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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Celery, lettuce, tomato, irish...
 Crop and live stock conditions
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00033
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Celery, lettuce, tomato, irish potato, pecan and sugar cane growing
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Irish potato growing in Florida
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Tomato growing in Florida
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Commercial lettuce growing in Florida
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Celery growing in Florida
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Pecan culture in Florida
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Sugar-cane and syrup making
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
    Crop and live stock conditions
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 83
            Page 84
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
        Official fertilizer analyses
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Special feeding stuff analyses
            Page 138
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
        Official food analyses
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
Full Text





((NoIume 24


FLORIDA

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN

OF THE
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


JULY 1, 1914

W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.

Part 1-Celery, Lettuce, Tomato, Irish Potato, Pecan and
Sugar Cane Growing.
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer.
Tallahassee, Florida
-HJ)


1C --


Number 3








COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.



















PART I.

CELERY, LETTUCE, TOMATO, IRISH
POTATO, PECAN AND SUGAR
CANE GROWING.

















IRISH POTATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.



The potato (Solanum Tuberosum) belongs to the family
Solocanacea the same as the tomato, eggplant, belladonna,
etc. Solanin, the active principle, is found in small pro-
portions and is poison to a small extent. This poison is
developed when the surface turns green from exposure to
the direct rays of the sunlight and is therefore unwhole-
some as well as unpalatable when in that condition. For
this reason sprouted or greenish colored potatoes are less
valuable for food even though in the process of cooking
a change is effected in the composition of the tuber.
The chief organic ingredient of the potato is starch,
which forms about one-tenth of its weight. According to
history it was first introduced into Europe by the Spani-
ards from South America. It still grows wild in the moun-
tain regions of Chili. It also has been found indigenous
to Arizona and Mexico. It was introduced into England
from Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh. It is said that
"The potato is one of the greatest blessings bestowed upon
mankind, for next to rice, it affords sustenance to more
human beings than any other gift of God." It Is one of
the few food products that can be consumed exclusively
as a food. without limit as to time with no injury to the
system; it is a ration in itself that will sustain life and
strength for a great while. It is a wonderful provision of
nature, that the family which embraces the deadly night
shade, and other very poisonous plants, should also have
among its members this most useful vegetable. Of all the
crops of the truck farmer, the potato is the one which
is always saleable at more or less remunerative prices, its
general use among all classes and nativities of population,
makes it perhaps the most universally planted vegetable











known. The potato tuber is not a root, as it has neither
root hairs itself, nor has the stem which connects it with
the stock either flibrous roots or hairs and, therefore,
does not provide the plant with nourishment; neither is
it a seed any more than a stalk of sugarcane is a seed,
"both having eyes. The potato is simply an enlarged un-
derground stem, the eyes of which are also the buds. As
is well known the larger number of the eyes are on the
end of the tuber opposite from where the stem connects
with the plant. When the potato has dried out to a con-
siderable extent and the atmospheric conditions are favor-
able, the eyes or buds will swell and begin to grow or
sprout out. Until roots put forth these shoots are de-
pendent on the moisture and starch in the tuber for their
support, the same as seeds; these eyes, however, are inde-
dependent of each other, which enables the cutting of the
tuber into numerous parts for planting. If the tuber and
eyes are sound, the shoots will grow and make healthy
plants, provided conditions are favorable, whether they be
planted whole 'or in pieces with single eyes.
In cutting potatoes to single eyes, the cutter should
commence at the stem end, where the eyes are fewer in
number, and slice the pieces to single eyes each, in such a
way as to distribute the greatest amount of the tuber-sub-
stance possible with each piece. A good rule is, cut all
medium to large potatoes to single eyes whether sprouted
or not. Small potatoes may not all mature enough to
grow strong sprouts, but if a small potato is matured
enough to put forth strong sprouts, cut it also to single
eyes for very little substance will supply their support,
but if the potato has not sprouted it may be planted with-
out much danger of its putting forth more than one stalk.
A potato delights in a comparatively cool atmosphere
and moist soil and therefore thrives best in cool months
of the early spring and fall. Mulching with leaves
to retain moisture often produces a good crop even
if the season is very dry as the vegetable matter serves to











conserve the moisture in the soil. The soil best adapted
to this crop is a rich sandy loam or a moderately light
clay loam underlaid by a sub-soil of a character to re-
tain moisture. It should be plowed deeply and thoroughly
pulverized. Plow and harrow until it is put in a thor-
oughly good condition and well rotted stable manure may
be applied broad-cast, should there be a lack of humus in
the soil, but in the event the stable manure is applied, it
should be done for spring crops early in the season
or very late in the fall months. If too much green
manure is applied it is apt to produce scab. The land
should be broken a month or six weeks before time for
planting. It should be broken with a two-horse turn plow
and subsoiled if possible. Into these furrows put a com-
plete commercial fertilizer at the rate of 800 to 2,000
pounds per acre depending on the character of the soil.
Mix this 'with the soil and the subsoil by running two
furrows with a long narrow bull tongue plow so as to
thoroughly mix the fertilizer with the soil then let stand
for ten or twelve days before planting. Cut the tubers as
previously stated and plant when ready, covering about
four inches deep.
VARIETIES.

The best varieties for planting in tie South and espe-
cially in Florida, are the early and extra early varieties,
such as the Bliss' Red Triumph, Bliss' White Triumph,
Irish Cobbler, Improved Rose Number 4, Dixie and Extra
Early Sun Light. These are the extra early and the best
for growing in Florida for the first crop. Second earlier
an in some sections be grown with profit, but not gener-
ally throughout the State for commercial purposes.
-Beauty of Hebron, Early Rose and Carmen No. 3 are
favorite second early varieties. Burbank and Peerless
are late standard varieties for little later growing.
The time of planting potatoes in Florida depends upon
the sections of the State. In the far southern portions











they can be planted as early as December growing later
up to March as we go further north, indicating the
change necessary to conform to the seasons and location,
the difference being about ten to twelve days for each
100 miles.
The cultivation of potatoes is very similar to that of
corn. Plow deep at first and shallower with each working
until ready to lay by. In this way the roots that feed
the plants will not be troubled and the process of making
the tuber will not be interfered with. When the vines
turn yellow the tubers are ready to dig which can best
be done with an ordinary pronged potato hoe and the
man. In some of the light sandy soils potato diggers are
successfully used and can be successfully used in most
Florida soils. The digger should not be permitted to pile
them roughly into piles or throw them roughly into the
baskets. The more carefully a vegetable is handled
the better it will strike the public eye and consequently
the more money it will bring the grower. What-
ever may be its size, no cut or' bruised potatoes should
be put in the first quality, but may be in the culls. The
barrels or baskets should be well shaken down and so full
that the heads have to be pressed down. It is better that
they should be double headed and well coopered. The po-
tatoes should be classed as first and second quality and
the culls, the small tubers, should be kept for feed pur-
poses or seed as suggested elsewhere. Cloudy weather is
best for digging the crop, as potatoes should not be ex-
posed to the hot sun and if packed while warmed by the
sun they are apt to rot before reaching the market. If dug
during the sun shine, they should be gathered as they
are dug and carefully emptied into baskets or barrels
and promptly hauled from the field or shaded from the'
rays of the sun. The potato is subject to various insects
and diseases, but in this country a Florida potato grower
has a great deal less to combat in this respect than
those further north and west, but it is unsafe to place full











reliance in this fact because there is no certainty as to
when a disease or insects may attack the plant unsus-
pected. The potato scab is the greatest trouble to the
potato grower in Florida. This is a fungus disease and
can be prevented in a large measure by treating the
pieces of potato before planting with solution of corro-
sive sublimate or formalin and a good plan to prevent
this disease is to burn the vines wherever there is any
appearance of the disease about them. The solution for
treating this disease is corrosive sublimate, 4 ounces to 30
gallons of water. Soak the seed, after being cut, for one
hour to one hour and a half; then drain. The formalin
solution is one pint to 30 gallons of water. The potatoes
are immersed in this latter solution for about two hours.
A good plan to use in immersing potatoes in these solu-
tions is to put them one-half bushel or so at a time in a
gunny sack; then lift them out and let the water drain
back into the vessel. Any other clean sack will answer
the purpose if desired. As soon as this is done spread
them out and let them dry so that they will dry quickly
and thoroughly. Be sure that the solutions are not too
strong or the buds or eyes will be damaged.
There is also a disease known as the late blight which
comes about the time the potatoes are beginning to ma-
ture. This disease can be controlled by spraying with
Bordeaux mixture. In a former Bulletin, the July num-
ber, 1911, the formulas for all sorts of sprays, the Bor-
deaux included, will be found.
FERTILIZERS.
The following formulas are adapted practically to all
soils and sections in the State. The planter can choose
which ever seems to suit his soil best.
No. 1.
1,000 lbs. of Blood and Bone (64-8) ........... Per Cent.
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent)..... 4 Ammonia
5000 lbs. of Acid Phosphatte (16 per cent.)... 8 Available
400 lbs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.)... 10 Potash
2,000










10

State value mixed and bagged............$34.50
Plant Food per ton........................ 440 pounds

No. 2.


500 lbs of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent)..
200 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.).....
900 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)..
400 lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.)..

2,000


Per Cent.
4.00 Ammonia
7.70 Available
9.60 Potash


State value mixed and bagged........... $33.76
Plant Food per ton........................426 pounds
















TOMATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.

The Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the
order Solanaceae or night shade family, which contains
something over twelve hundred species, among which are
three of our most valuable and important vegetables-the
Irish potato, the tomato and the egg-plant. It also in-
cludes the red pepper, and the narcotics, such as bitter-
sweet, belladonna, Jamestown or "Jimson weed,' the to-
bacco and others.
The Tomato was first introduced into Europe from
South America in 1596, but for many years it was planted
only as an ornament to the flower garden. It came into
use very gradually in the preparation of sauces and soups,
and has only attained its popularity as a table vegetable
in comparatively recent years. Its importance as an ar-
ticle of commerce really dates back little more than
twenty years, and as compared with the present it was
then indeed of small proportions, though at that time the
increasing annual crop was 'watched in fear and much
suspicion as to the probable effect on the markets. At
present in Florida it exceeds in volume and value nearly
four times that of the next most important vegetable crop
(Irish potatoes). In 1910 the crates marketed were
2,336,948, the net value of which was $2,528,620. The To-
mato, therefore, is Florida's greatest vegetable crop,
standing next in importance and value to the Orange.

SELECTION OF SOIL.

That the Tomato will resist drought better than it will
too much rain, in fact it stands drought better than most
vegetables; the soil therefore best adapted to this crop is
a good well-drained sandy loam. The Tomato is not a gross











feeder; it seems to prefer, a light soil to one that is too
fertile, or that has been made rich with heavy animal
manures; cow manure in moderate quantities is good, but
chemical manures in proper quantities are best in most
cases.
SEED BEDS.

We do not believe in the extreme views of some growers,
who plant the seeds directly in the field, where the crop is
to be produced. A seed bed is really indispensable; it
makes success more certain and it should be well
equipped to afford speedy and ample protection against
cold, and of ample dimensions to furnish a relay of plants,
if the first setting is destroyed by cold, and even a second
relay is often necessary, for some times even these reserve
forces have to be brought into action.
It is best to have thtee or even four good, large plants
provided in the seed bed for every one the planter expects
to raise to maturity. This is the true wisdom of the fore-
sighted and provident grower, who, by his strong manage-
ment will force success against obstacles before which
weaker men will go down in defeat. The tomato is a fee-
b'e plant in its infancy and an easy prey to frost and
mysterious fungus enemies-yet, if we faithfully -defend
and feed it, it will yield the dollars at last more gener-
ously than anything else except the prodigal orange.
The seed-beds may be of light, rich, sandy loam, raised
a few inches above the level of the ground. It is consid-
ered best to have them six feet wide, and as long as de-
sired, running east and west. Have on the north side a
tight board wall, three feet high, on the south side half as
high, with tightly boarded gables. This will give a shed-
roof with light rafters nailed across, on which to roll
down the roof of cloth, tacked to rollers anywhere from
thirty to fifty feet long.
Let the rafters have no projection, so that the cloth
may drop down snugly against the south wall. Such a











covering of cloth alone will protect the plants against a
white frost; a sheet iron coke burner, such as the pine-
apple men and orange growers use, placed every fifty or
seventy-five feet, will protect them against a black frost.
Make drills crossways of the beds, three to four inches
apart, sow the seed in thinly, say about two or three to
the inch. Cover three-fourths of an inch. Firm the soil
with a board or light roller, and water with a light spray,
as may be needed to keep the soil moist, but be sure not to
overdo it as too much moisture will cause the plants to
damp off, and to grow small and slender, especially near
the front and back walls of the frame. It is therefore
advisable to sow the seed more thinly near the front and
back than in the middle of the bed. Roll down the cover
on chilly nights.
When the plants begin to have four leaves, cultivate
lightly at least once a week. Pull out clumps of spindling
plants where the seed chanced to fall in a bunch. Thin to
three inches by cutting across the drills with a narrow
hoe.
Where the plantation does not exceed a half-dozen
acres, it pays to take up and reset the plants once or twice
to render them more hardy and stocky. To toughen them
against this removal it is recommended to render them
some what dormant. This is to be continued up to the
hour of removal. This may be done without fear as the
tomato is very tolerant of a transfer.

TRANSPLANTING TO THE FIELD.

First, make ready the field two weeks beforehand. Sup-
posing it to have been plowed in November and thor-
oughly cross-plowed in'January, then with a two-horse
plow run out furrows four feet apart and strew in the fer-
tilizer at the rate of 600 pounds per acre. Work in a lit-
tle of the furrow slice and mix it with the fertilizer with
a bull-tongue. Strew in as much more and mix again,











thus giving 1,200 pounds per acre and leaving the surface
level. Set the plants two to three feet apart, according to
the strength of the land. Some growers prefer to manure
the plants in the hill, which probably saves in the amount
of fertilizer required per acre, but either plan is good, one
about as good as another, and is largely a matter of
choice only.
Reject rigorously all weakling plants. Leave them in
the seed-bed to grow; when relieved of the crowding, they
may come on and furnish a relay, if needed. Wet the
ground soft and pull the plants up carefully, running the
forefinger under, if necessary. Wet the rows down again
to restore the level after the upheaval.
We have very little confidence in plantsetting machines
with tomatoes. They are fine, and great time and labor
savers in the planting of some crops, but not for tomatoes,
they are too tender and easily bruised. The way is to set
by hand with the best paid class of men and not with chil-
dren at all. Children are only fit to pick cut worms. Take
hold of a plant and pull; if the leaf comes off, the plant
was properly set; if the plant comes up, the setting was
poorly done. Caution the setters constantly against
leaving airholes at the bottom; make them fill in at the
bottom first, then at the top. Firm the earth; have an ex-
perienced man follow along; place one foot on each side
of the plant; rock a little forward and throw his whole
weight on his toes, opposite the plant.
Keep the plants screened from the sun, in a vessel with
water enough to cover their roots. Let each setter have
his own vessel of plants; take one out at a time and im-
mediately place it in a hole punched in the ground, not
exposing the roots to the air two seconds.

CULTIVATION.

This is as simple as with corn. It may be deep and
close for a few weeks, but keeping further away and more











shallow as the plant advances, ceasing when the bloom
buds come.
There is little doubt that staking the plant and nipping
out the terminal bud above the first cluster of bloom
hastens the maturity and improves the size of the toma-
toes; but it is questionable if it will pay with the present
prices of labor. In a small field tended by the grower's
family, it would probably be profitable. Do not prune the
plants if you expect to ship your fruit to market; you will
get fewer but larger fruit, but it will not pay you.
When picking the earliest fruits it should be remem-
bered that the cold weather in the North will permit them
to ripen very little on the road; hence they should not be
gathered until they have begun to redden slightly. A
greener one would remain hard and uneatable and rot be-
fore it would ripen. Later on, as the weather in the
North grows warmer, they may be picked when they have
fairly turned white, preparatory to reddening. An imma-
ture tomato removed from the plants always remains
more or less tough. This objection may be remedied to a
considerable extent by proper fertilizing. A tomato
grown on a well-proportioned strongly mineral fertilizer
will be comparatively crisp and melting in the mouth,
while one produced on nitrogenous manures will be
tough and wilted.
The tomato, though it is so great a crop, is well worth
being treated as a fancy product, in fact, all the early pro-
duce of Florida is deserving of this distinction. Coarse,
brown wrapping paper cheapens the fruit. The buyer is
only too ready to take it at the grower's own estimate.
Valuable packages are not wrapped in hardware paper.
The best printed tissue wraps should be used, and-let the
fruit also be worthy of the wrappings.

VARIETIES.

There are such a large number of equally good varieties
to choose from that one can hardly go amiss, and while at











one time it was thought that only one or two kinds would
bear shipment, continued improvements with new varie-
ties have so changed these conditions that it is largely a
matter of choice or personal preference as to which is best
in the grower's opinion.

BLIGHT AND INSECT.

With the tomato, as with all other vegetables in this
State, no precaution against insects should be neglected;
prevention is much easier than medication. The one pre-
eminent precaution is to use strong tobacco dust
sprinkled around the plants as soon as they are set out.
Blight is also far easier to overcome in advance. Burn all
the old vines as soon as the harvest is over, thus destroy-
ing the germs of blight or other diseases. It is best to
plant tomatoes in rotation with crops that are affected
with diseases different from the tomato, such as corn, cab-
bages, peppers, etc.
FERTILIZER.
A good fertilizer for rather light soil would be com-
posed of say-
No.1.
Per Cent.
1,000 lbs of Blood and Bone (6-8)............ 4 Ammona
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).... Available
500 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)..... 10 Potashvalale
400 lbs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.).. )

2,000
State value mixed and bagged..............$34.50
Plant Food per ton....................... 440 pounds
For heavier soils, as the best class of sandy or clay
loams:
No. 2.
Per Cent.
500 lbs. of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent.). ) 4.00 Ammonia
200 Ibs. of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.).... 7.70 Available
900 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.). 9.60 Potash
400 lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.)..

2,000
State value mixed and bagged..............$33.76 '
Plant Food per ton.........................426 pounds













COMMERCIAL LETTUCE GROWING
IN FLORIDA.



This plant has been cultivated for more than twenty
centuries, and apparently continues to increase in popu-
larity every year with all classes of people. Few plants
are more easily grown, and yet with the enormous demand
for it it is still a luxury on most tables, merely because so
comparatively few gardeners take the trouble to grow it
at the season of the year when it is appreciated. The
Best varieties are to a great degree intolerant of hot sun-
shine, but thrive well with very little protection from
either hot sun or cold snaps, from October to the first of
June.
The quality of the lettuce crop is more or less influenced
by the kind of soil upon which it is grown, and while
some soils are inferior for the work, their character may
be changed to such a degree, by careful management, as
to give satisfactory results.
The 'soils may be divided into three classes-light soils,
heavy soils (those containing a good deal of clay), and
medium soils, as the various grades of loamy soils-clay
loam, fine sandy loam and sandy loam. All things con-
sidered, the ideal soils for the development of this crop
are those of the best sandy loam, resting on a clay subsoil
twelve to fifteen inches below the surface and well-drain-
ed. A soil retentative of moisture and plant-food must
have a more or less impervious clay subsoil, for, no mat-
ter how suitable the surface soil may be, unless there is
clay beneath it the plant food on becoming soluble will
quickly leach out and be lost if it is not taken up by the
crop. Deep, sandy soils, though quicker in their action
than heavier soils, if constantly irrigated and fed, are
2-Bul











nevertheless expensive in both fertilizer and irrigation.
In selecting a soil for lettuce growing, in fact, for any
truck crop, it is best to look carefully into the character
and position of the subsoil.
Lettuce thrive best on a very rich, loamy, moist soil,
well drained so there will be no water sogging after rains,
and in common 'with all quick-growing crops, requires a
large amount of humus in the soil. Barnyard manure is
one of the best and surest means of adding humus to the
soil, but because of its scarcity it is not always available,
so the next best and cheapest source of organic matter
is by the use of cover crops of the legume order. Lettuce
growers should see to it that whenever their lettuce soils
are not under crop they should be storing humus and
nitrogen from a crop of some legume; cowpeas or velvet
beans are best. To make lettuce growing a success,
humus must be supplied, and it may as well be set down
as an incontrovertible fact, that where there is no humus
in the soil there will be no lettuce. A rich soil is
absolutely necessary. If you haven't got it, and are not
willing to bear the expense of making it, don't plant
lettuce.
Prepare the land by plowing deeply; scatter broadcast
stable manure or well-rotted compost, and harrow in well
till the soil is in finest tilth and the manure thoroughly
incorporated with the soil seven days, or even two weeks,
before the time for setting out the plants; it is also a good
plan to apply before harrowing from one thousand to one
thousand five hundred pounds per acre of a high-grade
commercial fertilizer, as an adjunct to the stable manure,
etc., and that it may be well assimilated by the soil before
time for setting.
Plants are ready for setting at from four to six weeks
after sowing the seed, at which time they should be from
three to five inches high. Set only vigorous plants, or
they will likely be stunted and run to seed instead of
heading. The varieties most preferred and apparently









19


most in demand by consumers are the Big Boston and the
California Cream Butter.
Preparation of the seed bed does not materially differ
from that of the celery, and the same methods are appli-
cable to a great degree.
Select for this purpose a piece of new, rich land, pre-
ferably hammock, for new land is not subject to the root
knot plague which sometimes troubles roots. Clear the
soil of all trash, plow or spade it deep and rake very fine
and mellow, scattering on hardwood ashes or air-slaked
lime two weeks beforehand to neutralize the sourness.
Sow in drills, as you would turnip seed, very shallow,
and rake in. Firm Nhe soil. Beat down the earth with
the back of the hoe or lay down boards and walk along
them. If planted before October, it is well to shade the
beds lightly for seven or eight hours during the middle of
the day. Sprinkle night and morning with a fine spray,
so as not to pack the land.
Watch sharply for ants; they may carry off every seed
in forty-eight hours. Apply tobacco dust liberally; if
they still persist, give them a tobacco solution, strong;
also as a further preventative, sow grits over the bed.
The ants will take this in preference to the seeds, and
while they are carrying it away the lettuce will have
sprouted and be out of danger.
When the plants are to be transplanted, weed out rigid-
ly and throw away the diseased and feeble plants. A
small strawberry plant, by diligent care, can be fed up to
be nearly as good as a large one; but not so with a let-
tuce plant. With a lettuce, it is a head or it is nothing;
unless it heads it is valueless.
We repeat, it is not worth while to attempt to grow
lettuce commercially for profit unless you have made up
your mind to fertilize liberally, unstintedly. Lettuce
is largely a luxury of the rich, used for garnishing meats
in splendid dinner services, and small leaves, though they
may be just as crisp and high-flavored, are not wanted,








20


because, they lack in spectacular qualities. A single
large, rich, creamy-white leaf or head is worth a dozen
smaller ones.
Fully four-fifths of the failures m lettuce culture in
Florida are chargable to the stinting habit in the appli-
cation of fertilizer. In some localities hundreds of dol-
lars worth of fertilizer per acre is applied, with larger
profits as a result.. One to two ton of ashes per acre,
especially on medium to heavy soils, while preparing the
land will be worth many times their cost. It will make
the soil loose, friable and sweet.
The truckers of Central Florida begin to plant seed the
latter part of August and continue to plant until the first
of January. Those who plant prior to the middle of Sep-
tember seldom succeed in securing a satisfactory stand of
plants. Lettuce is a cool weather plant; it germinates
poorly in hot weather. The few, however, who do succeed
by shading and watering in securing a good stand of
these extra early plants, and who bring them on to a
handsome and solid maturity, generally reap a rich re-
ward, as this early lettuce commands a fine price. It is
a good plan to make repeated sowings, from August 25th
to January 1st.
It is an advantage to select a field on the south side
of a forest, as a screen against wind. A covering of cot-
ton cloth often pays heavy dividends on the investment.
Lettuce, when in heading, is greatly injured by a tem-
perature of 25 degrees; but when not heading it will often
withstand 20 degrees without serious injury. The cloth
is carried on short stakes, care being exercised to bring
the edges well down to prevent the wind from getting
under. If the field is not protected by a cloth cover, cut
all the heads that will do to ship, when you see that there
will be a killing frost; and ship them to market next day.
Following are two good formulas for fertilizing lettuce.
Use the one which seems to suit your soil and general









21

conditions best; or if preferred, use some other approxi-
mating them:
1. Ammonia, 5 to 6 per cent.
Available phospheric acid, 7 to 9 per cent
Potash, 8 to 10 per cent.

2. Ammonia, 6 to 7 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid, 6 to 7 per cent.
Potash, 6 to 7 per cent.

Apply from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds per acre, and while
the crop is growing top-dress with about 150 to 200
pounds of nitrate of soda per acre. It requires about
three pounds of seed to sow an acre, or one ounce to every
250 feet of drill.
Baskets for shipping can be obtained from the vege-
table crate manufacturers in any section of the State.

















CELERY GROWING IN FLORIDA.



Celery has for many years been recognized as one of
the greatest luxuries of the garden, and while there are
no special difficulties in the way of cultivation, it is grown
by comparatively very few. The plant is a native of Eng-
land, where it grows in a wild state in favorable localities.
It is also a native of and occurs in several localities in
Florida in its wild state, though in this condition it is not
fit to eat except by wild water fowl, as it contains a pois-
onous principle making it dangerous as human food.
Although it has been grown for market in various sec-
tions of the country in a comparatively small way for
many years, it is really little more than ten years since
it became one of the most important commercial vegetable
crops. The first experiments in its cultivation were not
without failures by any means, for they were many, but
gradually success was generally the rule, and with well
defined methods, the growing of celery became a commer-
cial success.
Celery requires in both its early and late stages of
growth a cool, moist atmosphere, and consequently does
not do well under extremes of heat or drought. In Flor-
ida the seeds are sown in the open generally, protection
being rarely necessary. The soil must be a rich loam, or
other soil and means added to obtain the same character
as nearly as possible, but it should be loose and rich, soil
that has been previously cultivated and manured heavily
being considered the very best. The seed bed may be
any length desired, but from three to five feet is the best
width, most growers use three feet widths.
Such beds are prepared generally in August and Sep-











member. The most successful celery growers in Florida
prepare their seed beds some two to three weeks before
time for planting the seed, the bed having previously been
well manured, thus time enough is allowed to elapse for
the manure to become thoroughly assimilated. The seed
being very small must not be too deeply covered. Germi-
nation of the seed may be hastened by packing the soil
over the seed immediately after sowing by means of a
smooth board six or eight inches wide and three or more
feet long, as may be necessary. Mark off the rows for
planting the seed across the beds in the following man-
ner: "Take a five-inch plank, three feet long; nail a lath
on each edge, projecting one-fourth of an inch on one
side. With this make marks across the beds by pressing
it down on the beds. Scatter or sprinkle in the seeds
thinly and cover by sprinkling or sifting light soil or sand
over the rows. A good idea is to cover the beds with old
gunny sacks, Spanish moss or by laying a corn stalk
along each side of the drill, but not directly over it and
keep fairly wet till the seeds sprout, which, under favor-
able conditions, will be in from eight to twelve days. As
soon as the seed are well sprouted and show that they
are coming up it is best to cover them as a protection
against both hot sun and heavy rains, removing the cover
in the evening till next morning. Each day as the plants
grow stronger, a little more sunlight can be given them
till in a few days they will, under ordinary circumstances,
be able to remain uncovered all day. Keep the beds moist,
not letting them become dry at any time. When the
plants are well above ground, say about an inch high, it
is a good plan to put a little fertilizer between the rows
and either stir into the surface gently or let it be dis-
tributed by a gentle sprinkling of water, either or both
is good. Good working of the surface to keep down the
weeds should be given once every few days. When plants
are two or three inches high they are about ready to
transplant to other beds, though some growers prefer to











wait till the plants are larger, and some do not transplant
but once and that direct from the original beds to the
fields. None but the best stocky plants should be used,
as spindling plants rarely develop into profitable growth.
Celery has been and can be grown on almost all of the
soils of Florida, the best soils, however, being the low ham-
mock lands when well drained, but any soil loose in tex-
ture and containing a good upply of humus will, under
proper management produce fine crops. As before stated,
a soil of a cool nature should be selected if obtainable, as
the plant develops better, and is less liable to attacks of
injurious diseases. Following in concise form are the
methods used in South Florida in connection with the sys-
tem of irrigation practiced in Orange County:
"The plot to be planted should be well supplied with
water either from artesian wells, steam pumps or natural
sources. Many of the most successful growers are tile-
draining their land, the tiles being placed from a foot
and a half to two feet under ground. The joints are
covered with cinders, sawdust or even moss, to keep the
sand out and let the water pass in or out as necessary.
These drains are placed about twenty-five feet apart, and
are so arranged, that they can be used to drain the land
during heavy rains or to irrigate it when it is dry. After
the draining and irrigating system is completed, no pains
should be spared ,or labor omitted to reduce the soil to
perfect tilth so that the innumerable fine feeding roots of
the plant can penetrate the soil in every direction."
In sections where overhead or sprinkling and surface
systems of irrigation are practiced the same principles
will apply, and can be adapted to suit conditions, but one
thing must be remembered, the plants whether in bed or
field must not be permitted to suffer from lack of water
any more than they must be over-watered. All manures
applied to the soil should be in the most perfect condi-
Stion-soluble and available-whether it be in the form of
commercial or barnyard manure; the latter should be










thoroughly decomposed, evenly distributed broadcast and
harrowed in well. At this,stage, the general custom is
to also apply about a ton of first-class commercial fertil-
izer to the land and harrow till thoroughly incorporated
into the soil.

A well-known authority on this subject says: "When
plants are ready for transplanting take great care to have
those in each row of uniform size. To accomplish this,
put the large and small plants in alternate rows, as the
larger ones will often be ready for market from ten days
to two weeks prior to the smaller ones. There is no use
setting celery plants in dry soil. If there has been lack
of rain as is often the case in October and November in
Florida, then turn on the irrigating plant till the land
is thoroughly moist and then water the plants freely. In
setting the plants remember the rows must be absolutely
straight. Use a line as a guide and run a cleated roller
over the ground to mark the place for each plant. Set-
ting in double rows is seldom practiced, and the rule now
is to set plants four inches apart in single rows twenty-
eight to thirty inches in width, giving about 60,000 plants
to the acre. Droppers immediately preceding the plant
setter, place the plants at the marks along the line. The
plants are quickly placed in the holes made by a round
dibble or garden trowel the depth of the center or heart
leaf and the soil placed firmly alongside of the plant over
the roots by pushing the dibble to the depth of the root
and bearing towards the plant, afterwards closing up the
depression made by the dibble to prevent drying out of
the soil near.the roots,; thus firm the soil. When the soil
is wet, celery plants will usually live even though care-
lessly set."
Either of the following formulas for commercial fertil-
izer are good for celery, and the one which seems best
adapted to the soil and'conditions can be used, or any
other approximately similar;











1 300 lbs Nitrate of Soda..
800 lbs Fish Scrap........9
600 lbs Acid Phos., 13 %. y s 6.9% Ammonia
300 lbs Muriate Potash.. yields 5.5% Avail. Phos Acid
1 7.2% Potash
2000 Ibs

2 250 lbs Nitrate of Soda..
600 lbs Dried Blood...... Ammo
850 Ibs Acid Phos., 13%. 7.2% Ammonia
300 lbs Muriate Potash.. yields 5.5% Avail. Phos. Acid
1 7.8% Potash
2000 lbs

During the growth of the crop from one to two. tons
per acre of the above may be applied between the rows,
and from two to four hundred pounds of nitrate of soda
per acre as a top-dressing in four equal applications at
about four different times.
To make the cultivation of celery a success it must be
worked often; in fact, it is not too much to say that the
oftener it is worked the better, just so it is not disturbed
or handled while the plant is wet with dew or rain, or
while the soil is wet, or it will cause rust to the plant and
pack the soil. The best implements for use near the
plants when small are the hand cultivators with wheel
hoes and small blades, while the middles can be worked
out well with horse hoes on similar, or larger imple-
ments.
When the weather is cool during the winter month, be
very careful not to apply too much water, as it may make
your soil soggy and check the growth of the plants.
Blanching is done almost entirely with twelve-inch
boards placed close alongside the rows of plants. It is
found to be much better, takes much less time to blanche,
and avoids the danger of the loose soil falling into the
crown of the plants, as was the case when blanching was
done by drawing the earth up against the plant. It re-
quires only from twelve to fifteen days to blanche the
plants to the creamy yellow color so desired in celery
where boards are used. The above suggestions are appli-









28

cable to celery growing in all sections of the State by
simply observing and adapting them to the prevailing
climatic conditions and seasons.
Four ounces of seed is sufficient to plant an acre.
Crates of standard size can readily be obtained from
any one of the numerous crate manufacturers throughout
the State.














PECAN CULTURE IN FLORIDA.



BOTANY OF THE PECAN.

The pecan tree is indigenous in the United States in
the rich, alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi, and also
thought to be in some of the rich bottom lands of north-
east Texas. Its northern limit is 'supposed to be about
Davenport, Iowa. In the Mississippi Valley proper it
extends within a few miles of the Gulf Coast, further
west it extends into Mexico.
The area in which it may be grown is said to embrace
within its four extremities the cities of Davenport, Iowa,
Chattanooga, Tenn.; Laredo, Tex.; the region of the head-
waters of the Colorado River in Texas, and even at the
present day as far west as Arizona. It extends furthest
from the center of the area along the streams and rivers.
It is at present grown in all of the Southern States in
greater or less degree. From the foregoing it will be seen
il.lt the pecan tree is a native in parts of the following
States, viz: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee,
Kentucky, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, New Mexico,
and Oklahoma. Outside of this area it has been planted
in a large number of States. Its cultivated area corre-
sponds rather closely with that of the cotton plant, though
its extension beyond this area is constantly increasing.
The pecan belongs to the family Juglandaceae (Walnut
family), its near relatives being the other species of hick-
ory, the walnut and butternut. For many years the scien-
tific name commonly applied to it was Cara Olivae forms
Nutt, but in deference to the rules of priority this name
has largely given place to the name Hicoria pecan










(Marsh) Britton. This name Hicoria pecan is peculiarly
significant, since it is truly American ,being derived from
powoohicora and pecan, two words used by the Indians
for hickory nuts.
It is a large, stately tree, 75 to 170 feet in height, with
wide-spreading branches and symmetrical top. The bark
is rough, broken and grayish-black in color. The bark of
the young twigs is quite smooth, liberally dotted with
lenticles, and during their early life, together with the
leaves and flowers of the tree, they are covered with a
liberal coating of rather rust-colored hair. The leaves
are oval, compound, composed of from seven to fifteen
falcate, oblong-lanceolate, sharp-pointed serrated leaflets,
green and quite bright above, lighter colored below, and
when mature, nearly or quite smooth. The flowers are of
two kinds-pistillate and staminate. The former are
produced upon the young shoots, while the latter come
from buds upon twigs one year old. The staminate cat-
kins are usually produced in two groups of three each,
from a single bud, and have very short stalks. The
stamens are three to five in number in each flower, and
borne beneath a three-parted bract. The pistallate flow-
ers have a four-valved involucre (known in the mature
form as the husk) and a two-parted stamina. The nuts
are quite variable in size, shape, color and quality. Some
are long and pointed, others are nearly spherical. In
Texas the spherical, or nearly spherical, nuts appear to
be more common than elsewhere. Selected nuts of some
varieties will weigh an ounce or more each, while of many
other kinds it takes a hundred, more or less, to make a
pound.
As a general rule the husks of most varieties open at
maturity. In some, however, they remain closed, or
nearly so. These latter varieties are objectionable on
account of the increased difficulty of gathering the crop.
Pollenation.-The pecan is well-pollenated. In con-
sequence, there is a great waste of pollen, to compensate











for which it is produced in large quantities. Wet, windy
weather, at the time the trees are in bloom, frequently
interferes with pollenation to such an extent that the crop
is reduced very considerably.
With some species of hickory, notably H. minima and
H. Glabra, cross-polleneation and consequent cross-fertili-
zation with the pecan have resulted in several well-
marked hybrids. None of these found thus far, with per-
haps one or two exceptions, have been found worthy of
propagation.
RANGE OF CULTURE IN FLORIDA.

The pecan may be, and practically is, grown in all sec-
tions of the State wherever the soil conditions are found
to be satisfactory. Its culture, however, should not be
attempted in the southern portion of the State much, if
any, below 28 degrees latitude; success would, at best, be
questionable; it might succeed in the elevated portions of
Polk and Hillsborough Counties, but it is uncertain.
The statement is ifequently made, and quite generally
believed, that the pecan will succeed wherever the larger
species of hickory are found in the State. This is largely
true, as the pecan belongs to the same family and genus of
trees, but it should not be relied on implicitly. In no
case must soil conditions be overlooked or disregarded.

PECAN PROPAGATION.

The pecan may be propagated from seed or by budding
and grafting.
Formerly they were grown almost entirely from seed
and seedling trees were planted. But now seedlings have
given place to budded and grafted trees. Why so? It
was announced as a fact, not so many years ago, and
there are some who may still maintain it, that 50 per
cent., or some other per cent., of pecans would come true
to seed. But it must be stated as a fact that neither 50,











nor any other percent., will come true to seed. We have
yet to find a single instance where the nut of a seedling
tree was identical with that borne by its parent plant.
Occasionally they are better, but the rule is that they
generally are vastly inferior to the fruit produced by the
parent plant. Hence, if an orchard of trees of the same
habit of growth, prolificness, regularity in bearing, uni-
form throughout, trees which will produce a crop of nuts
uniform in size, shape, color and quality, is desired, do
not plant seedling trees. Scores of these seedling trees
produce nuts but little larger than chinquepins, and it is
a fact which cannot be gainsaid that the seedling pecan,
up to the time of fruiting, is an unknown quantity, after
which it is too frequently a disappointment.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown the
stocks upon which to work desirable varieties. From
seeds may be originated new and desirable varieties, for
it sometimes happens that the seedling is better than the
parent. Seedling trees may be grown and set out in
orchard form, to be top-worked afterward. This plan
has something to recommend it. It is less expensive, pro-
vided time is not an object, for it takes a longer time to
get bearing trees by this plan, and it is open to the fur-
ther objection that it is more difficult to secure uniform-
ity in size and shape of the trees than it is by setting out
budded or grafted trees at first. The objection in the way
of expense, if that .be an objection, is best overcome by
planting nuts in nursery rows, grafting the trees there,
and then setting them in the field. By no means should
the nuts be planted where the trees are to remain. It is
too difficult to give them the necessary care. Besides,
they are likely to be destroyed by squirrels or other ani-
mals, or the seedlings injured through carelessness in cul-
tivation.
Selecting and Planting Nuts.-Nuts to be used in grow-
ing stocks should be fully matured before gathering.
Some care should be taken in their selection. They should











be of good size for the variety, and should be gathered
only from healthy, vigorous trees. Frequently the only
object held in view is to get as many nuts as possible in
a pound, without regard to the tree on which they grew.
We believe that this is in a large degree responsible for
the unsatisfactory growth made by many grafted trees.
Those nuts which mature first are best for planting.
The nuts may be planted in Florida as soon as they are
taken from the trees, placing them in drills three and a
half feet apart and covering them two and a half or three
inches deep. In many cases it may be necessary and more
convenient to stratify the nuts in damp sand in boxes,
first an inch-layer of sand, then a layer of nuts, until the
boxes are filled. These boxes should be placed in a cool,
shady place, under a building, in a cellar, or buried in the
earth. It is a good plan to cover them with wire net to
prevent mice, rats or squirrels from attacking them. In
early spring the boxes should be emptied out and the nuts
planted as directed above.
The seed-bed should be thoroughly prepared, plowed
deeply or subsoiled, well supplied with organic matter
either from stable manure or from beggarweed, velvet
beans, cowpeas, or some other leguminous crop on the
soil, and turned under.
During the growing season the seed-bed should be kept
well cultivated and free from weeds and grass. A fer-
tilizer rich in nitrogen should be used. Its composition
will have to be governed very largely by the character of
the soil and the care and cultivation given it previously;
but for good nursery soils a fertilizer analyzing three per
cent. nitrogen will give good results. In a favorable sea-
son the tops of the young trees will be a foot or somewhat
more in height, with a tap-root two feet and a half or so
in length. The following spring and summer many of the
young trees can be worked by grafting or budding.
Propagating Tools.-The tools necessary for propagat-
ing pecans-nursery work and top-working-are a com-
3-Bul










mon budding knife, a budding tool, a grafting iron, a
grafting mallet and a fine-toothed saw.
The budding knife should have a thin blade of good
steel, capable of retaining a keen, sharp edge. The whet-
stone must be used frequently to keep the blade sharp to
insure the making of smooth, clean cuts.
At least three budding tools have been invented. These
are known as White's, Galbreath's and Nelson's budding
tools, respectively. The principle in each one is that two
sharp cutting blades are fixed parallel to each other to
insure uniformity in cutting annular and veneer-shield
or patch buds. White's budding implement is especially
recommended for use in top-working. The holes along the
sides are used as a gauge for measuring the stock and bud
stick. In the writer's opinion, the one best adapted for
veneer-shield budding, but the blades are just a little too
close together. A very satisfactory knife for this work
may be made from two ordinary budding knives and a
piece of wood three-quarters of an inch square and four
inches long. To opposite sides of this the blades can be
firmly attached with rivets and by binding with fine wire
and twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting.
These can be purchased at small cost, or a blacksmith
can make an excellent one from an old flat file. Three
or four inches of the file should be flattened and sharp-
ened for a blade. In the remainder drill two holes and
attach two pieces of wood to form a handle.
A small-sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely for a
grafting mallet, or a very good one can be made front a
piece of tough wood or a piece of an old wagon spoke.
A leather thong should be attached to the handle, through
which the wrist can be slipped to carry it when top-
working.
The best saw for use in top-working is a carpenter's
back-saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth,and leaves a
smooth, clean cut.











IVaxes, Cloth and Twine.-Good grafting-wax may be
made according to either of the following formulas:
1. Resin 6 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil 1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1 pound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow fire,
stirring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When melted,
pour out into a bucket of cold water. Grease the hands,
remove the wax from the water as soon as it can be han-
dled and pull until it is light-yellow in color. Wax not
needed for immediate use may be rolled up in balls,
wrapped in oiled, stiff brown paper, and put away for
further use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax in a
kettle and dropping into it sheets or wide strips of old
calico or cotton cloth. As soon as saturated with the
wax, remove them from the kettle and stretch on a board.
For use tear into strips, one-quarter or one-half of an inch
wide.
Waxed twine is prepared by dropping balls of No. 18
knitting cotton into the melted wax and stirring them
about for four or five minutes, or until the wax has pene-
trated .them.
Selecting Cions and Buds.-Cions and bud sticks
should be taken from healthy, vigorous trees. Select the
cions from well-matured wood of one year's growth,
though a piece of two-year-old wood at the base will not
matter. The wood is angular, small and the internodes
long, and the pith large in proportion to the diameter.
Either terminal portions of twigs may be used or por-
tions back of the tip, but the buds should always be well
developed, full and plump. For this reason grafts should
not be cut from wood far back from the tip of the branch.
As stated already, twigs of the previous season's growth
are generally used, provided the growth is not too large.
Grafts are generally cut about five or six inches long and
should be from one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch in
thickness.











It is best that the grafts be cut while still in a dormant
state, and inserted in the stock just before growth starts.
The cions may be kept for a considerable length of time
by placing them loosely packed, in damp moss or sawdust,
in a box. The box should be covered over with earth and
the cions kept sufficiently moist to prevent drying out.
The difference in the condition of the stock and cion, it
should be understood, is not absolutely necessary, as good
results are frequently obtained without these precautions,
but in grafting the pecan a difference in dormancy is ex-
tremely desirable, and it is an important factor in secur-
ing good results,
For bud-sticks, well-developed one-year-old branches,
one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, and on
which the buds are well formed, or older wood, with
plump, full buds, are selected. Such sticks frequently
show three buds at a node, and if some misfortune should
overtake one or two of these, there is still a chance of suc-
cess, though the upper one, being the strongest, is gener-
ally the one which starts, provided it is uninjured and the
bud takes. The degree of maturity of the bud is impor-
tant, and care should be exercised that only those which
are plump, full and well-developed, are used. It is: easy
to distinguish between desirable and undesirable buds.

GRAFTING AND GRAFTING METHODS.

Top-working by grafting, or the grafting of nursery
stock above ground, should be done in spring just before
growth starts. The preference is for the latter part of
the season, provided there is not too much work to be
done, as the cions have less time to dry out before the
process of uniting with the stock begins. The work of
whip-grafting nursery stock under ground just at the
crown roots of the seedlings can be started in the latter
part of December and continued until February. For this
work the earth is thrown back from the seedlings, leaving












them standing in a narrow trench. After the cions are
inserted, the ground is placed back about them, covering
them up, leaving only the top bud exposed. The seedling
trees cannot be dug up and bench-grafted satisfactorily
in winter, as is the practice with apples, pears and other
fruits. It can be done, but the percentage of unions
secured is too small to make it an economical method to
follow. The only satisfactory plan is to graft the seed-
lings in the nursery row, as described above.
Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting for
top-working and whip-grafting for working both nursery
seedlings and old trees.
Cleft-Grafting.-Having selected the place on the
branch or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be
inserted, the part should be sawed off with a smooth, clean
cut. The end of the stub can then be cut squarely off at
the point desired.
The trunk or branch is then split with the grafting
iron. The cleft should be carefully made, and should be
about one and a half inches in length. In preparing the
cion, a sloping cut is made at the lower end about one
and a half inches long, cutting into the pith from a point
one-half way up the cut, down to the lower end. On the
opposite side, the second cut should not touch the pith,
but should be made through the wood throughout. The
cion should be left wider on the outer side than on the
inner to make a tight fit when inserted. Start the cuts
on each side of and just at a bud.
Having made the cleft, open it with the wedge end of
the grafting iron and place the cion in position in the
cleft-stock. The cambium layers should be in contact and
the cion should be shoved well down until the whole of
the wedge is within the stock. In large stocks two cions
may be inserted, the weaker of which should be removed
if both live. Large stocks will exert sufficient pressure
against the cions to render tieing unnecessary, but if the
stocks are small the union should be firmly tied with












waxed twine or cloth, and in any case the ends of the cut
stock and the union should be covered smoothly with
grafting-wax. Should there be danger of the stock exert-
ing too much pressure (as in the case of large stocks), the
cleft should be made well out to one side of the center.
Whip-Grafting.-Stocks, whether seedling trees or
branches in the tops of old trees, should be less than an
inch in diameter, one-half or five-eighths inch being a nice
size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long, is
made at the end of the cion, a corresponding cut is made
on the stock, a small tongue of wood is raised on each by
making a cut with a knife-blade parallel to the grain of
the wood. The tongue is raised a little on both stock and
cion and the two are then shoved together, with the cam-
bium layers on one or both sides in contact. They must
then be firmly bound together with twine or cloth, the
whole of the cut surfaces being covered over to the ex-
clusion of water, air and the germs of decay.
The cion and stock are preferably chosen of nearly the
same size, but a cion somewhat smaller than the stock
may be used, in which case the cambium layers along one
side of the surfaces in contact must be placed opposite, as
already indicated. In working nursery seedlings by whip-
grafting, the cions should be inserted so that the point of
union will be under the surface of the ground. The earth
should be placed back around the union as soon as the
work is completed. This plan of propagation will not give
satisfactory results except on well-drained lands.

BUDDING AND METHODS.

Budding is preferred to grafting by some propagators,
as they are able to secure a larger percentage of unions
than by grafting. Much, however, depends upon the
locality, soil and drainage. By either method from fifty
to seventy-five per cent, of successful unions must be con-












sidered satisfactory.. The amateur may well be satisfied
with 10 per cent.
The season for budding is when the bark will slip well
during the months of July and August. The season is,.
however, often extended into September. Many of the
buds inserted late in the season remain dormant until
the following spring.
During the season, from the first of July until Sep-
tember, the atmosphere is moist, the buds are in good
condition, the sap flows freely, and better results are
secured than at any other time. The buds commonly used
are those which have been formed just previously. They
should be carefully selected and only those fully matured
should be used. Oliver (Bulletin 30, Bureau of Plant In-
dustry, U. S. D. A.) recommends the use of dormant buds
of last season, but the method has not met with favor
because of the large amount of wood which must be
sacrificed to secure a few buds.
Annular Budding.-By this method branches or seed-
ling trees three-quarters of an inch or less in diameter
may be worked. It is preferable that the stock and bud
stick be of the same size, though the stock may be some-
what smaller. From the stock remove a ring of bark an
inch or so in length. On the bud-stick select a good bud
and remove it by taking out a ring of bark the same in
size as the one removed from the stock. Place this ring
in the place on the stock prepared for it and bandage
securely in place, using a piece of waxed cloth. The wrap-
per should be brought around the stock, so as to cover
the cut ends. The bud may be covered over or left ex-
posed.
In ten days or two weeks remove the bandage, and ex-
amine the bud. A plump, full bud at this time is an indi-
cation that the union has taken place.
Veneer-Shield or Patch-Budding.-If this method is
used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be of the
same size, and so far as size alone goes almost any stock












may be used. A rectangular or triangular piece of bark
is removed from the side of the stock. From the bud stick
cut a similar piece of bark with a bud in its center. Place
the bud in place on the stock and wrap as in annular bud-
ding. If the stock is considerably larger than the bud-
stick, the piece of bark with bud attached will have to be
flattened out somewhat before inserting.
Lopping.-Frequently buds, particularly those inserted
late in the season, act as dormant buds and do not begin
growth until the following spring. The top of stocks
budded during June, July and August should be lopped
up to September first. It is always well to start the buds
out before growth ceases for the season, but stocks budded
after the first of September should not be lopped until the
following spring, just before growth begins.
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to within
five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later, after the
bud has grown to some size, it should be cut right back
to the bud and painted over to prevent rotting. Lopping
may also be performed by cutting the stock half off two
or three inches above the bud and bending it over. After
growth starts in the bud, it should be removed entirely,
thus throwing the full flow of sap into the bud.

THE NURSERY.

The best soil for the pecan industry is a well-drained,
loamy soil, with a clay or sandy-clay sub-soil. The land
should be put in good condition before the trees or nuts
are planted in it. Crops of beggarweed, velvet beans
plowed under, or a good dressing of well-rotted stable
manure will go a long way toward putting the ground
in good shape. The ground should be plowed deeply and
put in the very best tilth.
Throughout the growing season the ground should be
cultivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to conserve
moisture and destroy weeds is all that is necessary. It












is not possible to grow good trees without thorough, fre-
quent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should be
used at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre. One
analyzing 3 per cent. phosphoric acid, 3 per cent. potash
and 6 per cent. nitrogen is about right for nurseries on
most Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed, it is an excellent
plan to sow the ground in one of the leguminous crops
mentioned above, to help it to recuperate. The frequent
cultivations, so necessary for the growth of the trees, wear
out the humus in the soil. The legumes will replace this
if grown, and plowed back into the soil, after they are
dead and dry.

ToP-WORKING PECAN TREES.

By far the greater number of seedling trees in the State
have not fulfilled the expectations of their planters. The
trees are pot prolific, or the fruit which they bear is small
and inferior. Such trees, if in good health and vigor, may
be top-worked to advantage. Seedlings may be planted
with the expectation of top-working them, but this is not
recommended.
If the trunks are small, an inch or an inch and a helf in
diameter, the whole top may be removed at once. If the
trees are medium size the main branches may be worked
close to the trunk; and if large, grafts may be inserted
farther up from the trunk. Buds may be inserted in vig-
orous branches. The growth of such branches may be in-
duced by cutting back the original branch of the tree in
late winter. Lateral buds will then be forced into growth
and by midsummer the branches formed from them will
be large enough to bud. The attempt should not be made
to bud or graft over the whole top of a large tree in one
season. Only a few branches should be worked each year,
and in the course of two, three or four years, depending












upon the size of the trees, the old tap can be entirely re-
moved and replaced by a new one of a good variety.
Both cleft and whip-graft may be used, but the latter
can, of course,'only be used on small stocks. The objec-
tion to working very large branches is that they do not
heal readily; two and a half inches is about the maximum
in size. Large wounds should be painted over with white
lead paint to prevent decay.
For several months after the new top has commenced
to grow the cions or buds have but a slight hold upon the
stock, and as the growth is usually very vigorous and the
leaf surface great, considerable damage is frequently done
by strong winds, or by wind and rain together. To pre-
vent this, the young shoots may be tied together or fast-
ened to other portions of the stock.. If this be done, care
should be taken that the twine used does not do injury
by cutting into the wood. To obviate this, a piece of
burlap should be placed around the branch beneath the
twine, and the.twine should be removed as soon as it has
served its purpose. In some cases the top may be sup-
ported by lashing a pole against the side of the trunk and
fastening the grafts to the upper part of this, or a pole
may be driven into the ground at some distance from the
trunk, fastened against a branch or stub of a branch above
and used in the same way. After the top has grown suffi-
ciently to take care of itself, these posts can, of course, be
removed. Sometimes, after the top has made considerable
growth, and particularly if large branches are allowed to
develop opposite each other, they are split apart and the
whole top ruined. If this undesirable conformation exists
it is best to take steps to prevent splitting. A bolt having
a stout washer against the head should be placed through
two branches, a second washer placed on and the nut
screwed up. The bolt will, in the course of a few years,
be entirely covered. By this means the tree trunks are
held firmly together. This same plan may be used to save
branches which have partially split apart. Sometimes a












branch may be inarched from one large branch to another
to serve as a living brace.
Necessarily, a considerable number of wounds are made
in top-working. Branches are removed entirely, others
are cut back to within a foot or so of the trunk and
grafted. Often these fail to unite. Such stubs should not
be left. If branches are formed on them they should be
cut back to the point where these buds start; if no
branches come out from them they should be cut back to
the trunk or large branch on which they are borne. If
left, they prevent the healing of the wound, rot back, and
the rot is carried into and down the trunk of the tree,
resulting in a hollow and weakening the trunk. Smooth
cuts should be made, and these should be covered with
white lead paint to prevent' decay. A little lamp black
may be added, if desired, to make the paint nearly the
color of pecan bark.

SOILS AND THEIR PREPARATION.

The peculiar conditions of soil and moisture surround-
ing the pecan in its native home might be regarded as an
indication that it cannot be grown except on deep, rich
soil in proximity to rivers, ponds or streams. Such, how-
ever, would be a wrong inference, for it succeeds admir-
ably and bears good crops on a wide range of soils. Hence
we find it today in localities far removed from the regions
to which it is indigenous and thriving under conditions
differing greatly from those obtaining in its native home.
In Florida, trees may be found growing on soils ranging
from the black hammock to the less fertile high pine lands.
On hammock soils, however, the trees are often inclined to
develop wood at the expense of fruit, while on less fertile
soils the trees make less wood and bear more fruit pro-
portionately. Pecans thrive well on flat woods; the grove
of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights, Fla., is planted on
this type of land. Moisture in sufficient quantity must












be present, but it will not do to plant the pecan on land
that is continually wet and boggy. The presence of a
hard, impenetrable sub-soil doubtless has a great influence
upon the welfare of the tree, and it would be better to
select other ground, or when this is impossible, to blast
out the hardpan. A quick-sand sub-soil is equally objec-
tionable. If close to the surface, it should not be used.
The roots cannot penetrate it. All things considered, the
best soil is probably one which has previously supported
a growth of holly, willow-leaved oak, dog-wood, hickory
and those other trees usually found associated with them.
A sandy loam, with a clay or sandy-clay sub-soil, is diffi-
cult to surpass.
A land intended for young trees should be well pre-
pared. This preparation will depend largely upon the
care and treatment which the soil has received previous-
ly. Land on which the forest still stands should prefer-
ably be thoroughly cleared and put in cultivation for a
year or two before planting. Leguminous crops are ex-
cellent to precede the setting of the trees. Plow the
ground thoroughly, break deeply, harrow it level, and it
is ready for the trees.

PECAN PLANTING.

ButYlin Trees.-Florida has suffered as much from
fraudulent pecan tree agents as any other State. Seed-
ling trees have been "doctored" and sold to planters, and
varieties have been sold which were untrue to name. Un-
fortunately, too few people are acquainted with the
characteristics of a budded or grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the wood,
twigs and branches of pecan trees are able to tell the
different varieties at a glance. The color of the bark,
the shape, size and arrangement of the lenticles, the size
and shape of the buds are always characteristic, and by
these marks varieties can be distinguished. Every planter










should acquaint himself with the wood characteristics df
the varieties. But, after all, the safest, by far the safest,
plan is to deal directly with honest nurseryman, men of
unquestionable integrity, men who give their business
careful thought and attention.
The best trees for general planting are well-grown one-
year-old trees, from three to five feet high.
Too often but slight attention is given to the planting
of the trees. There is too frequently a disposition on the
part of the person setting trees of any kind to do the
work as rapidly as possible, without consideration for the
future welfare of the plants. Few realize that time spent
in careful, intelligent preparation of the soil and in set-
ting the trees is time well spent and well paid for in the
after-development of trunk and branch. Better a month
spent in preparing the future home of the young tree
than years of its life spent in an unequal -h 1_._lr for
existence. More than that, the tree may die outright and
a year must elapse before it can be replaced. It is gen-
erally stated that the pecan is a slow grower, and yet
trees from twelve to fourteen years old will sometimes
measure from thirty-five to fifty-seven inches in circum-
ference at the base, while under less favorable circum-
stances others will stand still for a period of six or seven
years, or until they have accumulated sufficient energy to
overcome the untoward conditions of their environment.
Distance.-The distance apart at which the tree should
be set will depend in a measure upon the character of the
soil. If rich and moist, the trees should be set farther
apart than on higher, dried soils. Forty feet is generally
believed to be about right for most Florida lands. Two
methods of setting may be followed, rectangular and
hexagonal. The number of trees which may be set per
acre by the rectangular system are as follows:
40x40 .............................. 27 trees
40x45 .............................. 24 trees
40x50 .............................. 21 trees











40x60 .................. ........... 18 trees
45x45 .............................. 21 trees
50x50 .............................. 17 trees
50x60 .............................. 14 trees
50x75 .............................. 11 trees
60x60 ............................. 12 trees
60x75 .............................. 9 trees
70x70 .............................. 8 trees
70x75 .............................. 8 trees
75x75 .............................. 7 trees
To find the number of trees for any distance not given
in the above table, multiply the distances together and
divide 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre, by
the product. The result will give the number of trees.
By the hexagonal system, about fifteen per cent. more
trees may be set per acre than by the rectangular system.
If a double planting is contemplated, as pecans and
peaches, the rectangular system should be used, and one
or more peaches set out in each rectangular formed by the
pecans.
Staking the Ground.-If a good plowman can be se-
cured, the rows can be run off with a plow, running both
lengthwise and crosswise of the field. Ordinarily, how-
ever, a true corner may be established with a carpenter's
square, the field staked out around the outside. For the
rectangular system, the stakes can then be set up in the
center of the field by measuring or by sighting, or by
both. Ordinary building laths make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method, com-
mence on one side of the field and plant stakes at the de-
sired distance apart where the trees are to stand. Using
two chains or two pieces of wire with rings at the ends
(their length being the same as the tree distance), the
position for the second row of trees may be easily ascer-
tained. Drop the rings over two adjoining stakes and
stretch them out until they form an equilateral triangle
with the base line. Plant a stake at the apex to indicate










where the tree is to stand. Set up all the stakes for this
second row in the same manner, then use it as a base line
and so on across the field.
Planting.-Having set a stake where each tree is to
stand, the planting board should then be brought into use.
This is simply a light board, five or six inches wide and
six feet long, with a notch cut in the center of one side
and an inch hole bored in each end. In digging the holes
for the trees this board is laid down on the ground with
the notch against the tree stake. Two small wooden
stakes are then shoved into the ground through the holes
in the ends and the board and tree stake both taken away.
In preparing the tree for planting, all broken or
bruised roots should be cut off immediately behind the
injuries. This is usually done before packing for ship-
ment if trees are purchased from a nurseryman, but pos-
sibly may be neglected or the ends of roots become rubbed
or lagged in transit. The cuts should be made with a
sharp knife from the underside of the roots and outward,
leaving a smooth, sloping cut. To trim the roots to the
best advantage, they should be held upside down while
trimming.
In setting out a pecan tree, a hole 24 inches in diameter
and 30 inches deep is usually large enough, although
wider holes may be dug with advantage, thereby enabling
more pulverized and richer soil to be put around the
roots, which is beneficial to the new feeding roots as they
form. When setting out the trees, carefully fill in among
the roots -with pulverized top soil or woods earth. Well-
rotted manure or not exceeding one and one-half pounds
of commercial fertilizer may be put in the outer sides of
hole, as far as practicable beyond outer ends of lateral
roots, while hole is being filled, but by no means to come
in contact with the roots or trunk of tree. No fertilizer
should be put at bottom of hole. Work and firmly press
the dirt among the roots, laying each root in a natural
position. No holes or cavities in the soil should be left,











and soil must be in close contact with all roots, especially
the tap-root. The bottom of the hole should be firm, to
avoid further settling of the tree. The tree should be set
at such a depth that after a copious watering and the
permanent settling of the earth it will be, perhaps, a
little deeper than it stood in the nursery row. It is very
important that no part of the crown or root be left un-
covered when planted or afterward, and if at any time
it is found that the earth has settled and left any brown-
ish-red part of the crown or root exposed, it must again
be covered with soil.
The point where the root and crown leave off and the
trunk begins is a very vital portion of the newly-set tree
and must always be underground. Trees should be care-
fully examined after the first heavy rain after planting,
and earth thrown to'tree if soil has settled. It is better
to plant them an inch or two deeper than they stood in
the nursery row than to run the risk of having the crown
of root exposed. If tap-roots are inconveniently long,
say. over thirty inches, they must be cut off by a sloping
cut with a sharp knife. In the larger size trees it is bet-
ter to sink a hole deep enough to receive the root without
cutting shorter than is done before packing. The foolish
theory about a pecan tree not bearing if its tap-root has
been cut has been so thoroughly disproved that it is not
worth discussion. If the tap-root is cut when the tree is
dug, as is often necessary, the cut quickly heals and a
new tap-root (sometimes several) will form. After plant-
ing is completed, loose soil should be lightly thrown
around the tree to loosen evaporation, or it may be
mulched with leaves, straw, etc., in lawns and other
places where no crops are to be planted. The mulching
of newly-set trees is highly recommended. The ground
is thereby kept moist, a slow decaying supply of natural
plant food is provided, and grass and weeds are not so
troublesome, thus avoiding the necessity of so frequently
stirring the soil immediately around the trees. The












ground around fruit or nut trees should never be allowed
to bake or crust, and it is the more important with newly
set trees, particularly the first season.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become dried
out. It is best that the necessary root pruning be done in
the shed and the trees carried to the field wrapped in a
damp blanket, from which they are removed one by one as
required for planting. The tops should be pruned back
slightly to restore the balance between the roots and the
tops, which has been disturbed in the process of trans-
planting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere be-
tween the first of December or the latter part of Novem-
ber and the first of February. Preference must be given
to the earlier part of this period, as the ground will have
a chance to become firmly packed and the root wounds
will have partially calloused over before the growing
season begins. Besides, the early spring season in Florida
is usually dry and recently planted trees do not stand
nearly so good a show as those planted in December and
January.
CITLTIVATION.

Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some parts
of the country many people suppose that it can be left
without care and cultivation, left as any other tree in the
fields and woods is left to shift for itself. But if fruit
is required from the tree, no matter whether planted in
the garden or the orchard, it should be given good care.
Too many of our practices are based upon ideas taken
from the native trees of the woods and fields. But all
these trees do from year to year is bear a few fruits,
many of which are imperfect, in the attempt to reproduce
themselves. If that is all that is desired of the pecan tree
well and good; a system of neglect will secure the result
and the insects and fungi will be the chief beneficiaries
of the practice.
4--Bul











One lesson can be learned from the woods. The ideal
soil conditions for the pecan grove is that found in the
forest. The soil there is-filled with vegetable matter and
humus; it holds water and plant food. The aim in the
cultivation of the trees should be to provide and main-
tain a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anyone would have the temerity to advocate
the cultivation of a pecan orchard along the lines applied
to peach orchards and -citrus groves is seriously doubted.
A pecan plantation will begin to bear in from six to eight
years after planting and should produce a very fair crop
at ten years, after which it rapidly increases in produc-
tivity. But during the period when the trees are growing
and no fruit is being produced, cultivation must be given.
This is best done by planting the land between the tree
rows in cotton, peanuts or other field crops, in vegetables,
cowpeas, beggarweed or velvet beans. The last mentioned
crops may be used in making hay. These are the ideal
crops for the pecan orchard. It would be best to follow
a systematic rotation of these crops. As, for instance,
first year peanuts, second year cotton, or first year crab-
grass and beggarweed, second year cotton, and third year
velvet beans or cowpeas.
The area grown in these crops should by no means
equal the total area of the field. The tree rows for a
width of four or five feet on each side should not be
planted in crops during the first year. This strip should,
however, be cultivated during the first part of the season
and about the beginning of the rainy season sowed to
beggarweed. The cultivated area will necessarily become
more restricted each year, and eventually the ground will
have to be given up to the trees.
Then the plan frequently advised is to put the land in
grass and use it for a pasture. But grass is generally
an important item in the cultivation of neglected pecan
orchards. It is synonymous with neglect and bad treat-
ment. It interferes with the growth, development and











fruiting of the trees, and this plan is no longer advised
by growers.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in spring,
continuing the cultivation well up to the rainy season.
Later, in August, a crop of crabgrass and beggarweed
may be removed for hay. By autumn a considerable ad-
ditional growth will be formed to cover the ground in
winter and turn back into the soil to restore and main-
tain the necessary humus content of the soil.

FERTILIZERS.

On nearly all Florida soils pecan trees are benefited by
the application of fertilizers in some other form or other.
Large quantities of food materials are taken from the
soil in the growth of the trees and the development of the
crop.
The greatest demand made on the soil by the tree is
for nitrogen, and this can be met by applying stable
manure, or by growing leguminous crops and turning
them under, as already directed. In the fertilizing of the
pecan this is by all means the best policy. The potash
in the form of sulphate or muriate of potash and the phos-
phoric acid in the form of acid phosphate can be supplied
separately.
Formulas.-The requirements of the trees will differ at
different stages of their growth. The needs of the young
trees differ from those of fruiting ones. For young trees,
nitrogen in considerable amounts is required, while for
bearing trees more potash and phosphoric acid and less
nitrogen, relatively, are required. If complete fertilizers
are used, those given the young trees should analyze about
five per cent. phosphoric acid, six per cent. potash and
four per cent. nitrogen; while one containing six per ceit.
phosphoric acid, eight per cent. potash and four per cent.
nitrogen is about right for bearing rees.
ff we assume that acid phosphate analyses 14 per cen'.












phosphoric acid, high-grade sulphate of potash 50 per
cent. potash, cotton seed meal 6.5 per cent. nitrogen, and
dried blood 14 per cent. nitrogen, the following amounts
of these materials, which may be mixed at home, will give
approximately the above analysis:

Fon YOUNG TREES-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent. goods)...... 700 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ........ :......... 225 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal .......................1,150 pounds

If dried blood is used in place of cotton seed meal, one-
half of the amount, or 575 pounds, will give as much, or
slightly more nitrogen, than the 1,150 pounds of cotton
seed meal.

Fon OLD TREES-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent.)............ 850 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ................... 300 pounds
Dried Blood ............................ 250 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ....................... 600 pounds

2,000 pounds

Applying the Fertilizer.-The whole of the fertilizer
may be applied in spring, just before the growth starts.
On the whole, this is one of the best times to apply it. In
some cases it may be advisable to apply only half the
material at that time, leaving the other half for applica-
tion about the first of June. So far as the nitrogen part
of the fertilizer is concerned, this would be good practice,
but the potash and phosphoric acid may well be applied
at the beginning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should be
put on in a circular band about the tree (closer or farther
away, depending on the size of the tree), and spreading
it around on a strip four or five feet wide. As the trees










increase in size, the fertilizer should be applied over a
larger area until, in the case of old trees, the whole sur-
face should receive an application.

PRUNING.

For such pruning as is necessary for pecan trees, a few
tools should be provided. These will consist of a pair of
good pruning shears, German solid steel pruning shears
being the best, a pair of Walter's tree. prunes for cutting
back long branches, and a good pruning saw. One of the
best pruning saws is what is known as a Climax pruning
saw, or a Pacific Coast saw is equally as good.
It is not advisable to prune the trees during the time
when growth has just started in spring, and the sap is
in active motion. At this time it will be well-nigh im-
possible to properly protect the wounds. The necessary
coat of paint will not stick to the' wound when wet with
sap from the tree.
While pruning may be done during the summer months,
when the tree is in full leaf, all things considered, the
best time to prune is in early spring before growth starts.
There is usually less to be done on the farm at this season
and more time is available for the work. Wounds made
at this time usually heal quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held parallel
to the part which is to remain, and the branch should be
cut off smoothly close up to the trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound should be
painted to protect it from decay. For a protective cover-
ing, nothing is better than white lead paint. A small
amount of coloring matter may be added to it, if desired.
As a general rule, the pecan requires comparatively
little pruning. At the time of planting, the young trees
should be cut back some distance, particularly if they are
very tall. It is well to have the main branches from
within four or five feet of the ground. After this about












all the pruning necessary is to remove dead or injured
branches and cut back those which have a tendency to
run up beyond their neighbors. For this work, as well
as in procuring grafts or bud-wood from the top of the
tree, the tree-pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable prun-
ing to get them started so that they will develop into
symmetrical trees.

HARVESTING AND MARKETING.

The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and prepare
for marketing as a crop of oranges or peaches, for in-
stance, and yet some care must be taken to put the nuts
on the market in inviting shape.
Field Equipment.-The equipment necessary for har-
vesting consists of an extension ladder, a step-ladder, a
number of bamboo fishing-poles and picking sacks. The
best kind of step-ladder is one having three legs instead
of four. Picking sacks should be made from ordinary
hemp or jute sacks. The sack should be spread open with
a piece of stick, sharp-pointed at both ends, placed in one
side of the mouth, thus making the opening triangular.
Place a pecan nut in the lower corner of the sack, tie one
end of a piece of stout twine about it as it lies in the
corner and then tie the other end of the twine to the
center of the mount of the stick opposite the stick. The
twine should be short enough to draw the bottom and
top of the sack close together, leaving an opening through
which the arm may be thrust and the sack slung over the
shoulder.
Picking.-As soon as the greater percentage of the
burrs have opened, the crop should be gathered. It will
not do to wait until all have opened, neither is it advis-
able to pick the trees over a number of times. Pick them
clean at one picking. The burrs of those nuts which are
fully matured will open, the burrs of immature ones may
not. The latter should be discarded.











,The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts by
hand, using the bamboo poles only for those entirely out
of reach. Even this should be done carefully, so as not
to injure the bearing wood of the trees. Care in picking
good nuts by hand will amply pay the grower, because the
beating and shaking of the trees will cause a considerable
quantity of fruit to be lost, and a few pounds saved will
repay all the time and trouble. Of course, in very high
trees there is frequently nothing to do but shake and
thrash the crop off the trees. The plan of covering the
ground beneath the trees with a large sheet would work
well and assist in reducing losses. As soon as taken from
the trees the nuts should be spread out under a shed or in
a building to dry. A very convenient plan, and one which
will save space, is to provide a sufficient number of trays,
three feet by four feet, and three inches deep, with half-
inch mesh -wire bottoms, and place the nuts in these, two
or two and a half inches deep. Racks can be provided
around the room in which to place these. In from ten
days to two weeks from the time of picking the nuts
should be cured.
Grading.-The variety should be made the basis of the
grade; that is, each variety should be picked, packed and
marketed by itself. This, besides, gives an excellent op-
portunity to compare the commercial value of different
kinds. When a grower has a large number of different
kinds of seedling nuts, and a small quantity of each, they
may be graded by passing them through screens.
Polishing.-At the present time practically all of the
common market nuts are both polished and colored.
Coloring should not be resorted to, and in the case of good
varieties of nuts polishing should not be done. In the
case of small or mixed lots, however, polishing is useful in
making the nuts more uniform. It can be accomplished
by putting the nuts, with a little dry sand, in a barrel
fixed so that:it can be rotated like a revolving churn and
turning over until the nuts receive the desired polish. The











better nuts, however, should be put on the market just
as they come from the trees. The marketing, dots and
streaks on the outside are their trademark and should not
be interfered with.
Packages.-For shipping small quantities of pecans by
express, nothing is better than a box. Barrels are best for
larger shipments. For mail shipments stout pasteboard,
wooden or tin boxes or tin cans make good packages.
Frequently shipments are made in sacks, but the sack does
not afford sufficient protection to the contents and should
not be used. As a rule, the box should be made so that a
given weight will fill it, but this difficulty may be over-
come, to a certain extent, by putting in a pad of paper or
excelsior-paper being preferable. Fill the packages on a
solid floor, shaking them down well and putting in all
they will hold, placing the pad, if one box has to be used,
in the bottom.
On the outside of the packages, before shipping, should
be placed the name of the grower, the variety, the number
of pounds, and the shipping directions. Small boxes to
be shipped by express for the holiday trade should be
wrapped in good quality wrapping paper before shipping.
Marketing.-The best plan for marketing good pecan
nuts is to build up a private trade. As a matter of fact,
at the present time but very few of the large, full-meated
pecans find their way into the general market. They are
either taken by seedsmen or consumed-by private custom-
ers. In building up a private trade, advertising has its
place, of course. Advertisements inserted in a magazine
or papers, particularly in those which are published in
the tourists towns of the State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private cus-
tomer a package, bright, neat, attractive and containing
the best quality of nuts. If a certain price per pound is
fixed for a given quantity, then this should not be varied
under any circumstances. Each year the same quality of
nuts should be given to each customer. It will not do to










give large ones one year and smaller ones the next; this
tends to create, dissatisfaction. In some of the larger
cities there are high-class fruit dealers who handle noth-
ing but fruits, nuts, etc., of the very highest quality.
Under some circumstances it might be well to enter into
negotiations with such firms.

VARIETIES.

Although the pecan industry is not old, yet a very con-
siderable number of varieties has been brought forward.
Not all of these are or have been meritorious, and in fact
many varieties are now represented by name only. Other
varieties are comparatively new, and no one can speak
authoritatively of what they will do over a wide range of
territory. Still other varieties have been propagated by
buds or grafts for a number of years, with the result that
they have been tested fairly well over the country. Some
of the varieties so tried have proved satisfactory, others
have not. Of the older varieties, Stuart, Van Deman and
Frotscher have been found satisfactory in nearly all
cases, while Centennial and Rome have proved so un-
satisfactory that they have been cut out of the lists of
many. propagators. It is doubtful whether a more worth-
less nut has even been propagated and sold than that
much-named variety, Rome, Columbian, Pride of the
Coast, Century, Twentieth Century, etc. For the Florida
planters, the best advice that can be given is to plant
neither Centennial nor Rome. They either do not bear
enough fruit or that which they do produce is inferior
or poorly filled out. Van Deman, Stuart and Frotscher,
on the other hand, have generally borne full crops of
nuts of good quality.
A satisfactory commercial pecan nut must be prolific,
of good size, good quality, must not be spasmodic in its
bearing, plump, with a bright; presentable exterior and
preferably' a light-colored kernel. The nuts should, be-












sides, yield sixty per cent. or upward of kernels. All
these things in one variety make a difficult combination
to secure. Undue weight must not, however, be given to
size, for size and quality are usually antagonistic to each
other. In fact, in pecans, as.in other fruits, we must go
to the small or medium-sized ones for the best quality.
No variety of pecan is superior to Santa Saba in quality,
.yet it is a small nut. Other varieties which may be re-
garded as standards of quality are Schley and Curtis.
The former is a medium to a large nut and medium prolific
variety, while Curtis is of medium size, precocious and
prolific.
Moneymaker is reported as doing well in Louisiana,
and, being a medium-sized nut, it is likely to succeed in
Florida; but the shell is rather thick. Georgia has proved
to be a prolific and precocious bearer. Nearly all of the
varieties given in the following list have been reported
upon favorably by different growers.
In planting pecans, no greater mistake than that of
planting a large number of varieties can be made. At
most,, the plantings should be confined to four or five
varieties. If the grower desires to experiment, and it
is a good thing to do, then a free or two of a number of
other varieties should be included in order to test their
merits.
Varieties Recommended.-The following list contains
the varieties which are worthy the attention of Florida
planters. Not all of them have been thoroughly tested as
yet, and the reason for inserting them here is to urge that
this be done-not in large numbers, not in ten-acre blocks,
but in lots of two or three trees. In the mean-time, until
our knowledge of the varieties and their adaptation.is
increased, the safest advice that can be given the Florida
planter by the writer is to confine himself to such well-
known varieties as Curtis, Frotscher, Schley, Stuart, Van
Deman, and Delmas. This list for planting in the western
part of the State may be supplemented by Bolton, Sweet-












meat, and Georgia. Pabst and Russell are also much in
favor with a good many growers. Continued improve-
ments in those we have and equally as valuable additions
are, of course, to be expected and are being added from
time to time.

REMARKS.

While we believe pecan growing to be a fine investment,
we advise conservatism; do not plant more than can be
properly cared for; the industry has come to stay, and
with time it will grow to vast proportions. We do not
believe that any person living today will ever see the
demand wholly supplied, let alone a glutted market. The
best grade of pecans are bringing about 50 cents per
pound, but if this price is reduced in time as low as ten
cents per pound there is more money in growing them
than there is in most of the standard crops under good
management. So we say to the young or the middle-aged
man or woman engaged in, or about to engage in, either
general or special farming, to plant pecans in proportion
to their ability to care for them properly-it will pay
them.


















SUGAR-CANE AND SYRUP MAKING.

By A. P. Spencer.

SOME IMPORTANT FACTS.

1) Sugar-cane is successfully grown throughout Flor-
ida, though it only matures perfectly in Southern
Florida.
(2) Any good agricultural soil in Florida that has suffi-
cient drainage is capable of producing profitable
crops of sugar-cane.
(3) Sufficient moisture is the controlling element in the
production of sugar-cane, from its earliest growth.
(4) Ammonia and potash are especially needed in any
fertilizer applied, while phosphoric acid is needed in
lesser quantities.
(5) Cultivation should be frequent until the crop is well
grown, but always with shallow-working imple-
ments.
(6) The longer the cane can stand without danger of
frost, the higher will be the sucrose content, and
the better the quality of syrup.
(7) Sugar-cane will give a better yield if the seed-cane
has been selected for healthiness and maturity.

Sugar-cane is among the most certain of Florida crops.
Crop failure for the State has never been reported. Sugar-
cane has been grown more or less in almost every county
in Florida, and with a degree of success on almost every
grade of agricultural soil in the State. It must not be
inferred that sugar-cane has no preference as to soil fer-
tility, moisture, or physical condition of the soil. Success
in growing this crop is governed by the methods adopted
in each stage of its growth.












Sugar-cane is a tropical plant. The different varieties
require more or less than twelve months without frost to
reach full maturity. Certain varieties are propagated
successfully and profitably as far as 100 miles north of the
Gulf of Mexico. Below the twenty-seventh parallel, or
the region around Manatee and Lake Okeechobee in
Southern Florida, sugar-cane matures, forming long
sprays of bloom called "arrows." In seasons with little
or no frost, the cane may mature even north of this line.
In all sections of the State it reaches a stage of maturity
sufficient for making syrup or sugar.
Up to the sixties, large plantations of sugar-cane exist-
ed on the low hammock lands of Manatee, Volusia, and
Citrus Counties. At this time the industry was perhaps
the most important one in Florida. At the close of the
war, these plantations were nearly abandoned. Some of
this land was planted in orange groves. Since this period,
little, attention has been given to growing sugar-cane on
a large scale, although nearly every county of the State
produces more or less of it. At the present time the
largest acreage is on the rolling high pinelands of West
Florida.

SOIL.

The greatest tonnage of canes per acre is usually pro-
duced on low rich hammocks where the drainage is good.
However, it is still an open question what class of soil in
Florida is best for producing syrup. The better grades of
high pine land in West Florida are producing from fifteen
to twenty-five tons of sugar-cane per acre, and a superior
grade of syrup. We may conclude that any good agri-
cultural soil in Florida that has sufficient drainage is
capable of producing profitable crops of sugar-cane, if the
crop is grown by methods suitable to the soil. The rolling
pine lands are well adapted without further drainage.
Flat-woods soils frequently require drainage to carry off











the surplus water that is usually present during the rainy
season. The flat hammock lands and reclaimed marsh
lands, for the most part, have usually artificial drainage
to control the surplus water during the wet season. While
sugar-cane is a heavy consumer of moisture, it must have
an open soil with the water table below the feeding area
of the roots. It is a vigorous plant, and succeeds 'well on
any soil suitable for corn or other farm crops.

SOIL-PREPARATION.

Soil intended for sugar-cane should be prepared as long
in advance of the planting time as the previous crop will
permit; before November 1 for fall planting, and not later
than January 1 for winter planting. After the vegetable
matter has been plowed under, the surface should be har-
rowed and pulverized two or three times before the land
is laid off for planting. Soils that have not been plowed
deeply and worked back into condition cannot conserve
the moisture already in the soil, or absorb and store up
the rainfall that occurs during the winter months. Suffi-
cient moisture is the controlling element in the produc-
tion of sugar-cane from its earliest growth. The conser-
vation is one of the main things to look to in the prepare
tion of the soil for growing sugar-cane.
The deeper the land can be plowed, the better for sugar-
cane, because of the extensive root system and the long
season the cane remains in the growing stage. Fields
that have been in cultivation for a number of years will
be benefited by subsoiling until a depth of sixteen or
twenty inches is secured. This may be done with an ordi-
nary subsoil plow, or by a scooter following in the furrow
behind a turning plow in breaking. This gives additional
depth to the seed-bed, and proves advantageous to the
crop, in that it gives large storage area for the moisture
supply needed.












ROTATION.

In rotation, sugar-cane may follow almost any of the
ordinary farm crops, but preferably sweet potatoes, velvet
beans, or other leguminous crops; the latter being
especially desirable because of the liberal amounts of
humus they add to the soil.
Because of its gross feeding tendencies and the large
amounts of fertilizing elements it consumes in the making
of a twenty-ton crop, it is not advisable that sugar-cane
shall follow itself on the same land, unless where it is de-
sirable to grow it from the "stubble" or "ratoons," and
then not for more than three years in succession.

FERTILIZERS.

With the exception of ihe rich hammock lands, sugar-
cane will require liberal applications of fertilizer. Am-
monia and potash are especially needed in any fertilizer
applied, while phosphoric acid is needed in lesser quan-
tities. The richer the soil in humus and decaying organic
matter, the less will be the need of heavy applications of
ammonia. This is evidenced by the very heavy crops
grown in the hammock lands of Southern Florida before
the war, when commercial fertilizers were nearly un-
known here. On high pine land a fertilizer analyzing 5
per cent. of ammonia, 4 per cent. of phosphoric acid, and
8 per cent. of potash, should be applied at the rate of 600
to 1,000 pounds per acre, ten days before planting. The
ammonia should come from an organic source, because
of the long season required by the crop for growing. If
the crop appears uneven and yellow, and shows an un-
thrifty appearance, it will be advisable to give a second
application of ammonia not later than August 1. This
ammonia should be applied in the form of nitrate of soda
at the rate of 200 pounds per acre, and broad-casted. It
matters little in what form the potash or phosphoric acid












is applied, because of the gross feeding tendencies oi the
sugar-cane plant. It is, however, conceded by some grow-
ers that a better grade of syrup will be produced by using
sulphate of potash, instead of muriate of potash or kainit.
This, however, it still an open question.

PLANTING.

When ready to plant the crop, lay off the furrows six
inches deel and six feet apart. In these furrows plant
the canes, after cutting them in lengths of three or four
joints each, lapping them in the furrow a few inches.
Cover the canes with about three inches of soil. If they
are covered too deeply in mid-winter the eyes will be slow
in sprouting, and likely to make a less vigorous growth
than if they sprouted readily. After the cane is well up,
the furrow may be filled in to the level. This places the
roots well below the surface, giving a better root system,
and helps to prevent the canes from blowing over when
the crop is about mature and top-heavy. Canes that are
planted very shallow will often blow over and tangle dur-
ing the heavy winds storms of October. A tangled cane
patch requires more labor for cutting and harvesting than
one which stands erect.

CULTIVATIONN.

The cultivation of sugar-cane is similar to that of corn.
This cultivation should begin soon after the canes are
planted, mainly to prevent the loss from evaporation that
will occur during the spring months unless the surface
soil is kept stirred. The first two or three cultivation
may be done with the weeder or harrow, which may be
run in any direction over the rows. After the canes are
too high for the weeder to pass over, the one or two-horse
cultivator, running shallow, is a good implement to use.
Cultivation should be frequent until the crop is well
5-Bul











grown, but always with shallow-working implements. If
the ground is allowed to become dry from lack of cultiva-
tion at any stage in the growth, the cane suffers. A
maximum crop cannot be made unless the plants have an
abundant supply of moisture. In all probability the rain-
fall will be sufficient between June 1 and September 1,
but during this period the weeds and grass will get a good
start and fill the land unless the cultivation is frequent.
The most likely period for the cane to be injured from
lack of moisture is between planting time and June 15.
It is advisable to keep the cultivation up just as long as
it is possible to go through the cane patch.

HARVESTING.

The first operation in harvesting is stripping the canes.
This should be done about the last week in October in
West Florida, and two weeks later in Central Florida.
By removing the dead leaves the sunlight is admitted to
the ground, which is thought to hasten the ripening of
the canes. As there is a large amount of work involved
in handling one acre of sugar-cane, it is further advisable
to have this stripping done early, so that there will be
no delay when the grinding season begins. The longer
the cane can stand without danger of frost, the higher
will be the sucrose content, and the better the quality of
syrup," as immature cane makes inferior syrup. Cutting
should commence about November 15 in West Florida,
and in Central Florida about ten days later. The tops
are removed before the cane is cut. It is recommended
to leave about one immature joint to every eight mature
joints, because of the glucose contained in the immature
stalk, which helps to prevent crystallization in the evap-
oration of the juice. After the cane is topped, it should
then be cut as low as possible and put into rows, or on
the wagon for hauling to the cane mill. In the event of
approaching freezing weather it is well to cut all the











canes and cover them up with the tops to prevent them
from freezing. A white frost does hot injure sugar-cane,
but checks its growth and hastens maturity. A freeze is
apt to kill the buds or eyes, and so injure them for seed;
but it does not injure the canes for syrup or sugar, unless
they ferment in the meantime.

SEED-CANE.
Sugar-cane will give a better yield if the seed-cane has
been selected for healthiness and maturity. While this
is one of the most general crops in the State and has
been grown for many years, yet comparatively little at-
tention has been given to careful selection of seed-cane.
The loss from inferior seed-cane comes in several ways.
If immature and poorly developed canes are planted, the
stand of canes is almost sure to be uneven. The poorer
canes will have many immature eyes that will not germi-
nate at all, and many more that will germinate slowly,
so that in the next year's crop there will be several blank
spaces and many short-jointed small canes. There is the
possibility of putting diseased seed-canes in the bed;
perhaps causing the entire bed to rot, or at least injuring
the growing powers of even the best canes. The selection
of proper seed-cane is of the greatest importance in the
growing of sugar-cane. Seed-canes should have well-
matured buds, and joints of medium length. If the joints
are short, the cane is apt to be less vigorous in growth.
It will require upward of 1,800 whole canes to plant
an acre. In filling the beds it would be a wise precaution
to allow at least 2,500 canes for each acre to be planted,
so that in case of a loss there will be a sufficient number
left for planting. No canes should be bedded from any
field where red rot is suspected or known to be present.
This disease is described on a later page.

TIME TO SAVE S8ED CANE.
It has been already stated that cane buds are injured











by a freeze. It is important that the seed-canes should
be cut and bedded before a freeze is likely. This date
would be in west Florida about November 20, and in
middle Florida about ten days later. It is to be re-
membered, however, that the seed-cane is more likely to
grow well if it is well matured and if the buds are large
and well developed. So that it is advisable to allow the
canes to stand as long as they are safe from frost.

LAYING DOWN THE BEDS.

The bottom of the bed for the seed-cane should be about
eight inches below the surface of the ground. The bed
should be six feet wide. The seed-canes should be placed
in this bed in even layers about four canes deep on the
sides and a little deeper in the center, so as to give a
rounded top to shed the water. Seed-canes should not be
topped. Each layer in the beds should be about ten inches
forward of the previous one, so that the tops will cover the
joints of the lower layers. The beds should be made as
uniform and even as possible, so that no canes will be
left uncovered and no depressions occur in the bed to
collect water during rains. It is well in all cases that
the butts of the canes should touch the ground and the
canes be moist when laid down. This will help to prevent
the buds from drying out, and also prevent dry rot. "Im-
mediately after a heavy rain is a good time to bed seed-
cane." When the bed is filled, it should be covered with
about two inches of soil as a protection against frost. A
strip about two inches wide may be left open along the
ridge the entire length of the bed to give ventilation, and
one or two furrows thrown up with a plow on each side
to drain the water away. Should water stand in the bed
during the winter, even for a short time, the canes would
probably ferment and the buds be destroyed. If the bed
is located on a slope, there is little danger of water stand-
ing in it. It might be again emphasized that a lack of











moisture in the seed-bed will probably produce dry rol
or drying out of the buds, causing them to germinate
slowly if at all; while standing water in the seed-bed will
destroy the buds and possibly destroy the cane entirely.
If the stubble is to be bedded for seed, it is best to dig it
up by the roots, and bed it with the root attached. It
would not be wise, however, to bed stubble cane in this
way in the same bed with seed-canes; although about the
same protection against freezing, and the same precau-
tions as to excess or lack of moisture are recommended.

STUBBLE OR RATOON CANE.

While it is generally considered that a better yield of
cane will be secured if the canes are planted annually, it
is nevertheless a common practice to use stubble or
ratoons for seed-cane. Unless these ratoons have more
care than is frequently given them, an uneven stand will
result in the following year. This is due to many causes,
most of which can be avoided. In the first place, ratoons
should be cut very low. If they are cut high there will be
fermentation and decay, which injures the buds. A prac-
tice that is adopted by the best cane growers is to run a
light furrow along one side of the cane, and then turn
the ratoons up-side-down in this furrow, throwing a light
furrow on them. This gives a covering for protection
during the winter and prevents decay of the stumps of
the canes.
It is not considered a good practice to use ratoons for
more than two years in succession. Those who do this
seldom get as good yield in the third year as in the second
year.

VARIETIES.

Little attention has been given to the varieties of sugar-
cane in Florida. Nevertheless the best growers usually











select the light-colored canes because these produce a
lighter colored syrup. It is fortunate that the light-color-
ed canes usually produce as well as the red or purple
canes.
In Louisiana the best results have been obtained from
D. 74, which is a light-colored cane. It produces a larger
tonnage of cane than other varieties in Louisiana. It is
said to resist heavy winds, and to be altogether desirable.
It is recommended by the Louisiana Experiment Station
in preference to the purple or ribbon cane. A few farm-
ers in Florida have, also, reported D. 74 to be one of the
best canes for Florida. In Bulletin 129 of the Louisiana
Experiment Station, the author speaks of it as follows,
"In nearly all sections of Louisiana it has given heavier
yields than the purple or ribbon canes. It is reported
to be in tonnage 20 per cent. superior to either green or
ribbon canes. In addition it is reported to contain a
larger percentage of sugar in its juice." The richer in
sugar a cane, the larger the amount of syrup that can be
made from it. With the ordinary process of manufacture,
this high percentage of sugar will cause crystallization
in the syrup, but with the better methods, crystallization
can be avoided in other ways.

JAPANESE CANE.

Japanese cane was introduced into Florida about 1889
from Louisiana. It makes an excellent grade of syrup,
but is it not generally recommended for syrup-making.
It is much harder to grind than other canes, and the juice
is more difficult to extract. It usually has a lower yield
of syrup. There are, however, exceptional cases when
Japaneses cane has yielded as high as five hundred gallons
of syrup per acre. The average yield of all canes in the
State is less than three hundred gallons an acre. Where
this exceptionally high yield was obtained, it was under
very favorable conditions, and in these cases other canes











would probably have given still greater yields. Japanese
cane will withstand ten degrees of frost, and is therefore
a perennial, and can be grown several years in succession
without replanting. Some growers claim it will not re-
quire replanting for an almost indefinite number of years,
but experiments do not altogether bear this out. The
test plots on the Experiment Station farm show a much
greater yield on the newly planted plots than on stubble
originally planted about six years ago. Japanese cane
is not generally recommended for syrup-making, but has
proved an excellent winter forage crop for live stock. Be-
cause of the extra labor involved in stripping the leaves,
and because the hardness of the cane requires heavier
mills to get as high a percentage of the juice, this cane is
less desirable than the other sugar-canes for syrup-mak-
ing.
CANE GRINDING.

Most of the cane mills in Florida are of the small type,
and are operated by horse power. They will not give a
high extraction, and are not to be recommended, except
where only a small amount of syrup is made. It must be
remembered that the greater the extraction, that is, the
larger amount of juice that is pressed out per ton of cane,
the greater will be the amount of syrup per acre. Very
few of the small mills extract more than fifty per cent. of
the weight of the cane in juice, leaving 35 per cent. still
in the cane. (Cane is composed on the average of 85 per
cent. juice and 15 per cent. dry material.) To secure the
full extraction, it is necessary to set the rolls so close that
the pulp or bagasse when passed through the mill will
be broken into short pieces apparently free from juice and
so dry that they-will burn readily. A well designed steam
power mill, when properly set, will extract 75 per cent. of
the weight of the cane in juice, leaving only 10 per cent.
in the bagasse. The most powerful steam mills extract
an amount of juice equal to about 80 per cent. of the











weight of the cane, or nearly all the sucrose in the cane.
A large percentage of the sucrose is wasted on farms
where light mills are employed.
When sugar-cane has been properly grown on a good
quality of soil, a yield of twenty tons per acre may be
expected. As high as thirty or thirty-five tons have been
produced under exceptionally good conditions. The aver-
age yield for the State is perhaps fifteen tons. One ton
of well matured sugar-cane will produce about twenty
gallons of syrup at a density of 33 degrees Baume. The
exact figures cannot be given, since analyses of Florida
canes vary from .9 to 18 in percentage of cane-sugar in
the juice.
Several firms manufacture cane mills of standard de-
signs, and it would be well for those who contemplate
buying new syrup-making equipment to investigate the
tonnage capacity per day amd horse-power required to
operate' the machinery, bearing in mind that the chief
value of a mill lies in its power to extract the highest
percentage of juice from the canes.

EVAPORATION OF JUICE.

As the juice comes from the mill, it contains large
quantities of coarse materials that should be removed be-
fore it goes into the evaporating pans. Thorough strain-
ing at this particular stage is necessary in the manufac-
ture of high-grade syrup. As the juice leaves the mill, it
should pass through a close wire screen to remove the
coarse particles and leaves. Below this would be a coarse
cloth strainer to catch finer pieces, and then the juice
should pass through coarse muslin. Just before going
into the receiving tank it passes through a wooden blanket
which catches most of the finest sediment. These filters
should be stretched on hoops, and a number of them kept
on hand so they can be frequently changed and cleaned,
otherwise they will become clogged and prevent the juice











from passing through. Thorough straining before the
juices enters the evaporating pans will not only reduce
the amount of skimming, but also improve the quality of
the syrup. The receiving tank for the strained juice
should be large enough for a full run in the evaporating
pans, so there may be no delay when evaporation begins.
This receiving tank also n:c't as a settling tank between
the process of straining and that of evaporation. For
plants suited to handle from five to forty acres of cane,
the evaporating pan with steam coils is recommended.
The better pan evaporators are equipped with steam coils
for evaporation, while the smaller outfits are of the fur-
nace type with the pans immediately over the firebox.
The steam coils are to be preferred because of the control
in boiling the juice. These pans are manufactured for
their special purpose and can be purchased complete from
the manufacturer.
When the juice enters the first evaporating pan, it
should boil up quickly. This throws up a large amount of
sediment and scum, which must be removed with a skim-
mer. If this boiling is slow, a large amount of the sedi-
ment will rise to the surface and cannot be skimmed off;
but will pass over into the second pan, from which it is
more difficult to remove it because of the greater density
of the juice in the second pan. In the first pan the juice
is evaporated to a density of about 25 degrees Baume.
In the second pan the evaporation continues until the
density of the syrup is 33 or 34 degrees Baume. With
larger plants the juice remains in the receiving tank for
six hours or more, so that the sediment goes to the bot-
tom. Then the juice is drawn from the top, over into the
first evaporating pan. Most of the clarification takes
place in the first evaporating pan. As the juice becomes
of a greater density it will hold a large amount of the
sediment in suspension. If not thoroughly clarified be-
fore leaving the first pan, it will be almost impossible to
remove the finer particles when the juice has become more











concentrated in the second evaporating pan. A cloudy
syrup results.
When the juice has been boiled to the required density,
it should be run into the containers, and immediately
sealed up. The secret in making syrup of a uniform
grade and high quality is inthe care exercised in secur-
ing proper straining and the proper density in each stage
of evaporation. It is nearly impossible for anyone to
determine the exact density without the use of a Baume
spindle. This Baume spindle is a glass float with a gradu-
ated scale. The point to which it sinks into the liquid
will indicate the density. A small quantity of syrup
may be removed from the boiling mass and placed in a
glass or tin, and the Baume spindle inserted. The heated
syrup in which the instrument sinks to 33 or 34 degrees
has been sufficiently boiled. This on cooling, will give
a density of 37 or 38 Baume, which is the proper density
for marketable syrup.

FERMENTATION IN SYRUP.

Fermentation in syrup is caused by molds, yeasts, or
bacteria. The preservation of syrup consists in steriliz-
ing it, which can be done by continuous boiling until all
the mold spores or microbes which cause fermentation
have been destroyed. This sterilization may be accom-
plished by heating it to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Fer-
mentation, however, will take place even though the syrup
has been heated much above 180 degrees, unless the con-
tainers into which the syrup is placed have also been
completely sterilized. It is practically impossible to
thoroughly sterilize a barrel under the ordinary condi-
tions around a small syrup plant. In most cases the fer-
mentation that syrup undergoes after it has been stand-
ing three or four months in barrels is due to the condi-
tion of the barrel when the syrup is placed in it. For
this reason, syrup placed in cans or bottles will usually












keep a longer period if the containers have been properly
sterilized by thorough boiling before the syrup is placed
in them. Under this condition, syrup will keep for an
almost indefinite period if the cans are filled while the
syrup is still hot, and are immediately sealed, to prevent
further contamination from outside sources. Steriliza-
tion of both syrup and container is therefore the only
means of preventing fermentation in cane-syrup. Fur-
thermore, it should be borne in mind that cleanliness in
manufacture, from the time the cane enters the mill until
the syrup is placed in the container, is the main thing in
keeping syrup sweet. The rollers of the mill should be
washed with lime water when stopped for any length of
time. The juice gutters and all surfaces over which the
juice passes must also be thoroughly cleaned. The walls
of the building and the surroundings should be kept clean.
Where it is practicable, cold storage will facilitate the
keeping of the syrup. Fermentation of syrup does not
take place at low temperatures, so that if the syrup can
be put in cold storage it should keep almost indefinitely.
It is a mistaken idea that syrup is a readily perishable
product. There should be no more difficulty in preserving
it than there is with canned sweet potatoes, if it has
been handled properly during the process of manufacture.

DISEASES OF SUGAR-CANE.

RED ROT OF SUGAR-CANE.

(H. S. Fawcett.)
The disease has' characteristic marks inside the canes
by which it may be recognized, but is difficult to recognize
externally. It is therefore apt to be overlooked until it
becomes so serious as to attract attention. When the dis-
eased canes are still lengthwise the soft tissue of the
internodes shows a reddish discoloration. In these red
discolored areas are found white spots which shade off











into the red. These white spots are especially charac-
teristic of Red Rot. As the disease advances the central
portion of the stem gives way, forming a long straight
cavity, in which is a whitish mold made up of fungus
threads. The nodes and buds become first brown, and
finally black. The hard outside of the stalk remains ap-
parently unchanged. When the disease has not progress-
ed so far as this, the canes may appear at first glance to
be healthy; but when they are split length-wise the soft
tissue in the internodes will show the beginnings of the
disease as small reddish patches. Because it is so easily
overlooked, the grower should keep a watch for it. There
are other diseases that may cause reddening of the soft
tissue, but if there are also white patches within the red
areas, the disease may be pronounced Red Rot.
Although Red Rot is usually not noticed until the cane
is cut for planting, it may be present during the summer.
In some cases the fungus causing Red Rot may seriously
check the growth of the plant during the summer, and
redden the leaves and the soft tissue inside the canes,
The fungus attacks the plant most easily through wounds
or holes made by borers. It appears. to get to the grow-
ing plant, however, mostly by means of the planted cut-
tings, and does not spread much through the air. Usual-
ly the injury is only slight during the growing season.
At the bedding season, however, the fungus is present
ready to cause serious damage to the dormant canes. It
is at this time that the fungus grows, advances into the
interior of the canes, and kills the buds. In the beds
decay appears to start mostly at the ends of the canes,
although it may also start at other places along the canes.
MEANS OF CONTROL.-1. Plant only healthy canes. In
Hawaii and other places, it has been found that this dis-
ease may be easily and successfully controlled by plant-
ing only healthy canes that show no sign of discoloration.
Any canes showing even the slightest discoloration of the
interior should be discarded. It will be necessary, in












sections where the disease has become prevalent, to grind
all the cane, and get seed-cane for planting from some
other locality.
2. As an extra preventive the selected canes may be
dipped in Bordeaux mixture just before they are planted.
This will kill any fungus that may have gotten onto the
cut ends or surfaces. A large wooden trough is con-
venient for holding the Bordeaux mixture while dipping.
The formula, 5 pounds of copper sulphate, 5 pounds of
lime, and 50 gallons of water, may be used. The cost is
but slight.
3. Whenever possible plant the canes in the fall in-
stead of bedding them. Planting the cane in the fall will
give one an opportunity to discover the disease, if present,
and will do away with danger from contamination in the
bed.
4. Burn all the trash in the old bed, and all diseased
cane.
INSECT ENEMIES OF SUGAR-CANE.

J. R. Watson.

THE CANE BORER..

The most serious enemy of cane is the borer (Diatraea
saccharalis). In some parts of the State this is a serious
pest. Luckily it is not generally distributed, and many
localities are entirely free from it. It is very important
for growers in such places to keep it out.
The borer is the caterpillar of a moth. The female moth
lays her eggs on the foliage. The young caterpillars,
hatching out, feed on the tender leaves for a few days,
but soon enter the cane through a bud or "eye," thereby
reducing the stand of cane. They spend their entire
larval life in the cane, tunnelling up and down, stunting
its growth, weakening it so that the wind may blow it
over, reducing the sugar content, and making easy the











entrance of fungus diseases. Here they go into the pupa
stage, to hatch out as small moths in a week or so, unless
delayed by cold weather, in which event the pupae spend
the winter in the cane.
Control is difficult once the borer becomes established
in a field, hence we urge Florida growers to be very care-
ful about introducing this pest into a community now
free from it, as such a community has a great advantage
over the infested one in the matter of cane-growing. A
little carelessness in this respect now may cause, in a
community, a loss of thousands of dollars in a few years.
Dissemination is almost entirely through infested seed-
cane, as the female flies only a few score feet. Planters
should carefully inspect all seed-cane, and any canes ex-
hibiting holes should be promptly burned.
Remedy.-Once introduced the best the grower can do
is to reduce the numbers of hybernating larvae by burn-
ing the tops and rubbish as soon as sufficiently dried,
cutting the canes low, and destroying shoots that start
from the roots where cane is cut early. Plant in the fall
from sound canes only. Rotation of crops must be prac-
ticed in infested fields.

THE ARMY WORM.

Sugar-cane is one of the favorite food plants of this
caterpillar (also known as the Southern grass worm),
which in some years occurs in destructive numbers. On
cane it can readily be controlled by the arsenic com-
pounds. Use a spray of three pounds of lead arsenate
paste or one pound of zinc arsenite powder to fifty gallons
of water, or dust the plants with the latter, using air-
slaked lime as a filler.

DANGER IN IMPORTED CANE.

There are, in the West Indies, many serious enemies of









79

cane that have not yet been introduced into the United
States, or which are rare here. Among them are the
larger cane-borer, the weevil borer, frog-hoppers, root-
borers, pink mealy bugs, and mites. For this reason in-
troduction of West Indian cane for seed should be done,
if at all, with the greatest care possible and the most
rigid inspection. The Bureau of Entomology of th6
United States Department of Agriculture, recommends
that such introduced canes be grown during the first year,
at least, under the constant supervision of an entomol-
ogist.




























PART II.



CROP AND LIVE STOCK CONDITIONS


6-Bul
e


























































I *












DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:


Northern Division.

Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.

Western Division.

Bay,
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-8.


Northeastern Division.

Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Seminole,
Sumter,
Volusia-10.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee,
Manatee,


Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Pinellas,
Polk,
St. Lucie-12.


























































































I












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerka,



CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NORTHERN DivISIoN.-The reports from our correspon-
dents throughout this division show a condition as re-
gards cotton and corn, especially, to be very discouraging.
The stands of cotton have been poor and a great deal of
it has had to be replanted several times. A great deal
of harm also was done to the cotton during the several
periods when the temperature was low and the season
was wet, which also had a very disastrous effect on young
plants, such cold spring weather being almost unprece-
dented in this country. In fact, such climatic conditions
have seldom been known at this season of the year. The
same conditions affected the growing of other crops un-
favorably, but not to the same extent, and, consequently,
the corn crop of this section is in poor condition and can-
not yield other than a very small crop. Although the
acreage intended to be planted was about the same as
usual, it was cut down by the unfavorable weather that
prevented breaking of the land. Live stock has been do-
ing very well in this district, perhaps better than last
year and, taking it all together it is in good condition,
except that some complaints of hog cholera have been
made from two or three localities in this district.
WESTERN DIVISION.-Conditions in this division are
about the same as in the previous one, as the same climatic
conditions prevailed over this territory as over the first.
The crops affected in the first case were similarly affected
in this case and about to a similar extent. Such crops as











field peas, peanuts, velvet beans, etc., are in only a fair
condition, and a general shortage is at present apparent.
Live stock is in fair condition by reason of good pastures
which were not affected so much by the climatic changes
in the first of the season. There has been little cholera
among the hogs so far reported. Warm weather follow-
ing the cold of the first portion of the season has perhaps
had a good effect generally, but its effect will not be
noticeable generally unless favorable conditions continue.
This especially refers to the condition of cotton and corn.
but a number of other crops in this and other districts
are very short, in fact, some of them are, practically,
failures.
NORTHEASTERN DIvIsIoN.-The counties of this district
being further east did not suffer quite as much' from
climatic conditions as the two previously mentioned ones,
therefore, the crops seem to be in somewhat better condi-
tion, except as to cotton and corn. These crops are in
general poor condition in all of the cotton and corn grow-
ing counties. There are few localities where corn and
cotton are either in a normal condition or a normal stand
and, judging from the reports as shown from our corres-
pondents, the corn and cotton crops will be the shortest
made in this State for a number of years. Cotton is
better than corn. Corn in this -district is not in as good
condition as in the previous districts, but the area planted
in proportion is greater and it is probable that what is
lost in yield will be, to some extent, made up by the
additional acreage; Cane and other crops, such as pota-
toes, field peas, peanuts, and velvet beans, show tolerably
well and at this season of the year it is possible that no-
thing further will happen to prevent a fair yield of most
of them. The condition of the pastures is good, and our
correspondents report live stock generally throughout
the country as being in good condition. It is also not-
able, in this connection, that few of our correspondents
in this district make any reference to the presence of











cholera among the hogs as compared with last year, as
only two or three localities have made any serious com-
plaints. It is fair, under these conditions to assume that
the disease is under better control through the agencies
in charge of such matters.
CENTRAL DIVISION.-The conditions in this district show
a slight change, if any, for the better, as this section
was not influenced by the unfavorable climatic conditions
to quite the same extent existing in the more northern
and western sections of the State. True, mention is made
through some of our correspondents of drought in many
instances, but it does not seem to have been of so wide
and disastrous affect. Apparently it was more local than
otherwise though very serious in some localities. This
being one of the principal fruit and vegetable growing
sections of the State, the unfavorable weather conditions
were disastrous to a number of growers. In this district
it is notable that there is apparently a slight falling off
in the prospective yield of citrus fruits, more particularly
the oranges, but we do not believe that the loss will be
of any extent. To what extent the loss will reach, we are
unable to say at present, but it seems that the orange
crop will probably be about eight to ten per cent. less than
last year, while- the grape fruit crop may be a little more
or at least the equal of last year, however, it is too early
to be certain of conditions as to these products. In fact
it is possible that new bearing young trees may more
than affect any loss by old bearing groves. Live stock
in this district is also reported to be in good condition.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.-In this section of the State con-
ditions are about the same as in the previous one,
especially with regard to the condition of the citrus fruit
crops, and also others. It is, however, stated that the
citrus fruit crop, and especially grape fruit in this dis-
trict will, in some localities, be greater in quantity and
superior in quality to the crop of last year. There is,
apparently, also a large increase in guavas, avocado pears,









88

mangoes and some other fruits, and as the demand in
the market for these crops is so much greater than the
supply, it is not likely that prices will be reduced. The
demand for these fruits increases much more rapidly than
the supply. Conditions of other crops in this section have
been good and also the yield. Live stock also is in
a flourishing condition. Outside of a few localities,
Climatic conditions have been favorable to most kinds of
crop production. One notable fact appears throughout
nearly all of the reports of our correspondents in regard
to conditions and yield, and -that is the unusual occur-
rence of what might be termed, spotted climatic condi-
tions, that is to say that the rain or the drought as the
case may be has been continuously confined to certain
limited areas, and this condition has extended from one
end of the State to the other without regard to latitude.











89


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD OF CROPS,
FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES, AND CONDITION OF LIVE STOCK,
FOR QUARTER ENDING JUNE 30, 1914, AS COMPARED WITH
SAME PERIOD LAST YEAR.


Upland Sea Island Sugar
COUNTY. Cotton. Cotton. Corn. Cane.

Northern Division. Condition. C Condition. Condition.
Franklin ................ ... 90 100
Gadsden .............. 100 60 100 50
Hamilton .............. ... 60 50 70
Jefferson .............. 75 ... 60 60
Lafayette ......... .. 100 50 75
Leon ..............80 60 75
Madison .............. 95 90 100 95
Taylor ................ ... 90 75 75
Wakulla .............. 75 75 80
Div. Av. per cent...... 85 80 I 78 I 76
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... g90 85 50 75
Escambia ............. 75 ... 70 65
Holmes ................ 90 ... 60 85
Santa Rosa ............ 85 ... 70 50
Walton ................. 90 ... 75 75
Washington ............. 85 .. 75 80
Div. Av. per cent...... 86 I 85 67 I 72
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ 75 100 4
Baker .................. 100 100 65 90
Bradford ............... 75 75 60 75
Clay ................... ... 80 60 90
Duval ................. .. .. 75 90
Nassau ............ ... 80 80 60 70
Putnam .................... ... 20 20
St. Johns ............. ... ... 85 65
Div. A v. per cent ...... 82 I 87 58 I 68
Central Division.
Hernando .............. ... ... 100 100
Levy .................. 70 75 5 70
Marion ................. ... 90 60 90
Orange ..................... 80 .
Pasco ............. ... 60 80
Seminole ............. ... ... 100
Sumter ............... ... ... 40 75
Volusia ................. ... ... 60 70
Div. Av. per cent ...... 1 70 1 82 69 1 81
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ .. 60 75'
Dade ................. ... 125 100
DeSoto ............ ... ... ... 90 100
Hillsboro .......... .... ... ... 85 100
Lee ............. ... .. .. 150 120
Osceola ....... ......... ... .. 100 100
Palm Beach ............. .. .. 100
Pinellas ................ ... .. 90
Polk ....... .. ........ 60 75
St. Lucie ............. .... ... 75
Div. Av. per cent...... I ... ... I 97 93
State Av. per cent...... 81 83 1 73 I 78











90


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


Sweet Field
COUNTY. Rice. Potatoes. Peas. Eggplant.

Northern Division. | Condition. I Condition. Condition. ( Condition.
Franklin ................ 80 80 50
Gadsden ................ 100 40 100 ...
Hamilton ............... ... 20 50
Jefferson ................ ... 40 60
Lafayette .............. ... 80 80
Leon ................... ... 60 75
Madison ................ .. 100 100
Taylor .................. 25 25 2..
Wakulla .... ......... .50 60 ..
Div. Av. per cent.......l 64 | 55 [ 76 I 50
Western Division.
Calhoun ................ 100 6 50 .
Escambia ............... .. 70 60
Holmes ................. ... 80 95 ...
Santa Rosa ............ ... 50 50 ...
W alton ................. ... 50 50 ...
Washington ............ ..... 80 90
Div. Av. per cent...... 100 1 66 6 66 |
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ ... 50 75 .
Baker .................. ... 70 100 ...
Bradford ............... ... 60 90 ...
Clay .................... ... 90 100
Duval .................. 90 100 85
Nassau ................. 60 60 75 75
Putnam ......... ...... 20
St. Johns ............... 65 85 90 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 62 I 65 I 90 I 83
Central Division.


Hernando ............... .
Levy ..................
M arion ................. 95
Orange .................. .
Pasco .................
Seminole ................
Sumter ................. .
Volusia ................. __
Div. Av. per cent...... I 95 I


75 100
82 85 65
75 95 85
100 100
80 90
100 ... 60
75 60 75
50 70 70
80 I 86 I 71


Southern Division.
Brevard ................ ... 80
Dade ................... .. 95 100
DeSoto ................. 75 100 100 100
Hillsboro ................ 90 90 85 90
Lee ..................... 100 100 95 100
Osceola ............... 80 80 100 100
Palm Beach ............. ... 100 ... 60
Pinellas ...... ......... ... 75 75
Polk .................... ... 95 65 80
St. Lucie ............... ... 80
,Div. Av. per cent ...... 86 91 | 88 | 88
State Av. per cent......| 81 I 71 I 1 | 73











91


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Cassava. Tobacco. Peanuts. Pasture.

Northern Division. Condition. Condition. I Condition. I Condition.
Franklin ............... ... 40 60
Gadsden ............... ... 105 100 100
Hamilton ................. ... 80 40
Jefferson ............... ... ... 50 70
Lafayette ................. 100
Leon .................. ... 90 85 85
Madison ............... ... ... 80 65
Taylor ............ .. 90 90
Wakulla ................ ... 90 80
Div. Av. per cent....... ... 97 I 79 I 71
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. ..... .. 75 75
Escambia ................ ... 70 70
Holmes ................. .. 95 70
Santa Rosa ............. .. .. 75 70
W alton ................. .. .. 75 75
Washington ............. 50 .. .85 50
Div. Av. per cent....... 50 I ... 1 79 68
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ ... ... 65 65
Baker ................ .. ... 100 40
Bradford ........... .. ... ... 100
Clay .............. ... ... 100
Duval ................ 90 65
Nassau ................. .. .. 60 75
Putnam ............ ... .
St. Johns ............... 90 ..80 75
Div. Av. per cent ...... 00 I ... 85 I 64
Central Division.
Hernando ............... .. 90 90
Levy ................. .. 80 55
Marion ................ ... 90 90
Orange ................ 100
Vasco ................. .. '0 80 90
Seminole ................ ... ... 100
Sumter ................ 75 ... 75 75
Volusla ................. 60 ... 60 40
Div. Av. per cent....... 67 90 I 79 I 80
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ 50
Dade .............. .95 100
DeSoto 85 100
DeSoto ................. 85 100
IIillsboro ............... 95 95
Lee .................... 100 .. 110 110
Osceola ................. 100 .. 100
Palm Beach ............ .
Pinellas ................. ... ...
Polk .................... .. 80 100
St. Lucie ... .......... ... 90
Div. Av. per cent ....... 98 .. I 92 98
State Av. per cent......I 76 I 93 I 83 I 75











92


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


Velvet
COUNTY. Beans. Alfalfa.

Northern Division. C condition. Condition.
Franklin .................................. 60 ..
Gadsden ............................. ......... 100
H am ilton ............................ ......... 85 ...
Jefferson ....................................... 90 .
Lafayette ..: .......... ......................... 100 .
Leon ......................................... 85 ..
M adison ...................................... 75 ..
T aylor .................................... ...
W akulla .......................90 ..
Div. Av. per cent.............. .............I 86
Western Division.
Calhoun .......... ..... .. 85
Escambia ...... .. '............ ... .......... 75
H olm es ....................... ........ .. .. 75 .
Santa Rosa .................. ...... ........... 80 ...
W alton ....................................... 85 ...
A lachua ....................................... 85 ...
W ashington .................... ....... 90 .
Div. Av. per cent.................. ............... I 82 "'
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............................ .. ............ 85
Baker ......................................... 100 .
Bradford ........................... ........... 659
Clay .............................. .. ........... 90
D uval ......................................... 80 80
Nassau ........................................ 75 60
Putnam ................. .................... 25 .
St. Johns ................... ................. 75 ...
Div. Av. per cent ............................. 74 I 70
Central Division.
Hernando ................................. .90
Levy .......................................... 73 .
M arion ........................................ .. 85
O range ........................
Pasco ........................ .90
Sem inole ................................... ...
Sumter ...................... .......... 60
V olusia ...................................... 50 ...
Div. Av. per cen ............................... 75 .
Southern Division.

revDade .......................... 100
DeSoto .... ...................... ... ............. 115
Hillsboro ............................. ....... ..90
Lee ............................. ........... 120
Osceola ............................ .................. 120
Palm Beach ......................... ......
Pinellas ...................................... 90
Polk ....................................... 115
St. Lucle .................................... .. 85
Div. Av. per cent ............................... 104
State Av. per cent............................ 84 70













93


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.



COUNTY. Guavas. Avocado Pears.

Northern Division. Condition. IProspectivel Condition. Prospective
S____Yield. Yield.
Franklin ................ .... ... ..
Gadsden ............. .. .. ..... .
Hamilton .................. ... ..
Jefferson ............... ... .. .
Lafayette ....... ..... .... .... ..
Leon ................... ... ... ...
Madison ............... .. ...
Madison ............... ...... ...
Taylor ..................
W akulla ................ .......
Div. Av. per cent....... .. .I .. .I ...
Western Division.
Calnoun ................I .. ....
Escam bia ............... ... ....
Holm es ................
Santa Rosa ............ .... ... ...
W alton .................
Washington ............. ____ _
Div. Av. per cent....... ... .. .
Northeastern Dicision.
A lachua ................ ..... ..
Baker ............ ....... .
Bradford ............... ...
Clay .................... ... ...
Duval .................. .....
Nassau ................. ..
Putnam .................
St. Johns ............... 100 | 90 __
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 90 | .. _I ...
Central Division.
llernando ............... ... 100
Levy ..................... ... ...
Marion ................ 90 90
Orange .................. ... ...
Pasco .................. 80 90
Seminole ............... 100 100. .
Sumter ................. ... ...
Volusia ............... 50 50 .
Div. Av. per cent........ 84 86 |
southern Divirion.
Irevard ............... 85 100
Dade ................... 100 100 100 100
DeSoto ................. 100 100 .
IIillsboro ................ 100 95 90 85
Lee ..................... 100 100 100 110
Osceola ................. 150 200
Palm Beach ............ 100 90 05 80
Pinellas ................ 100 100
Polk ................... 100 100
St. Lucie ............... 75 70 75 50
Div. Av. per cent........ 101 105 92 85
State Av. per cent....... 95 94 | 92 J 85













94


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Bananas. Mangoes.

Northern Division. | Condition. Prospective Condition. JProspective
Yield. I Yield.
Franklin ............... 50 50 .
Gadsden ................ .. .
Hamilton .................. I
Jefferson ............... ... ... ...
Lafayette .............. ... .. .. ...
L eon ................... .... .
Taylor .................. .......
W akulla ................ .....
Div. Av. per cent ....... 50 50 I .. I
Western Division.
Calnoun ................ ....
Escambia ............... ...
Holmes ............... ... ... .
Santa Rosa ............ .. .
W alton .............
W ashington ............ ... ... I ..
Div. Av. per cent. ....I .. I ... I .. .I
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................... .. .....
Baker ................. .....
Bradford ............... ......
Clay ................... ....
Duval ........ ...... ...
Nassau ................. 90 50
Putnam ................. ........
Levy ................... .
St. Jons .............. 90 50 ... ..
Div. Av. per cent........ 90 1 50 I ...
Central Division.
Hternando .............. ..... ... ...
Levy ............. .....: I ...
Marion ............... 100 100
Orange ........... ..... ... ... .
Pasco ...................
Seminole ................ 100 100 ..
Sumter ................. 40 40 ...
Volusia ................. ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 80 I 80 I ...
southern Division.
Brevard ................. 90 90 85 90
Dade .................. 100 100 100 100
DeSoto ...... ..... 70 60
Hillsboro ............... 90 00 90 85
Lee .................... 100 100 120 150
Osceola ................. 150 200 100 200
Palm Beach ............ 100 ,5 90 70
Pinellas ......... .. ... .... .. 75 80
Polk ................... 100 85
St. Lucie .............. 60 50 75 60
Div. Av. per cent ....... 96 | 97 I 92 104
State Av. per cent....... 79 69 92 104













95


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Orange Trees. Lemon Trees.

Northern Division. Condition. \ProspectiveJ Condition. I'rospective
| Yield. I__ Yield.
Franklin ................ 90 80 80 70
.Gadsden ............... ....... .....
Hamilton ...... ... .. .....
Jefferson ... ...... .. 6
Lafayette ............... '90 75
Leon ................... 90 75 ...
Madison .............. 50 50
Taylor ................. ... .
Wakulla ................ .. ...
Div. Av. per cent....... 80 70 | 80 70
Western Division.
Calhoun ..... ......... 100 50 100 50
Escambia ....... .... ..
Holmes ................ .....
Santa Rosa ... ....... .. ...
Walton ................. .. ...
Washington ..............
Div. Av. per cent....... 100 | 50 I 100 | 50
Northeastern Division.


Alaciua ................
Baker .................
Bradford ..............
Clay ..................
Duval .................
Nassau .................
Putnam ................
St. Johns ..............
Div. Av. ner cent ....... I


88 I 73 I 85 I 65


Central Division.
Hernando ............... 85 100 ...
Levy ................. 75 85
Marion ................ 90 90 90 90
Orange .................. 100 50 ...
Pasco .................. 80 90 ...
Seminole ................ 100 100 ...
Sumter ................. 80 75 ..
Volusia ................ 70 50 ...
Div. Av per cent ....... 85 1 80 90 :
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ 75 90 85 90
Dade .................. 95 100 80 95
DeSoto ................. 100 80 100 80
Hillsboro .............. 90 95 90 95
Lee .................... 100 120 100 100
Osceola ................ 100 80 100 80
Palm Beach ............ 95 90
Pinellas ............... 85 90 80 90
Polk ................... 90 110
St. Luce ............... 100 90 80 75
Div. Av. per cent....... 93 94 89 | 88
State Av. per cent.... .. 89 I 73 I 89 I 72
















REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Lime Trees. Grapefruit Trees.

Northern Division. Condition. (Prospective Condition. Prospective
SYield. | Yield.
Franklin ............... .. ... 80 75
Gadsden ................ ... .... .
Hamilton ............... .
Jefferson ............... ... ...
Lafayette ............... ... ..
Leon ................... ... ... 90 75
M adison ................ .........
Taylor .................. ... ... ... ...
Wakulla ................ ..
Div. Av. per cent ....... ... ... | 85 | 75
Western Division.
Calhoun .............. .... ... 00 50
Escambia ..................... ...
Iolmes ............... ...... ... ...
Santa Rosa ............ .
W alton ............... ... .........
Washington ...P........ ... ... .
Div Av. per cent....... .. ... 100 I 50
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ............ .. ... .. 90 75
Baker ............. .. ... ... 90 75
Bradford ............... ... ... 100 90
Clay .................. ..... ...
Dual .................. 80 0 80 75
Nassau ................. ... ... 100 80
Putnam ... .......... ... ... 75 50
St. Johns ............. ... ... 75 75
)iv. Av. per cent....... 80 I 60 89 I 76
Central Division.
nernando .............. ... 85 90
Levy ................... .. ... 80 85
Marion ................. 90 90
Orange ................. ... 100 75
Pasco ................ ... 80 90
Seminole ................ .. ... 100 100
Sumter ................. .. ... 90 75
Volusia ................ ..... 70 50
Div. Av. per cent....... ... ... 87 I 80
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ 80 90 85 90
Dade ................... 95 95 110 100
DeSoto ................. 100 80 100 70
Hillsboro ............... 94 95 95 100
Lee ................. 100 110 100 120
Osceola ............... 100 90 100 90
Palm Beach ............. 90 90 100 95
Pinellas ................ 85 85 85 90
Polk ........ .... 95 110
St. Lucie ............... 80 75 90 85
Div. Av. per cent....... 92 90 1 96 95
State Av. per cent....... 86 I 75 I 91 I 75












97


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Plums. Pears.

Northern Division. Condition. IProspective Condition. Prospective
I Yield. Yield.
Franklin ................ 90 90 90 40
Gadsden ................. ... .. ... ..
Hamilton .............. ..........
Jefferson ..............
Lafayette ............... 10 90
Leon ................... 100 100 75 35
Madison ................ 100 100 50 25
Taylor ................. ... ...
Wakulla ................ .
Div. Av. per cent....... 97 95 1 72 33
Northeastern Division.
Calhoun ............... 100 75 .. ...
Escambia ............... 90 75
Holmes ................. 90 75
Santa Rosa ............. 60 65 80 70
Walton ................. 50 65 75 75
Washington .............. 75 75 50 50
Div. Av. per cent.......I 77 I 72 1 68 65
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ....... ......... 100 100
Baker .................. 100 100 100 100
Bradford ............... 100 100 100 100
Clay .................... ... .
Duval .................. 95 90 4S 50
Nassau ................. 300 90 100 90
Putnam ................ .. .
St. Johns .............. 100 80 75 60
Div. Av. per cent.......| 99 I 92 I 87 I 83
Central Division.
Hernando ............... ...
Levy ............... 80 90 80 100
Marion ................. 100 100 100 100
Orange ................ ...
Pasco .................. 6 0 60 .
Seminole ................ ...
Sumter ................. ...... 90 80
Volusia ................. ...... 70 50
Div. Av. per cent.......| 80 I 83 I 85 | 82
Southern Division.
Brevard ........................
Dade ................ .
Hillsboro ............... 90 70 95 80
Lee .. .............. ...
Osceola ................. 100 100 100 120
Palm Beach ............. ..
Pinellas ............
Polk ................... 100 100
St. Lucie ............... .
Div. Av. per cent.......I 97 90 I 97 I 100
State Av. per cent....... 90 I 86 I 82 I 73


7-Bul












98


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Peaches. Watermelons.

Northern Division. I Condition. (Prospective Condition. Prospective
__ Yield. Yield.
Franklin ............... 96 60 90 90
Gadsden ................ .. 90 90
Gadsden ............... ... 90 00
Hamilton ............... .. 85 75
Jefferson ............... ... ... 90 90
Lafayette ............... ... 80 80
Leon ................... 75 35 90 90
Madison ................ ... ... 75 80
Taylor .................. 75 75
Wakulla .............. 100 90 80 85
Div. Av. per cent....... g90 1 62 1 84 1 84
Western Division.
Calhoun ................ 100 5 6 40
Escambia ............... 90 65 75 65
Holmes ................. ... ... 90 75
Santa Rosa ............ 75 80 65 65
Walton ................ 100 100 50 60
Washington ............ 55 50 70 75
Div. Av. per cent....... 84 | 69 1 69 | 63
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ 80 75 50 50
Baker .................. 90 95 100 100
Bradford ............... 100 100 75 65
Clay .................... 75 50 80 80
Duval .................. 50 50 70 75
Nassau ................. 100 90 90 90
Putnam ................ 75 50 50 30
St. Johns ............... 75 65 80 70
Div. Av. per cent....... 81 I 72 | 74 70
Central Division.
Hernando .............. 100 100 75 80
Levy ................... 90 95 55 80
Marion .............. 100 100 85 83
Orange ................. ....
Pasco ................... 40 40 50 0
Seminole ................ 75 75
Sumter ................. 50 60 75
Volusia ................. 70 40 90 90
Div. Av. per cent....... 75 74 I 72 I 76
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ 75 75 60 60
Dade ................... ....
DeSoto .................. ... 100 10
Hillsboro ............... 100 50 SO 85
Lee .................... 100 100 110 110
Osceola ................. 80 75 100 150
Palm Beach ............ ... 90 80
Pinellas ................ 85 85 90
Polk .................... 85 75 95 90
St. Lucie .............. ..... 85 80
Div. Av. per cent.......I 88 1 77 87 I 94
State Av. per cent....... 84 71 1 77 77












99

REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Cantaloupes. Pineapples.

Northern Division. Condition. IProspective\ Condition. Prospective
______I Yield. i Yield.
Franklin ................ 80 75 -. ."
Gadsden ................ 75 80
Hamilton ...... ... ....
Jefferson .............. .. ..
Lafayette .............. .
Leon ................... 85 80 .
Madison ................ 50 50
Taylor ................ ...
Wakulla ................ .. .
I)iv. Av. per cent.......I 73 | 371 j ...
Western Division.
Calioun ................. 65 40 .
Escambia ............... 65 50
Holmes ................
Walton ................. 50 00
Washington ............ 50 50
Div. Av. per cent ....... 57 50 I .
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ................ 25 20
Baker .................. 100 100
Bradford ................ 50 50
Clay ................... ....
Duval .................. 70 70 .. ..
Nassau .................. 90 90
Putnam ................ 50 40
St. Johns .............. 0 70..
Div. Av. per cent........ ;6 63 .. .
Central Division.
Hernando ............... .....
Levy ................... 70 70
Marion ................ 85 80 .
Orange ................. .......
Pasco ................. 40 40 .. ..
Seminole ................ 70 75 .
Sumter ................. 60 60
Volusia ................. 80 50 .
Div. Av. per cent.......l 68 1 63 ... .
Southern Division.
Brevard ................ ... ... 80
Dade ........ ........ ... .
DeSoto ............... ... 100 100
IIillsboro ............... 70 75 85 85
Lee ................... 100 100 100 100
Osceola ................. 100 100 125 175
Palm Beach .......... ... ... 80 70
Pinellas ................... 85 90 .
Polk ................... 100 100
St. Lucie ....... ........ ... ... 50 40
Div. Av. per cent....... 91 | 93 89 92
State Av. per cent....... 71 | 68 89 92












100


REPORT OF CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD.-Continued.


COUNTY. Grapes.

Northern Division. Condition. Prospective
Y| Yield.
Franklin .................... .......... ...... 80 80
Gadsden .....................................
H am ilton ....................***.................
Jefferson .................................... ...
Lafayette ....................................
Leon ......................................... .0i66
Madison ......................***..........*.
Taylor ................. ......................
W akulla ...................................... ____
Div. Av. per cent............................. 90 __ 85
Western Division.
calnoun ..................................... 75 60
Escambia .................................... .. .
Holmes .................................... .
Santa Rosa .................................. .
Walton ......................................
Washington ....................... .... ...... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent............................. 87 I 80
Northeastern Division.
Alachua .... ................................
Baker ...........................90 90
Bradford ...................................... 80 75
Clay ........................................ .. 100 100
Duval ................. 85 100
Nassau ......................... 100 100
Putnam .......................................
St. Johns .................................... 80 75
Div. Av. per cent....................... ..... 89 I 88
Central Division.
ernando .............. ............ ...
Levy ........................................ 0 0
Marion ..................................... 100 100
Orange .......................................I 4 "40
Pasco ... ......-.............................. 40
Seminole .....4...................................
Sumter ................. ......... ..0 40
Volusia ...................................... .. 100 100
Div. Av. per cent .............................. 74 1 68
Southern Division.
Brevard .......... ........... ............
Dade ....................................... ...
DeSoto ....................................... 90 100
Hillsboro ..................................... 90 100
Lee ................................. 100 100
Osceola ...................................... 100 100
Palm Beach .................................... ...
Pinellas ............................... ........... 90 90
Polk ........................................
St. Lucie .................................... "90 75
Div. Av. per cent............................... I 94 I 93
State Av. per cent............................ I 87 I 83




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