abundant crops of such valuable bi-
ennial or perennial legumes as red clover, alsike clover,
sweet clover (mellilotus) and alfalfa; and these when in-
fected with the proper bacteria have direct access, almost
twelve months in the year, to the inexhaustible supply of
nitrogen in the air. The biennial and perennial legumes
store up very much more nitrogen and organic matter in
their roots than do the annual plants, such as cowpeas.
and one seeding (sometimes with a nurse crop and with
no extra preparation of the seed bed) may provide a
legume crop to occupy the land for from two years to
five years or more.










These deep-rooting legumes are the "best subsoilers,"
and in many ways they are the best soil-improving crops.
Furthermore, they are splendid pasture crops, and if not
cropped too closely (a bad practice for any pasture) they
,will furnish grazing from early spring till early winter.
These are among the most valuable crops in profitable
live-stock farming; and nothing is needed more for the
development of live stock in the South. Moreover, clover
and alfalfa are the best crops to precede corn, as is well
known by every corn-belt farmer.
Limestone and legumes must constitute the foundation
for corn and cattle in the South.

KINDS OF LIME.

Ordinary limestone is calcium carbonate (CaCO,),
composed of the three primary elements, calcium, carbon,
and oxygen, as anyone might know from the name if he
will only remember that the ending "ate," on the more
common chemical names, signifies oxygen.
When 100 pounds of pure limestone are burned, 44
pounds of the gas carbon dioxide (CO2) are driven off,
and 56 pounds of quicklime, -or calcium oxide (.CaO),
remain. Quicklime is ordinary fresh-burned caustic lime.
When moistened, the 56 pounds of quicklime taks up 18
pounds of water (H1O) and make 74 pounds of water-
slaked, or hydrated, caustic lime (CaOH,). If this is
exposed to the air it gradually absorbs carbon dioxide.
gives off water, and finally returns to the original com-
pound, calcium carbonate; so that 100 pounds of thor-
oughly air-slaked lime has exactly the same composition
as 100 pounds of ground limestone. The hydrated limes
on the market usually contain some moisture in excess of
that required for hydrating or slaking; also some ab-
sorbed carbon dioxide, and often the most impure lime
from the kiln is used for making this product, so that 80
or 90 pounds of hydrated lime may correspond to 100
pounds of limestone.











A somewhat less common but yet very abundant form of
limestone is dolomite, or dolomitic limestone. This when
pure is a double compound of calcium carbonate (CaCo,)
and magnesium carbonate (MgCO,), or calcium magues
ium carbonate, CaMg (CO,)2, containing with 100 parts
of calcium carbonate 84 parts of magnesium carbonate.

USES OF LIME.

Ordinary limestone serves two very important purposes
in soil improvement: One is to correct the acidity of sour
soils, and the other is to supply the element calcium as
plant food; and in most soils calcium is much more defi-
cient than potassium, and even more deficient than phos-
phorus in many soils. Dolomite not only corrects soil
acidity and supplies calcium, but it also supplies mag-
nesium, another essential element of plant food, the sup-
ply of which is very limited in some soils. Dolomite has
even greater power than the more common limestone in
correcting acidity, 184 pounds of dolomite being equiva-
lent to 200 of calcium carbonate.
In pure form 56 pounds of quick lime or 74 pounds of
hydrated lime would have the same power to correct soil
acidity as 92 pounds of dolomite or 100 pounds of ordi-
nary limestone. In other words, with ground limestone
at $1.00 a ton or ground dolomite at $1.09, the hydrated
lime would be worth $1.35, and the quick lime $1.79 per
ton, except for one other very important fact; and this
fact is that caustic lime is caustic.

THE KIND OF LIME TO USE.

According to the dictionaries, the word caustic means
"capable of destroying the texture of anything by eating
away its substance by chemical action." This definition
well describes the destructive action of caustic lime on
the humus or vegetable matter of the soil: and when the
2-BUi..











vegetable matter is destroyed the nitrogen which it con-
tains is liberated and in part dissipated, so that the use
of caustic lime, whether fresh-burned or hydrated, aug-
ments the difficulty of increasing or maintaining the
humus or nitrogenous vegetable matter of the soil. This
problem is already serious enough in Southern agricul-
ture, and if possible we should avoid burning the humus
out of the soil with caustic lime.
In agriculture, as well as in religion, it is well to re-
member the injunction to "be ready always to give an
answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope
that is in you;" and attention is called to the following
reasons for the hope of Southern agriculture in ground
limestone:

FINENESS OF GRINDING FOR LIMESTONE.

Ground limestone is readily available; and if very
finely ground it is likely to be too available, too easily
soluble: because, as a rule, the loss by leaching far ex-
ceeds that by cropping. As an average of forty years at
Rothamsted, the annual loss amounted to about 800
pounds of lime carbonate per acre. In Illinois an inves-
tigation covering ten years showed the average annual
loss to be 780 pounds per acre. With the more porous
soils and heavier rainfall of the South the danger of loss
is still greater.
Preliminary investigations by the Illinois Experiment
Station indicate the dolomite is more durable than the
ordinary limestone. The information bearing on the
fineness of grinding is sufficient to justify the conclusion
that the screen or sieve used need not be finer than 10
meshes to the inch (100 per square inch), and that it
should not be coarser than 4 meshes to the inch, with all
of the finer material produced in the process included
in the product.
The advice sometimes given that limestone should be











ground so that it will all pass through a screen with 50
or 100 meshes to the linear inch has no justification.
Such grinding increases unnecessarily the cost of ma-
terial, increases the cost of application (by requiring
annual or frequent application) and increases the loss by
leaching. Where used liberally at less frequent intervals
in rational, profitable, permanent systems, an 8-mesh or
10-mesh screen is amply fine for the most economic
product, especially for the ordinary limestone consisting
chiefly of calcium carbonate.

AMOUNT OF LIMESTONE TO USE.

While heavier initial applications of ground limestone
may produce even greater benefit, and would certainly
do no harm, four tons per acre are sufficient to give very
satisfactory results, and subsequent applications of two
tons per acre every four years will maintain limestone in
the soil. Heavy applications reduce expenses in lerma-
nent system of soil improvement, by saving in labor of
frequent applications and by making use of less finely
ground material.
In all systems of permanent profitable agriculture
durability is of greater importance than immediate avail-
ability. If all of-an application is "immediately avail-
able," it may be almost immediately lost by leaching with
heavy rains. For high-priced truck crops which must be
hastened for the early market, the grower may need to
take this risk, but in general farming it is far better to
use durable materials, which gradually becomes available
during the growing season, and for several seasons. From
the standpoint of permanent farm profits, there has been
vastly too much emphasis placed upon "availability" and
far too little upon durability in soil improvement.
An English record of 1795 mentions the prevailingg
practice of sinking pits for the purpose of chalking the
surrounding land therefrom," and states that "the chalk-











ing of land so circumstancced is the best mode of culture
they are capable of receiving." Director Hall of Rotham-
sted (the oldest Agricultural Experiment Station in the
world), in referring to this use of natural lime carbon-
ate, states that many of the farmers in that part of Eng-
land are still reaping profitable crops from lands en-
riched by heavy applications of chalk.
As much as 20 tons per acre of ground dolomite lime-
stone has been used in this country with only beneficial
results; and there are fields in England which have re-
ceived more than 100 tons per acre of lime carbonate,
resulting only in favorable effects extending over more
than a century. Of course such enormous applications
are altogether unnecessary, but they are likewise alto-
gether harmless and the material is not lost, but it ap-
proaches a permanent investment, somewhat like the
purchase of the $200 corn-belt land with its immense
store or stock of fertility.

THE TIME TO APPLY LIMESTONE.

As to time of application, due consideration should
be given to other necessary farm work, conditions of
weather, land and roads in relation to the hauling and
spreading of limestone. It is not applied for the sole
benefit of one crop, but for all the crops in rotation, al-
though its greatest benefit is upon the legume crops; and
one good plan is to apply the limestone after plowing the
ground (or, with heavy applications, part before and part
after plowing), and before preparing the seed-bed where
some of the clovers or alfalfa are later to be seeded, but
whether a day or six months later is a matter of sec-
ondary importance. The primary essential is to get the
limestone on the land, and convenience or economy in
getting the work done is usually the factor which should
govern the time of application.
No single method need be followed in applying lime-












stone to the land. It may be applied by hand with a
light shovel, either from the wagon or from small equal
sized piles placed at regular intervals. Thus a pile of
100 pounds every 24 feet each way makes about four tons
to the acre.

HOW TO MAKE A SPREADER FOR LIMESTONE.

A spreader made for the purpose of applying ground
limestone is very useful. Several spreaders are manu-
factured that serve well for applying small quantities of
lighter material, but most of them are not suited for
handling heavy applications of such material as ground
stone or rock. A "home-made" spreader, which any
farmer can have made with the help of a local black-
smith is more satisfactory for spreading these heavy
materials than most of the machines on the market.
Make a hopper similar to that of an ordinary grain
drill, but measuring 8- feet long with side at least 20
inches wide and 20 inches apart at the top. The sides
may be trussed with 3-8 inch iron rods running from the
bottom at the middle to the top at the ends of the hopper.
Let the bottom be 5 inches wide in the clear with 2-inch
holes 5 inches between centers. Make a second bottom to
slide under the first on straps of iron 10 inches apart,
which should be carried from one side to the other under
the hopper to strengthen it, also with holes to register.
Both bottoms may be of sheet steel or the lower one may
be of hard wood, reinforced with strap iron if necessary.
To the lower and movable bottom attach a V-shaped
arm projecting an inch from under the hopper, with a
half-inch hole in the ]'(int of the V, in which drop the
end of a strong lever, bolting the lever loosely but secure-
ly to the hopper with a single bolt, and fasten to the top
of the hopper a guide of strap iron in which the lever may
move to regulate the size of the opening by sliding the
lower bottom. Make a strong frame for the hopper, with
a strong, well-braced tongue.












Take a pair of old mowing machine wheels of good size
and with strong ratchets in the hubs, and fit these to an
axle of suitable length (about 10 feet) and 1 3-8 or 1l
inches in diameter. The axle should be fitted with jour-
nals bolted to the under side of the frame. Make a reel
to work inside the hopper by securing to the axle, 10
inches apart, short arms of 3-8 inch by 1-inch iron and
fastening to the arms four slats or beaters of 5-8 by 3-4
inch iron about an inch shorter than the inside of ihe
hopper, the reel being so adjusted that the beaters will
almost scrape the bottom but will revolve freely between
the sides. The diameter of the completed wheel is about
5 inches and it serves as a force feed.
Hundreds of these "home-made" machines are in use.
and they are usually more satisfactory and more durable
than anything on the market. The cash expense for such
a machine has varied from less than $10 to more than
v::il, depending on how much of the materials and labor
must be paid for. Farmers with some mechanical skill
may hire only the necessary blacksmithing.

SUGGESTIONS REGARDING APPLICATION.

In hauling and spreading limestone it is of first im-
portance to save time and labor. As a rule it is far more
economical to purchase in bulk and have it shipped in
box-cars, although wetting will do no harm except to give
trouble in spreading. Bags are expensive and easily
damaged, and with tight wagon boxes they are wholly
unnecessary. If bags must be used in handling the lime-
stone the purchaser should bag it when hauling from the
car. As a rule, the plan should be to haul the limestone
directly from the car to the field, transfer from the
wagon to the spreader and spread at once upon the land.
With a haul of two miles or less, and with two men.
one boy and two teams, with three wagons and one
spreader, 40 tons of ground limestone can be taken from









23

the car and spread over 19 or 20 acres of land in three
days, providing the roads and other conditions are favor-
able, or 30 tons can be removed from the car in two days,
the last two or three loads being kept on the wagon and
spread the third day if necessary. When the haul is
longer, one or more additional teams are needed on the
road.














CORN



BY P. H. ROLFs.

Director of the Experiment Station and Superintendent
of Farmers' Institute.

SELECTING THE LAND.

Choice of Land.-In choosing land for corn we have
considerable latitude as to quality. Ordinarily, land with
a clay subsoil will be found to be better suited for corn
production than sandy land without a clay subsoil. So
long as cotton was king with our farmers, any sort of
land was thought to be all right for corn. "It didn't
amount to much, anyhowi" and consequently any land
with any kind of preparation was sufficient. All that the
farmer wanted was acres of land in corn. Since the ad-
vent of better work animals, better cattle, better hogs,
and the beginning of poultry raising, we have learned,
however, that corn is more profitable than almost any
other farm crop that we can raise, provided we give it
the proper attention. The land chosen should have an
abundance of humus, and be sufficiently well drained
naturally to prevent it from becoming waterlogged dur-
ing the heavy rains which are likely to occur just at the
time the ears are filling out.
Preparation.-Before one can raise corn profitably,
and in fact before one can really consider himself a corn
farmer, all the stumps must be removed from the land.
It requires only a small number of stumps per acre to
reduce the area by ten per cent. Farming stumps never
did pay and never will. It is much easier to cultivate 6











or 8 hills of corn than to plow around a single stump,
and with our long winter season, together with an abun-
dance of idle labor during this time, there is really no
good excuse for having stumps in our fields at all.
Deep Plowing.-To make a maximum crop of corn it
is necessary to make a proper beginning. The only proper
beginning is to plow the land deeply and early in the
year. December is none too early. If one wishes to get
the maximum yield it is absolutely necessary to have all
the vegetable matter turned under before the middle of
January. The sections of Florida which are noted for
their deep plowing are, at the same time, the banner crop-
producing sections. Near Muscogee a crop of 109 bushels
of corn was produced on land that was plowed ten inches
deep and subsoiled eight inches below the plow furrow,
thus giving a soil depth of eighteen inches. In Gadsden
County a number of farmers produced 90 bushels of corn
per acre. All of these farmers are advocates of deep
plowing, and practice it regularly.
If one puts off plowing for corn until planting time,
and then should break up the land deeply, his chances
are about nine out of ten to make a failure of it. If he
also waits until late planting time to plow at all, he has
about one chance out of twenty of making a good crop.
It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that we plow
deeply early in the year. Otherwise the raw soil which
is turned on the top will not have time to become prop-
erly oxidized or aerated so as to make fit plant food.

FI':RT! LIZING.

('orn ma be considered a quick-growing crop; that is,
it requires the use of the land for only from 120 to 150
days. Yet it is not what we would call one of the short-
est crops, such as lettuce and cucumbers. On account of
the length of the season through which corn grows, we
can use organic materials to a considerable extent for










supplying ammonia. The potash and phosphoric acid
may be derived from the ordinary sources. There seems
to be little advantage in using one form of fertilizer
rather than another, for what corn wants is a large
amount constantly on hand.
Land well filled with humus and deeply cultivated will
produce a good crop with a much larger amount of fer-
tilizer than is allowable on poor land, not deeply pre-
pared, and lacking humus. On the ordinary poor land
(such as is used for the most part for producing corn,
and prepared about three inches deep) we cannot use
successfully more than 400 to 600 pounds of ordinary
fertilizer; in fact, during some years 600 pounds will be
found excessive. Whereas, on well prepared soil, con-
taining an abundance of humus, three times this amount
will not prove deleterious to the corn, even during the
driest weather that we are likely to have.

Fertilizer Formula-

Ammonia ....................... 3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid .................. 5 per cent.
Potash .......................... 4 per cent.

Ingredients Needed to Make a Tonl of the Formula.-
To secure the necessary plant food represented in a ton
of the above formula, we should use:

Dried blood ..................... 350 pounds, or
Cottonseed meal, 7i per cent...... 800 pounds.
Acide phosphate, 16 per cent...... 660 pounds.
Muriate of potash................ 160 pounds, or
Kainit .......................... 660 pounds.

It is a waste of good money to use cottonseed meal as
a fertilizer for farm crops. It should be first fed to stock,
and the manure used for fertilizer. In this way the











farmer will get a double value from the material pur-
chased. If the field in which corn is to be planted was
covered with a good crop of velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed the year before, the ammonia in the above
formula may be omitted, thus saving about $10 per ton
on fertilizer. Just before the corn is silking, it is fre-
quently profitable to apply broadcast 200 to 300 pounds
per acre of nitrate of soda.
The chemicals necessary to make up the foregoing for-
mula may be purchased from fertilizer houses in Gaines-
ville, Jacksonville, Tampa, and sometimes in Pensacola.
It is more economical to have the fertilizers mixed at the
fertilizer houses, especially if we purchase in less than
five-ton lots.
Application of Fertilizer.-Ten days or two weeks be-
fore the corn is to be planted, one-half of the above mate-
rial may be taken and applied broadcast to the field. Im-
mediately after the fertilizer has been applied we should
run over the field with a weeder. This will cause a fair
distribution of the fertilizer on the field and a rather
even mixing with the surface soil.
A second application of the fertilizer may be made
about the time the corn is knee high. This assures us
that the corn will have the fertilizer at the time it needs
it. In case of unseasonable rains, a large amount of the
fertilizer would be lost if it were all put on in one appli-
cation. Less trouble is experienced from this source in
the clay soils than in the loose, sandy ones; and less loss
occurs in lands well filled with humus than in those that
are rather sterile.

PLANTING.

The only correct way to plant corn, when one is really
a corn farmer, is to use the planter. The one-horse
planter, somewhat similar to the cotton planter, will be
found a useful implement. This drops the corn and covers











it, all in one operation. One man and a mule can easily
plant eight or ten acres a day, and do the work better
than can be done by any number of hand-dropping and
hoe-covering laborers. Where one has a small area of one
or a few acres, it may be advisable to drop the corn by
hand; but if one has as much as twenty acres to plant,
it will certainly not be profitable to do the work by hand.
In this case, the corn planter will pay for its cost in the
first year's work.
Frequently these one-row corn planters have attached
to them a fertilizer distribute. It is a mistake, however,
to apply the fertilizer at the same time that the corn is
being planted. For the most part, our fertilizers of the
present day are so concentrated that they are likely to
injure the young sprouts as the corn is coming up. The
fertilizer should have been applied two weeks before
planting.

CULTIVATION.

When the land on which the corn is planted has been
prepared early and plowed deeply there is little need of
deep cultivation. As a matter of fact, with the seed-bed
properly prepared, one is fortified against the driest
weather that has been experienced in the State, and all
that is needed is to destroy the few weeds that come up,
and to keep a dust mulch on the surface to prevent evap-
oration. During the year 1908, a number of farmers in
the State made a demonstration for the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, showing that a good crop of corn could be
matured with no other cultivation than such as may be
given with the garden rake.
As soon as the corn has been planted, we prefer to use
a one or two-horse weeder to go all over the ground. This
implement works over the surface of the ground, giving
us a perfect blanket of dust mulch; and thus conserves
every bit of moisture there is in the soil. The weeder











may be used for cultivating the corn until it has reached
the height of ten or twelve inches.
Implements.-The best implement for cultivating corn
in Florida is the riding cultivator. Such an implement
will pay for its cost the first year one owns it. By using
two medium-sized mules, ten or twelve acres of corn can
readily be cultivated in a day. This implement has the
advantage of working on both sides of the row at once,
thus enabling the laborer to kill any weeds that may have
sprung up without injuring the corn in the least. We
prefer to use a riding cultivator with six or eight small
shovels, and one that does not go deeper than about three
inches into the soil.
When the corn is beginning to make joints, or when it
becomes about shoulder high, it should receive its last
cultivation, not because it would be unprofitable to con-
tinue plowing, but because our implements are likely to
break. down the stalks. Shallow-working implements
might be kept going with advantage until the summer
rains begin. Just after the last plowing it will be found
advantageous, in almost all cases, to plant a row of cow-
peas between the rows of corn. During the summer an
abundance of rain is pretty sure to occur to give plenty
of moisture for maturing a crop of cowpeas. Then after
the crop of corn has been harvested, a crop of cowpea
hay may be obtained, leaving the land much more fertile
than would have been the case if the crop of cowpeas had
not been planted.
Velvet Beans.-The most profitable crop that we can
plant in a corn field for the second crop after corn is a
crop of velvet beans. These are planted in several differ-
ent ways. Some farmers prefer to plant the velvet beans
after the corn has come up, directly in the row. The vel-
vet bean is a tropical plant and so makes a rather slow
growth until warm summer weather comes on. It inter.
feres very little with the corn during the time the latter
makes its root growth, and after the corn has matured.











the velvet bean makes a vigorous growth and produces a
heavy crop, using the corn stalks to climb upon.
Some farmers prefer, however, to plant the velvet bean
later in the year and put it between the rows of corn.
They plant their corn rows farther apart so as to make
it possible to cultivate between the rows of velvet beans
and the rows of corn. This usually reduces the amount
of corn produced per acre.

HARVESTING.

To get the maximum profit out of a crop of corn it is
necessary to cut the stalks and keep them for winter for-
age. The time for shocking corn is just after the ears
have fully matured and before the leaves have become
dry. The size of shock varies considerably with different
farmers, running all the way from 150 to 500 stalks to
the shock. The latter number is rather unusual. The
great objection to preserving corn in this was is that the
fodder molds in the shock. We have, however, a consid-
erable number of farmers in the State who have over-
come this difficulty. They do this by tying the top of
their shock so tightly that the rain cannot enter the mid-
dle of the shock. To tie the heads of the shocks firmly
they have a rather unique device. A stick about five feet
long, sharpened at one end, has a cross-bar nailed to it
about eighteen inches long and ten inches from the large
end. This has attached to it a half-inch rope long enough
to go around the shock. This rope is thrown around the
top of the shock and attached to a device in such a way
that by twisting the stick the rope is wound around it
and the top of the shock squeezed together very firmly.
After this pressure has been brought on the top of the
shock it is held in place by tying with ordinary binder
twine. The device for tightening the top of the shock is
then removed and used on the next one. As a further
precaution against rain getting into the top of the shock,











fertilizer or feed bags that have been ripped open on one
side are stretched over the shock in such a way as to
form a cover.

Few corn farmers realize, however, how much valuable
material is being wasted on the farm annually by allow-
ing the corn stover to go to waste in the field. Its fertil-
izing value is not to be considered as compared with its
feeding value.

Shucking.-Ordinarily the ears are removed from the
field and stored with the shucks on them, the general be-
lief being that the shucks prevent weevil attack. This,
however, is more imaginary than real. We like to make
ourselves believe that the easiest way of doing our work,
even though it is a sort of slipshod way, is the best, and
we invent all sorts of arguments to convince ourselves.
Where the corn is shucked clean and the ears placed in
the crib without the shucks, it will be found that it is
not any more attacked by weevil and vermin than where
the ears have been left in the shuck. If we prepare our
store-rooms as we ought for treating our corn with carbon
bisulphide, there certainly is no good reason for putting
the corn in the crib unshucked.

Where velvet beans have been planted among the corn,
it becomes impracticable to harvest it until late in De-
cember or about the beginning of January. At first this
would appear to lp a very serious drawback. Scores of
farmers, however, have learned from practical experience
that the corn left in, the field under velvet beans is rarely
ever attacked by w'eevils, and such a small amount of
corn is lost from molding or rotting that this is prac-
tically a negligible quantity. The weevil and moth seem
to be unable to find the corn in the dense velvet bean
field, and during December and January these little pests
are hibernating, and consequently the corn gets into ihe
crib without being infested.












STORING.


In the matter of storing corn we still have many im-
provements to make. Ordinarily we think that any place
that may be called a bin or crib is all right for corn. Such
a bin is frequently without a floor, and often the roof is
leaky. Both of these conditions are such as no reasonable
man should permit for a single day. There is no sense in
working hard all spring and summer to make a crop, and
then trying to store it on a dirt ,floor and under a leaky
roof. The annual loss to the State from weevils and
moths in feed corn is probably not less than $300,000. At
least 90 per cent. of this loss is preventable at a small
cost. The right kind of a bin in which to store corn is
one that has a tight roof, a tight floor, tight sides and a
tight door. The corn when it is thoroughly dry can be
placed in this bin, and if attacked by vermin or insects
the bin may be fumigated by the use of carbon bisulphide.
If the sides, top and bottom of the bin are reasonably
tight, that is, if they have been made from ordinary No.
2 flooring, we can fumigate about 500 bushels of corn
with six pounds of carbon bisulphide. This usually retails
at thirty cents a pound, but in large quantities it can be
had at a much lower rate. One fumigation a year is usu-
ally sufficient. This, of course, would depend very much
on the tightness of the bin and on the length of time the
corn was in the bin. Where the corn is stored in the
shuck we waste much of the chemical, from the fact that
the shucks take up so large a space, and the work cannot
be done so thoroughly because the shuck frequently en-
closes the ear very tightly, thus in a measure preventing
the fumes from entering the shucks and getting at the
weevils.

SEED SELECTING.
Too frequently our corn farmers forget all about that
they are going to plant corn until planting time arrives.
3-BTRT..












Then a hasty visit is made to the corn crib, and the best
ears that have not been fed out are quickly selected and
used for seed. Or a man may do worse than this. He may
feed out all his corn and then depend on the merchants
in the neighboring town to provide him with seed-corn,
which may or may not be adapted to his particular sec-
tion. It may, perhaps, germinate well, but it is more
likely that a large percentage of it will be dead before it
is planted. The time to select seed-corn, if one has not
already done so in the field, is when one has a full crib.
Ordinarily a crib of 500 bushels would not yield more
than ten bushels of good seed-corn. Of course, if we are
contented with raising 12.6 bushels of corn to the acre,
which was the average for 1909, there is no need of worry-
ing about selecting seed-corn. Almost any sort of corn,
a two-thirds stand, and any careless way of taking care
of it, will probably give us that much of a crop. But
there is no operation in the whole line of corn farming
that pays better for the time expended and money in-
vested than the careful selection and careful keeping of
seed-corn. In selecting seed-corn from the crib we should
always be careful to select the finest ears, taking only
those that have a symmetrical outline, whose tips are
well filled, whose butts are also well filled, and whose
butts have their grain regularly set on them. An ear of
corn that is much larger in diameter at the butt than one-
third of the length is not a good ear to select for seed.
Field Selection.-The proper way to select seed-corn,
however, is to do this work in the field before the crop
has been gathered, the ideal time being when the ears
have hardened, or about the time when the corn ought to
be cut for shocking. At this time one cannot only select
the best ears, but can also select ears from the best stalks.
In selecting corn at this time one will at once recognize
that there are many stalks in the field which have ma-
tured only one ear. These ears are usually the largest;
but by weighing one of these large ears and then compar-












ing the corn with that from a stalk that has produced
two, three or four ears, one will find at once that the
stalks which are prolific, that is, those which have pro-
duced more than one ear, have given a larger yield of
corn. One will also find pretty soon that those stalks
that set an extra large number of ears will mature only
a portion of them. So that as a rule one finds that the
stalks which bear two and three ears produce a larger
amount of corn than those which bear only one ear or
than those which bear four or five ears each.

TESTING SEED CORN.

After the seed-corn has been selected and has passed
all of the inspections which show that it is perfect to the
eye, a further inspection is necessary for germinating
quality. This can be done only by using a seed-tester.
Such an implement can be readily made by anyone on the
farm. The simplest form consists of a large soup plate
filled with wet sand covered with ordinary muslin. Fitted
over this should be a smaller soup plate. This is to pre-
vent evaporation of moisture. An ordinary cigar box,
about 5 by 7 inches, with two inches of sand in it. will
also make an excellent seed-tester. When we are ready
for testing the seed-corn, the sand in the cigar box should
be thoroughly wetted, enough water being used to cover
the sand. The box is then tipped on one edge to drain
off the surplus water. Hold it in this position four or
five minutes, then wet the muslin rag, and we are ready
to set in place the kernels to be tested. For this purpose
we must number every ear. This can be easily done by
taking numbered strips of paper and tying them with
ordinary twine to the ears. After the ears have all been
numbered, we may begin with No. 1, and remove one
kernel about two inches from the tip, and another kernel
about two inches from the butt; then by sticking them in
pairs into the sand. we will have this ear ready for test-












ing. Follow the same method with the second ear, and
so on, until the kernels from ten ears are placed in the
first row. The number of ears that can be tested will
depend largely on the size of the box. An ordinary 100-
cigar box will hold at least five rows, with ten pairs in
each row. The rows will then be numbered so as to en-
able us to find the ears whose kernels failed to germinate.
By counting down the rows, and noting the kernels that
have failed to germinate, we will have no difficulty in
locating the bad ears.
After the seed-tester has received all the kernels that
can be planted conveniently, place over the kernels the
wetted muslin rag, then close the cover and place on it a
weight to keep mice out. This seed-tester should then be
placed in the kitchen or any other warm situation. It
should be examined every day to see that the sand and
cloth are moist. In the course of a week or ten days
about all of the corn that is sound will have germinated.

BUYING SEED CORN.

Over nine-tenths of the corn crop in Florida is planted
from purchased seed; either of a local variety, or from
some out-of-State seed house. In buying seed, one should
always give preference to the local varieties.
Buy Seed Corn in the Ear.-If it is necessary for a
farmer to buy seed-corn, lie should always demand that
this seed-corn be delivered to him in the ear. This prac-
tice is, unfortunately, not at all general. Less than one
bushel out of a hundred is bought in this way, and yet
this is one of the most important considerations in buying
seed-corn. When one buys kernels that are already shelled
for seed, it is impossible to reject the dead grains; and
testing shelled seed-corn gives us only an imperfect idea
as to its vitality. Such a practice leads to considerable
annoyance after planting has been done. In addition to
this, the shelled seed-corn does not guarantee us that the











ears used were even approximately perfect and true of
type. Shelled seed-corn usually sells at about $2.00 a
bushel, when the ordinary feed corn is selling for a dollar
a bushel. As a bushel of seed-corn will plant from six to
ten acres of corn, we can readily see that $5.00' a bushel
for perfect seed-corn would be a small price to pay com-
pared with other seed-corn which would have in it ten to
twenty per cent. dead seed. Our home-grown seed-corn
frequently has as high as twenty-five per cent. of dead
corn in it. We would make at least 500 per cent. on our
investment if we bought perfect seed-corn at $5.00 per
bushel. So high a price is almost never charged; conse-
quently we can see the extravagance of paying $2.00 a
bushel for poor seed, when we can nearly always get seed-
corn Ihat is nearly perfect, in the ear, for about $3.00 a
bushel.

KEEPING SEED CORN.

After the seed has been tested and all of the ears re-
jected from which the seed failed to germinate, the corn.
may be placed in a tight barrel, a large box, or a ceiled
bin. A large, well-made dry goods box is a convenient
receptacle. This should be papered inside to prevent the
fumes of carbon bisulphide from leaking out too rapidly.
For every cubic foot of space in the box allow one tea-
spoonful of carbon bisulphide, to kill weevils. This car-
bon bisulphide should be placed on top of the corn in a
shallow saucer. After the saucer is in place, the box may
be carefully nailed up; taking care not to upset the
saucer containing the carbon bisulphide, as the liquid
coming in contact with the seed might destroy its vital-
ity. As a further precautionary measure, to repel insects
that might gnaw through the paper and infest the corn,
it may be well to place a considerable number of naph-
thaline or moth balls in the box, using four or five for
every cubic foot. If these are scattered somewhat regu-











larly through the corn, they will prove very effective in
keeping out insect pests.

CONCLUSION.

By proper preparation of the land, that is, removing
the stumps, deep plowing early in the year, turning under
the vegetable matter and allowing this to decay to form
humus, and shallow cultivation, we will be able to in-
crease our corn production at least fifty per cent. By
proper and careful seed selection and testing every ear
before it is planted, we will be able to increase our corn
production immediately at least fifty per cent. over what
it is at present. We have corn farmers in Florida who
have carried out both these recommendations thoroughly
and who are now producing on the average over two hun-
dred per cent. more corn per acre than the average for
the whole State. They are the farmers who can make corn
much more cheaply than they can buy it. But few of
these farmers have any corn for sale. They, however.
keep plenty of live stock, and have the finished product
from the farm for sale. They are satisfied and well-to-do
farmers of Florida.














COTTON




BY P. H. ROLFS.

Director Experiment Station and Superintendent
Farmers' Institutes.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.

Deep Plotingy.-In preparing the soil for cotton it
should be kept in mind constantly that the plowing ol0
breaking in the winter or early spring is the most im-
portant operation of the entire year. Some of the other
defects may be corrected, but if this one operation is
neglected we are nearly certain to reap a small crop, no
matter what our later work may be. The land should be
broken early in the year. December or the first two weeks
in January are the most favorable periods of the year. It
should be broken deeply if a considerable amount of veg-
etable matter occurs in the field. Ten to twelve inches
will not be too deep. If, on the other hand, the soil has
been cultivated for many years and contains only a small
amount of vegetable matter, it may be advisable to break
the land no more than two or three inches deeper than it
was broken up the year before.
The deep breaking early in the year provides ample
space for storing up moisture. The particles of soil are
separated by this tillage, allowing the air and the moist-
ure to circulate freely through that portion of the soil
which is to become a seed-bed later in the year. If the
soil is broken early in the year it catches the winter rain-
fall and stores it up for spring and early summer use.
Having broken up the soil thoroughly in the spring, and











pulverized it well, the loose soil forms a blanket which
prevents the escape of moisture from the soil. The capil-
lary moisture rises upward, but the surface blanket stops
its rise and so prevents it from evaporating into the air.
Aeration of Soil.-Another important point that is
usually entirely overlooked is that by thorough plowing
the lower portion of the soil is brought near the surface
and the surface soil is turned down deeper. This brings a
large portion of the soil near the surface, where it can be
aerated, and where the oxygen of the air can get to the
soil particles and put them in condition to furnish the
plant food for the coming crop. This is forcibly illus-
trated by many instances. We have frequently noticed
that when a well is dug on a farm the earth thrown out
from the bottom of the well is usually a dead mass, on
which for the first six months hardly any weeds will
grow. We may think that this is due to the want of weed
seeds in it. This, however, is not the case, for plenty of
weed seeds are blown or otherwise distributed through it.
It is simply too low in available plant food to allow any
of the weed seedlings to grow. After this earthy matter
has been aerated for a few months, however, we find the
tallest and rankest weeds springing up in this soil which
was formrely deep down in the earth. The same condi-
tions occur when we break up our land. If we break it
up deeply and then plant our seed immediately we will
certainly be disappointed, unless the land has also been
broken up deeply and the surface soil aerated in previous
years. By breaking up the soil deeply in the late fall or
early winter, enough time elapses before the cotton has
to be planted to let this soil become thoroughly aerated,
and then we have a fresh, vigorous soil. In a large
measure this soil is like newly broken land.
Soil that has been deeply broken, especially if it is
twelve to fourteen, or eighteen inches deep, makes an
excellent seed-bed, in which rapid growth of plants is
greatly promoted. Cotton is no exception to this rule.











Anyone doubting this assertion can readily prove it for
himself if he will simply take the trouble to dig out a
dozen of the best cotton plants from deeply prepared
soil and then dig out a dozen cotton plants from soil that
has been prepared in the ordinary haphazard way. The
roots of the cotton plants that have been dug from the
deep soil will be found to be much more abundant, much
more vigorous, and deeper in the soil than those from the
land that has been prepared only three or four inches
deep.
Deep Soil and Fertilizer.--Even if the important
reasons for deep plowing just given were not considered
sufficient, there is still another reason that makes deep
plowing a necessity. Land deeply prepared has a much
greater capacity for holding fertilizer than land that has
been only indifferently prepared. Usually it is thought
that the quantity of cotton produced on the acre will vary
directly in proportion to the amount of fertilizer that one
can afford to apply. Definite tests have been made by
the Experiment Station, which show that this is alto-
gether a mistake. An acre of land prepared in the ordi-
nary way and of only ordinary fertility cannot make use
of more than about six hundred pounds of fertilizer of
ordinary concentration, such as is given in the formula
below. In our experiments we find that the amount of
cotton produced from different applications of 200, 400
and 600 pounds increased rapidly and gave handsome
additional returns for the larger amounts. In fact. in
many cases it will be found that an application of 400
pounds of fertilizer to the acre will double the amount of
cotton produced by an application of 200 pounds of fer-
tilizer, thus making as much cotton on one acre as other-
wise would have been made on two. Our experiments
showed that 600 pounds of fertilizer was the maximum
amount that could be applied profitably on ordinary land.
When 800 pounds was applied there was actually a de-
crease in the total amount of seed cotton produced as









42

compared with 600 pounds of fertilizer. The land, how-
ever, was prepared in an ordinary indifferent way.
Turning Under Vegetable Matter.-For years past, and
for generations, our forefathers have made it a practice
to wait until about time to plant cotton, and then to turn
into the old cotton field and burn off the vegetable mat-
ter. A man who in this day and age will burn off the
vegetable matter in the same manner as was done by our
forefathers is nothing but an agricultural criminal. He
is taking comfort and pleasure away from his family, re-
quiring them to live in wretched surroundings and leav-
ing himself a miserable living. Our criminal laws punish
any one who sets fire to any building; but the farmer who
intentionally and by design sets fire to and burns up his
vegetable matter harnms himself and his family more than
he would if he were to set fire to his stables; for it not
only impoverishes the soil for that year, but continues to
have its detrimental effect for years to come.
Mvst Plow Early.-Plowing under vegetable matter
must be done early in the year. It cannot be put off until
cotton-planting time. The earlier in the year this can be
done the better. It should not, however, be delayed longer
than the middle of January.

Hunwms.-Plowing under the vegetable matter gives the
important and necessary element to the soil which we
ordinarily know as humus. Humus is not vegetable mat-
ter, nor is it soil. It is the intermediate stage between
vegetable matter and soil. All vegetable matter when it
decays goes through much the same chemical process as
when the chemist ignites it in the crucible and reduces it
to earthy matter, the difference being that the sun and air
act more slowly than fire, and nature takes her time to
do this work. The burning process, or oxidizing process
as the chemist calls it, goes on, however, just as certainly
as if it were in the chemist's laboratory. The vegetable
matter in the soil, as mere vegetable matter, is of no











value to us, nor is the vegetable matter of much concern
or value to us after it has reached its ultiniate reduction
and has returned again to soil. It is on its transition
from the vegetable matter towards earthy matter that it
is of greatest importance to us from an agricultural
standpoint. In this transition period, that is, after the
vegetable matter has been thoroughly broken down and
no longer has any semblance to the plants from which it
was derived, and before it has taken on the condition of
earthy matter, this once organic material is what we call
humus.
A soil abundantly supplied with humus has a very
largely increased water-holding power. The humus in the
soil might be likened to myriads of small sponges dis-
tributed through the soil. These small sponges will soak
up the water and hold it and give it up slowly to the soil.
Our chemist in his laboratory has found that soil rich in
humus has a capacity for holding at least a hundred per
cent. more moisture than soil which is devoid of humus.
When soil is completely made up of humus and vegetable
matter it is usually spoken of as muck soil. Where the
vegetable matter is not fully disintegrated and is still of
a fibrous character it is usually spoken of as peat. Where
the peat or muck is pure the water-holding capacity of the
soil is many hundred per cent. greater than that of soil
entirely devoid of humus.
Any condition of the soil which enables it to hold mois-
ture also increases the fertilizer-holding power. Sandy
soil has so little water-holding capacity that we usually
speak of it as leachy soil. When fertilizer is placed in
such a soil the first rain that comes washes it below into
the subsoil. In the presence of humus, however, the fer-
tilizer is retarded or entirely stopped on the way down,
and so the plants are enabled, later in the period of their
growth, to absorb the fertilizer from the humus.
Plowing.-Since the earliest time of cotton planting in
Florida it has been the custom to bed up for cotton in the












middles of the same land where the crop has been grown
the year before. In this way only a fraction of the land
is broken up and prepared for the cotton plant. This is a
most imperfect and slovenly way to prepare a seed-bed.
If the weather and everything else is in the farmer's favor
he may make a crop, but he will find that nineteen years
out of twenty the weather is against him rather than in
his favor. He will therefore find that nineteen times out
of twenty he has lessened or ruined his chances of making
a good crop before he planted his seed. The only certain
way to begin is to begin right, and the right way to begin
with cotton planting is to break all the land; what we
ordinarily speak of as breaking broadcast. This is a little
more tedious than doing it in a slovenly haphazard way
and requires more labor and horsepower. If, however, we
keep it in mind that farming is a business and not a holi-
day employment, we can readily get plenty of time to pre-
pare our cotton land. Ordinarily every bit of lint cotton
has been taken out of the field by the middle of December.
At this time then we can begin breaking up our land for
the next year. This will give us ninety days' time in
which to prepare our cotton land. Of course, to begin at
this time of the year would mean that we should have to
do a little less fishing, and probably not go hunting quite
so frequently. But to make a success of anything it is
necessary to give pleasure a second place and attend to
our business first.

I'ERTILIZER.

The cotton plant is not very fastidious about the source
from which the fertilizer is obtained. Of course, it has its
preferences and dislikes, but as a whole if a moderate
'amount of fertilizer composed of the right elements be
applied to the soil, we may reasonably expect the cotton
plant to make use of it. The cotton plant is not a glutton
and does not want a big meal at any time; but it wants











good wholesome food every day in the month for about
five months in the year. A fertilizer composed according
to the following formula will be found to be fairly good
on the average, for clay land. By comparing this with
the formula for sandy lands it will be noticed that the
clay land requires less of the element potash than does
the sandy land.

FERTILIZER FOR CLAY LANDS.

Ammonia ....................... 4 per cent.
Phosphoric Acid ................ 10 per cent.
Potash ......................... 4 per cent.

The following ingredients will, give approximately the
amount of plant food required for an acre of cotton ac
cording to the above formula:

Cottonseed meal (7- per cent ammonia) ...... 320 pounds
Acid phosphate (16 per cent phosphoric acid) .375 pounds
Muriate.of potash (50 per cent potash)...... 48 pounds

These ingredients will furnish the amount of plant-food
contained in 600 pounds of the foregoing formula.
For sandy land, that is, where the clay does not come
nearer than within twelve to eighteen inches of the sur
face, the following formula will be found to give good
results:

FERTILIZER FOR SANDY LANDS.

Ammonia ........................ 3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid .................. 7 per cent.
Potash .......................... 7 per cent.

Ingredients needed to supply the plant-food in 600
pounds of the preceding formula for sandy lands:












Cottonseed meal (7i per cent)..... 240 pounds
Acid phosphate (16 per cent)...... 263 pounds
Muriate of potash ................ 84 pounds

The amount of fertilizer to be applied either to the
sandy land or to the clay land will depend largely upon
the condition of the soil. If the soil has been prepared
only three or four inches deep, as is the too frequent cus-
tom, 600 pounds of the above formula will be the largest
amount that we can safely apply under average condi-
tions. If the land has been deeply prepared and contains
a large amount of humus, double the amount of fertilizer
can be applied with greater profit. It is a great advantage
to us to be able to reduce the acreage without reducing
the production as a whdle. Consequently it is necessary
to increase the humus content, increase the depth of our
soil, and improve the grade of the fertilizer we are using.

CULTIVATION.

Ask a dozen of your neighbors separately what is the
object of plowing, and eleven out of the twelve will tell
you that it is to kill weeds. A greater mistake could not
well be made. The killing of weeds is merely an incident
along the way. We cultivate the land to improve the
health of the plant we are growing, to increase its vigor,
to enable it to withstand insect attacks and ravages of
diseases so that it will produce a large crop of cotton.
The direct effect of cultivating the soil is to aerate it
and to conserve moisture. We have, therefore, two points
to keep in mind, primarily, in plowing the land and culti-
vating the crop. First, we must aerate the soil so as to
make it a fit place for the habitation of the roots of
plants. The roots of these plants need air just as cer-
tainly as do human beings. They do not need the same
amount, but in the absence of oxygen the roots will be
killed and the plants will die. The best way to get this












air into the soil is to put it in before the crop has been
planted. This is done by deep plowing. Second, we con-
serve the moisture by frequent and shallow cultivating.
This also helps to aerate the soil when the surface has
become compacted by heavy rains. Where the soil has
been prepared only three or four inches deep, it becomes-
necessary to cultivate deeply in order that a certain por-
tion of the soil at least may be aerated. In doing this-
work, however, we multilate and kill thousands and mil-
lions of the roots of the cotton plants. Our best friends-
are being ruthlessly destroyed and slaughtered for the-
sake of getting a small amount of air into our soil. No,
wonder that we have to run down one side of the cotton
plant one week and then wait two weeks before it is pos-
sible for us to run down the other side. If we were to
run down both sides of the cotton plants at one time it
would unquestionably ruin thousands of the plants out-
right.
If destroying four-fifths of the roots at one time would
ruin the plant, how can it be anything else but an injury
to the plant to destroy one-half of the roots.
The question as to the frequency of cultivation is often
asked. The frequency with which we should cultivate de-
pends upon the cost of cultivation. If we have to cultivate
with one mule and a hand it will cost us a great deal more
per acre than when we cultivate with two mules and a
hand. Two mules and a hand can do twice as much work
and better work than one mule and a hand. The more
frequently we can cultivate, the greater amount of mois-
ture we conserve. Consequently the more frequently we
can afford to cultivate, the more likely are we to have a
good cotton crop.

SEED SELECTION.

The cotton crop is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of
the agricultural crops that we are now producing. Yet in
the past comparatively little attention has been given in











systematic selection and breeding. Practically nothing in
a systematic way had been done up to twenty years ago.
Everything previous to that time had been done in a sort
of haphazard lucky-go-easy way. Since then, however,
experiments have been carried on with sufficient exact-
ness to allow us to lay down some general rules that may
be carried out profitably. First, we know that the seed
from a fine, well-boiled, productive cotton plant has im-
measurably greater probabilities of producing a good crop
than seed from a half barren or a small and scrawny
stalk. Second, we know that the chance of crossing or
cross-breeding between different cotton plants in a field
is not nearly so great as in the case of the corn plant.
Consequently the work of selection is much more easily
accomplished, and the precautions that we have to throw
about our work are very much reduced.
Knowing these general principles, it is a simple matter
for us to deduce methods for improving our cotton seed.
All that is necessary is to select a field of cotton that is
being grown on a rather poor or medium poor soil, then
go through the field and label or tag the best plants by the
easiest method at hand. A very simple way is to tie a bit
of muslin to the top of the desirable plants. In looking
for desirable plants we should be careful to select those
that are very fruitful, those whose bolls open well, whose
seeds are well covered with cotton, and whose lint is of
the correct length. Five hundred such plants can easily
be selected in a day from a five-acre plot.
The seeds of these plants are then saved separately, the
first picking being taken off before the whole cotton field
is picked, the second picking is taken before the second
cotton is picked, and so on. The seed cotton is then saved
separately, ginned separately, and stored for next year's
planting. The selected seed should be planted by hand to
make it go as far as possible. The second year we should
save seed only from the best plants in the field of selected
cotton.














U. S. Department of Agriculture,


CLIMATOLOGICAL SERVICE


of the


WEATHER BUREAU


Central Office: Washington, D. C.



FLORIDA SECTION,
Prof. A. J. Mitchell, Section Director,
Year, 1914.



ANNUAL SUMMARY, CLIMATOLOGICAL SERVICE,
FLORIDA SECTION.



GENERAL SUMMARY.

The year, as a whole, averaged slightly below normal in
temperature, although most of the winter and spring, and
all the summer months gave positive departures. Among
the features of the year's weather were the unusually cold
spells of March and November-so late and so early dur-
ing the respective seasons. Possibly the most far-reaching
feature, however, was the draught of the spring and sum-
mer, which began during March and continued through-
4-BUL.












out the succeeding five months. Conditions were acute
much of April, May and June, when all crops suffered
severely. The heat was particularly trying during June,
which averaged warmer than either July or August; nor-
mally, such is not the case. The maximum of 107 during
June was equaled only once during any month since 1892.
Associated with the hot, dry spell were severe electrical
storms that resulted in a number of deaths. In contrast
with the unusual heat of summer were the early frosts of
autumn, the first killing frost having occurred over the
interior of the extreme northwest portion on October
28th-31st, followed by the coldest weather of the winter-
1!)-on November 20th. The late cold of spring and the
early killing frosts of autumn, jointly with the drought,
marked the year -as being unfavorable for the farmer and
trucker. Grasses were late putting out on the ranges
during the spring, and they likewise suffered from the
early freeze of the autumn, all of which was unfavorable
for stock.
The mean pressure for the year, reduced to sea-level,
was 30.06 inches. The highest was 30.57 inches at Pen-
sacola on December 16th; the lowest recorded was 29.60
inches at Pensacola on November 14th; range for the
year, 0.91 inch.
The annual mean temperature, 70.3', was 0.1 below the
normal. The highest annual mean was 76.40 at Key
West; the lowest, 66.0', at Molino. The highest monthly
mean was 85.8 at Marianna, in June; the lowest, 51.0,
at Molino. The highest recorded was 107, at Middle-
burg, on June 24th; the lowest, 19, at Fenholloway, on
November 21st.
The average annual precipitation, 49.08 inches, was
much below normal. The greatest annual total was 61(.52
inches at Lock No. 1; the least, .4.75 inches, at Cedar
Keys. The greatest local monthly amount was 13.51
inches at Homestead, in July: the least, 0.00, at Garniers.
Molino and Panama City, in June. The greatest amount












in 24 hours was 7.66 inches at Pensacola on November
12th.

THE WEATHER BY MONTHS.

JANUARY.-The comparatively mild weather of the two
previous months continued much of the time, although
freezing temperatures occurred over the northern section
during the first decade. There w'as a reaction to warmer
weather during the last half of the month, the excess in
temperature on individual days approximating 10- or
15. The month was wetter than usual, the bulk of rain
falling on the 2d, :d, 10th, 21st to 2(th, and on the 30th
and 31st. The warm, rainy weather during the last week
was unfavorable for the shipping of fruit.
FEBRUARY.-The month was comparatively a cold one
with much coldness and excessive rain. Local storms of
a tornadic character occurred in Santa Rosa and Walton
counties on the litl. There were three moderately cold
spells with frost. Maximum of 850 and 900, however,
occurred during the forepart of the month. Rain in ap-
preciable amounts fell daily in some portions of the sec-
tion, except on four or five days. Farm work was re-
tarded and fruit damaged to some extent )by frequent
rains.
MARCH.-March was dry and cold with unusual frost
for the season, and the March record of low temperature
was broken over the extreme southern portion by the cold
weather on the 3d, 9th and 10th, when frost did much
damage to vegetation as far south as the Miami district.
The temperature averaged the lowest for any March since
1892. Precipitation was deficient over all districts, and
the bulk of the month's rain fell on about three days.
ArILr.-As a whole, the month was warm and dry. al-
though a moderate cold spell occurred during the second
week. A minimum of 320 was recorded on the 10th. and
a maximum of 980 on the 26th-the latter exceptional











for the season. There was a period of thunderstorms from
the 8th to 15th, attended by locally damaging winds and
hail. The last half of the month was practically without
rain. Farm work was advanced, but the drought condi-
tions during the last weeks were unfavorable for fruits
and truck.
MAY.-It was one of the warmest and driest Mays of
record. The dry spell set in about April 15th, continuing
until the 13th of May. The monthly deficiencies in rain-
fall ranged from 1 to more than 5 inches. Truck and
pineapples were cut short, and corn and cotton were re-
tarded. Several stations received no rain, and many re-
ceived less than one-fourth inch during a period of 28 to
31 days. The highest temperature was 104-breaking
the record since 1892.
JUNE.-Another warm and dry month. There was a
marked deficiency in precipitation during the first decade.
Electrical storms were severe, resulting in one death.
Corn, melons, pineapples and truck suffered much dam-
age. The month was the driest, except one, since 1892.
The deficiency in rainfall ranged from 1 to more than 7
inches. The highest temperature, 1070, broke all records
for June. There was much suffering from the heat.
JULY.-The weather was not so warm as during June.
Thunderstorms were frequent, thereby shortening the
hours of extreme heat. Although rain fell daily over some
portion of the district, the average for the month was
below normal. The showers greatly improved late corn,
cane, fruits, melons and truck. The pineapple crop was
decidedly short. Electrical storms were numerous and
severe, resulting in three deaths.
AUGUST.-The month was warm and showery. There
was no day without measurable precipitation in some por-
tion of the district, although the amount was below nor-
mal, and it was less than the requirements of growing
crops. Electrical storms were severe and resulted in
three deaths. The warmest occurred generally during the












second and third decades. Citrus fruits, late corn and
truck were improved during the month.
SEPTEMBER.-The weather was unusually pleasant-
the sequence of frequent showers and the eastward drift
of several areas of high baromic pressure. It was the
coldest September since 1897. Showers were insufficient
for fruits and truck during much of the time, but the
intervals of dry weather were favorable for cotton pick-
ing and haying. A Gulf disturbance during the last days
of the month resulted in heavy rain over much of the
State.
OCTOBER.-The weather averaged moderately warm and
drier than normal. The warmest weather occurred mostly
during the first and second decades. The generally uni-
form temperature was followed, however, by a sharp cold
wave near the close of the month, resulting in about freez-
ing temperatures over the interior of the extreme north-
west portion from the 28th to 31st. There was some dam-
age to cane and fall truck. The bulk of the month's rain
fell from the 1st to 7th, 14th to 17th, and on the 26th and
27th. A 24-hour amount of 5.15 inches occurred at Mala-
bar on the 7th. Most of the month was favorable for
cotton picking.
NOVEMBER.-Slightly cooler and wetter weather than
usual featured the month. The first half was from 3 to
100 warmer than normal, but there was a change to
cooler over the northern portion on the 17th, continuing
until about the 26th. The coldest weather occurred gen-
erally on the 20th and 21st, when a cold wave of much
severity gave minima in the 20's over the interior of the
north portion. Much damage resulted to truck. Tender
orange growth and some fruit also suffered over the ex-
treme northern portion of the citrus belt. The rainfall
was inadequate for fall truck, but the dry weather was
favorable for harvesting cotton, corn and minor crops.
DECEMBER.-The warm, wet weather that set in during
the last of November continued during much of the














month. The wet spells were mainly from the 13th to 20th,
and 25th to 30th, although there was only one day with-
out rain in some portion of the section. Rains were
unfavorable for truck and the shipment of fruit. The
cold spell that prevailed over much of the north and west
portions from the 13th to 18th carried frost into some
central counties, and freezing or below in northern coun-
ties. General farm work was delayed by wet weather in
some sections.


COMPARATIVE ANNUAL DATA FOR FLORIDA


1893 ......
1894 .. ....
1895 ......
1896 ......
1897 ......
1898 .
1899 ......
1900 .. ....
1901 .. ....
1902 . . .
1903 ......
1904 . . .
1905 ..... .
1906 ......
1907 ......
1909 ......
1910 ......
1910 . . .
1911 .
1912 ......
1913 ......
1914 ......


Temperature. Precipitation.



*2 ? | *
4." a Q5. Q"
d a.
an a)
so, M .3


--0.2
+0.4
+0.6
-0.7
+0.4
+ 0.6
-0.1
+0.4
+0.1
-1.8
+0.2
-0.8
-0.7
-0.1
+0.3
+0.9
+0.6
+0.5
-1.4
+1.7
+0.6
40.7
-0.1


47.99
53.01
52.51
45.50
49.62
56.69
48.36
53.93
61.19
58.47
51.24
55.79
48.15
61.43
53.76
49.15
48.54
49.52
50.88
47.40
64.88
48.02
49.08


- 4.42
+ 0.60
+ 0.10
- 6.91
2.79
+ 4.28
- 4.05
+ 1.52
+ 8.78
+ 6.06
- 1.17
+ 3.38
- 4.26
+ 9.02
+ 1.:5
- 3.26
- 3.87
- 2.89
- 1.53
- 5.01
+11.61
- 6.20
- 4.62


^ -- -


1. 1


I













MONTHLY SUMMARY, 1914


Temperature. Precil











April .. .. | 71.1 1.6 98 2 2.42
Month. 4 17 5









July .. ..... 81.6 0.5 102 58 5.97
August .. ... 81.7 0.6 101 60 5.70
r . 7 0.7

Januaovembery .. 64.0 0.7 90 219 .24
ebruary ...59.6 -0.2 89 28 4.73
March ...... 60.1 --6.0 91 26 1.51
April ....... 71.1 1 +1.6 98 32 2.42
May ........ 75.9 +0.4 104 451 1.74
June........ 81.9 +2.4 107 58 4.03
July ........ 81.6 +0.5 102 58 5.97
August...... 81.7 +0.6 101 60 5.70
September 77.8 -1.4 1100 50 7.27
October .... 72.9 +0.7 94 30 4.02
November .. 64.0 -0.7 90 19[ 2.99
December ... 59.4 1+0.61 88 211 4.46
Year...... 1 70.3 -0.1 107 1 19 1 49.08


+1.611
+1.45
-1.61
-0.49
-2.09
-2.58
-1.77
-1.72
+0.35
-0.22
+0.80
+1.65


Average Number
of Days.
i 5

?C -



=.- 0 $- '


9 6
9 7
7 4
9 5
11 5
14 4
16 7
15 6
13 9
10 6
8 7
8 14


-4.62 i 106 I 156 129 80


I












KILLING FROSTS, 1914
KILLING FROSTS, 1914


Stations.


Northern Division

Archer ................................
B ristol ..................................
Carrabelle .......... ....................
Cedar K eys ........................... .
Crescent City ............................
Federal Point ............................
Fenhollow ay .............................
Fernandina ............................
G ainesville .............................
H illiard .................................
Jacksonville ............................
Jasper .................................
Johnstow n ..............................
Lake City ..............................
L ive O ak ................................
M acclenny .......................
M adison .................................
M elrose .................................
M iddleburg ......................... ...
M onticello ...............................
M ount Pleasant ..........................
N ew port ................................
St. A ugustine ..........................
Satsum a Heights ........................
Switzerland ..............................
T allahassee ..............................

Central Division

Bartow ..................................
Bassenger (near) ........................
B rooksville (1) ..........................
B rooksville (2) ..........................
C lerm ont ...............................
C olem an .............................. .
D eL an d .................................
E ustis ...................................
F ellsm ere ...............................
Fort M eade .............................
F ort Pierce ............ ................
G rasm ere ...............................
Inverness ...............................
K issim m ee ..............................
Lucerne Park ............................
Lynne (near) ............................

*Record incomplete.


Last in First ii
Spring. Autumn.


Ma.2


Mar. 23
*
Mar. 9
None.
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
*
Mar. 2
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
Mar. 3
*
Mar. 24
Mar. 23
Mar. 9
Mar. 23
Mar. 10
*
Mar. 24
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
Mar. 9
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
Mar. 9



Mar. 3
Mar. 3
None.
Mar. 23
None.
Mar. 23
Mar. 23
None.
Mar. 3
Mar. 9
None.
Mar. 9
Jan. 9
None.
None.


I


* Nov. 20


Nov. 20
Nov. 18
Nov. 20
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 18
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 20
Nov. 21
Nov. 20
Nov. 18
Nov. 18
Nov. 17
Nov. 21
Nov. 20
Nov. 21
Nov. 20



Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
*
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
None.
Nov. 21
*
Nov. 21
Nov. 21











57

KILLING FROSTS, 1914-(Continued)


Stations.


Central Division-(Continued)

M alabar .................................
M erritts Island ..........................
New Sm yrna ............................
O cala ...................................
O range City ........................... |
O rlando .................................
Pinellas Park .........................
Plant City ............................. .
R ockw ell ................................
St. Cloud .......... ..................
S t. L eo ..................................
St. Petersburg ...........................
Sanford .................................
T am pa ................................
Tarpon Springs ..........................
T itusville ................................

Southern Division

Arcadia .................................
A von Park ..............................
Bradentow n .............................
D avie ...................................
Fort Lauderdale .........................
Fort M years ..............................
G griffin ................................ .
H om estead ............................
H ypoluxo .............................
K ey W est ............................. .
M iam i (1) ..............................
M iam i (2) ..............................
Punta Gorda ............................
R itta ......................... ..........
Sand Key ............................. .

Western Division

A palachicola .............................
DeFuniak Springs ................ .....
Garniers (near) .........................
M arianna ................................
Molino ............................... .
Panam a City ........................... I
Pensacola ............................ .
W ausau ............................... .


Last in First in
Spring. Autumn.




None. Nov. 21
None. None.
None. Nov. 21
Mar. 23 Nov. 21


Mar. 9
Jan. 8
None.
None.
Jan. 8
Mar. 3
Feb. 15
*
Mar. 10
None.
None.
None.



Mar. 3
None.
None.
Mar. 10
Mar. 3
None.
Mar. 10
None.
None.
None.
Mar. 9
None.
None.
None.
None.


Nov. 21
Nov. 21
None.
Nov. 21
*
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
None.
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21



Nov. 21
None.
None.
Nov. 21
None.
None.
Nov. 21
tNone.
None.
None.
Nov. 21
None.
None.

None.


Mar. 2 Nov. 20
Mar. 23 Nov. 18
Mar. 24 Oct. 28
Mar. 23 Nov. IS
Apr. 10 Nov. 19
Mar. 23 Nov. 18
Mar. 13 Nov. 20
Mar. 23 Oct. 27


*Record incomplete.
tData incomplete, but this date probably correct.









CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEAR 1914
Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit.



Stations. Counties.





Northern Division

Archer ............. Alachua ....... 92 30 69.3 100 July 26 21 Nov. 21
Bristol ............. Liberty ...... .21 Nov. 20
Carrabelle ......... Franklin ...... 10 16 67.2 99 June 15 23 Nov. 21
Cedar Keys......... Levy .......... 10 26 70.9 100 June 10 31 Nov. 21
Crescent City....... Putnam ....... ... 17 70.8 103 June 25 26 Nov. 21
Federal Point....... Putnam ....... 10 23 70.2 106 June 25 30 Nov. 21
Fenholloway ....... Taylor .... 75 ... ..... 19 Nov. 21
Fernandina ....... Nassau .. 10 22 69.9 103 June 25 30 Feb. 26
Gainesville ......... Alachua ...... 176 19 69.4 101 June 25 22 Nov. 21
Hilliard ............ Nassau ....... 69 6 67.5 105 June 25 23 Nov. 21
Jacksonville ....... Duval ......... 108 44 68.7 101 June 24 29 Nov. 21
Jasper ............. I Hamilton ..... 152 14 .... 103 June 25 20 Nov. 21
Johnstown ......... Bradford ...... 125 15 101 June 25 22 Nov. 21
Lake City .......... Columbia ..... 210 31 67.8 100 June 24 22 Nov. 21
Live Oak...........! Suwannee ..... 109 15 .... 103 June 24 23 Nov. 21
Macclenny ......... Baker ......... 125 19 ... 104 June 25 22 Nov. 21








Madison .......... I Madison ......
Melrose ............ Alachua .......
Middleburg ....... Clay ..........
Monticello ......... Jefferson .....
Mount Pleasant..... Gadsden ....
Newport ........... Wakulla .
St. Augustine....... St. Johns ......
Satsuma Heights... Putnam .......
Switzerland ........ St. Johns ......
Tallahassee ........ Leon .....

Central Division

Bartow ............ Polk .........
Bassenger (near)... Osceola ......
Brooksvlle (1)..... Hernando .....
Brooksville (2)..... Hernando .....
Clermont .......... Lake ..........
Coleman ........... Sumter .......
DeLand ............ I Volusia .......
Eustis ............. Lake ..........
Fellsmere .......... .St. Lucie ......
Fort Meade........ Polk ........
Fort Pierce.........| St. Lucie .....
Grasmere .......... Orange ......
Inverness .......... Citrus .......
Kissimmee ...... I Osceola ......
Lucerne Park....... Polk .........
Lynne (near)....... Marion ......
Malabar ........... Brevard .....
Merritts Island .... Brevard .....
fAlso on other dates.


May 30;-

June 24
May 30'-
June 25

June 25
June 24t
June 25
June 24



June 25
June 25
June 25
June 25
June 25
June 25
June 25
June 24
June 15'
June 6t
Aug. 5
June 25
June 25
June 25
June 24?

July 27
June 25


24

20
22
21
20
26
24
30
24



29
30
26
24
30

25
28
30
28
34
25

30
31

32
33


Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 20
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21



Nov. 21
Mar. 31
Nov. 21
Nov. 21 -
Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Nov. 21f
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Nov. 21


















Stations.






Central Division
(Continued)

New Smyrna ....... Vo
Ocala ......... Ma


CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEAR 1914-(Continued)
Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit.



Counties.
b ol -









lusia ....... 14 20 69.6 300 June 25 30
rion ........ 98 22 ... ... .. 25


Orange City ........ i Volusia .......
Orlando ........... Orange .......
Pinellas Park....... Pinellas .......
Plant City.......... i Hillsborough ..
Rockwell .......... ..Marion .......
St. Cloud........... Osceola .......
St. Leo. ............ Pasco .........
St. Petersburg ..... I Pinellas .......
Sanford ........... Seminole ......
Tampa ............. Hillsborough ..
Tarpon Springs .... Pinellas ......
Titusville .......... Brevard .......


100
100
95
99

102
98

99
94
95
100


June 151
June 15t
June 25
June 7

June 15t
June 25

June 26j
Aug. 25
May 251
June 15


Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Nov. 21









Southern Division

Arcadia ........... DeSoto .......
Avon Park ......... DeSoto .......
Bradentown ...... .Manatee ......
Davie ............. i Dade .........
Fort Lauderdale ... i Dade .........
Fort Myers......... Lee ...........
Griffin? ........... I Dade .........
Homestead ........ Dade .........
Hypoluxo ........... Palm Beach ...
Key West ......... Monroe .......
Lock No. 1......... Dade .........
M iam i (1) .......... Dade .........
M iami (2).......... Dade .........
Punta Gorda........ DeSoto .......
Ritta .............. Palm Beach....
Sand Key ..........' Monroe .......

Western Division

Apalachicola ....... Franklin ...
DeFuniak Springs .. Walton .......
Garniers (near) ..... Walton .......
Marianna .......... .Jackson .......
Molino ............ Escambia .....
Panama City ....... Bay ........ .
Pensacola .......... Escambia .....
Wausau ........... Washington ...

tAlso on other dates.


Aug. 6t

Aug. 13
July 14f
July 5
Aug. 13
June 15'
Aug. 41
July 5t
Aug. 4

July 5
July 5
June 24
Aug. 29
July 17


June
June
June
June
June
July
July
May


30
34
33
27
34
37
28

35
55

:3C
'35
36

55



28
24
21
23
22
24
27
21


Mar. 3t
Nov. 21
Nov. 21
Mar. 3
Mar. 3
Nov. 21f
Mar. 31

Mar. 9
Nov. 21

Nov. 21
Mar. 3t
Nov. 21

Nov. 21


Nov.
Nov.
Jan.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.










CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEAR 1914-(Continued)


ca
Cd
Stations. Counties.
o
0 a
cti




Northern Division

Archer ............. Alachua ....... 30
Bristol ............. Liberty ........ 5
Carrabelle ......... Franklin ...... 16
Cedar Keys ......... Levy .......... 28
Crescent City...... i Putnam ....... 17
Federal Point ....... Putnam .......j 23
Fenholloway ....... Taylor ........ 8
Fernandina ........ I Nassau ....... 22
Gainesville ......... I Alachua ....... 17
Hilliard ............ Nassau ....... 6
Jacksonville ...... .I Duval ......... 44
Jasper ............. Hamilton .... | 14
Johnstown ......... Bradford ...... 17
Lake City .......... Columbia ..... ,1
Live Oak........... SuWannee ..... 19
Macclenny..........! Baker ......... 19


Precipitation in Inches


52.52

46.62
34.75
51.75
44.95

49.31
45.63
51.17
44.72


52.41


.0
C0


June

Sept.
Sept.
July
Sept.

Nov.
Sept.
Feb.
Aug.


Feb.


w

>,
a
c
C

"5 ^5
CCo



z ^5


Sky.


x
'- 0
i0 E
' c
.00 .00
1^~ 1^



Z Z


May

May
May
Mar.
Nov.

April
May
May
April

.....
Nov.

May


77
142



52
120 I
122


100


o















w.

e.

ne.
se.

ne.


ne.








Madison .......... 1 Madison ...... 15 53.65 | 10.46 Feb. 0.31 April 111 129 102 134 ne.
Melrose ........... Alachua ....... 1 49.75 9.19 Aug. 0.07 May 94 ......
Middleburg ........ .Clay .......... 14 49.66 8.67 July 0.25 April ... .. .. ....
Monticello ......... Jefferson .... 11 50.60 | 11.32 Feb. 0.35. May 102 161 161 43 sw.
Mount Pleasant..... Gadsden ..... 9 53.65 12.38 Feb. 0.48 April 91 ... ... .
Newport ........... W akulla ...... 13 .. .. ... .... . .
St. Augustine ...... St. Johns ...... 46 42.29 8.00 Sept. .25 April 79 264 57 44 ne.
Satsuma Heights... Putnam ....... 7 46.30 7.85 July 1.24 Mar. 112 165 139 61 ne.
Switzerland ........ St. Johns ..... 23 | 49.72 8.00 July 0.83 April . . .. ... .
Tallahassee ........ I Leon ........ 30 56.14 12.22 Feb. 1.01 May 108 . .. . ..
* Central Division
Bartow ............ Polk .......... 28 52.31 9.55 Aug. 1.15 May 133 78 110 177 se.
Bassenger (near)... Osceola ....... 2 46.92 9.35 Aug. 0.92 Mar. 92 ... ... ... ....
Brooksville (1)..... Hernando ..... 23 56.23 12.10 July 0.86 Mar. 103 ... ... ... ....
Brooksville (2) ..... Hernando .... 3 57.07 13.14 July 1.29 Mar. 149 111 39 215 nw.
Clerm ont .......... Lake ........ 22 .. . ... ... . . ... ...
Colem an ........... Sum ter ...... . . ... .... .... ... .... .. .
DeLand ............ Volusia ... .. 12 | 51.71 7.45 Sept. 0.80 Mar. 120 ... . ne.
Eustis ............. Lake .......... 24 48.08 7.55 Jan. 1.32 Mar. 122 205 81 79 ne.
Fellsmere .......... St. Lucie ...... 3 48.72 10.44 Sept. 1.12 Mar. I 141 145 109 111 se.
Fort Meade......... Polk .......... 32 54.55 11.06 July 0.65 May 91 194 108 63 ne.
Fort Pierce......... St. Lucie ..... 20 | 53.43 11.13 Sept. 0.62 Mar. 128 ... ... ... e.
Grasmere .......... Orange ...... 12 44.96 6.89 July 0.64 Mar. 119 269 71 25 sw.
Inverness .......... Citrus ........ 16 .. ... . ... .. sw.
Kissimmee ......... Osceola ....... 23 40.87 5.53 June 0.60 Nov. I 67 83 179 103 ne.
Lucerne Park....... Polk ......... 3 50.30 7.50 Sept. 0.96 Mar. 125 37 266 62 ne.
Lynne (near) ....... Marion .. .. ... .. .. ... ...
Malabar ...........| Brevard ..... 23 | 43.45 11.58 Oct. 1.07 Mar. 108 ... .. ... se.
Merritts Island..... Brevard ....... 36 38.98 8.83 Sept. 0.35 Mar. 119 185 123 57 se.










CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE YEAR 1914-(Continued)

Precipitation in Inches Sky.
C

Pq
Stations. Counties. o
o)
.o .C IM




Central Division
(Continued)

New Smyrna ....... Volusia ....... 31 55.07 9.29 July 1.22 Mar. 104 .... ...... ne.
Ocala .............. M arion ........ 22 .. ... ..... .. .
Orange City ........ Volusia ...... 24 ..... ... ...
Orlando ........... Orange ....... 23 51.52 8.79 Sept. 1.30 Nov. 124 128 134 103 e.
Pinellas Park ....... Pinellas ....... 3 52.44 11.51 Aug. 1.25 May 96 167 84 114 w.
Plant City .......... Hillsborough .. 22 51.41 7.66 June 1.65 Nov. 110 ... ... .. ....
Rockwell .......... M arion ....... 15 ..... I ..... ..... .. ..... .
St. Cloud ........... Osceola ....... 1 ... e
St. Leo ............I Pasco ......... 20 51.92 7.95 Aug. 0.51 May 117 147 154 64 ne.
St. Petersburg .. .. Pinellas ....... . ..... ..... *
Sanford ........... Seminole ...... 7 36.70 6.45 Sept. 0.91 Nov. 111 140 160 65 ne.
Tampa............. Hillsborough 25 46.76 6.30 Sept. 1.03. May 123 90 162 113 ne.
Tarpon Springs..... Pinellas ...... 23 42.95 6.19 Aug. 0.99 Mar. 102 216 93 56 w.
Titusville .......... Br hvard ....... 19 49.91 12.44 Sept. 0.63 Mar, 170 118 148 99 so.









Southern Division

Arcadia ........... DeSoto ....... 14 48.82 9.41 July 1.03 Mar. 111 109 198 58 e.
Avon Park ......... DeSoto ....... 16. .... ..... . . .
Bradentown ....... Manatee ...... 31 57.12 10.25 Sept. 1.24 Mar. 114 209 97 59 nw.
q Davie ............. Dade ......... 2 58.28 7.61 April 1.49 Mar. 139 ... ... . se.
P Fort Lauderdale .... Dade ......... 2 60.64 10.51 April 1.47 Mar. 158 124 204 37 ....
Fort Myers......... Lee ........... 48 43.84 9.55 Aug. 0.50 Feb. 111 218 119 28 e.
Griffintt............ Dade ......... 2 52.57 7.56 April 0.71 Mar. 119 128 162 75 e.
Homestead ........ Dade ......... 5 ..... . e.
Hypoluxo .......... Palm Beach ... 20 54.70 9.23 Nov. 1.10 June 117 194 130 41 se.
Key West ......... Monroe ....... 44 35.12 9.20 Oct. 0.50 Mar. 119 146 135 84 ne.
Lock No. 1......... Dade ......... 2 61.52 11.59 July 1.33 Mar. 107 ... ... . .
Miami (1).......... Dade ......... 24 46.56 7.06 Nov. 0.99 Mar. 146 68 135 162 e.
Miami (2).......... Dade ......... 4 53.48 9.64 Oct. 1.19 Mar. 145 134 177 54 ne.
Punta Gorda........ DeSoto ....... 1 .... . ... ... . e
Ritta .............. Palm Beach.... 2 35.97 9.15 July 0.57 Feb. ... .. ..... ne.
Sand Key .......... Monroe ....... 9 37.77 10.64 Oct. 0.14 June 110 157 133 75 e.

Western Division

Apalachicola ....... Franklin ...... 11 51.43 11.33 Sept. May 100 ... ... w.
DeFuniak Springs .. Walton ....... 17 55.35 8.19 Feb. 0.30 May 103 124 199 42 sw.
Garniers (near)..... W alton ....... 2 .... .. .. 0.00 May ... ... ... ... se.
Marianna .......... Jackson ....... 13 47.84 9.19 Feb. 0.65 April 103 ... .. ... n.
Molino ............ I Escambia .. 13 54.54 13.13 Sept. 0.00 May 52 ... ... .. n.
Panama City ....... Bay .......... 18 53.88 10.50 Feb. 0.00 May 62 229 78 58 sw.
Pensacola .......... Escambia .... 35 55.85 13.53 Nov. 0.09 May 92 105 120 140 ne.
W ausau ........... W ashington 16 ..... ...... . .... .. ...

*Amount too small to measure. 'Also on other dates.


















PART II.

CROP AND LIVE STOCK CONDITIONS











DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.


Following are the divisions of
ties contained in each:

Northern Division.

Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.

Western Division.

Bay,
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson.
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-8.


the State, and the coun-


Northeastern Division

Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-lO.


Southern Division.


Hrevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee.
Manatee,


Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Pinellas,
Polk,
St. Lucie-12.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.


CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NORTHERN DIVISION.-Reports from our correspondents
throughout this division indicate that the present season
has been one of the most favorable for general farm crops.
The conditions for corn have been unexcelled in the entire
division, and it is likely that this crop will be the largest
ever made in this particular section of the State. Cotton
has also fared well, as the seasons have been good-even
better than for corn-because there has been less rain than
usual up to the present time. The acreage in cotton in the
real cotton-growing district of the State indicates a re-
duction of about 25 per cent. If the normal acreage had
been planted to cotton it is not unlikely that the largest
cotton crop in the history of the State would have been
produced this year. Of course the same conditions are
advantageous to the growing of all field crops. There
has been a great deal more interest in the growing of live
stock and their general management than at any period
of time prior to this date. More cattle, and of better
breeding, and more hogs are being grown than for many
years. This is also demonstrated as regards interest in
the use of silos and the feeding of silage. The number of
such plants being constructed is continually increasing.
In this district there are few complaints of diseases among
hogs, and only good reports concerning other live stock.

WESTERN DIVISION.-As a matter of fact, conditions in
this division are very much the same as in the previous
one. The same climatic conditions, of course, prevail to a
great extent over this section also, and its effect on crops











generally is about the same as in the first instance. A
number of the crops in this section are in an unusually
good condition and will produce, barring accidents,
greater results than for several years. In this district
the corn crop will, probably, be larger than ever before;
so will sweet potatoes, peanuts, velvet beans, and numbers
of other crops. Live stock in this section is in as good
condition as was stated in the previous ones. The pas-
turage is unusually good, which, of course, adds to the
condition as well as the health of the animals.

NORTHEASTERN DlvIsIoN.-The same conditions exist
throughout this district as in the two previously men-
tioned. The crops, many of them, are increased and are
in better condition than is usual at this season of the year.
In almost every locality the condition of corn and cotton
is much above the normal, and both corn and cotton will
be unusually good. In fact, all of the crops planted
throughout this division are in good condition and promise
good yields. Pastures are good and cattle are in fine
condition-far better than usual at this season of the
year-and very little complaint of disease.

CENTRAL DIVIsION.-In this division the climatic con-
ditions have been generally favorable. In some localities
they have not been so, but taking the section as a whole,
conditions have been favorable to most of the crops. There
has been some complaint as to a shortness of citrus fruits,
and it may be that there is. Apparently, while the trees
appear to be in good condition, they do not seem to have
as much fruit on them as is usual at this season. Just
why this is so, we are unable to say, unless it was that in
the last spring cold some of the blooms may have been
damaged, but there are a number of complaints on this
subject. Generally, the vegetables and standard crops
have yielded well in this section and live stock has also
done well. In fact, in every section of the State live stock











has improved and has, we may say, also kept in good con-
dition throughout the winter, better than usual.

SOUTHERN DIVISION.-There is no appreciable difference
in climatic conditions in this section and others. In fact,
the whole State seems to have had favorable weather con-
ditions on the average. In some portions of this division,
indications are that the fruit crop will be larger than in
the previous section, but these conditions seem to be what
might be termed spotted in this section-that is, in some
localities they seem to have large crops of fruit, while in
other sections they do not seem to be in such good con-
dition or to be producing as much. Probably it is owing
to climatic conditions at the time and place, or there may
have been a deficiency in rainfall, or excessive rainfall.
Any extreme conditions might produce something of this
kind. Live stock in this section is also in a flourishing
condition and the interest centered in this industry, not
*only in this, but in the preceding sections, has greatly
increased. In connection with this there has been a
widespread interest in the construction of silos and manu-
facture of silage for the feeding of live stock. This is an
idea that his, in our opinion, taken firm root in the minds
of the people in all sections of the State and, undoubtedly,
is adapted to every section of the State, even in the far
south. It is an erroneous idea, in our opinion, that silos
and silage feeding will not succeed in the far South.
Those who have had experience with it have been satisfied
that it is true. If heat were an objection or a bar to the
successful use of silage, then the Middle States far north
of Florida could not possible create silage as successfully
and satisfactorily as they do, as it is a well konwn fact
that temperatures are very much higher in the middle
inland sections of the country than in the sea coast
sections.











75

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS,
FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES, AND CONDITION OF LIVE STOCK,
FOR QUARTER ENDING JUNE 30, 1915, AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR.



COUNTIES. Upland Sea Island Corn. Sugar
Cotton. Cotton. Cane.

Northern Division Condition. I Condition. Condition. ( Condition.
Franklin .............. ... . 90 90
Gadsden ............. 70 110 100 85
Hamilton .............. . 75 80 70
Jefferson .............. 80 ... 85 50
Lafayette .........100 80 100
Leon ................ 80 ... 100 95
Liberty .......... 85 ... 100 95
Madison ............. 80 80 75 60
Suwannee ............. 80 90 90 95
Taylor ................ I ... 95 85 90
Wakulla ............... 80 95 U0
Div. Av. per cent....... 79 I 92 89 ] 84
Western Division.
Bay .................. 753 100 100
Calhoun ............... 35 30 175 100
Escambia .. ....... .. 50 125 LOO
Holmes ............... 40 ... 130 110
Jackson ............... .. 125 105
Santa Rosa ........... 100' .. 102 100
W alton ............... 75 ... 90 75
Washington ........... I 100 | 125 110
Div. Av. per cent....... 1 68 I 30 I 121 I 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... . ... 95 95 70
Baker ................ i .. 100 120 100
Bradford .............. 100 100 125 100
Clay .................. ... 90 100
Columbia ................ 90 90 100 90
Duval .............. ..I ... ... 100 100
Putnam ............... ... ... 50 50
St. Johns ............. .. I .. 100 90
Div. Av. per cent....... )95 I 89 I 97 SS
Central Division.
Hernando .............. ... ... 100 100
Lake ............... . .. 75 S5
Levy ................. ... 75 100 80
Marion ............... i 100 110 125 115
Orange ............... .. .. 95 80
Seminole .............. 100
V olusia ............... . . I 0
l iv. Av. m, r (vlt .......I 100 97 I7
Southern Division.


Brevard .. ... .
D ade ................
DeSoto ........... ....
Hillsborough ......... .
Lee ............
M anatee ...............
Osceola ...............
Palm Beach ........... I
St .Lucie .............. I
Div. Av. per cent.......
State Av. per cent......


75 65
... 105 100
S 100 100
S 112 105
S 100 100
100 100
S 130 100
95 100
.. 100 100
.. 102 97
77 1 101 92


u











76

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Rice. Sweet Field Eggplant
Potatoes. Peas.

Northern Division. I Condition. I Condition. I Condition.I Condition.
Franklin ..............1 ... 0 90 60
Gadsden .... . ...... .. 100 100
Hamilton ... .... .. ... 20 100 1 100
Jefferson ..............I ... 50 I 0 i
LaFayette ............. ... 100 I 100 I
Leon .................I . I 100 I 100
Liberty ............... 795 I .5 [ 5 .
M adison .............. ... | 100 I 50
Suwannee ............. 40 1 50 I 60 40
Taylor ............... I 00 I 00 90
W akulla .............. 75 [ 00 I 95 .
Div. Av. per cent........ I 54 I S8 | 88 I 50
Western Division.
Ba ..... ........... 1 00 75 00 .
Cahoun ................ 10 25 100
Escambia .............. 75 0 125 100
Holmes ............... 150 110 100
Jackson ...............I ... I 125 100 |
Santa Rosa ............ 75 10 100
W alton ................ 75 75
Washington ........... 100 70 100
Div. Av. per cent....... DG 104 1 100 1 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 100 100
Baker .............. 100 I 100 100
Bradford ......... .... 100 100 | 110
Clay ................. 75 100
Columbia .............. 100 100 I 110
Duval .. .............. ... 100 100 s o
Putnam ............... I . I 100 100
St. Johns ............. 90 I 100 100
Div. Av. per cent. ....... I 97 97 102 | SS
Central Division.
Hernando .............I ... 100 100 1 ..
Lake .......... ......... . I 80. 75 |
Levy ................. 60 I 75 | 85
M arion ......... ......... .. 125 110
Orange .......... ..... ... I 100 I 00
Pasco .................[ ... SO I 90
Seminole ........... . ... .. 100 I 00 100
Volusia ............... .. 100 I 100 SO
Div. Av. per cent....... 60 i 95 | 94 [ 90
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... I ... 115 1
Dade ................. ... 100 100 100
De Soto ............... ... 100 100 8
Hillsborough ............ .. 1 l iI
Lee ................... . 00 90 90
Manatee ........ .. 100 90
Osceola ...............I ... I 350 1 120 75
Palm Beach ........... ... .. 0
St. Lucie ............ ... 100 80S
Div. Av. per cent....... ... I 107 97 79
State. Av. per cent..... 74 1 98 1 96 1 81















REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Cassava. Tobacco. Peanuts. Pasture.


Northern Division I Condition. | Condition. I Condition. I Condition.
Franklin ..............L .. ... I 80
Gadsden .............. .. I 0 110 100
Hamilton ..............I ... i ... 100 65
Jefferson .............. .. I 8 I 100 i0
La Fayette ........ ... . I ... 1 90
Leon .................. ... i 100 100 90
Liberty ................ I ... 95 90
Madison .............. I ... I 110 100 100
Suwannee ............. ... . 100 100
Taylor ................ .. I .... I 90 95
Wakulla ....... ..... ... | ... i 100 !90
Div. Av. per cent....... ... I 96 I 99 1 90
Western Division.
Bay ..................J I 110 120
Calhoun ..............i .I 100 8S.
Escambia ............. 100 1 80 [ 150 100
Holmes ..... .......... ... I ... 100 I9
Jackson ................ ... I ... 110 100
Santa Rosa ....... .... I ... I ... I 100 100
W alton ...............I ... I . I 100 100
Washington ........... .. 1 100 [ .. I 120 125
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 J 80 | 111 103
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ...............I ... 95 100
Baker .................I . ... 100 75
Bradford ..............I ... I .. 12-5 9.
Clay .................. .. ... 100 100
Columbia .............I . I I 100 100
D uval ................. I ... ... I 1... 0
Putnam ............... ... i ... I 80 90
St. Johns ............. 100 ... I 100...
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 ... I 100 94
Central Division.
Hernando ............. ... I 100 100
Lake ................. .. ... o o
Levy ................. ... .. 0 75
Marion ...............I ... ... 10o 125
Orange ............... I ... ... 90n 1
Pasco .................I ... 90 so 1 0o
Seminole ..............I ...... 100
Volusia ...............I ... I ... 100 110
Div. Av. per cent. ...... I 90 91 I 97
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... .
Dade ................. ... 100 0o
De Soto .. . . I 1oo
Hillsborough . ... ... .. I 5 1. 1 0 I 100
Lee ..... ........ ... I ...
Manatee . . .. . 100
Osceola .............. 1, I ... ... 10
Palm Beach ........... I l1 0 I ... .
St. Lucie .............. ... I .. I i.6
Div. Av. per cent ....... 98 100 90 I 100
State Av. per cent...... 99 I 91 98 | 97













7S


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Velvet Alfalfa.
Beans.

Northern Division. I Condition. Condition.
Franklin .................................... 75 .
Gadsden ..... ............................... 100
Hamilton .............. .. ................. 100
Jefferson ..................... ................I .
L aF ayette ..................................I
L eon ....................................... 95
Liberty ...................................... 90
M adison ................................... 50
Suwannee ......... ........................ 90 40
T aylor ................................... . 90
W akulla ................................... 90
Div. Av. per cent............................. 86 1 40
Western Division.
B ay ............................... ........ 125
Calhoun .................................... 100 ...
E scam bia ................................... 200 ...
H olm es .................. ..................... 90 ...
Jackson ..................................... . 100
Santa Rosa ......... ....................... 100 ..
W alton ................ .................. .. I 100 ...
W ashington ....................... ......... 130
Div. Av. per cent.............................. 118 ..
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........................... ....... 70 .
Baker ..................................... 1 05
Bradford .................................. I ...
Clay ..............
Columbia ................................... 100
D uval .................................... 100
Putnam .................................... 0 ...
St. Johns ................................... 100 .
Div. Av. per cent............................. 97 ...
Central Division.
H ernando ................................... 100 ..
L ake ........................................ 807
L evy ....................................... 75 ...
Marion .....................................I 115
O range ..................................... 75 ..
P ase o ...................................... 70 ...
Seminole ........... ..... ... ..... ....... .. 100 ...
V olusia ................................... '. 1 100
Div. Av. per cent ............................. . 88 I
Southern Division.
Brevard .................... ............... 80 ...
Dade ........................................ 100
D e Soto .................................... I 100
H illsborough ................................ ( 110
L ee ........................................ I 100
Manatee .................................... 110
Osceola .................. .............. ... 150
P alm B each ................................. I ... 95
St. L ucie ................................... 1 100
Div. Av. per cent ............................ I 106 I 95
State Av. per cent ............................ 99 I 67













79

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Guavas. Avocado Pears.


Northern Division | Condition YProspectivel Condition. Prospective
| Yield. | Yleld.
Franklin ..............
Gadsden .............. .. .
Hamilton ............. .. .
Jefferson .............. ..
La Fayette ............ .
Leon .................. . . ..
Liberty ............... .. ..
M adison .............. .. ..
Suwannee ............. .
Taylor ................ . .
Wakulla .............. .______
Div. Av. per cent....... ... ... I I___
Western Division.
B ay .................. ........
Calhoun .............. .. .
Escam bia .............. .. ... . ..
H olm es ............... .... ... ..
Jackson .............. .. . ...
Santa Rosa ........... .... ...
Walton ............... .. ... .
Washington ........... .
Div. Av. per cent........ ... .. I .. I
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... ... .. .
Baker ................. ..
Bradford .............. ... ... 110 110
Clay .................. .. ........
Colum bia ............ ... .. ... ...
D uval ................. . .
Putnam ............... . . ...
St. Johns .............. ... .. .
Div. Av. per cent.... ... | .-. | 110 110
Central Division.
Hernando ............. ...
Lake ................. 75 80
Levy .................. ......
Marion ................ 100 100 ..
Orange ................ 100 100 ..
P asco .............. ...........
Seminole ... ...
Volusia ............... 100 100 .
Div. Av. per cent ...... 94 95 ...
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 90
Dade .................. 95 95 100 100
De Soto ............... 100 110 ...
Hillsborough ........... 100 105 ..
Lee ................... 100 110 100 100
Manatee .............. ... ... 100 100
Osceola .................. 200 200 100 50
Palm Beach ........... 90 100 90 95
St. Lucie .............. 75 80 50 50
Div. Av. per cent........ 107 | 111 90 85
State Av. per cent...... 100 103 100 97
















REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Bananas. Mangoes.


Northern Division I Condition IProspectivel Condition. |Prospective
|Yield. I Yield.
Franklin .............. 100 75
Gadsden ...............
Hamilton .............. .
Jefferson .............. ... .
La Fayette ............ ... ...
L eon ............ ...... ... ...
Liberty ............... ..
M adison ...............I ... I .. .
Suwannee ............. . . .
Taylor ................ ... ...|...
W akulla ............... ... ..
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 I 7.5 I |
Western Division.
B ay .............
Calhoun ............... .. ..
Escambia .............. ... ....
H olm es ............... ..
Jackson ................ .. ......|
Santa Rosa ............ .. ....
W alton ................ ...I .
W ashington ............. .. ...I .
Div. Av. per cent .......I ... -
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ...... .. .. .... I .
Baker ................. .. .. ..I
Bradford .............. ... I
C lay .................. I .
Columbia .............. I ...
Duval ................. ..
Putnam ............ ... .. I ...
St. Johns .............. ...
Div. Av. per cent .......
Central Division.
H ernando ..............I I
Lake .................. .
Levy .................. .
M arion ................
Orange ............... .. '
Pasco ................. ...
Seminole ............ ... .
V olusia ...............I
Div. Av. per cent....... -
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... .. ... I s,5
Dade .. .............. 100 100 SO SO




Palm Beach ........... 100 100 SO 8
St. Lucie .............. 100 100 75 75
Div. Av. per cent........ . 117 117 94 92
State Av. per cent ..... 108 89 94 92












81

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTIES. Orange Trees. Lemon Trees.


Northern Division I Condition IProspectivel Condition. jProspective
IYield. I Yield.
Franklin .............. 95 95 80 80
Gadsden ............... .... ...
Hamilton ............. 40 35
Jefferson .............. ... ...
La Fayette ............ .. ...... ..
Leon .................. | 100 75 ....
Liberty ............... 90 50 .
Madison ............... 100 70 ... ..
Suwannee ............. 40 10 ..
Taylor ................ .. ...
W akulla ............... .75 25
Div. Av. per cent. ...... 48 | 51 80 | 80
Western Division.
Bay .............. 75 60
Calhoun ............ 50 j 50
Escambia .............. ... ...
Holmes ................ ... ..
Jackson ............... ... .....
Santa Rosa ........... .... .. ..
W alton ............... |
Washington ...............I __ .._
Div. Av. per cent....... 63 I 55 ... I ..
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 100 75 |7
Baker ................. 75 .75 80 80
Bradford .............. 85 75 ..
Clay ............ . .. 100 110 ...
Columbia .............. ....
Duval ................. 505
Putnam ............... 75 40 .
St. Johns .............. 100 65 ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 84 [ 70 | 80 j 80
Central Division.
Hernando ............. 90 I 40 ...
Lake .................. 75 75 75
Levy .................. 80 75 .
Marion ............. .. 110 100 110 100
Orange ................ 90 50
Pasco ................ 80 75
Seminole .............. 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............... 90 60 ...
Div. Av. per cent........ 89 77 95 ] 92
Southern Division.
Brevard .............. 100 70 75 f 65
Dade ..................I 95 95
De Soto ............... 100 65 100 80
Hillsborough ........... 95 90 90 90
-Lee ...................I 100 90 90 85
Manatee ............... 95 80
Osceola ................ 125 115 125 125
Palm Beach ........... 90 75 80 80
St. Lucie .............. 100 90 90 85
Div. Av. per cent ....... 86 86 93 87
State Av. per cent ...... 74 68 87 [ 85


6-BUL.















REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Lime Trees. Grapefruit Trece.


Northern Division Condition |Prospectivel Condition. ]Prospective
| Yield. Y.L 1 .
Franklin .............. . ... M i 8.
Gadsden .............. I
H am ilton ............ I ..
Jefferson .............. ... I
La Fayette ............ ....
Leon .... 100 80
Liberty ... ....... .. 90 5
M adison ............... .. 100 75
Suwannee ............. I ....
Taylor ................ ...... 70
W akulla ...............I ..
Div. Av. per cent ........ .... I 94 77
Western Division.
Bay ................ .I 75 70
Calhoun .............. I 50 50
Escam bia .............. .. ... .
H olm es ............... ... I
.lackson ............... -.
Santa Hosa ............ ........
W alton ...............i ... .
W ashington ............ I ... .. .
piv. .\v. lier cent ..... ... I ... 63 60
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ..... ..... | ..... 100 75
Baker .......... .... .. i 100 100
Bradford ............... I . .. 85 75
(lay .................. . 100 80
Colum bia ............. . .
Duval ................. I . ... 5
Putnam ............... .. ... 75 40
St. Johns .............. ... 100 65
Div. Av. per cent....... .. . I 87 | 73
Central Division.
IIernando ........... . 90 50
Lake .................. 7. 7. 5 75
Levy .................. 80 75
Marion ............... . 110 100
Orange ................ ... ... 100 40
Pasco .................... 90 90
Seminole ............... 100 100
Volusia ...... 90 40
Div. Av. per cent ....... 92 87 | 92 | 71
Southern Division.
Brevar .............. . 77 75 100 70
Dade .............. 100 100 90 90
De Soto ............... 100 100 80 80
Hillsborough ........... 90 95 95 90
Lee .................... 100 100 100 90
Manatee ...................... .. 90 90
Osceola .. ............. 100 110 100 100
Palm Beach ........... 75 75 90 85
St. Lucie .............. 100 I 100 90 85
Div. Av. per cent ..... 93 1 94 | 93 87
State Av. per cent ....... 92 [ 90 ] 86 74
If












83

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Plums. Pears.

Northern Division I Condition IProspective) Condition. [Prospective
S__Yield. I Yield.
Franklin ............... 1 1100 95 95
G adsden ............... ... | ...
Hamilton .............. ..
Jefferson .............. . ..
La Fayette ............ ..
Leon ................. 100 100 60 60
Liberty ................ 90 90 50 50
Madison ............... 90 90
Suwannee .............. 80 75 60 40
Taylor ................ .... .. .
W akulla ............... ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 92 91 1 6 1 61
Western Division.
Bay .................. 90 90 60 50
Calhoun ............... ... ..
Escambia ....... ....... 75 75 50 50
Holm es ................
.ackson ............... 80so 80
Santa Rosa ............ . . 50 50
W alton ............... ... ... 50 50
Washington ............ 90 90 60 50
Div. Av. per cent....... I 84 84 i 56 | 50
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 75 75 90 75
Baker ................ 100 100 100 100
Bradford .............. I ... ... 110 110
Clay .. .................. ...
Columbia .............. 100 100 110 100
Duval ................. 100 150 50 40
Putnam .... ........ ... 100 100
St. Johns ............. ... ... 100 85
Div. Av. per cent....... 94 I 84 93 | 87
Central Division.
Hernando ............. 100 50 90 50
L ake ..................I ..
Levy .................. 60 50 60 40
Marion ................ I 110 100 100 100
Orange ................ I ... ... 100 25
Pasco .................. 90 90 100 60
Seminole ............. 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............... 1 100 100 50 30
Div. Av. per cent ....... 1 93 I 82 86 58
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... ......
Dade ................. ... ...
De Soto ................ ... .....
Hillsborough ............ ... ...
Lee ...................I ...
Manatee ..... .... ... . .. .. .
Osceola ................ 100 100
Palm Beach ..............
St. Lucie .............. I |....
Div. Av. per cent ...... 100 1 100 | ... ..
State Av. per cent. .....I 93 88 1 75 [ 64












84

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTIES.


Peaches.


Northern Division I Condition IProspective
S| ieldl.
Franklin ............. 95 -9
Gadsden ............... I ...
Hamilton ........... . 40
Jefferson .............. I ... ..
La Fayette ............ .
Leon .................. 85 71
Liberty ............... 70
M adison ............... . .
Suwannee ............. 90 80
Taylor ...... ....... . . .
W akulla ............... I 90 75
Div. Av. per cent. . . 79 | 68


Watermelon..


I Condition. IProspective
S ld.
100 100
S60 50
80 75
90 90
90 90
90 90
80 85
90 90
S 90 100
| 87 | 87


Western Division.
Bay .................. 75 70 95 I 100
Calhoun ............... 50 50 75 7.
Escambia .... ...... . 100 100 75 100
Holmes ................ 100 110 100 120
Jackson ............... 75. 70 100 125
Santa Rosa ........... 60 60 75 75
Walton ................ 75 T75 90 100
Washington ........... 75 70 00 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 75 i 76 I 87 98
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............... 75 50 I 80 50
Baker ................ 50 50 110 110
Bradford .............. 110 110 95 105
Clay .............. 100 100 100 100
Columbia .............. 100 100 100 100
Duval ................ 100 125 100 100
Putnam ............... 85 75 80 90
St. Johns ............. 100 85 I 100 100
Div. Av. Der cent ........ 90 87 | 84 94


Central Division.


Hernando ......... ... .. t 100 lU
Lake .................. 85 85 90 90
Levy .................. 50 40 65 60
Marion ................ 100 115 110 110
Orange ................ 100 50 75 75
Pasco ......... ...... 1 70 70 70 TO70
Seminole ............. 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............ 100 70 100 100
Div. Av. per cent....... 88 79 I 87 1 86
Southern Division.
Brevard ........... ... 100
Dade ................. 100 100
De Soto ..............I 100 100
Hllsborough A .......... 1 00 110 100 105
Lee ................... 9
Manatee ................ 90 90
Osceola ...............I 1005 100 80
Palm Beach ........... 85 85
St. Lucie .... ......... 100 100 75
Div. Av. per cent ....... I 100 I 112 92 I 93
State Av. per cent...... I 88 I 84 1 87 92














REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE TIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Cantaloupes. Pineapples.

Northern Division | Condition 1Prospectivel Condition. |Prospective
SYield. Yield.
Franklin .............. 100 100 .
Gadsden .............. ..
Hamilton ..............I 65 75
Jefferson ............... 75 70 ..
La Fayette ............ 80 90
Leon ................. 90 85
Liberty ............... .
Madison .............. 0 90
Suwannee .......... . 80 85 .
Taylor ................ ...
Wakulla ................ 85 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 83 | 88 I ... I
Western Division.
B a y . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...
Calhoun ............... 75 75 ..
Escambia .......... . 100 125
H olm es ............... . .. .
Jackson ............... 100 100
Santa Rosa .......... .... .
W alton ............... 85 85 .. ..
Washington ........... 80 80 ... ..
Div. Av. per cent.... 88 | 93 .. I ...
Northeastern Division.
Alaciua ............... 90 90 ...
Baker ................I 100 100 ...
Bradford .............. 110 75 ....
Clay ................. ...........
Columbia .............. .I .
Duval ................ 100 100 .
Putnam ............... 80 90 ..
St. Johns ............. ... ... ....
Div. Av. per cent....... 96 | 91 ...
Central Division.
Hernando .............| .....
L ake .................| ... .
Levy .................| 70 60 ...
Marion .......... ..... 110 110 .
Orange .............. ... .
Pasco ................ 60 | 65 .
Seminole .............. I 100 I 100 100 100
V olusia ............... ... ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 85 I 84 100 100
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 80 s I 75 9 90 95
Dade ................. ... I ... 004 90
De Soto .............. ... 100 100
Hillsborough ........... 90 I 95 100 100
Lee .................. ... ... 100 100
M anatee .............. .. I ...
Osceola .............. . 100 110 125 125
Palm Beach ............ ... I ... 90 100
St. Lucie ............. ... I ... 75 75
Div. Av. per cent.......i 90 97 96 I 98
State Av. per cent... ... 88 90 I 98 1 99













86


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.


COUNTIES.


Northern Division

Franklin ....................................
G adsden ....................................
H am ilton ...................................
Jefferson ....................................
La Fayette ................................
Leon .......................................
Liberty ....................................
M adison ....................................
Suw annee ...................................
T aylor ......................................
W akulla ....................................
Div. Av. per cent............................


Grapee.


Condition. Prospective
Yield.
100 100

90 90
85 90
90 85
100 100

100 100
90 90
100 100
94 94


Western Divitson.
B ay .......................................
Calhoun .............. ...... .............. .
Escam bia ................................... 80 100
H olm es .......... .................... ......
Jackson .................................... 100 100
Santa Rosa .................................I 100 100
W alton ......... .............. .............1 100 100
W ashington .................................
Div. Av. per cent............................... 95 100
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ..................................... 100 100
Baker .............. ........................ 105 105
Bradford ................................... 120 125
Clay ...................................... 100 100
Colum bia ................................... 100 100
Duval ...................................... 100 200
P utnam .................................... .
St. Johns ................................... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent............................. 104 I 119
Central Division.
Hernando ...................................I 100 100
Lake ....................... ................. "
Levy ............. ........................ 70 5
M arion ..................................... 115 115
Orange ..................................... 90 90
P asco .............................. .... I
Sem inole ................................... 100 100
Volusia ..................................... 100 110
Div. Av. per cent............................ 96 9 07
Southern Division.
Brevard ............................... ..... . ...
D ade ........................ ...............
De Soto .......................... .......... .. .
H illsborough ................................ . ..
L ee .............. ........................... ..
M anatee .................................... .
Osceola ...................................... 150 200
Palm Beach .......... ........................
St. L ucie ...................................
Div. Av. per cent .............................. 150 | 200
State Av. per cent ............................ 108 I 122


,












87

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. Horses.and Cattle. Hogs. Sheep.
Mules.

Northern Division C Condition. Condition. I Condition. Condition.
Franklin ............. 100 100 100 100
Gadsden .............. 85 75 125 100
Hamilton ............. 90 100 75
Jefferson .............. 90 95 90 95
La Fayette ............ 95 95 90 90
Leon .................. 95 95 95 90
Liberty ............... 95 100 90 95
Madison .............. 80 110 100 100
Suwannee .............. 90 90 90
Taylor ................ 95 90 90
Wakulla ..............1 95 | 90 90 ___
Div. Av. per cent .... .. 98 95 94 0)7
Western Division.
Bay .................. 100 5 100 100 100
Calnoun .............. 100 110 90 100
Escambia .............. 100 110 125 100
Holmes ...............I 95 I 100 110 100
Jackson .............. 95 100 100 100
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 75 90
Walton ............... 100 95 90 100
Washington ........... 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent...... I 99 102 99 99
Northeastern Division
Alachua .............. 70 100 90 95
Baker ................ 100 110 80 105
Bradford .............. 90 110 85 100
Clay ................. 100 110 100 100
Columbia ............. 90 110 100 100
Duval ................ 100 150 150 125
Putnam ...............[ 100 100 75
St. Johns ............. 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent...... I 94 111 98 104
Central Division.
Hernando ............. .. 100 5 100 100 100
Lake .................. 80 80 85
Levy ................. 70 75 60 0
Marion ............... 100 115 100 110
Orange ............... 100 100 100 100
Pasco ................ 80 90 80 40
Seminole .............. 100 100 100 100
Volusia .............. 90 100 80 100
Div. Av. per cent...... 90 96 88 87
Southern Division.
Brevard ..............I 95 100 90 ...
Dade- .................. 100 100 105
De Soto .............. 10100 100 100 90
Hillsborough ........... 100 100 95
Lee ................. . 100 100 100 ...
Manatee .............. 90 95 90
Osceoa ............... 95 90 100 100
Palm Beach ........... 100 100 100
St. Lucle ............. 100 125 125
Div. Av. per cent ....... 98 | 101 100 I 95
State Av. per cent .... 96 I 101 96 I 98












88


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD-Continued.



COUNTIES. I obarcc. Honey. W,,l.


Northern Division I Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Franklin ......................... ... ... 3,000 ........
Gadsden ......................... 000. 000 ........ .
H am ilton ........................ ........ .. ...... .....
Jefferson ......................... 100.000 2.000 ....
La Fayette ....................... ...... 2,000 ........
Leon ............................ 150.000 2,500 ....
Liberty .......................... .. ..000
M adison .........................I . .
Suwannee ........................ ..... ............
Taylor. ........................ 1.500 ....
W akulla ......................... .... 2.000 ........
Div. Av. per cent................ . 2,250,000 I 10.000 ........
Western Division.
Bay ............. 7.... .. ........ 000 20.000
Calhoun ........................... ....... .'. 200,000 9.000
Calhoun . . . . 200,000 0.000
Escambia .... ................ 10,000 12.000
Holm es .... .................... ....... 18,000 2.000
Jackson ............ ......... . . . . 2.000 2.000
Santa Rosa ...................... 10,000 60.000
Walton .................. ....... 5.000 80.000
W ashington ............... ....... . ........ 5.000 15.000
Div. Av. per cent ................. I ...... 256.000 200.000
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ...... .................... 4........ .... 000
Baker ........ ...................II I.... 4.00
B radford ........................ ........ ........ 150
C lay . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. ..
Colum bia ......................... ....... ........
Duval ........................... ....... ...... ........
Putnam ......................... ....... 100.000


St. Johns .................... I. ... .. . ..... .
Div. Av. per cent................ ........ 101.500 4.150
Central Division.
H ernando ........................ ........ ..... .. .
L ake ............................ .......
L evy ............................ ..
M arion ........................... O.......
Orange .......................... 20.000 ....
P asco ........................... 0,000 ........ ....
Sem inole ......................... ........ 40.000 .....
Volusia ........................... ...... 80,000 I 20.000
Div. Av. per cent.................. [ 90.000 140.000 I 26.00
Southern Division.
Brevard ............ ......... i ....... I 0.000 .......
D ade ............................ ........
D e Soto .......................... ....
H illsborough ..................... ........ ..... ........
Lee ......... .. ..... ....... .. .. ........
Manatee ............. ....... ....I
Oseola ......................... ...I ,000 I 10.000
Palm Beach . .. ....... ....... ......... .
St. L ucie ........................ ........ .
Div. Av. per cent............... . ....... 1 55,000 10.000
State Av. per cent. ................. 2.340.000 .571.500 241.650



















PART III.

Farm Drainage, Soil Analysis, Rules and Regula-
tions for Sending Samples, Fertilizers, Feed
Stuffs, and Foods and Drugs.














PERFFCT DRAINAGE OF FARM LANDS
NECESSARY TO SUCCESSFUL FARMING

ADDRESS DELIVERED BY STATE CHEMIST R. E. ROSE TO THE
STUDENTS OF THE AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT OF
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AT GAINESVILLE.

Prof. Vernon and young gentlemen:
It is unnecessary for me to say that the proper drain-
age and fitting for successful agriculture of the wet lands
of the State of Florida will be one of the greatest prob-
lems- of the agricultural student of the future. Lands
of wonderful latent fertility and productiveness; only re-
quiring that they be relieved of their super-abundance
of water, thus allowing the air and sunlight to perform
their beneficent functions of converting into fruitful fields
large tracts of now useless and non-productive soils.
It is well known to all of you that I have for many
years been an advocate of the drainage of the wet lands
of .our State. In fact have been termed a "drainage en-
thusiast," possibly with good reason, as it has been for
many years my constant study, with considerable expe-
rience, both in drainage of wet lands and cultivating the
same, the successful results of which, agricultural and
financial, are known to many.
I have stated publicly on several occasions, and again
repeat, that in my opinion, there is scarcely a township
in Florida, certainly not a county, that could not be
made to produce much greater agricultural results by a
proper system of drainage.
That Florida possessed enormous areas of "swamp and
overflowed lands," susceptible of successful drainage,
thus preparing them for profitable cultivation, who recog-
nized many years ago and was agitated by our State gov-
ernment and our representatives in Congress, years be-











fore the grant of the "swamp and overflowed lands" of
the State to the State of Florida (and other States) in
1850, by which grant the State of Florida received from
the general government more than 22,000,000 of acres
of wet land, designated "swamp and overflowed lands,"
granted to the State of Florida by congress under the
following explicit condition:
"Provided, however, that the proceeds of the said lands,
whether from sale or by direct appropriation in kind,
shall be applied exclusively, as far as necessary to the
purpose of reclaiming said lands by means of the levees
and drains aforesaidd" is a matter of history.
The State of Florida, by this Act, obtained some 22,-
000,000 acres of land. She had in addition each six-
teenth section, one thirty-sixth of the entire area of the
State granted for public schools, together with large
donations for "internal improvement," and another large
grant for seminaries. As the State of Florida has about
35,000,000 acres of land, it is readily seen that more than
two-thirds of her entire area was granted by the nation-
al government to be "applied exclusively, as far as neces-
sary, to the purpose of reclaiming said lands." Thus it
will be seen that sixty-five years ago, our statesmen (who
at that time were mostly agriculturists), recognized the
necessity of providing for the reclamation of the wet
lands of the State, recognizing their great agricultural
value, when properly drained and reclaimed.
I shall not attempt to go into the history of the dis-
position of this vast empire entrusted to the State for the
benefit of her agricultural development. This history is
contained in the acts of the various legislatures since the
grant of 1850. The extreme paucity of performance under
the trust, and the fact that only two million of acres of
this vast territory now remains to accomplish the work
now being accomplished by the Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund and drainage commissioners. I sim-
ply cite these historical facts to emphasize that wise men












of past generations recognized the necessity of drainage
and the value of the wet lands of the State when drained,
and provided ample means for its accomplishment.
.There still exists in Florida large areas of soil found
in every county of the State in larger or smaller bodies,
soils which, when properly drained, are of unexampled
fertility and productiveness. On you, young gentlemen,
will devolve the responsibility of performing this task
of such an enormous economic value to our State. A
task, which, when completed, will make Florida the most
productive agricultural State in the Union-a State with
a fertile soil in a semi-tropical climate, with abundant
sunshine, with an annual rainfall well distributed, of
practically sixty inches per annum, a territory unique
in all its features of unexampled agricultural possibili-
ties, provided her wet lands ivhich comprise practically
one-third of her area, are properly drained and reclaimed
conditions foreseen by our fathers and liberally provided
for, a condition which still largely prevails. A problem is
presented to you, on the correct solution of which, to a
very great extent, depends the future prosperity and
agricultural wealth of out State.
There are many problems which you will have to meet,
discuss and decide. You will find many different solu-
tions offered for each, particularly by those who have
no knowledge of the subject at all, having neither expe-
rience nor proper information, knowing neither "why,"
nor "how." Most particularly will you have to deal with
the "expert" who is generally one who has'consulted some
bulletin, visited a few farmers' institutes, and who knows
little of agricultural science, and less of the practical
application of scientific truths on the farm. Possibly he
may have some scientific knowledge. If so, he won't
class himself as an "expert." Scientific men are modest
and don't pretend to be "experts," recognizing that ag-
ricultural science is the youngest of all sciences, although
it is the oldest art practiced by mankind, knowing that












much of the information we now imagine we possess may
not be correct information. That some of the "truths"
proclaimed, may, on further investigation, prove false.
One of our foremost Florida agriculturists, has said pub-
licly before audiences in this State, that the greatest
difficulty he now had was to forget many things taught
at college, which he now knows to be false, or at least
incorrect. It is, therefore, with much hestitancy I at
tempt to answer some of the questions you will have to
answer. They will come to you in many forms, modi- .
fled by local conditions and individual necessities.
1. When and why is drainage necessary?
Drainage is necessary when the soil is permanently
filled with water, or subject to overflow for a time suffi-
cient to destroy the millions of bacteria necessary in a
productive soil,. thus drowning out not only the living
bacteria, but the cultivated plant, by cutting off the sup-
ply of air and food necessary for the growth of the plants.
Drainage is necessary when the soil to a depth that
should be occupied by living bacteria and roots of healthy
crops, is limited by the line of saturation. This may be
but temporary, still a great damage to crops will occur
whenever the "water table" reaches into the zone occu
pied by the roots of the crop.
2. How deep should soil be drained?
To the full depth that air and the roots of crops in
well drained soils will penetrate. Not less than three
feet to the permanent water table, in my opinion never,
less than three feet, and in soils well filled with humus,
not less than four feet. This has been demonstrated
where superior crops are grown on tile drained lands
with the drains four feet below the surface, as compared
with similar crops on similar soils, under similar condi
tions where the drainage was from eighteen inches to
two feet below the surface. Also by practical experience
on drained lands in Florida where similar crops were far
superior on lands drained full three feet deep with num











erous drains, to those on adjoining field with but eigh-
teen inches drainage with drains double the distance
apart.
3. Is it possible to combine drainage with irrigation?
Can a drainage system be reversed for irrigation?
No, drainage and irrigation are diametrically opposed
to each other. To reverse the flow of a drainage system
for the purpose of irrigation has necessarily proven dis-
astrous. It is now conceded that the cost to drain the
irrigated lands of many large, irrigation systems (not
provided with natural drainage), will be far in excess of
the cost of irrigation. Drainage and irrigation must
necessarily be simultaneous in orter to cause a circula-
tion of water and air throughout the soil, a condition al-
ways found on naturally well drained, productive soils.
4. Can we close the drains and hold the drainage
water in dry seasons?
Not without danger to the crops, irrigation water
should be placed on or near the surface and be allowed
to drain into and circulate through the soil, into the
drains, thus maintaining the necessary moisture and also
the necessary air in the soil, for the healthy growing of
the necessary bacteria and plants, neither of which can
exist in a saturated soil, in which there is no air (free
oxygen.)
5. Would it be profitable to drain high rolling lands,
with clay subsoils?
Unquestionably. Numbers of such instances, of great
improvement in productiveness are known in this and
other States. Such drains, particularly tile drains, al-
low the rains to penetrate the soils, followed by the air,
rendering the soil productive, from which, before drain-
age. the rains passed off rapidly, without penetrating
the soil. This has been frequently demonstrated on high
rolling red clay hills, barren before tile drained and pro-
ductive thereafter. The lack of such drainage has been
largely the cause of the "washes and gullies" of many of









96

our Southern cotton fields. Terracing is but a substitute
for drainage, causing the rain water to pass down into
the soil, and drain away at a lower level, thus avoiding
surface wash. Terracing is but irrigation and drainage
combined.
6. Should irrigation be practiced on Florida soils,
S particularly on drained lands?
Certainly. Whenever the soil water falls below the
crop requirements irrigation is beneficial. Provided, al-
ways, that the surplus is drained away either naturally
through a porous sub-soil, or artificially through a prop-
erly designed drainage system. Saturation, flooding of
soil, either by rain or otherwise, is not irrigation. Stag-
nant water will destroy crops and render unproductive
fertile soils.
7. How should irrigation be applied to drained lands?
Upon or near the surface, overhead or through fur-
rows, from a head ditch, the drainage system being kept
open at all times, the irrigation water to pass down, and
through the soil, into and out of the drains or into the
sub-soil, thus at all times draining. (circulating), the
water and the air throughout the soil. Circulation of
water and air is as necessary in productive, healthy soil
as circulation of the blood in animals, and for the same
purpose, to convey properly prepared food to the organs
of absorption.
8. What is the difference between drainage and dry-
ing?
There is a vast difference. Dried soil is not necessarily
drained soil. A mixture of soil, salt or sugar in a pan
or bowl may be dried by .evaporation. When dry the same
mixture of salt, sugar and sand, will remain in the vessel.
If the vessel be perforated by a hole in the bottom, and
water poured into the vessel, the mixture will be drained.
The salt or sugar (alkali or acid), will be drained off and
the sand or soil filled with water and air become a healthy
medium for growing crops. This is frequently demonstra-











ted by a plant in a pot. Close the drainage aperture and
the plant may be drowned with a small quantity of water,
saturated. Open the drainage aperture, and a constant
stream of water may be applied and the plant will
thrive."

WELL DRAINED SOILS.

9. Are well drained soils more subject to drought
than improperly drained soils?
No. On the contrary soils naturally or artificially
properly drained are less apt to suffer from drought than
improperly drained soil. Well drained soils, properly
plowed and cultivated, will store and hold sufficient
water, particularly in humid climates, to at all times
contain sufficient water and air to perfect crops. This
applies particularly to soils well filled with humus.
Humus, vegetable matter, is the universal sponge or ab-
sorbent provided by the Creator to hold water in the soil
for the sustenance of plants and applies particularly to
the swamp and overflowed lands of Florida generally.
Vast beds of muck, almost pure vegetable matter, con-
taining generally, when in good agricultural condition,
from fifty to sixty per cent of water and seldom in dry
seasons less than forty per cent of water in the zone oc-
cupied by plant roots, though the surface may be dry.
Such soil, when properly drained, full three feet to the
permanent water table, properly plowed twelve to eigh-
teen inches deep, and duly cultivated, will produce maxi-
mum crops in the dryest seasons. This has been so fre-
quently demonstrated in this and other States in the
South, particularly Louisiana, where fifty-five inches of
annual rainfall is not unusual; though protracted spring
and summer droughts sometimes occur, maximum crops
are made on thoroughly drained muck or alluvial soils
and disastrous failures on partially drained similar soils,
as to have fully -convinced myself and many others that
7-s-Bi..











muck lands cannot be drained too deep (drained, not
dried), when they are deeply plowed and properly culti-
vated, and that they will, without irrigating, produce
maximum crops, even in the dryest seasons.
These, gentlemen, are a few of the problems you will
meet. They will come in many different ways, with many
combinations of local conditions-varying conditions--
depth of soil, class and condition of sub-soil, water sheds
and outlets, proper depth of mains, laterals, and sub-
lateral drains, size and frequency of field ditches, and a
thousand other problems, from a thousand different men,
each with different ideas, each with a number of well
attested facts to prove his theory and the correctness of
his views.
I can only say that anything worth doing should be
done well and thoroughly, that no expedients or make-
shifts of any kind should be tolerated. If you determine
to drain a territory that needs drainage, drain it perfect-
ly as deeply as local conditions and a permanent water
table will allow. If you cannot drain it at least three
feet below the surface by natural means, then employ
artificial means, to remove the water to at least three
feet below the surface, as practiced in Louisiana where
the art of drainage is probably better understood and
practiced than in any other part of the United States.
When properly drained, then properly plow and culti-
vate the soil, and expect remunerative crops.
The foregoing conclusions are summed up concisely
in the following quotations from the Encyclopedia of
American Agriculture. L. H. Bailey, Vol. 1, 1907, an
accepted authority on agricultural science.

WATER CAPACITY OF SOILS.

"The water capacity of soils is measured by the total
pore space, and varies widely in different soils. Soils
that are saturated hold four to six acre-inches per acre-











foot of soil, or twenty to thirty-two pounds per cubic
foot. The volume of water in a given volume of soil is
lowest in a sandy soil; is somewhat greater in a loam or
clay, and reaches its highest point in a soil that contains
a large amount of organic matter. Soils that are adapted
to crop production are never saturated, and hence the
water capacity of soils under field conditions is much less
than the total water capacity of the same soils."

"When the soil is full of water to within a few inches of
the surface, there can be no circulation of air among its
particles. Adequate ventilation can be provided for such
a soil only by drainage. Drainage ventilates the soil by
lowering the ground water three or four feet and thus
makes it possible for the roots of plants to penetrate the
soil more deeply. Thus conditions are secured that pro-
mote the growth of plants, facilitate the work of the un-
limited host of soil bacteria and hasten the formation of
available plant food."
These fundamental truths have been so fully borne out
by practical demonstration that they are now accepted
by agriculturalists and scientists generally, who recognize
that drainage, to be effective, must be thorough in order
to cause the circulation of the two life-giving elements-
water and air-in the soils among the roots of the crops,
in sufficient quantity to prepare and convey to the plant
the necessary foods in soluble condition. This condition
can only be maintained in properly drained soil, in which
both water and air can freely circulate, carrying to the
plant the foods prepared for it by unnumbered hosts of
bacteria, themselves microscopic plants, organisms that
perish when deprived of the air and water, or when sub-
merged in stagnant water.
It is as necessary for soil water to circulate (drain),
to convey food to plant roots as for the blood of an animal
to circulate to convey food to the various organs of the
body, and that free oxygen be furnished to the plant as









100

well as the animal, a condition which cannot be had with
a soil saturated with stagnant water. Water and air
must circulate (drain) throughout the soil to a depth oc-
cupied by the roots of the plant, thus obeying the natu-
ral laws rdained by an all-wise Creator, which may not be
violated by an yof his creatures, animate or inanimate,
with impunity.
May, 1915. R. E. ROSE.




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