VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2
APRIL 1, 1914
W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
Part 1-The Citrus Grove, White Fly Control, Remedy for
Mango Blight, the Sweet Potato Crop, Poultry Rais-
ing, Indian Runner Ducks, Improving Acid Soils,
Cowpeas, to Encourage Sheep Raising, Planting
Dates, Useful Information.
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM
T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA.
THE CITRUS GROVE.
WHITE FLY CONTROL.
REMEDY FOR MANGO BLIGHT.
THE SWEET POTATO CROP.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS.
IMPROVING ACID SOILS.
TO ENCOURAGE SHEEP RAISING.
THE CITRUS GROVE, ITS LOCATION AND
By P. H. Rolfs, M. S.
Director of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
State Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville.
CHOOSING A LOCATION.
The character of Florida soils is variable to a consider-
able extent. Even in the same vicinity various kinds of
soils may occur. These vary from a clay to loamy, sandy,
and marly soils. Some of them, also, are muck. soils.
Clay Soil is one of the best for citrus-growing when- it
is found in a warm region. Less fertilizer is required
and the trees are productive, bearing an unusually fine
quality of fruit if the soil is properly handled.
Loaming Soil.-This is the character of the soil that is
most largely employed for citrus-growing and with best
results. Elsewhere this soil might be referred to as sandy
loam. It contains a considerable admixture of clay and
organic matter, with a large body of sand.
Sandy Soil, or sandy land as it is often called, is usually
free from a perceptible admixture of either vegetable
matter or clay. For the most part it tends to be lacking
in water and fertilizer-holding power. When it is almost
pure sand it appears white, and is usually considered an
Marly Soils occur in some sections. After a consider-
able amount of humus has been worked into.the stiff
marl, they make good soils for citrus trees. In their
original state, the marly soils are apt to produce an in-
different growth in the young trees, usually causing them
to suffer more or less from dieback, scale insects, and
other such disorders. This condition, however, passes off
as the soil becomes more thoroughly tilled and has more
vegetable matter incorporated in it.
Muck Soils are not the ideal soils upon which to plant
citrus trees, since they are inclined to be sour, to produce
an exuberant growth, and for a number of years to give
rough and imperfect fruit. After muck lands have been
cultivated for a number of years and brought into a
thorough state of tilth, they produce excellent crops of
citrus fruits, unless the mucks remain raw in form and
contain a considerable amount of humic acid.
THE NATURAL GROWTH As AN INDEX.
Hammock.-It is in our native hammocks that the wild
citrus groves occur. In some regions thousands of trees
have been transplanted from these old native groves to
higher lands. In other places the hammocks were cleaned
up, leaving the orange seedlings standing, to be budded
over to the better varieties. These wild trees were always
found to be the sour orange. At the present time the
hammock lands are regarded as the ideal ones for citrus
culture. The great cost necessary to clear these up thor-
oughly has in many cases deterred people from making
use of them.
Rolling Pine.-The higher pine lands, more or less roll-
ing, upon which long leaf pine trees are growing, give us
some of the best citrus lands we have in the State. These
lands are easily cleared, and quickly brought into service
for setting out to citrus trees. They are usually suffi-
ciently drained naturally to permit the citrus groves to
grow off promptly and produce a lot of fruit. They
are less desirable than the hammocks, on account of re-
quiring a larger amount of fertilizer to bring the trees
into bearing. After years of cropping, however, they will
require little or no more fertilizer than the adjacent
Cabbage Palmetto Hammock.-These hammocks differ
from the hammocks proper in that they are usually more
or less covered with water for a part of the year. The
cabbage palmetto is the predominating tree. Wherever
the land is high enough above the adjacent water, these
lands may be drained and brought into service for citrus
culture. When properly handled, they make among our
best citrus groves.
Shell Hammock.-These differ from the other forms of
hammock in that the soil is composed, to a greater or less
degree, of shell. The trees usually grow off promptly
and make a good showing, but sooner or later are apt to
be affected severely with dieback; and while in many
cases most excellent fruit is raised on shell hammocks
they require a special and careful treatment. This char-
acter of land may safely be used by those who are expert
in handling citrus trees.
Drained Lands.-Lake beds and other lands, sometimes
called prairie, that are high enough to permit of thorough
drainage, have been used to a considerable extent for
planting to citrus. In these lands it is purely a question
as to whether they are sufficiently high to permit of thor-
ough drainage during the rainy portion of the year.
Pine Land, With Oak Undergrowth.--Some of the pine
land, frequently called second-grade pine land, especially
that which has a considerable undergrowth of scrub oaks,
must be looked upon with some suspicion. Where clay is
found within two or three feet from the surface, this char-
acter of soil can be easily employed for locating a citrus
grove, but where the sand is very deep it will be prefer-
able to choose a location elsewhere.
Flatwoods.-This character of land is usually level and
more or less covered with water during the rainy season.
As a rule, a hardpan occurs from a few inches to a few
feet below the surface. This prevents rapid and thorough
drainage. Saw palmettoes are usually absent or scattered
on this character of land. The predominating under-
growth is gallberry. By hardpan, we should understand
a more or less impervious stratum occurring in the soil
at a depth of a few inches or a few feet. It obstructs the
passage of water downward, and also obstructs the down-
ward progress of the roots, causing the soil to become
water-logged during the rainy period, and probably very
dry during a period of drought. This hardpan may be
made up of various matters, either calcareous, siliceous
or ferruginous. The cementing material usually breaks
up and lets the sand fall apart when exposed to the air.
If the hardpan is of a ferruginous nature, it is more or
less poisonous to citrus trees. Various methods have been
adopted for bringing into cultivation land that has a
hardpan under it. Sometimes this hardpan has been
broken through by means of plowing. In such cases the
hardpan was near the surface and in a thin layer. In
other cases, the surface soil has been mounded up so as to
put the trees on ridges. In a few cases the hardpan has
been broken by discharging dynamite under the trees.
Iron salts as they normally occur in the soil have a
yellowship or reddish color. Where these colors occur,
the darker colored iron hardpans are not likely to be
present, consequently it is sometimes concluded that a
reddish or yellow soil indicates one especially favorable
for agricultural purposes. These flatwoods lands, when
thoroughly and deeply drained and the hardpans broken,
make a fair place for producing citrus fruit.
Spruce-Pine Land.-The spruce-pine land, as well as
the scrub-oak land, should not be employed for citrus-
growing at the present time. Splendid citrus orchards
occur on lands of this kind, but they have been brought
out by experts and at the cost of much more than would
have been necessary on lands better adapted for citrus-
growing. In addition to this, these lands produce trees
that are subject to many disorders.
SITE OF THE GROVE.
Immediately upon deciding that one wishes to plant a
grove, he should select the best site that can be produced.
A great many questions arise in determining where a
grove shall be located. A few of these are discussed
Distance From Transportation Line.-The ultimate
object being the selling of fruit at a remunerative figure,
it becomes necessary to locate a grove within a reasonable
distance of some line of railroad or water transportation.
The distance which it will be profitable to transport fruit
by wagon will depend largely upon the condition of the
Another determining factor in the matter is the cost
of the land. A grove of moderate-sized trees, heavily
loaded, should produce a thousand boxes of oranges to
the acre. Allowing fifty boxes to a load, this would re-
quire twenty trips to the transportation station. If a
grove were located three miles away from the station, it
would probably take one man with a two-horse team six
days to haul this fruit. If located one-half that distance,
it would require only three or four days. Allowing about
$4 a day for this work, the hauling of the fruit from the
more distant grove would increase the cost about $8 per
acre, which amount must be charged as an annual tax.
from this the intending purchaser can readily calculate
how much more be can afford to pay proportionately for
land in close proximity to the railroad station.
Frost Protection.-There are no parts of Florida that
are entirely free from occasional frosts, and in some parts
of the State freezing weather may be expected to occur
during every winter. There are a few isolated places,
however, that are so favorably located that freezing
weather is of rare occurrence.
Under ordinary circumstances, a drop in temperature
to 28 degrees and a continuation of this for several hours
will not freeze citrus fruit. If, however, the drop goes
lower, say to about 26 or 25 degrees, serious damage is
apt to result, especially if it is long continued. A drop in
temperature to 24 degrees is not likely to prove seriously
damaging to trees unless it is of continued duration.
Trees in a thoroughly dormant condition will pass through
a temperature of 18 degrees without the loss of much
wood, but, as a rule, a considerable amount of foliage is
lost at that temperature. This, however, varies with
different varieties and with the conditions of the tree
and the duration of the cold. Even if it does go to freez-
ing, a sudden drop in the temperature and a continuation
of it for a number of days proves rather disadvantageous
to the health of the citrus grove. It is, therefore, very
desirable to have some form of protection against cold.
Water Protection.-Water protection proves to be one
of the best shelters against occasional cold days in winter.
It has been found that regions located in large bodies of
water, or with a northern, eastern and western protection
of water, are much less subject to drops in temperature
than those that are exposed. Quite a number of such
places may be found as far north as 29 degrees 45 minutes
of latitude. Even north of this region some fine groves
occur that have been protected by artificial means. Far-
ther south, at about the 28th parallel of latitude, a num-
ber of locations have been found where water has pro-
tected the trees, and in some cases even the fruit, against
the most severe cold that we have had.
Hammock Protection.-Quite a number of citrus grow-
ers in the State have found that hammock protection is
quite as feasible as water protection. By locating in a
large hammock and securing the surrounding lands, citrus
growers have cut small tracts in the hammock varying
from five to ten acres in extent and planted these in citrus
trees, leaving these small groves entirely surrounded by
hammock trees. To make such a plan practicable, it is
necessary to own the surrounding hammock; otherwise,
one would have no control over the hammock trees which
le wishes to use as protection against cold.
SHELTER FROM SEA WINDS.
Around the coast of Florida the bleak sea winds are
damaging to citrus trees and citrus fruits. The direct
influence of the sea breezes is to cause the atmosphere and
soil to become dry. This stunts the grove and in some
cases makes it absolutely impossible for the trees to
attain a size that will enable them to bear a profitable
crop. In some cases, where groves have been planted in
such exposed places, it has become necessary to erect an
artificial windbreak. This being built ten or twelve feet
high, affords the first row protection against the sea-
breezes. Each row then successively forms a protection
for the succeeding row.
In addition to the direct influence of the sea winds, we
also have the indirect effect in causing the fruit to become
torn, scratched, bruised, or otherwise mutilated, and unfit
for market purposes. The foliage, and especially the
rapidly growing young shoots, are likely to be seriously
damaged by mechanical injury from the sea winds. Where
it becomes desirable to plant a grove within the influence
of the sea winds, it is very important that a strip of ham.
mock should be left as a wind protection. If this is not
available, a protecting row of trees should be planted.
The native hay tree resists the influence of the sea winds
well, but probably a much better tree for the purpose is
PREPARING THE LAND.
Clearing the Field.-In preparing for a citrus orchard,
it is important that all native trees, stumps, and other
material should be removed from the soil. A few cab-
bage palmettoes may be left for nurse trees for some time,
but there should not be a large number, certainly not
more than one hundred to one hundred and fifty to the
acre, and, of course, all of those occurring in the rows
where trees should stand ought to be removed. Liveoaks
and especially pines are found to be very injurious to the
growth of citrus trees.
It is not impossible for a person to make a good grove
in a field that is full of stumps and debris. The chances,
however, are much against his making a success. He
would be the exception to the rule if he did so.
Breaking and Plowing.-After the field has been thor-
oughly grubbed and freed from all obstructions in sight,
the next important step is to plow the land thoroughly.
During this operation a large amount of roots and under-
ground trash will be turned up. This should be removed
and burned. Weeds, grass and stuff that will decay rap-
idly can be left on the ground and be plowed under to
good advantage. It is important to have a large plow
and sufficient horse power to do the work thoroughly. A
fourteen or sixteen-inch plow, or, better still, a thirty-
inch disc plow, will be found useful.
Previous Cropping.-Most people who are intending to
put out a citrus grove become impatient for a crop, and,
consequently, are too much in a hurry to plant trees. The
severe change that has taken place on the land by the
removal of the forest and the burning of the stumps has
set up a disturbance in the soil. The land, therefore, is
in most cases unfit to receive anything but the most
vigorous plants. If the field is prepared in time to be
planted to a crop of vegetables, this is highly advisable.
These vegetables will be less affected by the adverse con-
ditions than are the citrus trees, and even if they should
be adversely affected it would mean only the loss of one
crop and would not be communicated to the succeeding
years. If the season is not a proper one for planting out
vegetables, the field may be planted in some farm crop,
especially a cover crop, such as velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. If a good crop of velvet beans has been
grown upon the soil, we are pretty certain to have it in
first-class condition for setting out to citrus trees. In
addition to putting the soil in good condition, the velvet
beans will add a large amount of ammonia to the soil,
requiring less of this element in the fertilizer to be ap-
plied to the trees when set out.
Catch Crops.-During the succeeding year vegetables
and farm crops may be profitably planted between the
rows of citrus trees. One should, however, not lose sight
of the fact that the citrus orchard is the main project
under consideration, and that these catch crops must be
removed or entirely destroyed if they in any way inter-
fere with the health and growth of the citrus trees. After
the vegetable crop has been removed from the citrus grove
the middles may be planted to velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. These plants will continue to add ammonia
to the soil, prevent leaching by heavy rains and finally
return to the soil a large amount of humus, which is very
much needed to produce growth and health in citrus trees.
It is, however, entirely possible to get so much organic
ammonia in the soil as.to cause dieback in the small trees.
When this occurs, the planter loses from one to two years'
time in the growth of his trees.
Perfect Drainage Necessary.-One of our foremost
agriculturalists in the State has said that there is not an
acre of land in the State of Florida that does not need
draining; that even the steep clay hillsides would be im-
proved by being underlaid with tile drains. Our general
experience has been that when people speak of land as
being perfectly drained they mean that it is perfectly
drained during the dry part of the year, and forget alto-
gether about the rainy part of the year, which is the
critical season. A grove site should be so perfectly
drained, naturally and artificially, as to never allow the
soil water to stand above two feet from the surface at
any time. Several instances are known where groves
located on the top of a hill, seventy-five feet above a lake,
had standing water in the soil during the rainy season.
Such trees as are within the influence of this water neces-
sarily become weakened by the exclusion of oxygen and
interferes with the bacterial life in the soil. For the
orange grove as a whole, surface drainage appears to be
the cheapest and most profitable. Tile drains are likely
to become clogged by citrus roots, and much damage may
result before the grower recognizes the defect.
Irrigation.-While much good can be done by conserv-
ing the moisture in the soil, occasional years occur, how-
ever, when the drought becomes so severe that if one had
an irrigating plant the advantages derived from it would
be sufficient to pay for the whole outfit; and during
about three years out of five a sufficient number of
droughts occur to make a good irrigating plant very de-
sirable. The type of plant to use depends very much
upon one's own inclinations and the amount of money he
has to spend. Furrow irrigation, as practiced in Cali-
fornia, is entirely practicable and has been used to some
extent in Florida. This is the cheapest method, and the
one which will doubtless be generally adopted.
Object.-Too many grove owners look upon cultivation
in the light taken by a certain colored boy, who, when
asked what he was cultivating for, replied: "Seventy-five
cents a day." During a money stringency the first thing
the grove owner does in many cases is to cut down the
amount of cultivation. We cultivate an orange grove to
admit air into the soil, as a first requisite, to keep up the
bacterial life; and, secondly, to conserve the moisture
Germ. Action.-Plants in general take up the ammonia
in the soil in the form of nitrates. These nitrates, to a
large extent, are formed from broken-down vegetable
matter. They are prepared by the organisms constantly
present in the soil. Nearly all of our fertilizers applied
to the trees must go through this breaking down process.
Possibly the only exception to this is when we use nitrate
of soda and nitrate of potash. To secure the best results
the nitrifying bacterial must be present in the soil in suffi-
cient quantity. The temperature of the soil must range
somewhere between 40 and 130 degrees F., the most favor-
able soil temperature being about 98 to 99 degrees. A
reasonable amount of moisture is necessary, and there
must be a free circulation of air. The nitrates are most
rapidly formed in the soil near the surface, especially in
the first six inches. The depth at which the largest
amount of nitrates are formed varies with the condition
of the soil. From this it will be seen that nitrates are
forming rather rapidly in our soils during almost the
Conserving Moisture.-Another important reason for
cultivating is to conserve the moisture of the soil. To
make the fertilizer applied available to the plant, it be-
comes necessary for these substances to be placed in solu-
tion. In the absence of moisture in the soil the fertilizer
applied to the grove will be as useless as if left in the
bag. On the other hand, if too large an amount of mois-
ture be present, the plants are unable to get a sufficient
amount of the chemical elements in the water that is
being absorbed. Conservation of moisture by cultivation
is best accomplished by using some light implement that
will work rapidly over the soil, breaking the crust or
stirring the already loose surface soil, forming what is
usually spoken of as the soil mulch. The appended table
shows the effect of cultivation and non-cultivation on
lands that would be considered fairly good citrus lands.
During the year when these tests were being made there
was a very great deficiency in the rainfall; in fact during
the four months following the first of January; there was
only one rainfall that amounted to enough to wet the soil:
MOISTURE IN CULTIVATED AND UNCULTIVATED LAND.
First foot .........
Second foot .......
Third foot ........
Fourth foot .......
April 18, 1908.
age. per acre.
. 5.35 107.0
. 5.73 .114.6
. 5.17 103.4
April 24, 1908.
age. per acre.
First foot ..........
Second foot ........
Third foot ............
Fourth foot ........
.... 239.6 .... 246.0
Cultivated land, average......... 418.0 tons
.Uncultivated land, average....... 242.8 tons
Diff. in favor of cultivated land... 175.2 tons of water,
or 11/2 in. of rain.
The above table shows that an amount of moisture
equal to one and one-half inches of rainfall may be con-
served by plowing and cultivating.
Increasing Humus Content.-The humus is the dark-
colored material which occurs in practically all soils to a
greater or less extent. Sandy soils almost devoid of
humus are very white. When a large amount of humus
is added to such a soil, it takes on a dark color. Our
pure muck or peat beds may be said to be pure beds of
humus, though the decaying vegetable matter in this
period of its transition is not usually spoken of as humus,
but rather as peat. In the next stage of its decay it
takes on more of an earthly character, and is then spoken
of as humus. All forms of animal and vegetable matter
take this form before changing into distinctly inorganic
substance. Large roots, roots of crops, stalks of crops,
and similar growth, are useful in increasing the humus
of the soil. The most useful of our humus-supplying
plants are the legumes. Foremost among these is the
velvet bean. Cowpeas and beggarweed are also excellent
for citrus groves.
Humus in the soil improves its mechanical condition
by making a compact soil looser and more permeable to
the roots of the plants. It gives the leachy soil a water-
holding capacity, and, therefore, a capacity for holding
plant-food, especially such as has been supplied in the
form of fertilizers. It furnishes a convenient location
and food for the useful micro-organism which prepare
the fertilizers for the citrus trees. In addition to the
above advantages an increase in the humus content of the
soil increases the soil warmth.
From what has been said in the foregoing paragraph,
it should not be considered that humus is an unmixed
blessing. Too large a supply of humus in a grove will
cause dieback, and in a fruiting grove it is likely to pro-
duce what the orange growers properly know as ammo-
niated fruits, as well as dieback. Consequently, the citrus
fruit grower must not attempt to push his trees too rap-
idly, and must also be careful to have his soil thoroughly
drained (drainage for the rainy season), in order that the
life processes in the soil may go on in a normal way.
KIND OF CULTURE.
There is probably no other subject in citrus-growing
that formerly elicited so much heated discussion as did
the question of the time and kind of cultivation. Usually
the debaters ignored entirely the kind of soil, the char-
acter of their land, and the length of time during which
they had practiced their particular hobbies. We, there-
fore, find that the sects were divided into practically three
schools: The perfectly clean culture men, who considered
it a disgrace to have a sprig of grass visible in their
groves; the school who argued that since our wild trees
never were cultivated in the native state, therefore, the
grove trees should not be cultivated; later, a third school
sprang up that considered it entirely proper to cultivate
during the drier part of the year, but ceased cultivation
altogether during the rainy part of the year. It speaks
well for the hardihood of the orange tree to be able to
endure and produce a paying crop under all of these con-
ditions of cultivation. Some of the school of clean cultur-
ists conserved the moisture of the soil by using a liberal
organic mulch. Some, in fact, went so far as to spend
much time and money in cutting shrubbery from the ham-
mock or piney woods and applying this under the trees
as a mulching, to add humus to the soil and to conserve
Later, and from necessity, a number of orange growers
have had to take care of orange groves that became com-
pletely sodded with Bermuda grass. We might call these
the Bermuda sod groves.
Spring Cultivation.-In sections of Florida, where it
becomes necessary to bank trees to protect them against
the danger of winter freezing, cultivation should not be
begun until all danger of frost or freezing is past. Re
move the heating apparatus or piles of wood that may
have been placed in the grove to protect it against freez-
ing, then pull down the banks and begin to cultivate.
Groves that have been well tilled the year before will
be found in excellent shape for using small tools, such as
the Acme harrow, Planet, Jr., etc. In groves where con-
siderable vegetable matter is left over from the previous
year, it may be necessary to use a cutaway harrow to
break this up. The first cultivation in the spring may be
somewhat deep, since it is not likely that new feeding
roots have been formed near the surface. If, however,
the cultivation is not started until feeding roots have
formed, it is best to avoid deep cultivation. Deep culti-
vation at this time of the year, as at any other time, is a
relative rather than an absolute term.
After the first cultivation, nothing more than a mere
stirring of the first inch or two of soil should be given.
This conserves the moisture so much needed at this time
of the year. Our driest portion of the year is likely to
occur during March, April and May. The more fre-
quently we cultivate, the more of the soil moisture is
conserved. Ordinarily, it is not profitable to cultivate
more frequently than once a week. If our soil is in the
best possible condition, a weeder may be used. It may be
necessary to load the weeder with a small piece of cord-
wood. With such an implement, a man and a horse can
cultivate a ten-acre grove in a day.
Catch Crops.-Where some form of crop is being grown
between the rows of trees, it is necessary to give this crop
the best of attention and an abundance of fertilizer to
keep it from drawing heavily on the young grove. It is a
good practice to keep at least six feet away from the reach
of the branches. Trees that are over five years old are
likely to have roots extending as far as midway between
the rows; consequently, cultivation of the catch crop
should be gauged according to the needs of the citrus
Summer Cultivation.-Some fine groves and much ex-
cellent fruit have been produced by a continuous summer
cultivation; other groves have been seriously injured and
the crops of fruit have been ruined by such work. The
question depends more upon what the character of the
land is than upon any dogmatic method of procedure.
Ordinarily, it is safe to discontinue cultivation as soon
as abundant rains occur, and to allow grass and weeds to
grow at their will. If the grass and weeds become too
tall and appear to be a detriment to the grove, a mower
may be used to cut them down. During the summer
season these will rot and return to the soil as humus. If
the grove does not need mowing, the grass and weeds may
be allowed to grow, and at the close of the rainy season
the grass may be made into hay and removed from the
field. Where the soil is deficient in humus, it will prob-
ably pay better to mow the grass and weeds and allow
them to rot to humus in the grove.
Velvet beans, cowpeas and beggarweed may also be
planted in groves if the soil is not too rich in organic
ammonia. These legumes abstract nitrogen from the
atmosphere and return it to the soil in the organic form.
There are instances where this has been carried on to the
extent of producing dieback in the grove. Where there
is the probability of getting too much organic nitrogen in
the soil, the legume may be made into hay. If these
legumes are used in the grove, they should be mown in
the beginning of the dry season so as to reduce the number
of plant bugs to a minimum, since frequently these suck-
ing insects cause a loss of fruit when the legumes are per-
mitted to remain late in the fall.
Fall Cultivation.-Whether we should cultivate in the
fall or not will depend largely on local conditions. If we
are having a severe drought it may be advisable to use a
cutaway harrow, or an impelment of this kind, to break
up the surface soil so as to conserve the moisture. If the
moisture is not needed, it is usually preferable to allow
the soil to remain undisturbed.
Winter Cultivation.-In the early winter, before there
is any danger from frost, it is frequently necessary for us
to cultivate to prevent rapid evaporation of the moisture.
We can also at that time incorporate more or less of the
cover crop that grew during the summer season. Care
must, however, be taken not to carry this cultivation to
the extent of stimulating the trees into late growth;
otherwise, we are apt to get our trees severely injured by
an early freeze. If, however, the work is carried on in
such a way as to conserve the moisture and yet not stim-
ulate the grove into growth, much good can be done by
early winter cultivation.
Cultivation and Dieback.-Dieback is a disease to which
practically all of our citrus trees are subject, and one
that causes much annoyance and frequently considerable
loss. The observant grove owner, however, will recognize
the preliminary symptoms of the disease and guard
against it. The disease seems to be due to unfavorable
soil conditions, brought on by too rapid a development
of ammonia in the soil. It may also occur as a result of
a number of other conditions.
Depth to Cultivate.-The depth to which a grove may
be cultivated safely depends more on the character of the
soil than on any other condition. In sections where there
is a deep clay soil, the roots of the trees penetrate well
into the ground. In thin, sandy soil, the roots are apt to
keep close to the surface. This is also the case in our
low palmetto hammocks.
The depth to which we should cultivate, then, will de-
pend largely on the character of the soil on which the
grove has been planted. In general, we should never plow
or cultivate so deeply as to disturb any considerable
number of the fibrous roots, and certainly not to the ex-
tent of breaking large roots.
By observing the depth of the roots in the soil, we will
be able to gauge, in a measure, the depth to which we can
cultivate. This, we will find, varies, however, in the same
grove in different years. Consequently, very much de-
pends on the judgment of the man who is doing the culti-
vation or having it done.
Implements.-Under ordinary circumstances, the heavy
two-horse plow has no place in a grove in good health. A
light one-horse plow may be used to some extent. This
tool, however, is a poor implement, since it wastes so
much time for the grove owner. One of the best imple-
ments for deep cultivating is the cutaway harrow or disc
harrow. For a small grove, the one-horse harrow will be
found preferable. For an extensive grove this is too slow,
and we need a two or three-horse cutaway or disc harrow.
The spading harrow will also be found useful under cer-
tain circumstances. The Acme harrow is also an excellent
implement to use when the vegetable matter has been
worked into the soil. It does poor work, however, when
a considerable amount of vegetable matter is present on
the surface. The Planet, Jr., cultivator or Sweep culti-
vator is also excellent for shallow cultivation. When the
orchard has been put into a good state of tilth, and our
only object is to conserve the moisture, the weeder is one
of the best and most serviceable implements. The ordi
nary spring-toothed cultivators are not good implements,
since they pull up too many of the roots they happen to
come in contact with.
BUILDING UP A NEGLECTED GROVE.
The best way to build up a neglected grove is to let the
other fellow do it. Buying a neglected grove is like buy-
ing an old, neglected horse. Under certain circumstances
it may be done with profit, but under ordinary circum-
stances it is cheaper and much more satisfactory to start
a new grove.
It happens frequently, however, that one has an old
grove, or that part of his property happens to be an old,
neglected grove. In such cases, we wish to know what is
best to do.
Pruning.-The.first step in such condition is to go
into the grove with a good sharp saw, pruning shears and
other implements for butchering trees. The pruning
should be done thoroughly and severely. Take out first
all dead wood; then take out all of the weakened wood;
finally, shape the tree up so as to make it more or less
symmetrical. Do not leave any long, spreading branches,
even if they appear to be perfectly healthy. Head them
back, so as to make a good, compact tree. When an old,
neglected orchard has been properly treated, it is usually
a sad-looking sight.
Fertilizers.-Give the entire grove a liberal allowance
of a fertilizer such as is used ordinarily for producing
growth. A good formula for this purpose will contain
about 4 per cent. ammonia, 6 per cent. phosphoric acid,
and 8 per cent. potash. As a source of ammonia, nitrate
of soda may be employed; as a source of potash, use a
high grade sulphate of potash, or low-grade sulphate of
potash; and as a source of phosphoric acid, the acid
phosphate. The amount to be applied per tree should be
very liberal. More people err in applying too little than
in applying too much. Spread the fertilizer evenly broad-
cast over the entire giove, at least over the portion of the
grove where trees occur.
Plowing.-Ordinarily, such a grove should be plowed
very deep, even to the point of breaking and cutting large
roots. Care must, of course, be taken not to plow so
deeply as to destroy a large percentage of the roots of the
trees. This will vary according to the character of the
soil on which the grove happens to be located. Ordi-
narily, the plow may be made to go five or six inches deep,
plowing much deeper in the middles and shallows near
the trunks of the trees. After the grove has been plowed
in one direction, then cross plow it. In this way the fer-
tilizer is pretty thoroughly incorporated with the soil
and brought where the roots can get it almost imme-
diately. After this thorough and deep plowing has been
completed, cultivation with an ordinary implement should
By such drastic treatment, the weaker trees are likely
to be killed out entirely. The sooner these are killed out
the more profitable it will be for the owner. He can then
replace them with vigorous young trees. The old trees
that have vitality enough to stand such vigorous treat-
ment are pretty sure to respond promptly.
By E. W. Berger, Ph.D.
Entomologist Agricultural Experiment Station.
It is important that the citrus grower whose trees are
infested or threatened with infestation by whitefly, should
have at hand the necessary information which will enable
him to initiate and conduct repressive measures to the
best advantage. This bulletin is an endeavor to bring
together the essential facts of whitefly control in a brief
form. The whitefly may be controlled, though it is almost
impossible to eradicate it. To control this pest is to keep
it in check sufficiently for the trees to continue to bear
HOW THE WITITEFLY INJURES TREES.
Badly infested citrus trees usually bear but a small
amount of fruit, and what is borne is insipid and covered
with sooty mold. The direct injury done to the trees con-
sists in the loss of the sap which the insects suck at the
rate of more than 15 pounds per month for each million
of whitefly larvae. Indirectly the trees are injured by the
sooty mold which covers the leaves and fruit. This sooty
mold is a black fungus which develops in the honeydew,
a sugary excretion ejected by all stages of the whitefly.
This mold is itself injurious to the trees, because by shut-
ting off some of the sunlight it interferes with the elabo-
ration of food materials in the leaves and also retards the
ripening of the fruit. Tests with iodine solution show
that the parts of leaves covered with sooty mold produce
less starch than the parts not covered.
SUMMARY OF LIFE HISTORY.
The young of the citrus whitefly (sometimes incorrectly
called eggs) are scale-like, and live on the under surfaces
of the leaves. They pass through five stages of develop
ment, increasing from about one-eightieth of an inch to
about one-eighteenth of an inch in length. The sixth
stage, or final one, is the adult winged whitefly. The
first four stages are spoken of as the first, second, third
and fourth larval stages; and the fifth stage, the transfer
nation stage from which the winged whitefly emerges, is
called the pupa.
The best time to spread the whitefly destroying fungi or
to spray with contact insecticides is when these insects
are mostly in the first three larval stages, or while they
are still in the thin, flat condition of the fourth stage.
(For a detailed discussion, read what is said under the
heading of "Experiments in Spraying" on a later page.)
Those in the thickened condition of the fourth or in the
pupal stage, are less easily killed, requiring a stronger
insecticide. The eggs of the whitefly cannot be destroyed
by ordinary insecticides, and it is useless to spray the
winged adults. The whitefly begins its larval develop-
ment about 10 days or two weeks after the swarming
periods in spring, summer, and fall. In other words, the
eggs hatch in 10 to 44 days, and there are three broods of
larvae. The spring brood of adults is definitely separated
in time from the summer brood, the intervening period
being occupied by the spring brood of larvae, which may
be expected in March, April or May, according to season
and locality. The summer brood and the late to early
fall brood are not so definitely separated as the spring
and summer broods of adults, because during the warm
weather the adults are emerging nearly all the time; but
large numbers of larvae are present during parts of July
and August. The late summer to early fall brood is again
separated from the next spring brood by nearly the whole
of the fall, the whole of the winter, and sometimes a part
of the spring.
METHODS OF CONTROL.
There are three methods of control-the fungus dis-
eases, spraying with insecticides, and fumigation.
THE FUNGUS DISEASES.
It is a well-established fact, but not a widely known
one, that insects are subject to diseases as well as other
animals and man. Among the principal agents responsi-
ble for the diseases of insects are certain parasitic fungi,
and the whitefly, fortunately for us, is subject to attack
by at least six of them. These are the red fungus (Asch-
ersonia aleyrodis) yellow fungus (Aschersonia flavo-
citrina), brown fungus (Aegerita webbri Fawcett), cinna-
mon fungus (Verticillium keterocladum), white-fringe
fungus (Microcera sp.), and occasionally a species of
Sporotrichum related to the chinchbug fungus. These are
all parasites of the larvae of whitefly, except the last one,
which has occasionally been found infesting dead adult
whiteflies, and presumably had caused their death.
As it is not within the scope of this paper to fully dis-
cuss each of these fungi, the red Aschersonia will alone
be treated in some detail as a typical fungus, while brief
statements with regard to the others will follow.
THE RED FUNGUS.
This important fungus, the red Aschersonia, has given
satisfactory results in localities where the summer rains
were normal, or where the trees were in good condition
generally, the fungus could always be depended upon
to check the whitefly or to bring the trees back into good
HELPING THE FUNGUS.-By diligent effort at spreading
the fungus, especially during periods of rain, some relief
can be obtained even under otherwise adverse conditions,
if these be not extreme. In the grove of Mr. W. E. Heath-
cote, of St. Petersburg, Florida, into which this fungus
had been introduced the previous year, and in which it
was not thriving especially well and was giving only in-
adequate relief, a single spraying of the fungus spores
was made in August, 1908, into 6 trees, and the entomolo-
gist counted, as a result, something like 10 times the
amount of fungus in these trees that was found in those
on each side. Ten times as much fungus, of course, im-
plies ten times as many whitefly larvae killed, and indi-
cates that, in many instances, diligent application of the
fungus spores would give results more than repaying the
time and money spent. Introductions of fungus should
be thoroughly made, and if necessary repeated several
times during the period of summer rains. We must not
expect the fungus to do all the work unaided, but must
help it destroy the whitefly by spreading it at the best
EXPERIMENTS IN SPREADING FUNGUS.
In this connection the writer desires to refer to the
results produced by fungus in several groves into which it
was introduced artificially. The first of these is the R. 8.
Sheldon grove at New Smyrna. The first introduction of
the red fungus (red Aschersonia) in this grove was made
by spraying spores under the writer's directions in Octo-
ber, 1906. A very small amount of fungus developed that
fall, but it spread well during the next summer and no
more was introduced before 1908. During the spring of
the latter year some fungus was distributed by pinning
leaves. On August 22, 1908, the writer sprayed spores of
the red fungus into a few isolated trees near the Sheldon
house. But little, if any, fungus had developed in these
trees previously and none had been introduced. By Sep-
tember 13, 66 per cent. of the larvae counted upon seven
leaves, selected from some collected by Mr. Sheldon from
the trees sprayed August 22, were infected by the fungus
and dead. This happened in less than one month. The
empty pupa cases were counted as live larvae in making
the calculations. Following these excellent results, Mr.
Sheldon continued to spread fungus by spraying the
spores during the rest of September. Notes upon the
grove were again taken on April 21, 1909, as follows:
Grove has been practically cleaned of whitefly. There has
been fungus by the bushel, and other people have been collect.
ing it for their use. Fungus is now becoming much weathered
and is peeling off, but there is still plenty. Grove has a fine
new growth and many trees have set a good crop. Perhaps one-
tenth as many adults on new growth as in other groves in town
where no fungus was applied. North third of grove has more
adult whiteflies because it is opposite a badly infested grove that
was not treated.
Considering the fact that this grove was not isolated
but was exposed to reinfestation, the results must be con-
sidered very satisfactory. The whitefly was brought under
control in just about two years. On the other hand, the
writer now believes that the same results might have been
attained in less than one year if the first spreading of fun-
gus had been made during the period of summer rains.
In fact, it appears that the work might have been accom-
plished in something like a month if we had spread fungus
through the whole grove in August, 1908, as was done on
the few trees referred to above.
The first part of the work was an experiment designed
to give us accurate data as to the rapidity with which the
fungus spreads under those circumstances, and the con-
trol of the whitefly in the grove as a whole was a secon-
On July 9, 1910, Mr. Sheldon kindly furnished the fol
lowing data. The crop of fruit for 1909 was abundant, of
good quality, and clean. There were but few whiteflies
in 1909 and very little sooty mold. Whitefly considerable
in 1910 but so far very little sooty mold. Red fungus was
spread in 1909, but so far none in 1910, because fungus
is scarce. No other repressive measures have been taken.
On December 22, 1909, the writer visited the 6-acre
orange and pomelo grove of Mrs. A. P. Gunther, at Pier-
son, and made the following notes:
The larvae were in the flat condition of fourth stage and older.
Perhaps average of one alive per leaf. The first trees to become
covered with sooty mold were observed in summer of 1907. Con-
siderable numbers of larvae dead from unknown cause. Exami-
nation lasted one hour. Mr. E. Gunther says fall brood of adults
hot nearly so large as spring brood. Very good spread of red
fungus (Aschersonia). Dozens to hundreds of pustules per leaf.
The fungus was first introduced by Mr. Frank Stirling, of De-
Land, early in the season; several introductions were made later.
Trees look very healthy, thrifty and good color. Good crop last
year. Tangerines and pomelos bearing small crop this year.
Oranges about one-half crop; some fruit covered with sooty mold
and required washing.
The results in this grove appeared to be satisfactory in
so far as the whitefly was concerned, and but little, if
any, better results could have been obtained by any other
method under the same conditions of exposure to reinfes-
tation. This grove appears to be an instance in which
diligent spreading of the fungus, aided by the "unknown
cause" referred to in the notes, reduced the whitefly to a
condition of comparatively little importance in one sea-
Other illustrations of the effectiveness of introducing
and spreading the fungi artificially under favorable con-
ditions could be given. It is not the writer's wish, how-
ever, to make the fungi appear as a panacea for the white-
fly, since their usefulness may be greatly limited in dry'
localities and during periods of drought: It appears
desirable, however, to briefly report upon the fungus work
of Mr. Frank Stirling, of DeLand.
During 1908 Mr. Frank Stirling, of DeLand, began to
spray fungus spores on an extensive scale. That year he
treated between eight and nine thousand trees, in and
near DeLand. During the spring and summer of 1909,
with one or two. helpers, he sprayed fungus spores into
127,500 trees. That is, he made 127,500 sprayings, many
trees being sprayed many times. This spraying was main-
ly of the red fungus, but some yellow and some brown
fungi were also used. The best results were had with the
red fungus, but the brown did well later in the season.
The yellow fungus (Aschersonia), Mr. Stirling says, is a
"hustler" for the cloudy-winged species of whitefly.
Groves belonging to 58 owners were sprayed at a contract
price-of 2 cents per tree. This spring and summer (1910)
Mr. Stirling is continuing to spray fungus spores. It will
thus be seen that the method of spreading fungus as di-
rected by the Experiment Station is receiving a most
The entomologist has had occasion to examine person-
ally only two of the groves treated by Mr. Stirling during
1909. These are the Gunther grove at Pierson, referred
to on a former page, and the Temple groves at Winter
Park. The results in Mr. Temple's groves appear to be
about equal in two good sprayings with insecticides, but
at less cost. Two sprayings in 1909, with fungus, one in
May and one in July, cost 4 cents per tree; to have
sprayed with insecticides would have cost 25 to 30 cents
per tree. Mr. Stirling is again treating Mr. Temple's
trees this season. On April 21, 1910, Mr. Stirling said
that in the Stetson groves at DeLand, some of which were
sprayed five times with fungus during the season of 1909,
the whitefly was held in check and kept from spreading;
and had not fungus been spread, one-third of the fruit
would have been covered with sooty mold.
KEEPING TREES THRIFTY.-It should be added here that
proper fertilizing and cultivation of the trees is impor-
tant, since a thrifty tree full of healthy foliage presents
conditions favorable for the growth of the parasitic fungi
of the whitefly, and, of course, can better withstand the
attacks of insects. Irrigation would also frequently bene-
fit the trees and favor the fungus parasites of whitefly
and of scales.
INTRODUCING THE RED FUNGUS.
In order to start a growth of the red Aschersonia, it is
only necessary to spray a mixture of the fungus spores
in water on to the whitefly larvae in the infested trees.
The spores of the fungus are produced in enormous num-
bers in the red elevations or pustules covering the dead
larvae. They vary considerably in size, and 13,600,000 to
as many as 52,000,000 could be arranged, one layer thick,
upon the surface of a square inch. About 40 pustules to
a pint of water have given good results. More can be
used, or less, if fungus is scarce. It is not necessary to
allow the leaves with fungus to soak longer than 5 to 10
minutes, but a longer time does no harm, and the mixture
of spores and water may even be allowed to stand for
12 to 14 hours without injury. The mixture of spores and
water should be strained through coarse cheesecloth or a
fine wire sieve in order to remove all particles liable to
clog the pump. Mixtures of fungus spores and water
should not be allowed to stand in copper or brass pumps
or vessels. It is best to avoid copper and brass vessels
altogether, since the copper may injure the spores.
Growths of fungus can generally be observed with the
unaided eye in about three weeks after spraying the
spores. The most successful introductions of the red
Aschersonia have been made during periods of rain at a
time when the whitefly larvae were young. Thus one of
the most luxuriant growths of the Red Aschersonia that
the writer succeeded in getting was at DeLand during a
period of rain in April, 1908, at which time also the larvae
of the spring brood were in the early stage of develop-
ment and very susceptible to infection by fungus. Gen-
erally speaking, the period of summer rains is the most
certain time to spread fungus and to introduce it' into
new places. Seed fungus can generally be obtained from
whitefly-infested groves into which the fungi have been
previously introduced or in which they occur naturally.
Since the fungi do not spread during the winter, but are
nearly dormant, and fungus is sometimes scarce during
the spring months, but some can generally be obtained.
By midsummer a crop of fungus will have matured upon
the spring brood of whitefly larvae so that fungus is then
abundant. One should not attempt to introduce fungus
after the period of summer rains is over, unless it is de-
sired to spray the spores when seed fungus is most plenti-
ful, preparatory to having an early start when spring
opens, as late as October, November and December, and
while but a meager infection resulted, this spread rapidly
during the following spring and summer, as soon as suffi-
cient moisture and warmth were present. The data and
complete details of experiments will not be needed here
since they were published in Bulletin 97, page 48; in the
Annual Report for 1907, page xxxii; in the Annual Report
for 1908, page liv; and in the Annual Report for 1909,
page xi. On a small place the mixture of spores and
water may be applied by a whisk broom when no pump
The methods for introducing any of the other fungus
parasites previously mentioned are in general the same
as the method just described for the red Aschersonia. Of
these fungi the red and the yellow Aschersonia can be
introduced with the greatest certainty, and on the whole
are generally the most efficient, excepting the brown fun-
gus when conditions for it are right.
One important point in regard to the yellow Ascherso-
nia must not be omitted. This fungus will thrive only
upon the cloudy-winged whitefly. This fact, which is
fully discussed in Bulletin 97, page 52, and in the Annual
Report for 1909, page xxxvi, is important, since it would
be useless to introduce the yellow fungus on the white-
Pinning leaves having whitefly larvae infected with a
fungus upon them has been extensively practiced in the
past, but spore-spraying has now almost entirely displaced
this method. If leaves are used, each leaf should be
pinned with its fungus side down to the lower surface of
a leaf of the whitefly-infested tree, since the fungus will
be more readily distributed by natural agencies when in
its natural position.
ARTIFICIAL CULTURE OF FUNGUS.
All the fungus parasites of the whitefly can be readily
grown artificially upon sterilized sweet potato and other
media employed for such purposes. This was proven over
two years ago by the Plant Pathologist, Prof. H. S. Faw-
cett, anid the methods were described in his paper on
"Fungi Parasites Upon Aleyrodes Citri," Special Studies
No. 1, University of the State of Florida, June, 1908. The
brown fungus (Aegerita webbri, Fawcett) is the only one
which has so far failed to produce spores in artificial cul-
tures. Artificial cultures of this fungus can not at pres-
ent be used for spraying, as can those of the other fungi
The red fungus has been grown extensively in the wri-
ter's laboratory on sterilized sweet potato, either in the
form of plugs or finely ground. The best results were
obtained when the plugs or ground sweet potatoes were
placed in one-fourth pint and one-half pint wide-mouthed
bottles, which were carefully stoppered with plugs of cot-
ton batten. The potato was placed in the bottles which
were then stoppered with the cotton batten, and sterilized
by steam. Sterilizing destroys all the germ life in the
bottle and on the potato. This is necessary, for otherwise
the development of bacteria and other fungi would choke
out the slow-growing red fungus. The plug of cotton bat-
ten keeps out all undesirable germs, but allows air to
pass. The spores of the fungus are introduced into the
bottles either by spraying them in sterilized water with
a small atomizer, or by streaking them on with a sterilized
platinum needle. The work must be done in a properly
prepared dust-proof room.
The last culture of red fungus consisted of about 50
bol:les. Fungus grown as just described can be employed
for introducing into whitefly-infested groves as success-
fully as that occurring naturally. This has been repeat-
edly proven in infested trees near Gainesville and at other
places. Since the natural supply of red fungus has been
generally sufficient, it is not probable that it will become
necessary to grow it artificially; but should it become nec-
essary to supply the artificially-grown fungus, this can be
done in ton lots or larger with proper equipment.
While the spores of this fungus germinates in 24 to 48
hours, fungus growth does not become visible on sweet
potatoes for about 7 days. This time is about the same
as upon whitefly larvae. Some spores are formed in 20
to 30 days; and this again corresponds with the develop-
ment upon whitefly larvae. Spore formation appears to
be completed in about 30 to 60 days. The fungus mass
will then be of a light brick-red; in fact, the appearance
of this color may be taken as evidence that spores are
forming. The fungus should be used at that time, but it
will keep for a month, and longer during the winter and
early spring. This fungus does not readily become weak-
ened, or lose its virulence, by, successive growths upon
sweet potato as a culture medium, since successful
growths of fungus have been started upon whitefly larvae
from each of the first five generations.
What has just been stated in regard to the red fungus
holds generally true for the yellow fungus, except that
no extensive cultures of this fungus upon sweet potato
have been made.
TREATMENT WITH INSECTICIDES.
In dry times, and in groves out of condition, the fungi
may not thrive sufficiently, and it may become necessary
to spray with insecticides, or to fumigate.
Spraying with insecticides'has fallen more or less into
disfavor. Operations and experiments of the Florida
Experiment Station during the past year indicate clearly
that effective spraying can be done. The difficulties in the
past have risen from spraying being done at the wrong
time, or were due to a lack of thoroughness, or to reinfes-
tation from surrounding groves. The difficulty of doing
the work so thoroughly that the under surfaces of all the
leaves become wet with the spraying solution can be over-
come in part by taking special care, and by spraying at a
pressure of 100 pounds or over.
Spraying for whitefly can be carried on successfully
during that portion of any season when most of the in-
sects are in the larval or pupal stages. During the fall
(beginning with October and the greater part of the
winter we find the whitefly in the larval stages, and later
in winter in the pupal stages. During a part of April or
May, soon after the disappearance of the spring brood of
adults, there is another period of about a month when but
few adult whiteflies are present and the eggs have hatch-
ed. After May until the end of September all stages of
the whitefly, including the adults, are generally present.
During this period rains occur frequently, while the
adults fly away from the spray, and the eggs are not
generally destroyed by it. Spraying should then be done
only when necessary to save the trees.
EXPERIMENTS IN SPRAYING.
In some orange trees (Mr. B. F. Hampton's grove near
Gainesville) which were sprayed on May 7, 1909, with
"Golldust" at a strength of 1 pound to 4 gallons of water,
91 per cent. of all larvae of the first to the third stages
were dead after 10 days. The percentages of fourth-stage
larvae killed was only 30.
These are the results of counting the dead and live lar-
vae on 10 leaves, selected as representatives of good spray-
ing. On 36 leaves an average of 92 per cent. of all stages
were killed. (An. Rept. 1909, p. xiiii). Allowance was
made for natural mortality, the percentage of which was
computed upon leaves from unsprayed trees. The follow-
ing temperature conditions existed on the day the spray-
ing was made and during 6 days thereafter:
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES FOR 7 DAYS.
I I I I
MAY, 1909. I7thj 8thl 9th 10th llth 12th 13th
Maximum ........... 88 82 86 88 87 82 83
Minimum .......... 62 63 66 66 611 6161
Mean of maxima ...................; 850 F.
Mean of minima ..................... 630 F.
General mean ....................... 74.5 F.
The results obtained on some 25 Satsuma trees (also in
Mr. Hampton's grove), sprayed on June 2, 1909, with
"Golddust" as before, are as follows: 99.5 per cent. of the
second and third stages were killed, and 89 per cent. of
the fourth stage and pupae. The average of all stages
killed was 91 per cent. Ten leaves representing good
spraying were selected nine days after spraying. Natural
mortality was allowed for and computed from unsprayed
trees. The following temperature conditions existed on
the date of spraying and during 6 days thereafter:
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES FOR 7 DAYS.
I I I I
JUNE, i909. 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
t I I
Maximum ........... 99 88 82 90 90 90 88
Minimum ........... | 73 75 75 73 70 70 68
Mean of maxima ................... 89.6G F.
Mean of minima ....................72 o F.
General mean .......................80.8 F.
The following table, published in the Annual Report
for 1909, was primarily arranged to show the effectiveness
of the two soaps indicated, but when compared with the
two previous series of sprayings, this table becomes of
greater interest, as is brought out in the discussion fol-
lowing. The larvae were mainly in the flat fourth stage
of development, but no distinction of stages was made in
counting them. The table gives the results on ten leaves
of spraying two or three trees with each strength of soap.
The leaves were selected to represent good spraying. The
spraying were made near Gainesville in Mr. James Cel-
lon's trees, June 15 to 17, 1909, and the leaves were col-
lected 4 to 15 days later.
RESULTS OF SPRAYING WITH SOAPS.
Strength of Solution.
1 lb. to u gals. water.......
1 lb. to j gals. water.......
1 lb. to 12 gals. water......
1 lb. to 1b gals. water and 3
lbs. washing soda......
Killed by Whale-
...91 per cent....
...88 per cent...
...77 per cent...
Killed by Octa-
....96 per cent.
....95 per cent.
....89 per cent.
...93 per cent...)....94 per cent.
The following temperature conditions existed on the
day of spraying and during 6 days after:
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES FOR 7 DAYS.
I I I I I I
JUNE, 1909. I15th 16th7th 18thI 19thI20thI 21st
Maximum ........... 198 93 93 89 92 88 92
I I I I II
Minimum ........... 70 74 75 72 71 69 72
Mean of maxima ....................94.3 F.
Mean of minima ...................72 o F.
General mean ...................... 83.10 F.
In the above three series of spraying operations the
figures indicate that the June spraying was more effective
than the May spraying. Temperature, as well as stage of
development, is apparently a factor in successful spray-
ing, since we would expect the solutions to be more pene-
treating when several degrees warmer. Thus only 91.3 per
cent. of the stages 1 to 3, and 30 per cent. of the fourth
stage were killed with "Golddust" with an initial temper-
ature of 88 degrees and a mean for 7 days of 74.5 degrees;
while 99.5 per cent. of the stages 2 and 3, and 89 per cent.
of the fourth and fifth stages were killed when the initial
temperature was 99 degrees and the mean for 7 days, 80.8
degrees. The results of June 15 to 17 in Mr. Cellon's
trees on fourth stage larvae with the soap solutions were
excellent, with an initial temperature of 98 degrees and a
mean of 83.1 degrees. These figures, in conjunction with
many general observations, indicate that we should spray
the young larvae in the first to the third stages, and the
thin flat condition of the fourth stage, rather than the
older fourth stage larvae and the pupae. They also indi-
cate that spraying during the hottest summer weather
with the thermometer at about 99 degrees is more effective
against all stages and especially against the fourth stage
and the pupae, than spraying in cooler weather.
Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas is recommended
for winter treatment, no eggs or adults being present. A
bulletin on the subject has been issued by the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, describing the work carried on
by Dr. A. W. Morrill and his assistants at Orlando. Those
wishing to consult this publication should address the
Superintendent of Public Documents, Washington, D. C.,
inclosing 15 cents, and asking for Bulletin 76 of the Bu-
reau of Entomology.
Winter is a favorable time to treat the whitefly, because
this insect is then in its larval stages, and there are no
adults to fly away, nor eggs that are difficult to kill.
There are two methods of winter treatment-fumiga-
tion, and spraying. Where fumigation can be employed,
it is to be preferred. Those who have carried on extensive
fumigation experiments claim that it is less injurious to
the trees than spraying with insecticides. Quicker and
better results can undoubtedly be obtained with it, espe-
cially on the larger trees, where it is difficult to wet all
the leaves by spraying. For small and medium-sized trees
spraying can, however, be made nearly as effective.
The growers at Winter Haven have organized a protec-
tive league, and assessed each grower one cent per year
for each tree he owned. In this locality the whitefly had
just started in two or three groves, and the results of
spraying in winter have been so successful that but few,
if any, more whitefly larvae could be found last fall than
three years ago. These spraying operations appear to be
the most successful on record. The insecticide was a pro-
prietary miscible oil. Another grower states that he has
succeeded in keeping the whitefly confined to a few trees
in one corner of his grove for four or five years by thor-
ough spraying with another miscible oil.
For winter spraying the solutions must be used much
stronger than at other times, and whale-oil soap solution
should not be used weaker than 1 pound to 4 gallons of
LOCALITIES JUST BECOMING INFESTED.
Winter treatment should not be omitted in any locality
in which the whitefly is just coming in and is confined to
a limited area. Under such circumstances there is too
much at stake in the form of a protective league as just
illustrated. All the groves in such a locality are threat-
ened, and no grower can afford to omit paying his share
towards keeping the pest confined within its present lim-
its as long as possible. It pays better to help fight the
pest in another man's grove than to have it in one's own.
Work should not be postponed 'with the thought that
something can still be done in the summer, since by so
doing the whitefly is given another chance to spread
during its swarming period in April or May. Fumigate,
if possible; if not, then spray thoroughly.
BADLY INFESTED LOCALITIES.
Where a locality is completely and heavily infested, the
trees should be treated in winter in order to give them a
better chance to set fruit in spring. If co-operation can
be effected, it is possible to do the work so thoroughly
that no further treatment will be necessary until the
next fall or winter. If co-operation for an entire locality
is impracticable, it may be feasible to effect co-operation
on the part of the owners of localized groups of groves.
Where no co-operation whatever is possible, each grower
should nevertheless treat his own trees. In this instance
spraying should be the method of winter treatment. It
would be inadvisable to go to the expense of fumigation
where the grove is not isolated and reinfestation is cer-
tain, but spraying should be done. Later in April or
May, when the grove has become reinfested from the
groves of indifferent neighbors, it should be sprayed again.
There is a time in April or May when the whitefly larvae
are young and easily destroyed by whale-oil soap (1 pound
with 6 to 9 gallons of water, or by any other good insecti-
cide diluted sufficiently to be harmless to the leaves or
young fruit. This period comes about two weeks after
the spring brood of adults has disappeared from the wing.
After that, during the period of summer rains, if condi-
tions are at all favorable for fungus growth (plenty of
moisture, and good condition of trees) the fungus dis-
eases of the whitefly should be introduced. Finally, if
necessary, the trees should be sprayed again in October or
November; in which case treatment during the following
winter will not be necessary. (See also under the follow-
SPRING, SUMMER AND FALL SPRAYING.
Spring treatment should .begin about two weeks after
the winged whiteflies have disappeared. There are then
only young larvae present. This-period may occur during
April or May, or sometimes earlier, depending upon the
season and the locality. In localities where the spring
rains are abundant and the general moisture conditions
throughout the season generally suitable, the fungi, pref-
erably the red Aschersonia, may be introduced as previ-
ously directed. Where the conditions for the fungi are
not suitable, or where it is desired to depend altogether
upon spraying, the spring period indicated is a most suita-
ble one during which to spray. The advantages of spray-
ing at this time may be summed up as follows: (1) The
whiteflies are in the young larval stages and are easily
killed; (2) they are mainly on the new growth and more
easily sprayed; (3) the larvae are destroyed before sap-
ping the strength of the new growth, and before much
sooty mold has developed; (4) rain is not likely to inter-
fere with the spraying.
Spraying may also be carried on during the summer
after the second brood of adult whiteflies has passed its
period of greatest numbers, some time in July. During
this time the whitefly develops more or less irregularly,
there being all stages present in considerable numbers at
nearly all times, and rain is generally abundant. For
these reasons spraying at this time of the year is not
generally advised, excepting when the trees are suffering
greatly. The fungi can generally be introduced to good
advantage at this time, and they should be applied freely
whenever the whitefly is present in sufficient numbers,
and conditions are favorable for fungus growth.
Fall is an important time to spray for the whitefly, and
treatment may begin in October or November, or soon
after the adult whiteflies of the late summer brood have
disappeared,and after the late laying of eggs have hatched.
The Knight grove at Bay View, and F. M. Campbell's
grove at Anona were sprayed in the early part of Novem-
ber, 1908, with a spraying mixture whose principal ingre-
dient was whale-oil soap (about 1 pound to 10 gallons of
water) and about 90 per cent. of the larvae were killed.
For the late fall spraying, whale-oil soap should not be
used weaker than 1 pound to 4 or 6 gallons of water, but I
pound to 6 or 9 gallons may be used earlier.
It is not necessary to spray two or three times during
fall or winter, as some think. By doing thorough work
95 per cent. of the larvae are destroyed, and the remain-
ing 5 per cent. will not increase until spring. In other
words, spraying should be done so thoroughly that it will
be unnecessary to repeat it for that brood.
The advantages of fall spraying may be summed up as
follows: (1) The young larvae are abundant and easily
killed; (2) they are killed before they wax fat at the
expense of the trees; (3) the trees remain clean for nearly
five months; (4) there are few rains to interfere with
Since spraying to kill the young whitefly larvae must be
done in spring, summer, or fall, when either tender leaves
or fruit are on the trees, it is evident that a spraying solu
tion must be used that will not injure the foliage or the
fruit. Almost any good contact insecticide can be em-
ployed, provided it is sufficiently diluted.
The experiments reported on a previous page show
that soap solutions of 1 pound of soap to 6 gallons of
water, destroyed all larvae in the first three stages, and
most of those in the fourth and pupal stages. Thorough
work resulted in destroying between 90 and 96 per cent.
of all the larvae. Soap solutions of 1 pound of soap to 9
gallons of water destroyed about 90 per cent. Good's
potash whale-oil soap No. 3 was used, and also Octagon
soap. It is probable that any kind of soap will be effec-
tive against these young larvae. In winter and late fall
the soap solutions should be used stronger, about 1 pound
to 4 gallons of water, but a weaker solution used in the
spring, summer, or early fall, will generally kill as many
of the insects as the stronger solution in winter.
Experiments reported on a previous page show that
"Golddust" used on young larvae at the rate of 1 pound
to 4 gallons of water killed 90 to 95 per cent. Preliminary
chemical examination showed that it consisted of about
25 per cent. of soap, 62 per cent. of washing soda, and
about 13 per cent. of water. When we mixed one pound
of whale-oil soap with three pounds of washing soda and
used one pound of this mixture to 4 gallons of water we
got about the same results as we did by using one pound
of "Golddust" to 4 gallons of water. One pound of whale-
oil soap alone to 9 gallons of water gave about the same
result as the whale-oil soap and soda mixture. The cost
in each case was a little less than half a cent per gallon.
Whale-oil soap is therefore decidedly a cheaper material
to use for spraying than "Golddust." A mixture as good
as "Golddust" can be made at about one-half the cost by
using 1 pound of whale-oil soap and 3 pounds of washing
soda to 16 gallons of water.
ST'HREE SPECIES OF WIIITEPLY.
About two years ago is was discovered that there are
two distinct species of whitefly that seriously infest citrus
trees in Florida. The second species, Aleurodes nubifera,
is spoken of as the cloudy-winged species, and the other,
Aleurodes citri, as the white-winged species. Previous to
1908 is was supposed that only one species infested the
trees, namely, the white-winged species. The cloudy-
winged species is so called because there is a delicate
cloud-like or smoky area toward the ends of the wings.
*It should not be understood, however, that this cloudy-
winged species is a recent comer. On the contrary, exami-
nation by A. L. Quaintance of whitefly material preserved
in the Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C., has
shown that this species existed in Florida prior to 1895.
According to some drawings made in Louisiana in 1893
by Prof. Morgan, the cloudy-winged species existed there
at that time. The white-winged species began to be
studied back in the 70's, and was first described in 1893.
So far as records show it appears that both species were
probably introduced about the same time. The present
distribution of the cloudy-winged is quite as extensive as
that of the white-winged one: Sometimes both species
can be found in the same locality and on the same tree.
The white-winged one is the more destructive, and where
both occur together the cloudy-winged species is relatively
insignificant; although when alone this latter species fre-
quently causes severe infestation.
A third species has recently gained entrance to the
State, the so-called' woolly whitefly, Aleurodes howardii.
This species has been known to infest citrus trees in Cuba
and other West Indian islands for some time, but has
only recently become established in Florida about Tampa
and Ybor City. Dr. E. A. Back of the Bureau of Ento-
mology, Washington, D. C., stationed at Orlando, has
written a brief account of the occurence of this species in
Florida, in the Florida Fruit and Produce News for No-
vember 26, 1909, p. 5; and in Bulletin 64, part viii, Bureau
of Entomology, Washington, D. C.
WHITEFLY AND' FREEZING
The benefit to the grower of any freezing sufficient to
defoliate citrus trees may be considered about the equiva-
lent of a fumigation or extra good spraying so far as the
effects upon the whitefly are concerned. The great major-
ity of the whitefly larvae die on leaves killed by cold; but
a few may survive, especially on any leaves that are drift-
ed into some moist place where they do not dry out com-
pletely. In November and January, 1907-8, the writer
collected fallen leaves at DeLand with live fourth-stage
larvae and pupae upon them, some of which matured after
being taken to the Experiment Station at Gainesville (see
Bulletin 97, p. 62). The degrees of cold that have hitherto
occurred in Florida have not exterminated the whitefly
except in one or possibly in two places. At Crescent City
the freeze of 1894-5 did exterminate the cloudy-winged
species, probably the only one present there at that time.
But as all citrus trees were frozen to the ground, and as
this species appears to live on citrus only, it is easy to
understand how the extermination took place. Freezing
destroys directly but few, if any, of the larvae on -leaves
that remain uninjured.
The whitefly can be kept out of non-infested groves for a
considerable length of time. With but a little attention,
growers can save for themselves thousands of dollars.
This should be an incentive to every resident of Florida,
whether a grove-owner or not, to help in checking the
whitefly and keeping it from spreading. Something can
be accomplished by closing private gates against vehicles
coming from infested districts, since the winged whiteflies
are frequently carried on persons and vehicles for long
distances. Nursery stock and ornamentals when brought
to one's premises should be defoliated if there is the least
possibility of any whitefly being present. The whitefly is
undoubtedly more frequently carried long distances on
nursery stock than by any other means. As a special
precaution, nursery stock may be fumigated after defoli-
ating. To what extent whitefly may be carried on pickers'
implements is an open question, but it is easy to conceive
of adults or young larvae being carried in that way. Cer-
tain growers in non-infested localities have very wisely
excluded the implements which have been used in in-
fested localities. Such implements can be made safe, how-
ever, by a thorough spraying with soap solutions or other
contact insecticides, care being taken to saturate all crev-
ices with the solution. Picking bags and outer garments
of pickers may be fumigated in aight-tight containers
with carbon bisulphide, at the rate of 1 to 3 ounces for a
space the size of a barrel, leaving them in fumigation
over night. Hydrocyanic acid gas may also be used.
Gasoline used in an air-tight container will also do the
The cloudy-winged species (Aleurodes nubifera) has
not yet been found alive on any plants except species of
citrus. Mr. A. L. Quaintance, however, reports A. nubifera
on some gardenia leaves collected at Crescent City, Flor-
ida, in 1895, by H. G. Hubbard, and preserved in the
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. (See Bulletin
No. 12, part IX., Technical Series, Bureau of Entomology,
U. S. D. A.). The following is a revised list of food plants
of the white-winged species (Aleurodes citri). With re-
gard to those marked by an asterisk, it has not yet been
determined whether A. nubifera or A. citri, or both, infest
them. The writer is of the opinion that all were probably
infested with A. citri.
Class I.-FOOD PLANTS PREFERRED BY A. CITRI.
Prickly Ash (Fagara Clava-Herculis (L.) Small).
Wild Persimmon (Diospyros Virginiana) (L.)
Wild Olive (Osmanthus Americana (L.) B. & H.).
Green Ash (Fraxinus lanceolata, Borck).
Citrus (all varieties).
Chinaberry (Melia Azedarach L.).
Umbrella (Melia Azedarach umbraculifera Sarg.).
Cape Jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis).
Privets (Ligustrum spp.).
Japan Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki L. f.).
Class II.-FOOD PLANTS SOMETIMES INFESTED BUT NOT
PREFERRED BY A. CITRI.
Cherry Laurel or Mock orange (Laurocerasus Caro-
liniana (Mill.) Roem.)
Viburnum nudum L.
Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.)
Smilax (Smilax, sp.).
*Blackberry (Rubus sp.).
*Water Oak (Quercus nigra L.).
*Scrub Palmetto (Sabal megacarpa (Champ.)
Coffee (Coffea Arbica L.).
Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.).
Allamanda (Allamanda neriifolia Hook.).
*Honeysuckle (Lonicera Japonica Halliana).
*Ficus sp. (from Costa Rica).
Oleander (Nerium Oleander L.).
Cultivated pear (Pyrus sp.).
Lilac (Syringe sp.).
Banana Shrub (Michelia fuscata Blume).
Camellia, or Japonica (Mamellia Japonica L.).
PLANTS TO BE CONDEMNED.
The cape jasmine, chinaberry, umbrella trees, prickly
ash, privets, wild olive, trifoliatd orange (Citrus trifo-
liata), and all useless and abandoned citrus should be
condemned and destroyed in all citrus-growing communi-
ties. Destruction of these plants will retard the restock-
ing of citrus groves with whitefly after repressive meas-
ures have been carried out, and greatly check the spread
of the whitefly in localities only partly infested or just
becoming infested. While it is safest to destroy all these
plants, it is the chinaberry and umbrella trees that are
the most dangerous. It has been found by counts and
calculations that a large infested umbrella tree may set
free tens of millions of adult whiteflies during late sum-
mer and early fall, so that a dozen umbrella trees may be
counted upon to liberate hundreds of millions of these in-
sects each year to re-stock a treated grove.
These hundreds of millions swarm about apparently in
an aimless manner, but have been observed to migrate a
mile beyond their place of origin, indicating clearly how
these trees are instrumental in spreading the whitefly to
the outlying citrus groves. The other deciduous trees of
the condemned list stand in the same relation to the
whitefly as the chinaberry and umbrella trees, but being
smaller they harbor fewer whiteflies. The late summer
and fall migration of the whitefly from the umbrella and
other deciduous trees is due to the fact that no new fo-
liage is produced at that time. The whitefly prefers to
deposit its eggs upon new and tender foliage, and when
this is absent, it instinctively leaves the trees, apparently
in search of evergreen trees such as citrus, cape jasmine,
and others, on which to deposit its eggs.
WHITEFLY AND INCREASE OF SCALES.
Scale insects have in some instances increased abnor-
mally in citrus trees that were infested with whitefly. It
has been thought that this increase of scales had been
somehow brought about by the latter insect. That the
whitefly cannot be the principal cause is indicated by the
fact that increase of scales has not always been preceded
by whitefly, and that whitefly infestation is not always
accompanied by increased numbers of scales. The worst
cases of infestation by scales, causing partial or complete
defoliation and much loss of small twigs, were in locali-
ties suffering from lack of rain. It appears that this lack
of moisture is the primary factor, and that the whitefly
made a bad condition worse by further exhausting the sap
of the trees. The lack of sufficient moisture weakened the
trees. It also checked the development of the fungus dis-
eases which normally keep the scales under control. Had
the trees been supplied with sufficient moisture they would
have been able to put on a fairly good growth. The new
leaves would have supplied more food to the trees:
(Leaves are not only the lungs of the tree, but also the
organs in which food is elaborated.) This food would
have been used in part to feed the scales and whitefly, and
in part to maintain the vigor of the trees. These leaves
would also have supplied more moisture to the air, and
their shade would have kept the interior of the trees
moister. This would have resulted in a thrifty growth of
the almost universally present fungus diseases of scales.
It has been noticed that scale fungi and whitefly fungi
often thrive remarkably well even in dry localities in
vigorously growing trees. It therefore follows that the
better the condition in which the grove is kept, the less
likely is it to suffer from the depredations of insects.
When there is a great increase of scales, whether or not
whitefly is present, it is evident that the fungus diseases
of these insects are absent or are not thriving. In this
case spraying with some contact insecticides, or fumiga-
tion, should be employed to give immediate relief.
WHEN TO SPRAY FOR SCALES.
In the spring, summer, and fall, it is not possible to use
strong spraying mixtures, so that it may be necessary to
spray the infested trees several times at intervals of some
weeks. It will not always be necessary to spray the whole
grove, but only the most severely infested trees. When
whitefly is present the spray should, of course, be applied
to these as well as to the scales.
The following precautions should be kept in mind when
spraying for scales in spring, summer, or fall:
1. Spray when many young scales can be seen with a
lens to be crawling about, or to have just attached them-
selves. These young scales appear either as oval moving
specks or as round whitish dots. They are easily destroy-
ed by a weak spraying solution which will not injure the
fruit or foliage in any stage of growth.
2. Any contact insecticide may be employed, such as
soap solutions, emulsions of oils, or good proprietary in-
secticides. Soap solutions of 1 pound of soap and 6 to 9
gallons of water will destroy the crawling scales and
those just set, together with the young whitefly, larvae,
without injuring the trees.
,3. Avoid insecticides that are recommended as useful
for fungus diseases, because they also destroy the fungus
diseases of the scales and whitefly. Whale-oil soap causes
little or no injury to these fungi, and the same is true of
some of the best proprietary insecticides.
4. During the period of summer rains the fungus dis-
eases of the scales and whitefly should be distributed to
those trees in which they do not occur in sufficient quan-
5. The eggs of the scale insects, being sheltered be-
neath the old scales, are not easily destroyed by sprays.
The old scales are protected by their waxy covering, and
are not destroyed in great numbers by spraying solutions,
unless of extra strength. Hence, repeated spraying in
warm weather when the young are hatching, may be made
more effective than winter spraying.
RESUME OF SCIENTIFIC RESULTS.
1. Less starch produced by trees affected with sooty
2. Definite advantages gained by spraying fungus over
3. The vitality of spores is probably injured by a brass
vessel when the mixtures is allowed to stand in it.
4. Proof that the fungi grow best in hot wet weather.
5. Yellow fungus thrives only on A. nubifera.
6. Cultures of fungi used for spraying with success.
7. Cultures of fifth generation retain their virulence.
8. Pupae apparently more or less immune to fungus
9. Use soap solutions for spraying whitefly.
10. Proof that spraying with insecticides is most ef-
fective in hottest weather, against younger larvae.
11. A second species of whitefly.
12. Some new food plants of whitefly.
1. It is easy in Florida to start growths of the fungus para-
sites in whitefly-infested trees at the proper time.
2. The proper time to spray fungus spores is when there are
many young larvae on the leaves and the weather is both moist
3. The fungi should be put on the trees as soon as favorable
conditions arise, in order that their growth may be helped by
the summer rains.
4. If the fungi are applied late in the season, they will not
increase sufficiently to be of material advantage until the next
5. During a wet spring, favorable conditions for starting
growths of fungus may arise as early as April. Generally speak-
ing, the periods of summer rains is the most certain time to start
6. In localities where there is not sufficient moisture, or when
the trees are out of condition, the fungi grow sparingly, and
spraying with insecticides or fumigation should be carried on to
check the whitefly.
7. Spraying with insecticides should be done when there are
few or no adult whiteflies swarming about, and when all or
most of the eggs have hatched, which is about 10 to 14 days after
the last of a brood of adults has disappeared.
8. In April or May, in October or November, and during win-
ter, are the times when the most effective spraying with insecti-
cides may be done.
9. In summer the fungi should be applied, because during the
period of rains spraying with insecticides is difficult, but the
fungi can then be spread to the best advantage.
REMEDY FOR MANGO BLIGHT.
By U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The mango, most delicious of tropical fruits, is now
being grown on a commercial scale in Florida, but the
production has been seriously interfered with by a fungus
growth. The Department of Agriculture is endeavoring
to determine on a remedy for this blight, and has just
issued a bulletin giving the details of certain experiments
in spraying the fruit. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture
served to keep the fruit free from infection although when
applied to the blossoms during the rainy season it was
of little or no value.
Beneath mango trees the disease can always be found
on the fallen leaves. Here these leaves merely await a
favorable moist season to spread the disease widely.
Growers of this newly introduced fruit, which undoubted-
ly would be very popular in American markets if it were
more abundant, realize the seriousness of the disease and
it was to aid them that the writer of the Department's
new bulletin was sent to Florida to study the trouble.
Mangos come into bloom very irregularly. They are
very dependent upon weather conditions. If the weather
happens to be dry at blooming time and until the fruit
is set, the fruit can be brought through to ripening free
from infection, by spraying at certain intervals. How-
ever, if the weather is not dry the blossom-blight flour-
ishes when the tree blooms. In the Department's ex-
periments, spraying the blossoms every day prevented a
set of fruit and spraying the blossoms every other day
did not save sufficient fruit to justify the expense in
Spraying was, however, effective in keeping the buds
of the flowers free from diseases even after the flowers
began to open. Experiments seem to show that the buds
should be sprayed at least every 4th day until blossoming
time. From then until the fruit is set, spraying seems to
be of no value. However, after the fruit is set it can be
kept covered with Bordeaux mixture during the first 8
or 10 weeks of its development to great advantage.
The fruits are most susceptible to infection just as they
are setting. Consequently, it appears that it would be
best to make three applications of Bordeaux mixture at
weekly intervals, applying the first one when about one-
half to two-thirds of the blossoms have opened, and fol-
lowing these by a fourth application after a lapse of two
weeks and a fifth one three weeks later. Altogether this
would make five sprayings for the fruit in addition to
the two (or in some cases three) for the buds.
The only solution at present for freeing the mango
during blossoming time from this dreaded disease is to
develop some variety which will be immune. The Mulgoba
mango seems to posses a resistant quality in some degree.
It has been known to set a good crop of fruit when other
mango trees failed to do so. The rapidity with which
the blight works on trees that possess no resistant quality
may be illustrated by a concrete instance. A tree had
been sprayed three times with Bordeaux mixture, and
the flowers upon it opened in full bloom on March 26
with every indication that a good crop of fruit would be
set. On March 28 all of the flowers were dead and dry.
Weather conditions at present make it almost impossi-
ble for the mangos that bloom in winter to set any fruit.
Conditions during December and January are ideal for
the infection. However, at the time of the mango's spring
bloom the weather conditions for good settings of fruit
seem more often favorable than not. This fruit may -be
brought through to maturity in a disease-free and clean
condition by a moderate number of sprayings with Bor-
It is never so dry, however, but that spraying will have
to be resorted to in order to keep the fruits free from
diseases after they have set. No amount of fertilization
of the soil will take its place.
THE SWEET POTATO CROP.
By C. K. M'Quarrie.
Assistant Superintendent, Farmers' Institute, University
The sweet potato crop holds an important place among
the general farm crops of this State, being third in point
of value (running a close race with cotton, which is sec-
ond in the list). Its position is more important than cot-
ton, as it is a maintenance crop and for the most part
consumed at home and not subject to market fluctuations.
Because of its adaptibility to all sections of the State,
the possibilities of this crop, from a money-making stand-
point, are great. The present yield could be largely in-
creased by adopting improved methods of production.
And if there is one crop more than any other that can be
depended upon year in and year out with a large degree
of certainty it is the sweet potato crop.
But to get maximum results and put this crop where
it belongs as one of the best farm crops of the State, cer-
tain factors in crop production must be studied and acted
upon. These are: Its place in crop rotation, soil prepara-
tion, the kind of fertilizer to be used, the quality of same,
methods of application, planting, care of the crop when
growing, the varieties best suited to the soil and to cli-
matic and local conditions and methods of harvesting
and care of the crop afterwards.
PLACE IN CROP ROTATION.
The sweet potato crop in the general rotation should
follow a crop that puts humus and fertility in the soil.
Humus enables the soil to store moisture, increases its
temperature, furnishes a certain amount of plant food,
retards the loss of fertility by leaching, stimulates chemi-
cal action, and fosters the bacterial life so essential to a
large crop yield. Crops such as velvet beans, cowpeas,
soy beans and beggarweed are ideal for this purpose, for
they not only increase the fertility of the soil by their
ability to collect the free nitrogen of the air and store
it on their roots in the form of nodules, but the plowing
under of the aftermath of these crops puts humus in the
soil to keep the crop supplied with the needed moisture
while it is growing.
Where any of.these crops have been plowed under in
the fall and a winter cover crop, such as rye or oats,
grown on the land (which is an excellent plant for con-
servation of moisture and fertility during the winter
months), and these crops again plowed under in the
green state early in spring, there will be ideal soil con-
ditions for a large crop of sweet potatoes. Some prefer
to let the oat crop get to the dough stage and cut and
cure it for hay and plow under the stubble. This is
also an excellent method, unless in localities where it
will be too late in the season before the oats are ready
for cutting to be in time to plant the sweet potato crop.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
Plowing or breaking the land in the late fall for all
spring-planted crops is the best method to pursue, for if
we wait till spring the soil is apt to be too wet after the
winter rains to do good work, and the vegetation and ma-
terials plowed under in the spring will not have time to
rot and assimilate with the soil to form humus, and the
soil will not have time to pack back and get into the me-
chanical condition necessary for success in crop produc-
tion. Therefore we want to do this breaking in the fall.
For this purpose a tool should be used capable of doing
good work and plowing completely under all the vegetable
material on the top of the land. A disk or heavy turning
plow should be used for this purpose, aiming each time
to go a couple of inches or so deeper than the last break-
ing was done. An old land that has been some years
in cultivation subsoiling can be profitably adopted. This
subsoiling can be done with an ordinary scooter stock
with a six-inch shovel for a plow, running right behind
the breaking plow and going as deep as it is possible to
go. This subsoiling opens and acrates the lower soil that
is not advisable to turn on top or mix with the already
made soil. It also helps to retain the moisture received
from the rainfall, prevents, to a certain degree, surface
washing during heavy rains, and enables the crop to draw
on the lower moisture strain in the growing period when
moisture is the main factor to a large yield. It also
serves the purpose of soil aeration to a lower depth than
the breaking plow can do, thus tending to promote the
bacterial life of the soil on which crop production so much
In cases where no winter cover crop is grown on fall-
broken land, after every heavy rain a tool such as a
weeder or harrow should be used, running lightly over
the land and forming a dust mulch to prevent the rapid
evaporation of moisture that occurs if a crust is allowed
to remain long on the land. No deep running tool is
wanted for this work.
FERTILIZER FOR THE CROP.
An important point connected with this crop is the
kind of fertilizer used, and it is advisable to consider this
from the plant-food standpoint and know the formula
that is likely to give us best results. Some of the Experi-
ment Stations of the South have given us definite infor-
mation along this line, which, coupled with results ob-
tained by a number of farmers in growing the crop, en-
ables us to suggest a formula that this crop will generally
do well with. A favorite formula contains 3 per cent
of ammonia, 7 per cent phosphoric acid and about 8 per
cent potash. And in this connection we want to know
the raw materials that enter into the make-up of this
formula. For instance, we know that cottonseed meal
or caster pomace is not the best for the source of am-
monia, because the use of these tends to give the crop
soft rot and a poor keeping quality, and we also know
that for the potash source we should not use any raw
material with chlorine in it, such as muriate of potash or
kainit, as the chlorine in them tends to give an inferior
quality to the crop.
The raw material recommended for an ammoniate
source are either tankage, sulphate of ammonia, or blood
and bone; and for potash, sulphate or potash, or double
sulphate of potash and magnesia.
The farmer who plants a large acreage of the crop can
get the fertilizer manufacturers to compound for him any
formula he wants and of any preferred materials, but
the small grower has either to take what he can get on
the local market or do his own mixing, which is quite
easily done. To mix a ton of the formula given above
and of the materials recommended, he would have to use
about 900 pounds of blood and bone, or bone tankage, 800
pounds of phosphoric acid and 300 pounds of sulphate of
HOW MUCH FERTILIZER PER ACRE.
Land that is in good mechanical condition with con-
siderable humus in the soil will take care of more fer-
tilizer to advantage than poor thin soil devoid of humus.
The depth of plowing cuts quite a figure also along this
line. A good rule to adopt and one that has been found
satisfactory in practice is to use one hundred pounds per
acre for the right kind of plant food or the formula al-
ready mentioned, for every inch of depth that the land
has been plowed. It is true economy to use enough fer-
tilizer of the right kind to get the maximum yield with
the least cost of production per bushel.
METHODS OF APPLICATION.
It is a well-known fact that the root system is the
foundation on which a crop is made, and the methods
of application of the fertilizer determine to a great extent
the vigor and number of the feeding rootlets of a crop.
Fertilizer applied in furrows, drills or hills tends to make
the soil streaked or spotted in its fertility, consequently
curtailing the root system because the roots of the crop
are not apt to spread through all the soil as they would
do if the fertility was uniformly distributed. There-
fore it is recommended that, on all well-prepared soils
plowed to a depth of six inches or more, the fertilizer be
broadcasted on freshly prepared land and worked into
the soil by means of harrow, weeder or cultivator, a few
days'previous to planting the crop. On soils deficient in
humus, and plowed a few inches in depth, the applica-
tion of the fertilizer had best be in furrows; but in such
a case the quantity used must be small and the crop will
be of a corresponding degree, thus making the cost more
per bushel, for the labor required is the same in both
PLANTING THE CROP.
Whenever the "draws" in the seed-bed are ready for set-
ting out in the field, enough land should be prepared for
the purpose by making it into beds about four feet from
center to center. The height of these beds should be
determined by the nature of the land. On rolling land,
where there is ample drainage, these beds should not be
more than twelve to fiften inches above the level of the
ground and made with a well-rounded top, not sharp. On
flat woods where drainage is deficient the beds should be
made very high, say two to three feet, so as to take care of
excessive rainfall in rainy weather, because the roots of
the crop should not be in stagnant water at any time.
The best tool for making the beds is a disk cultivator.
The disks can be arranged at different angles and depths
to make a far better bed and at considerably less cost
than those made by a turning plow and afterwards
smoothed off with a hoe, as is the general practice. It
is not advisable to make more beds than are required
at any one time, because a better stand is secured-when
draws or vines are planted on fresh-made beds, on ac-
count of the settling of the soil about them, than when
plants are put on beds a few days or a week after they
If.draws are set out in April, the vines that we want
for the main planting will be ready to be cut for this pur-
pose in May. For it has been found that the cuttings
of the vines make a larger yield for table and market
than where draws are used, and it is the usual practice
just to plant sufficient draws to give plenty of vines for
the main planting.
In the planting operation the vines should be cut to
lengths of twelve or fifteen inches (we don't want them
too long), and laid on top of the bed about fifteen inches
apart with butts all one way By using a forked stick for
the purpose, we can insert them into the soil to a depth
of four to six inches, always taking care to have the butt
ends down. The practice of some growers of pushing
the vines in the soil at the middle and leaving both ends
sticking out cannot be generally recommended, as in that
case the vine is ruptured and more than one joint will
root, which tends to a lower yield than where only one
joint roots, which is the case when the butt end is in-
If dry weather prevails at planting time and the soil
is deficient in moisture, watering the plants immediate-
ly after setting them out is recommended. For this pur-
pose some vessel with a spout on it (such as an old cop-
per kettle) is best, pouring about half a pint of water
in the hole where the plant is set out, taking care to run
the wetted soil to the root of the plant. This should be
done in the evening, and next morning a little dry soil
should be thrown over these wet places to prevent the
evaporation of that watering.
More than one hundred so-called varieties of sweet po-
tatoes make up the list of what we have in the State.
Many of these are really the same, but under different
names in different localities.
In selecting a suitable variety two things should be
kept in mind, and the most important in this respect is
the market one is catering to, and another is the late-
ness or earliness of the variety. As a general proposition,
an early variety does not give us the largest yield, and
is not such a good keeper when stored as a later variety
which matures thoroughly before harvesting. A variety
in great demand for early summer shipping to Northern
markets is the "Big Stem Jersey," but this variety is
mostly confined to the central and south-central part
of the State, where it is grown largely as a catch crop
succeeding a winter truck crop. It is not in much de-
mand in the Southern market because of its dry, mealy
nature, the Southern markets calling for a soft sweet
potato of the yam type. Among the favorites for do-
mestic use and of medium earliness are the "Dooly Yam,"
the "Nancy Hall," and "Triumph." The "White Spanish"
sometimes called the "Tar Heel" is the earliest we have,
but the quality is inferior and is not in much demand
after other varieties come on the market. "Southern
Queen" and early "Pumpkin Yam" are medium early
varieties and are of excellent quality. "Dewey," "Yel-
low Bunch Yam," "Vineland" and "Hall's Golden" are
also desirable types and are the latest ripening varieties
for domestic use. These are good keepers when allowed
to ripen and stored properly.
Sweet potatoes are also much used for stock feed and
can be profitably grown for that purpose especially for
hogs and dairy stock. They can also be used to advan-
tage for horse and mule feed along with grain feeds. The
stock-feeding varieties grow to a larger size and are
much inferior in quality to those used for domestic pur-
poses. Among the best known in this class are the
"white" and the "purple" West Indian Yam, "Brazilian
Yam," "Nigger Killer," "Hayti," "Spanish," "San Do-
mingo," "Davis Enormous" and a number of others.
Some of these do better in some sections than others, so
that one has to consider and find out, if possible, the
variety best suited to his soil, location and climatic con-
ditions. This applies both to the domestic and to the
CARE OF THE GROWING CROP.
Many of our native farmers think that the sweet potato
crop does not require any cultivation. If it is planted on
new land, little cultivation will be required, as grass and
weeds are not apt to be much in evidence. Nevertheless,
an occasional stirring of the soil, particularly in dry
weather, is useful for the conservation of moisture and
the areation needed to produce a good crop.
On old land that has been several years in cultivation,
grass and weeds will get quite rampant shortly after
planting, particularly if a heavy application of fertilizer
has been put on the crop. To keep such in check, the
cultivator must be used quite frequently until the vines
completely cover the ground, when cultivation may cease,
as by that time the young potatoes will be forming in the
soil, and their growth would be interfered with if cultiva-
tion was continued any longer.
TOOLS TO USE.
The best tool for cultivating this crop that we know of
is a two-horse disk cultivator with the disks set at a suit-
able angle at different depths, so as to run along the sides
of the bed, scraping weeds and some soil into the water
furrow in the operation. After the ground has been gone
over in this way, the angles of the disks are reversed and
rebedding is done, leaving the beds in their previous form.
This work not only cleans up the weeds and grass, but
aerates the soil and tends to a larger yield.
To protect the young plants from being either torn or
covered in the operation, the fenders, with which all such
tools are provided, have to be attached to the frame of the
cultivator. These fenders have to be properly adjusted as
to width and depth to give the best results. Later on
when the vines begin running and interfere with the disks
in their work, a home-made attachment with fingers on it
to lift vines out of the way can be fastened to the culti-
vator and used to good advantage; for cultivation can be
carried on much later than if this was not used.
DISK CULTIVATOR BETTER THAN PLOW.
On these farms where cultivators are not used, the gen-
eral method practiced for keeping the weeds under con-
trol is to use a turning plow for barring off the beds, clear-
ing the top by hoeing, arid then bedding back again. This
takes more time, and is more expensive, because the plow
will not cover more than' a couple of acres in a day,
whereas the disk cultivator will clear at least 8 to 10 acres
a day. Fenders to protect the young plants cannot be
used on a plow, and in the rebedding operation a number
of plants will be covered by soil, requiring an extra hand
to uncover them. When the vines begin running, an
extra hand is also required to rake the vines out of the
way of the plow, thus adding fifteen to twenty per cent
to the cost of producing the crop. The work will not be
as well done as by the cultivator, for the raking of the
vines out of the way of the plow and back again damages
them and curtails the crop.
Care should always be exercised not to work the soil
when it is too wet, or when the vines are wet with either
dew or rain, for that tends to "scald" the leaves, and is
detriment to a good crop yield.
HARVESTING THE CROP.
The bulk of this crop is not generally harvested until
the frost occurs. The field should then be gone over, and
the vines cut from the crown of the hills by means of a
sharp hoe or sickle. This operation prevents the decay
in the frosted vines from being communicated to the pota-
toes, and so causing the soft rot which shows itself soon
after the potatoes are dug. If we follow this method the
potatoes can ripen in the ground before we dig them, and
their keeping qualities will be improved.
In the digging operation, care should be exercised to
prevent injury to the tubers by cuts, scratches, or bruises,
which are another source of soft rot. Where a consider-
able acreage is to be harvested, it will be a point of econ-
omy to use a regular potato-digger. This works better
and quicker, avoids injury, and ensures the getting of all
the crop from the ground.
After the digging, the crop should be allowed to lie on
the ground in rows for three or four days, so as to get
thoroughly dried and cured by the sun. It is as neces-
sary to cure potatoes, both Irish and sweet, as it is to
cure hay or forage.
STORING THE CROP.
How to store the sweet potato crop in such a manner
as to ensure against loss by decay, is a matter that seri-
ously concerns the farmers of the State. A considerable
loss occurs in this crop every winter from preventable
causes. The method of harvesting the crop are responsi-
ble for a large amount of this loss, and the methods of
storing for most of the balance.
We have seldom, if ever, seen a successful sweet-pota-
to house made by digging a hole in the ground and roofing
in, or by imitating a smoke house; because both of these
lack ventilition. A common practice is to make small
conical piles about ten bushels each, and to cover them
with soil and bark. As far as my observations goes, this
method is frequently a failure, because the contents of
these piles are not properly secured against rain, and
are not properly ventilated. In my own practice I have
found it best to store sweet potatoes in banks on the top
of ground conveniently near to the barn or dwelling-
house. A piece of ground running north and south, of
the desired length, and about four feet wide, is levelled
by means of a hoe or rake, and the potatoes are piled
on this, about five feet deep, tapering to a sharp ridge.
This makes a long V-shaped bank, and care is taken to
have the sides with a smooth and uniform slope. After
all the potatoes are piled in the bank, a good plan is to
allow them to have a few days' exposure to the sum so as
to become thoroughly dry, covering at night with sacks
or hay to keep off the dew. Then the whole bank is
covered two or three inches deep with some kind of hay,
and over the hay a couple of inches of soil are thrown.
The hay absorbs the moisture that is given off by the
potatoes during the sweating that occurs soon after the
bank is entirely covered. The soil keeps the hay in place
and protects against cold. The bank should be made
water-tight by means of boards laid lengthwise, with
lepped edges to shed rain; or a temporary frame of scant-
lings can be made over the bank, and shingles or tar-paper
used to keep the potatoes dry.
If the crop is stored in this way, it is less likely to
rot than with ordinary methods, and it can be held uutil
late in spring, when prices run high.
By A. P. Spencer.
Assistant in Extension, University of Florida, Gainesville.
There are about 6,000,000 farms producing poultry in
the United States, but comparatively few of these raise
poultry otherwise than as a side issue. Several large
poultry plants are operated, but their output is but a
drop in the bucket in comparison with the whole amount
of poultry products produced and consumed.
The average housekeeper on the farm looks to supply
her table with eggs from her own poultry yard. At times
she has abundance to spare; at other times her supply
of fresh eggs is limited or cut off, and she depends on
stored eggs or must purchase from a neighbor or grocer,
the shortage usually occurring when prices are above the
This shortage may be overcome if there is a better un-
derstanding of the details of poultry raising and sufficient
time given to carrying them out. Successful poultry rais-
ing requires some skill and experience backed up by eco-
nomical management, constant attention and constant
The average hen lays about sixty eggs in a year. Only
about half the eggs placed under hens or in incubators
hatch, and many chicks that hatch do not live to a mar-
ketable age. These figures are only approximate, but
those who have given attention to such matters will not
doubt their approximate correctness.
This is not the best that can be done after allowing for
natural environments, and considering what has been
learned from experimental work and using the artificial
methods devised expressly for making poultry raising
more profitable and less subject to failure.
Poultry production for profit up to recently was
viewed from three principal standpoints. First, produc-
tion of eggs; second, production of meat; third, produc-
tion of breeding stock. A new phase of the business has
recently come to our attention in the production of day-
old chicks for a special trade.
It matters little which phase of the business is under-
taken, some vital principles must be adhered to more or
less constantly or there will be little satisfaction and
In all cases it is well to start on a moderate scale. The
inexperienced poultryman must get practical experience,
some of which may be more or less costly. If the start
is made on a small scale and well within the capacity
and finances, if the methods are economical and business
principles are applied, it is reasonable to expect a fair
profit in return.
On the average Florida farm, poultry can be made
profitable, and to do this it is important:
(1) To secure good specimens of well-bred fowls from
(2) To feed regularly with a variety of feeds.
(3) To house comfortably and keep free from lice and
(4) To furnish a constant supply of green feeds and
(5) To see that they get exercise daily.
(6) To keep a careful supervision over them.
THE BREED TO SELECT.
Three types of poultry breeds lend themselves to the
various methods of marketing.
EGG OR MEDITERRANEAN BREEDS.
Of these the White Leghorn undoubtedly have the pref-
erence in Florida. The Brown Leghorn, Black Spanish
and White Minorca have many admirers, and from the
standpoint of eggs these breeds are unexcelled. They are
pooor sitters and nervous and require high fences to con-
MEAT OR ASIATIC BREEDS.
Cochins, Langhams and Brahmas are distinctly meat
breeds. They grow rapidly and make a satisfactory table
fowl, and are usually inferior layers but good brooders.
GENERAL PURPOSE BREEDS.
The American or intermediate types, such as Rhode
Island Reds, Barred, White and Buff Rocks, Orpington
and Wyandottes are best suited to the average farmer
or market poultryman. They are quite generally used
and are well suited to Florida conditions. These breeds
are well established and breed true to color, with the ex-
ception of the Rhode Island Reds, which have a more re-
cent origin, and it is often difficult to secure uniformity
of color with them, but as a general utility fowl the
Rhode Island Red is considered one of the best. Color
markings are usually of secondary importance, although
there is a preference for white or yellow-skinned fowls
in the best markets.
It cannot be truthfully stated that any one or two
breeds are better than all others under all conditions, but
in selecting the general utility it is usually good policy
to adopt one that is known to be productive under fair
Perhaps more attention has been given this phase of
poultry raising than any other. Laying hens should be
fed for two purposes only. First, to sustain the body,
and, second, to produce eggs. When the body has been
thoroughly nourished and additional food eaten there is
a daily waste from some one or more causes if they fail to
lay. If they are taking on an excessive amount of fat,
some of the food is being assimilated for this purpose.
If there is no increase in body weight, the food may be
deficient in the necessary elements for egg production,
or the fowl may not lay because of indigestion or old
age. For these reasons it is almost impossible to pre-
scribe for a non-laying flock unless all the particulars
about that flock are known.
The daily ration should be fairly well balanced. If
the flock is not yarded and their feed is obtained from
the refuse of the stable lots, insects and worms, besides
some table scraps, the ration will bie fairly well balanced.
Poultry confined will not get this variety of feed unless
it is supplied from some other source.
A mixture of equal parts of corn, wheat, and oats is
a good mixture, as a morning feed; four parts is about
sufficient for fifty hens. It is best to scatter the grain
among litter to induce exercise. In the afternoon a mash
feed (either dry or moist) is given. A good mash feed
would be, equal parts of ground corn, oats, and bran, and
some animal food (fed from an open hopper). Meat,
meat-meal, and ground bone are good animal foods to
use. For fowls not accustomed to meat meal; one-half
pound per day is sufficient for twelve hens, since it has a
laxative effect on the bowels and must be fed sparingly
at first. Later when the fowls become accustomed to it,
the amount may be increased to one pound per day.
Linseed meal may be substituted in part, and is to be
recommended because of its lower cost and adding variety
to the ration.
Hens should have a supply of protein (muscle and bone
producing) as part of their daily ration with animal food
forming a part of it. Fresh meat is best, the hens relish
it better when cooked, and of course it can be kept sweet
longer. Green cut bone is good although some claim it
unsafe on account of the possibility of introducing tuber-
culosis to which poultry are subject. For summer use,
meat meal and meat scraps are suitable' and readily
accessible. In making up the mixture, let the animal food
constitute from eight to ten per cent of the ration, the
actual amount depending on the particular material used,
Skimmed milk is a good source and it may be both added
to the mash and placed where the fowls can drink it.
Vegetable or green foods. The value of green feed for
poultry lies in its ability to aid the digestive system, while
it also provides with some nourishment. It promotes
good health and naturally more eggs. Green feeds should
be supplied liberally, even poultry having the picking of
the grass and weeds that grow during the winter in
Florida are benefited by an additional supply of such
vegetables as cabbage, kale, and dwarf essex rape.
Sprouted grains are generally used by northern poultry
men with young chicks. They are also valuable because
of a ferment called "diastase" they contain that aids
digestion of starch. This substance is in sprouting oats,
rye, barley, and potatoes.
Fouls must have a constant supply of grit. Grit is used
by hens for masticating their food. The supply must be
constant and frequently renewed and unless it is sharp
digestion will be imperfect. Very often it is advisable to
supply some grit even when the fowls have access to a
sandy yard, for if the sand is very fine, it is useless.
Ground oyster shells or coarse sand are among the best
Fowls must have a dust bath. A dust bath is more
essential than is often considered. Hens must dust them-
selves to rid the body of vermin and to cleanse it and re-
move the scurf that is constantly exuding from the skin.
The dust bath should be frequently renewed and might
contain a small quantity of lime, or preferably wood
WATER A CONSTANT NECESSITY.
Water constitutes 65 per cent of the egg and about 55
per cent of the hen's body, and unless the supply is suf-
ficient the hens will suffer for want of it. The water sup-
plied in green feed is not nearly sufficient. Fifty laying
hens will drink 6 to 10 quarts daily, and even more in hot
weather if they are producing a good number of eggs each
Some simple automatic drinking fountains sold by
dealers of poultry supplies are convenient for supplying
clean water, as there is a probability of the water becom-
ing polluted if it is supplied to a large flock from open
Materials for feeding must be fresh and free from mold;
musty corn, buckwheat, and bran are inducive of digestive
disorders. Kaffir corn is an exceptionally good poultry
feed when clean, but unless special care is taken, it is
subject to mould during the summer rains in Florida
and should be examined before fed.
It is important to keep the appetite good. A light grain
feed or "scratch" in the morning, a mash feed at noon
(either dry or wet) and a liberal grain feed at night is
recommended by good poultrymen. The crops should be
full when the hens go to roost. This is especially empha-
sized in northern States to induce warmth during the
night and is less true perhaps in Florida.
Some breeds have a greater tendency to broodiness than
others. The lighter egg breeds are less broody than the
heavier meat breeds. Broodiness is a natural condition
coming at the end of a continuous laying period. All
hens have periods for laying and periods for resting.
Whatever may be the cause, broodiness can be most
effectively overcome by good care and regular feeding, to
build up bodily tissue and to get the hen in a good con-
dition for laying again. To starve broody hens is to
increase this tendency. Ducking in cold water or other
abuses most commonly practiced do well to break up the
A high dry location for the buildings is always pre-
ferable to a poorly drained one and as yards running out
from the poultry houses that can be cultivated and sown
to green crops are convenient, this consideration should
not be overlooked. Excessive moisture brings trouble
every time. Good drainage and good sanitary conditions
mean much to a flock of poultry, yet there is hardly a
location however flat, but what local conditions can be
greatly improved by raising the level of the ground on
which the house is to be constructed, twelve to fifteen
inches with a few loads of light soil, thereby making it on
a good location.
The open house is always to be recommended in Florida.
There is no necessity for expensive structures, but only
for comfort, sanitation and convenience. Small flocks
usually lay best; 60 to 70 birds in a flock will give a
higher average than when greater numbers are kept to-
gether, although under certain conditions several hundred
may be kept together profitably. In the first case a
greater number of eggs per hen are produced, while the
larger flocks can be handled with less labor per hen.
Four to six square feet of floor space is sufficient for
each bird. Overcrowding is injurious. With one or two
sides open, or in our coldest weather covered with canvas,
a free circulation of air surrounds the hens and prevents
an excessive accumulation of moisture or foul air. Any
structure so built as to permit drafts on the birds is
faulty. The air should be cool and fresh, but drafts
are responsible for much trouble. Poultry often prefer
a tree for roosting, as they object to being housed in
drafty quarters. A tree gives better protection than a
drafty house, but not nearly as good protection as a
properly ventilated house. A concrete floor in Florida is
to be recommended though not absolutely necessary. The
house can be more thoroughly cleaned and the birds bet-
ter protected from weasels, skunks and rats, when there
is a solid floor and wire netting to cover the open slides,
with doors made to fit.
The roosts should be so arranged that they can be
quickly moved, and all on the same level. About thir-
teen inches below the roosts should be boards to collect
the droppings. These boards should be tongued and
grooved, and closely fitted leaving no cracks or holes to
collect dirt. Clean the dropping board every day and
pour a little kerosene oil over' the roosts once a week.
Sprinkle lime around the roosts each day and there will
be little trouble with bad odors and vermin.
Darken the laying boxes, as a hen prefers a concealed
corner for the nest. Clean the nest boxes frequently,
dirty nests are breeding places for fleas, mites, and lice.
Eggs absorb disagreeable odors, rapidly, and the quality
of the egg will be injured by lying from twelve to thirty-
six hours in a dirty nest. Remember always that sanita-
tion and a free circulation of fresh air are indispensable
to successful poultry raising.
Never permit sickly or weak birds to remain in the
flock. If unthrifty ones are found, remove them at once,
and if the sickness seems to linger, it is usually best to
destroy them and burn the carcasses. Select the breeding
stock from the thriftiest and most active birds of the
yards. Without constitutional vigor and good health we
cannot expect good returns.
Pullets are usually the best layers, but their eggs
should not be used for hatching. One and two-year old
hens are best to select when eggs for incubation are
wanted. Keep the entire flock under three years old and
weed out the non-producers immediately they are found
in the flock.
Under average farm conditions most of the chicks will
be hatched and mothered by hens, although incubators
are rapidly coming into general use.
Hens that steal away to nest usually, but not always,
succeed in raising a good brood, although often too late
in the season, so we cannot count on that method for
raising our best chicks. The hens that lay early are
the ones that hatch the early chicks. Furthermore, the
early hatched pullets do the laying during November,
December and January, so that in order to have early
layers one must prepare at least twelve months in ad-
vance. Early broilers bring the fancy prices, so that the
success in both production and getting the best market is
to be two months in advance of those who furnish the
bulk and general supply of eggs and meat.
The egg supply is irregular and is always greatest dur-
ing March, April, May and June, so that the price per
dozen naturally declines during these months. During
the remaining eight months the retail market depends
more or less on the eggs stored during the laying season
and cannot always supply strictly fresh eggs.
The poultry man who by proper methods has been able
to get his greatest supply of eggs during the months of
shortage or October, November, December, and January,
gets the cream of the prices and when the market is
declining these hens are raising chicks for the early mar-
ket or for his laying stock the coming year. There is a
special trade to be developed in every city in the South
for strictly fresh eggs and well fattened nicely marketed,
dressed poultry. The product must be uniform and
strictly fresh and placed on the market in attractive pack-
ages. There is only a small profit in poultry raising if
the product is to go into the ordinary channel of trade,
the grocery and country store, when the market is fairly
well supplied. But there is a liberal profit if the special
trade is catered to.
The Doan Carton Company of St. Louis, Missouri, man-
ufactures egg cartons that will meet the demand of such
a trade. Each carton will hold one dozen eggs, and the
cartons are so shaped that thirty of these will exactly fill
an ordinary 30-dozen egg crate. Immediately the eggs
are gathered, sorted and wiped, they are placed in the
carton, the lid is sealed and the date stamped on the
package. The carton is made of a good quality card-
board, each egg separated from the other, so that there is
little danger of breakage. The eggs are not handled again
until they are finally taken out by the consumer. Such a
package, convenient in size, sealed and guaranteed finds a
ready sale at a higher price than the regular market
offers. The carton bears the name of the producer with
signature over guarantee, and the consumer finding the
eggs according to guarantee wants the particular product
again. The price of the cartons is $6.50 per thousand if
ordered in 1000 lots or less than three-quarters of a cent
Another phase of the poultry business that has only
recently attracted attention is the selling of day-old
chicks. In some instances the business has grown to
large proportions. One firm offers day-old chicks at 10
cents each, also offers a paper brooder that is packed and
sent in the same shipment at $2.00. Hence with an
expenditure of $12 the purchaser may start in the poultry
business and under favorable conditions this would be a
fairly satisfactory way to begin. The development of
such chicks will of course depend largely on how they
are cared for and the vigor of the stock. A public
hatchery in connection with an established poultry plant
would undoubtedly find some business. In these hatch-
eries the eggs are incubated at a stated price per hundred,
or eggs may be exchanged for chicks.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS.
By A. P. Spencer.
Assistant in Extension University of Florida, Gainesville.
Indian Runner Ducks have received attention from
many people during the past five years. Their hardiness
and their egglaying capability recommend them. From
200 to 250 eggs a bird is not an uncommon yearly aver-
age, when the flock is properly handled. The eggs are
readily accepted in our markets in place of hen eggs.
Bakeries find a ready use for the eggs, and the claim is
made that two of these duck eggs are equal in food value
and for cooking purposes to three hen eggs.
Unlike hens, the egg production of the Indian Runners
does not diminish immediately after the second year.
Even up to seven or eight years they retain their normal
egg-laying powers. They are only slightly subject to
diseases, and parasites are seldom, if ever, found to
trouble them. These ducks are wild-natured, and have
little regard for a nest, dropping their eggs in any con-
venient place, frequently in the water or mud. It is best
to keep them in yards. Then the eggs can all be gath-
ered, and with the better attention they receive, they lay
better, the ducklings grow faster, and being less fre-
quently disturbed by strangers they are tamer. A pond
is much enjoyed by them, but is not a necessity. In fact,
some people claim that the egg-production is greater
without any water for swimming. Nevertheless, the
ducks must have an abundance of fresh water for drink-
ing purposes, and this especially must never be neglected.
Indian Runners, like all other live stock, require regu-
lar feeding. A meal three times a day is advocated during
the laying season, and twice a day when moulting. The
feed may not materially differ from a suitable ration for
hens, but as the duck utilizes less grit, it is better when
moistened or made into a mash.
Indian Runner ducks are very poor sitters, so that the
hatching must be done by hens or in incubators. One
of the greatest hindrances to good hatches in incubators
is the want of moisture during incubation, as these ma-
chines are built for hatching hens eggs and duck eggs
require more moisture. Additional moisture must be
supplied for a successful hatch. Even when hatched by
hens, it is advisable to moisten the eggs once a week, and
twice during the last week of hatching.
The eggs are usually fertile if the flocks are properly
managed. Thirty or forty in a flock is large enough, with
one drake to every six ducks. An 80 to 85 per cent. hatch
may be expected under good conditions. If the eggs are
to be bought better hatches are usually secured from
flocks of sufficient size to give quantities of fresh eggs for
shipment each day. While they ship fairly well, their
hatching qualities (as in the case with hen eggs) are
likely to be injured by long shipment or too much jolting
around. So it is preferable to secure the eggs from near
home when possible.
At present, we have two varieties of Indian Runners
although not particularly distinct-the dark fawn and
the light fawn. The American standard describes the
perfect female specimen as light fawn.
There seems no claim to any superior egg production
in the light fawn variety. On the other hand, the dark
fawn is said to produce a whiter egg without the greenish
tinge that more closely resembles a hen egg, and is more
acceptable for table use.
Ducklings up to three weeks old are sensitive to cold
and wet. Getting their feet into very cold water or ex-
posure to a cold rain is almost sure to kill many. Up to
five or six weeks of age, they need a good shelter with a
dry floor. After that they will require little or no shelter
in Florida, and if well fed will begin laying when four
and a half to six months of age.
Indian Runner ducks have many things to recommend
them. They are not bothered with lice or vermin, no roup,
no scaly legs, very little housing, and hawks do not molest
them; but if they have access to a Florida pond, there is a
danger from loss by the large turtles that are quite nu-
merous in most sink holes, streams and ponds.
In addition to the demand for eggs, there is a growing
demand for the meat, and while these ducks are not as
heavy and plump as some other breeds, if they have been
well cared for and kept growing, they make nice roasters,
fryers and broilers at an early age.
DUCKS AND CHICKS MUST BE KEPT SEPARATE.
It is not a good plan to yard ducks and chickens to-
gether. Ducks are naturally good feeders and greedy
and will get the most of the feed, and as they enjoy get-
ting into the drinking water, will keep the drinking ves-
sels in a dirty condition. Separate yards are best.
Indian Runner Ducks, like chickens, can be made profit-
able if they are properly managed. There is sufficient
waste on the average farm to supply a good portion of the
necessary feed, and while the ducks can be handled as a
side issue on the farm, they will not give profitable re-
turns if neglected.
IMPROVING ACID SOILS.
By A. W. Blair.
Chemist Agricultural Experiment Station.
The soil in many sections of Florida are acid (sour),
which is unfavorable for the best development of many
crops. Soils that are low and wet, especially muck soils,
are likely to be acid. It is generally safe to assume that
our pine-land soils are more or less acid if there is no
indication of phosphate rock, limestone, or marl, at or
near the surface. Hammock soils may also be acid, though
in some cases the hammocks have a layer of marl a little
below the surface.
CAUSES OF ACIDITY.
1. Alkaline materials, such as potash, soda, lime, and
magnesia, which can neutralize or counteract acids, have
to a large extent, been washed out of our soils by the
action of drainage waters. (The State Geologist, in
Bulletin No. 1, of the Geological Survey, stated that
dissolved material is being carried into the sea through
the Silver Springs at the rate of about 600 tons per day.)
In this dissolved matter, carbonate of lime greatly pre-
2. Organic matter, such as grass, weeds, or stalks,
decays in the soil with the formation of organic acids,
which on account of their slow solubility tend to accumu-
late in soils not well supplied with alkaline materials like
3. Certain fertilizing materials, sulphate of ammonia
in particular, tend to increase the acidity of soils that are
naturally deficient in alkaline materials, owing to the
plants using the ammonia to a greater extent than they
do the sulphuric acid.
Alkaline materials generally, will counteract or neu-
tralize any acid. In improving an acid soil, the aim
should be to get an alkaline material that is cheap and
that can be easily handled. To a large extent, lime in its
different forms fulfills these requirements.
Carbonate of lime is the form that occurs naturally.
It is found as crystallized limestone or marble, as massive
limestone rock, as marl, and as shells. It also occurs in
certain soils in a newly divided state as the result of the
decomposition of some of the above named materials.
Examples of such soils are found in the Bluegrass regions
of Kentucky, and Southwest Virginia. Carbonate of lime,
in any form, if ground fine and worked into an acid soil in
sufficient quantities, will correct the sourness. It will
not take effect as rapidly as quick-lime, nor is it as con-
centrated. It should, however, be much cheaper. One
hundred pounds of pure quick-lime are equivalent to 170
pounds of pure limestone; but, because of impurities, it
would perhaps be best to take 200 pounds of carbonate of
lime, in the form of ground limestone or ground shells, as
the equivalent of 100 pounds of pure quick-lime.
Slaked Lime (hydrated lime) is made by slaking quick-
lime with just enough water to convert it into a fine
powder. One hundred and thirty-two pounds of slaked
lime prepared in this way are equivalent to 100 pounds of
pure quick lime.
Unbleached hardwood ashes contain about 25 to 30 per
cent. of lime in addition to 4 to 6 per cent. of potash, and
when they can be had at a reasonable price they may be
used with profit on acid soils.
Basic, or Thomas, Slag contains about 40 per cent. of
lime in addition to 17 or 18 per cent. of phosphoric acid,
and if a moderate application of lime is needed along with
a heavy application of phosphoric acid, this may be used.
In our experiments with pineapples, basic slag has given
If ground limestone or shells are used, and the soil is
found to be highly acid (by testing with litmus paper),
two tons per acre in two or three years will not be
excessive. If the soil is only slightly acid, one ton per
acre may suffice. Only half the amount need be applied
if quick-lime is used. Old, thoroughly air-slaked, lime
may be used in about the same amount as ground lime-
Lime may be applied at almost any time, though it
would perhaps be better to apply it during the late winter
or early spring, so that it may be thoroughly worked into
the soil before the rainy season sets in. If fertilizers con-
taining sulphate of ammonia are used, it would be better
to apply the lime one month before or one month after the
CROPS BENEFITED BY LIME.
Most vegetable and fruit crops are benefitted by the use
of the lime where there is a tendency to acidity of the
soil. It has, however, been shown that watermelons do
best on an acid soil. It has also been shown that lime
makes the conditions more favorable for the development
of scab on the Irish potato.
With celery, lettuce, cabbage, citrus fruits, hay, and
forage crops, it may be used liberally.
COWPEAS FOR HAY AND FOR SOIL
By C. K. McQuarrie.
Assistant Superintendent Farmers' Institutes, Gaines-
ville, Fla., March 27, 1912.
Our system of agriculture in this State (and in the
South generally) has paid too little attention to growing
legume crops as soil improvers. The farmer has thus
been compelled to make large outlays for commercial
fertilizers, which really never build the soil to the point
of increased crop yields annually. We have been neglect-
ing one of the most important methods of soil building
known to agriculture. One of the best of the legume
family for this purpose is the cowpea, and it is safe to
say that no one crop known can add more to our agricul-
tural wealth. Hay of the best quality can be made from
it, and nearly four times as high in digestible protein as
timothy hay. Its power to collect the free nitrogen of
the air and store it in the form of nodules on the roots,
thus increasing soil fertility, enables the farmer to grow
succeeding crops without expensive nitrogenous fertil-
To make the best of the cowpea crop there are two
distinct periods in which it should be planted to enable
the farmer to get hay of good quality. The first planting
should be done as early in spring as possible so as to have
the crop cut and cured for hay before the rainy season
occurs. The other planting should be done in July, (or
early in August) so as to have the crop come off in the
fall when dry weather prevails.
'VARIETIES TO PLANT.
On land where a winter crop that depletes the soil has
been grdwn, such as cabbage, rape, or any of the small
grains, a good plan for soil recuperation is to grow a
legume crop immediately thereafter. The cowpea fits in
there just right, and by making the crop into hay, the
land will be in good condition to bear a profitable fall
crop of some kind suitable to the soil and system of farm
management. The variety of seed to be used should be
carefully considered, for while there are upwards of fifty
distinct types of the cowpea, there are very few that are
suitable for early planting. Another point for considera-
tion is the immunity of the variety we use to root-knot
and wilt. On land where the root-knot is known to pre-
vail, cowpeas of any variety are subject to it, and in that
case we had better use the velvet or Lyon beans for a
legume crop. There are two varieties of cowpeas that are
known to be more resistant to root-knot than others, the
Iron and Brabham, and they are desirable types for hay-
PREPARING FOR COWPEAS.
The land for cowpeas should be well prepared by
thorough plowing and pulverization of the soil. The suc-
cess of any crop depends a good deal on the seed-bed pre-
pared for it. An application of about 400 pounds per
acre of acid phosphate should be broadcasted and har-
rowed in before planting the seed. On soil that is in a
good mechanical condition it will be advisable to sow the
seed "broadcast," using about seven pecks to the acre and
using a drill for the purpose. If no drill is available, the
seed can be sown by hand and worked into the soil with a
cultivator, smoothing the surface with a harrow or weeder.
On thin soil it is advisable to sow in drills about thirty
inches apart and cultivate the growing crops several
times. In that case about five pecks of seed per acre will
Some of our farmers get excellent results from cowpea
mixtures; that is, sowing other seeds with the cowpeas.
This practice is generally recommended for the purpose
of easier curing of the hay, as the mixture being of differ-
ent texture cures more readily than if'of one kind. A mix-
ture that is very popular is sorghum and cowpeas. The
Early Amber sorghum is the best, as its growing period
comes near that of the cowpeas. If both are sown at the
same time, five pecks of cowpeas and two pecks of sorg-
hum broadcasted or drilled in is sufficient for an acre.
Cowpeas and German millet are another good combina-
tion, for the period of growth of the millet and the earlier
varieties of dowpeas correspond sufficiently to make the
product desirable, and the millet aids considerably in
curing the hay. Cowpeas and soy beans are also a good
combination, using the larger varieties of the soy bean,
such as the Mammoth Yellow, and the slower growing
varieties of cowpeas, such as the Clay and the Whippoor-
On some of the older fields of the State in the northern
and western portion, Johnson grass has become more or
less a pest. In fields where it abounds, cowpeas can be
disked on the land at the rate of six to seven pecks per
acre. The disking of the Johnson grass roots tends to a
better stand of grass, and the peas mixed with it makes
excellent hay. If the seed is planted in early April, the
hay can be cut in about sixty to seventy days, and will be
one of the best hays it is possible to get. This method of
treating Johnson grass lands solves a difficult problem, as
you cannot grow a cultivated crop successfully where it
CURING THE CROP.
To get the best quality of hay the cowpea crop must
not be allowed to get too ripe. At the blooming stage all
the nutriment is in the plant, when it starts to make the
seed to perpetuate its kind. The best time to cut cow-
peas for hay is when the first pods are in the snap stage.
As this hay requires careful handling it should not be cut
when wet with either rain or dew. Cut in the forenoon,
and as soon as wilted rake it into windows and put it in
small cocks the same afternoon. Hay-cock covers are use-
ful if unfavorable weather prevails, and they will then
repay their cost several times over. They can be made
from seventy-two-inch muslin, cut into squares, soaked in
raw linseed oil, and wrung dry. They should have string
loops on the corners, so as to fasten them to the cocks by
wooden pins. Very thin muslin is best, for if thick
muslin is used it causes the hay to sweat, and is no more
effective in shedding rain.
Next day open up these cocks in a loose manner, expos-
ing the hay to the sun as little as possible, or the shed-
ding of the leaves is apt to occur. Test the hay by twist-
ing a bunch in the hand. If no moisture shows haul it to
the barn. It will undergo a sweating process there, but
that will only make it the more palatable, and better
cured. It will overcome the sweat all right, if left alone,
and when it cools off will make a superior grade of hay.
The feeding value of cowpea hay and of its mixtures
has long been recognized as of a high order, the hay being
equal in protein content to the best bran, and high in
carbohydrates. In dairy feeding, well-cured cowpea hay,
cut at the right stage, is equal pound for pound to the
ordinary bran used for feeding.
TO ENCOURAGE SHEEP RAISING ON
By U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
As Ranges Are Reaching Their Limit of Production
Farms Should Profit by Increased Demand
for Sheep Products.
The consumption of mutton per capital in the United
States is increasing every year, though the amount used
is much less in proportion to other meat than in Europe.
There are good reasons for expecting a continuation of
good prices for mutton and lamb, and the demand for
wool also may be expected to increase more rapidly than
the production. These facts are brought out in a recent
letter from a scientist of the Department of Agriculture
to a Southern farmer who inquired regarding the possi-
bilities of the sheep business.
The Department's specialist called attention to the fact
that while farm-raised sheep have often not been profit-
able, this has usually been because of lack of proper at-
tention and management. Variations in price of wool
and mutton have stood in the way of such general interest
in sheep as would cause them to be regarded as highly
as they should be in the future. Ranges all over the
world are now carrying about as many sheep as they
can support under a strict range system, and an increase
in the production of sheep products must come mainly
from farms. Here, then, is the farmer's opportunity to
take advantage of the increased consumption of these
While mutton can be produced at low cost and there is
a growing demand for it, difficulty in selling may be
experienced in sections where the amount of live stock
produced has not been sufficient to make it worth while
for regular buyers to operate. Slaughtering plants that
can handle carloads are within reach of all sections and
if a sufficient number of neighbors combine to have one
hundred lambs of similar breeding, size and condition
to ship jointly the returns are assured. It will also be
possible to secure visits and bids from buyers when such
a number is promised. The lamb clubs of Tennessee, nota-
bly the one at Goodlettsville, have proven very success-
ful in this work.
The same organization can also be used in disposing of
In countries where economy in farm management has
been studied a long time, the sheep is considered to be
necessary in utilizing vegetation on such waste lands as
are not wet or marshy. But the sheep can hold its place
on high-priced land as a meat producer alone. Compared
with large animals it has some important advantages.
First, the lambs mature very rapidly, being marketable at
four months of age or later, according to breeding and
feeding. This is an economy because a larger proportion
of the total feed goes into increase of weight than in
slower growing animals. Second, the sheep consumes a
greater variety of plants than do other animals. Many
of such plants are detrimental to pastures and would
otherwise require hand labor to hold them in check.
Third, grain waste in harvesting can be entirely recover-
ed by sheep. These facts prompt some farmers to claim
that the summer food of sheep costs nothing, because
what they consume would otherwise bring no returns.
Compared with hogs the sheep has an advantage in the
wider variety of materials it consumes. Being a reminant
* it makes its gain with a minimum of grain and expensive
concentrates. This is especially important on some south-
ern lands that are better adapted to the production of
forage crops than to grain growing.
Like the hog, the sheep has its peculiar ailments which
sometimes result in loss as well as discouragement. Un-
like the ailments of the hog, however, those of the sheep
are ordinarily not contagious, and the means necessary
to prevention are the same as should be adopted for the
most economical production, even in health.
The most serious menace to continuous thrift in the
flock is the presence of internal parasites, chiefly stomach
worms. The eggs of the stomach worm are dropped upon
the ground with the feces from infected sheep. The
small worms are swallowed with the grass three or four
days after hatching from the eggs, and reach the stomach.
Stomach worms are frequently present in such large
numbers as to draw so heavily from the circulation as
to cause emaciation and finally death of the lamb. Ma-
ture sheep are much less affected by these worms, though
they usually scatter the eggs.
Keeping the flock upon crops sown upon plowed land
prevents infection. Such practice also furnishes the great-
est amount of feed from each acre and the kind and variety
of food upon which sheep thrive best. Plowing the land
prevents danger from stomach worm eggs dropped upon
it. In warm weather the flock should be moved to fresh
ground every ten days or two weeks to prevent infection
of lambs by larvae from eggs dropped from the ewes. If
lambs are by themselves the time between changes might
be longer, but in most forage crop rotations changes will
need to be made every two or three weeks. Fall-sown
rye, spring oats and vetches or peas, rape, cowpeas, soy
beans, crimson or Japan clover, planted at proper in-
tervals, will furnish fresh pasturage at times desired.
Some of the land can be used twice in a year, as by
having one planting of rape upon the rye ground. The
cultivation of the land destroys all infection from pre-
vious pasturing. Under such a system of cropping and
grazing +he land will improve, as the manurial value of
the crops is practically all left upon the land and is very
evenly distributed. Like the boll weevil, the stomach
worm was considered to be wholly an evil thing until it
was found that the methods of prevention and circum-
vention were also the best methods for economical pro-
In most parts of the South ewes drop their lambs in
November or December. Stomach worms are much less
troublesome in the cooler months. Also rape and some
other forages will furnish good winter feed if planted
early enough to make a fair growth before the coldest
weather. Lambs marketed in March or April sell at a
premium because of the market scarcity of genuine spring
lambs at that time of the year.
TO PROTECT SHEEP FROM DOGS.
The dog question is a serious one in many sections,
and better State legislation is needed to protect flocks
from the ravages of worthless curs. Woven wire fences
will turn dogs. While it is expensive to fence large
pastures in this way, smaller fields devoted to forage
crops will carry the flock in a more healthy condition
and require much less outlay for fencing. The whole
forage crop area can be fenced and lower portable fences
used for confining the sheep to the particular crop ready
It is seldom that the highly bred and well-kept dogs
attack Sheep. The roving nondescripts do most of the
damage. Communities in which the majority of people
consider sheep to be of more importance than dogs will
have a sentiment that is not heathful for dogs that travel
SEASONS AND DATES FOR PLANTING
VEGETABLES AND OTHER CROPS
The following lists include what experience demon-
strates can be successfully grown each month as the
season most suitable for each variety comes around in the
several sections of the State.
NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA.
January-Asparagus seed, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
Seed and Plants, Cauliflower seed, Collards, Leeks, Let-
tuce, Mustard, Onion sets, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion
seed, Tomato seed, Turnips, Oats, Strawberry Plants.
February-Asparagus seed, Early corn, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Collards, Eggplant seed,
English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce,
Onions, Parsley, Parsnip, Pepper seed, Rutabagas, Sal-
sify, Spinach, Beets, Turnips.
March-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Early Field Corn,
Cotton, Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale,
Kohlrabi, Leek, Okra, Parsley, Parsnip, Pepper, Pump-
kin, Radish, Rape, Rutabagas, Salsify, Squash, Sugar
Corn, Watermelons, Tomato, Turnip, Sugar Cane, Jap-
April-Beans, Cantaloupes, Cowpeas, Cucumber, Egg-
plant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kohlrabi, Lettuce,
Okra, Parsley, Parsnip, Peppers, Pumpkins, Radishes,
Rutabagas, Squash, Sugar Corn, Field Corn, Sweet Pota-
toes, Cotton, Tomatoes, Turnips, Watermelons, Sorghum.
May-Beans, Butter Beans, Cantaloupes, Cowpeas,
Cucumbers, Eggplant, Okra, Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash,
Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants and seed,
Watermelons, Sorghum, Velvet Beans.
June-Butter Beans, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Peppers,
Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Watermelons.
July-Cowpeas, Eggplant, Parsley, Peppers, Pumpkin,
Rutabagas, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato Plants and
seed, Watermelons, Sorghum.
August-Beans, Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower seed, Car-
rots, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Collards, Eggplants, Irish
Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi, Okra, Onions, Rape, Rutabagas,
Salsify, Spinach, Squash, Tomatoes, Turnips, Celery seed.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots,
Cauliflower plants, Celery plants, Collards, Cowpeas,
English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce, Mus-
tard, Onion sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas,
Salsify, Spinach, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion seed, Brussels Sprouts,
Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower plants, Celery plants, Col-
lards, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce seeds and plants, Mustard,
Onion sets, Parsnips, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage seeds and
plants, Carrots, Collards, Kale, Lettuce, Mustard, Onion
sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips, Oats,
Rye, Strawberry Plants, Vetch and Crimson Clover.
December-Cabbage plants and seed, Collards, Leeks,
Lettuce plants and seed, Mustard, Onions, Radishes, Rape,
Oats, Rye, Strawberry Plants, Vetch and Crimson Clover.
The following list includes what experience demon-
strates can be .successfully grown each month as the sea-
son most suitable for each variety comes around in the
section of the State mentioned below.
January-Asparagus seed, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
seed and plants, Cauliflower seed, Collards, Leeks, Let-
tuce, Mustard, Onion sets, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion
seed, Tomato seed, Turnips, Eggplant seed, Oats.
February-Asparagus seed, Early corn, Sea Island Cot-
ton, Beans, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes, Car-
rots, Collards, Cucumbers, Eggplant seed, English Peas,
Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce, Onions, Parsley,
Parsnip, Pepper seed, Rutabagas, Salsify, Spinach, Wind-
sor Beans, Beets.
March-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Cauliflower, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers,
Early Corn, Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes,
Kale, Kohlrabi, Leek, Okra, Onion, Parsley, Parsnip,
Pepper, Pumpkin, Radish, Rape, Rutabagas, Salsify,
Squash, Sugar Corn, Watermelons, Tomatoes, Turnips,
Sea Island Cotton.
April-Beans, Cantaloupes, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucum-
bers, Eggplant, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kohlrabi,
Lettuce, Okra, Onion Plants, Parsley, Parsnip, Peppers,
Pumpkin, Radishes, Rutabagas, Squash, Sugar Corn,
Dasheens, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Turnips, Water-
melons, Velvet Beans.
May-Beans, Butter Beans, Cantaloupes, Collards,
Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Eggplant, Okra, Peppers, Pump-
kins, Squash, Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato plants
and seed, Watermelons, Velvet Beans, Dasheens.
Jwue-Butter Beans, Cabbage seed, Cauliflower seed,
Celery seed, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Peppers, Squash, Sweet
Potatoes, Tomatoes, Watermelons.
July-Cabbage seed, Cantaloupes, Cauliflower seed,
Celery seed, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Parsley, Peppers, Pump-
kin, Rutabagas, Squash, Sweet Potatoes, Tomato plants
and seed, Watermelons.
August-Beans, Beets, Cabbage, Cauliflower seed,
Carrots, Cowpeas, Cress, Cucumbers, Collards, Eggplant,
Irish Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi, Okra, Onions, Rape, Ruta-
bagas, Salsify, Spinach, Squash, Tomatoes, Turnips,
Windsor Beans, Celery seed.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots,
Cauliflower plants, Celery plants, Collards, Cowpeas,
Cucumbers, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Leeks,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onion sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape,
Rutabagas, Salsify, Spinach, Squash, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion seed, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower plants, Celery
plants, Collards, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce seed and plants,
Mustard, Onion sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Spinach,
Turnips, Strawberry Plants.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage seed and
plants, Carrots, Collards, Kale, Lettuce, Mustard, Onion
sets, Parsnip, Radishes, Rape, Spinach, Turnips, Oats,
Rye, Strawberry Plants.
December-Cabbage plants and seed, Collards, Leeks,
Lettuce plants and seed, Mustard, Onions, Radishes,
Rape, Strawberry Plants, Oats.
The following list includes what. experience demon-
strates can be successfully grown each month as the sea-
son most suitable for each variety comes around in the
section of the State mentioned below.
TAMPA, ORLANDO, TITUSVILLE AND SOUTHWARD.
January-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage
plants and seed, Carrots, Cauliflower seed, Collards, Egg-
plant seed, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Mus-
tard, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion seed, Spinach,
Tomato seed, Turnips, Corn, Oats.
February-Adams Early Corn, Beans, Beets, Brussels
Sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes, Carrots, Cucumbers, Egg-
plant seed, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Lettuce, Okra, Onions,
Pepper seed, Spinach, Squash, Windsor Beans, Field
March-Beans, Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cantaloupes,
Cauliflower, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Early Corn, Eggplant,
Irish Potatoes, Lettuce, Mustard, Okra, Onions, Pepper,
Pumpkin, Radish, Squash, Sugar Corn, Tomatoes, Water-
melons, Velvet Beans.
April-Beans, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers, Egg-
plant, Kohlrabi, Okra, Radishes, Squash, Sugar Corn,
Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Onion plants, Pepper, Pump-
kins, Velvet Beans.
May-Beans, Butter Beans, Cowpeas, Eggplant, Okra,
Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash, Sugar Corn, Sweet Potatoes,
June-Butter Beans, Cabbage seed, Celery seed, Cow-
peas, Eggplant seed, Peppers, Squash, Sweet Potatoes,
Tomato plants and seed, Watermelons.
July-Cabbage seed, Cantaloupes, Celery seed, Cow-
peas, Eggplants and seed, Peppers, Pumpkins, Squash,
Sweet Potatoes, Tomato plants and seed, Watermelons.
August-Beans (snap), Cabbage seed, Cantaloupes,
Carrots, Cauliflower seed, Collards, Cowpeas, Cucumbers,
Eggplant, English peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale, Kohlrabi,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onions, Peppers, Pumpkins, Radishes,
Rape, Rutabagas, Spinach,. Squash, Swiss Chard, Toma-
toes, Turnips, Windsor Beans.
September-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage plants
and seed, Carrots, Celery seed and plants, Collards, Cow-
peas, Cucumbers, English Peas, Irish Potatoes, Kale,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onion sets, Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas,
Spinach, Squash, Swiss Chard, Turnips.
October-Beets, Bermuda Onion seed, Brussels Sprouts,
Cabbage plants and seed, Carrots, Celery seed, Collards,
Kale, Lettuce plants and seed, Mustard, Onion sets,
Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas, Spinach, Swiss Chard, Tur-
nips, Strawberry Plants, Oats.
November-Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage plants
and seed, Carrots, Celery seed and plants, Collards, Kale,
Lettuce, Mustard, Onion sets, Radishes, Rape, Rutabagas,
Spinach, Swiss Chard, Turnips, Oats, Strawberry Plants.
December-Cabbage plants and seed, Celery plants,
Collards, Lettuce plants and seed, Mustard, Onion sets
and plants, Radishes, Rape, Spanish Onion seed, Swiss
Chard, Oats, Strawberry Plants.
SOME OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION.
LENGTH OF TIME REQUIRED FOR VEGETABLE SEED TO
The following periods are about the time it takes to
sprout after being sown; of course, these periods vary
somewhat according to the age of the seed, but more so
upon thq conditions of the weather and the soil.
Beans ...........................from 4 to 8 days.
Cabbage and cauliflower ...........from 4 to 8 days.
Beets ............................from 8 to 15 days.
Collards .........................from 4 to 8 days.
Carrots ..........................from 14 to 20 days.
Celery ...........................from 12 to 20 days.
Corn ............................. from 5 to 9 days.
Cukes ............................from 4 to 10 days.
Egg Plants .......................from 7 to 20 days.
Lettuce ......................... from 3 to 5 days.
Muskmelon and cantaloupe .......from 5 to 10 days.
Watermelons .....................from 6 to 12 days.
Mustard ......................... from 3 to 5 days.
Onions ..........................from 6 to 12 days.
Parsley .......................... from 20 to 30 days.
Peas ............................ from 5 to 10 days.
Pepper ..........................from 8 to 15 days.
Radishes .........................from 3 to 5 days.
Spinach ..........................from 8 to 15 days.
Squash ..........................from 6 to 9 days.
Tomatoes ................. ...... from 6 to 12 days.
Turnips ......................... from 3 to 5 days.
THE AVERAGE TIME IN FAVORABLE SEASONS FOR PLANTS TO
MATURE, FROM THE SOWING OF THE SEED.
Bush beans, from 40 to 50 days, according to variety.
Pole beans, from 60 to 90 days, according to variety.
Beets, from 60 to 75 days, according to variety.
Cabbage, from 60 to 100 days, early varieties.
Cabbage, from 100 to 120 days, medium early varieties.
Cabbage, from 150 to 190 days, late varieties.
Carrots, from 60 to 75 days, according to varieties.
Cauliflower, from 100 to 150 days, according to
Celery, about 150 days, Golden Self Blanching variety.
Corn, from 70 to 90 days, according to variety.
Cucumbers, from 60 to 80 days, according to variety.
Eggplants, about 120 days.
Lettuce, from 60 to 90 days, according to variety.
Melons, from 80 to 90 days, according to variety.
Mustard, about 35 days.
Okra, about 70 days.
Onions, from 120 to 130 days, according to variety.
Peas, from 60 to 70 days, according to variety.
Pepper, from 100 to 120 days, according to variety.
Potatoes, from 85 to 100 days, according to variety.
Radishes, from 25 to 35 days, according to variety.
Squash, about 60 days, for early varieties.
Squash, about 120 to 150 days, for late varieties.
Spinach, from 50 to 60 days.
Tomatoes, from 110 to 130 days, according to variety.
Turnips, from 60 to 90 days, according to variety.
QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF HILLS.
Pole beans .................... 1 pint to 100 hills.
Corn, sweet ..................... pint to 100 hills.
Cucumbers ..................... .1 ounce to 50 hills.
Watermelons .................... 1 ounce to 30 hills.
Okra ............................1 ounce to 100 hills.
Pumpkins .................... .. 1 ounce to 30 hills.
Squash .......................... ounce to 30 hills.
Muskmelons .....................1 ounce to 50 hills.
QUANTITY OF SEED FOR A GIVEN LENGTH OF DRILLS,
BIeets ................... 1 ounce to 60 feet of drills.