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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Articles on wood-using industries...
 Crop and live stock conditions






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00029
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Articles on wood-using industries of Florida, kudzu, citrus fruit culture, pecan growing, cane grinding, and syrup making
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Report on the wood using industries of Florida
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
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            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Kudzu
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
        The citrus grove, its location and cultivation
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
        Pecan culture in Florida
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
        Cane grinding and syrup making
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
    Crop and live stock conditions
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 165
            Page 166
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
        Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
            Page 185
            Page 186
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
        Special food analyses
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
Full Text



AUG 1 2 1913

VOLUME 23 NUMBER 3




FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


JULI :, 1913

W AL MICRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part 1-Wood Using Industries; The Kudzu Vine; Citrus
Grove, Its Location and Cultivation; Pecan Culture
in Florida; Cane Grinding and Syrup Making.
Part 2-Crop Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida








































LEE


COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA






















PART I.

ARTICLES ON WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES OF
FLORIDA, KUDZU, CITRUS FRUIT CUL-
TURE, PECAN GROWING, CANE
GRINDING, AND SYRUP
MAKING

























NOTE
The investigation upon which this report is based wa-
undertaken by the Forest Service in co-operation with
the Department of Agriculture of the State of Florida,
the work being done under the direction of O. T. Swan,
in charge of Industrial Investigations, United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The states
tics were compiled from data collected in 1912, covering
a period of one year. The State Department of Agricul-
ture is authorized to publish the findings of the investi-
gation.


















REPORT ON THE WOOD USING


INDUSTRIES OF FLORIDA



By HU MAXWELL



PREFACE

Florida extends farther south than any other State,
and approaches within sixty miles of the torrid zone. It
covers six and one-half degrees of latitude. No part of
the State has a cold climate, but many tree species which
flourish in the cool Appalachian Mountain ranges extend
into northern Florida, and there find the boundary iof
their ranges. The southern portion of the State has a
sub-tropical climate, and the vegetation shows it. Where
there are soil and fertility enough to support vegetation,
it is very dense. Trees belonging to tropical regions nave
gained a foothold along the southern coasts and upon
the hundreds of islands and reefs lying near the shores
of the peninsula. Several tree species are found there
and nowhere else in the United States.

The greatest length of Florida is 700 miles, and its
average width is 90 miles. Its area is .i,.6iqO square miles.
of which 4,440 are water. Its coast line is longer rhan
that of any other State, and notwithstanding much shal-
low water near shore, there are a number of excellent
harbors. No point in the State rises more than 300 feet













above sea level. Delaware is the only State which doe
not at some point attain a greater elevation than Florida.
The surface of Florida is far from being a dead vel.
though the differences in elevation are small. The north-
ern portion is diversified with rolling hills and -entle
slopes. The south half has no hills, but ilregularitins ,.I
surface are numerous. Some o' the red soin whi,
abound in Georgia seemi to have overlailped into pO !rIiin
of northern Florida; but in the southern part of the
State, the white sand worn from the coral reefs and
limestone deposits covers most of the surface, and in
some localities the great coral reef which forms the :sele-
ton of south Florida, protrude through the ihin sand o r-
ering, and appears at the surface. Low sales Iand de-
pressions abound in places, and these have acrn, a'ed
and they hold black muck which looks like we ,r ulverized
charcoal.

The whole peninsula was originally vw-ooded, exceip
about ten thousand square miles of swamp and ceral
ledges known as the Everglades. A few trees of fair
size grow in that region, but most of the Everil]ade> is
treeless, and during half of the year is covered with wa-a
ter from a few inches to several feet deep. Tall. ;ied-
like grass grows out of the water, and at intervals over
small flat islands, a few inches above water. on whirh
grow thickets of myrtle, bay, and other bushes. Little.
if any, of this growth ever attains a size fitting it for
use, and the Everglades have never contributed t on~a
considerable extent to Florida's lumber supply.

Tropical species are found in the rocky hammocks of
the southern part, where they frequently grow in almost











impentrable jungles; but when the hammock land ends
and the sand begins, the hardwoods give way to Cuban
and sand pine, and the change from a rich and luxuriant
vegetation to a thin and poor one is often almost instan-
taneous. The pines in the southern part of the State are
generally but not always small. There is abundance of
rain, but in many places the white sand contains so little
humus that trees do not reach a large size.

Agriculture has not yet greatly lessened the timber
areas of Florida. About one acre in eight has been
cleared. In many parts, in the southern half of the State
particularly, the forest cover is so thin that the woods
afford about as good pasturage as if the trees were not
there. In the northern part, where the hardwoods of
the Appalachian region overlap on Florida and soil is
better, the forests are generally much heavier.

Many of the Florida rivers are ideal as driving streams
for logs. The currents are sluggish, and the water
usually deep. There are a few bars and no rapids. On
small streams the chief obstacle in the way of log driving
is frequently trees which grow along the banks and down
to the extreme low water mark. These i:runks sometimes
so nearly close the channels that little space is left for
logs to pass through. That difficulty is not often met on
the larger rivers.

The study of the wood-using industries of Florida was
made in the spring of 1912, and was carried out under
the same plan as other similar State studies. All known
manufacturers of wood commodities in the State were
sent blanks to be filled, showing the extent and character
of their operations, the kinds of woods employed, and











the cost of the lumber used. Those who neglected ut
reply to the mail request were visited and the desired
statistics were procured in nearly every instance. The
accompanying tables will show summaries of the re.uilt.
The total annual output of manufactured wood commodi-
ties in Florida ranks rather low compared with some of
the other Southern States, but high compared with many
of fhe Northern and Central States. The Southern
States which exceed Florida in total product are Louis-
iana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Nor-h
Carolina.

Florida is manufacturing its softwoods into flooring,
ceiling, siding, sash and mill products, but is not yet
doing much with its hardwoods. No States south of
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas are active in
the way of manufacturing their hardwoods. Florida is
doing what other Gulf States are doing; that is, cutting
pine and cypress, and leaving the rest. These species
are most abundant, and under present conditions there
is more money in them than in the smaller and more
dispersed hardwoods: but the people of Florida should
nol lose sight of the fact that they have a rare lot of
hardwoods and that there is a good market for them if
pains are taken to reach that market in the right way.

More than !5 per cent of the wood now passing throu,:l
Florida's factories is pine and cypress. These specie-
are exploited at the expense of all others. While they
last. they will make the luber business profitable. hot
when they are gone, the wood-worker's attention will Tnrn
to what is now being neglected-the hardwoods.

Florida appears to be -,ii-i-ring more from forest tire-











than most of the other Southern States. The fires are
small and slow. They do not attract much attention as
Ihey creep along among the pine, but they get in their
deadly work no less surely, though more slowly, than the
forest conflagrations which wipe out many square miles
in one stretch. The traveler in Florida, almost anywhere
outside the boundaries of the swamps, is soon accustomed
to the sight of long lines of fire which keep close to the
ground. The blaze may not be more than a foot high,
but when it has passed, it leaves every 1-ree seedling dead.
The mat of saw palmettoes, which nearly always casts a
low shade to protect the ground, are scorched brown
wherever the fire touches them. They may sprout again
the next year, and tree seedlings may come up again, but
the fire will follow, and every visitation leaves the ground
more barren. No forests will stand fire indefinitely, and
Florida's in every part of the State are showing the re-
sults of burnings.

The control of forest fires in Florida should be easier
than in most States, because the country is flat, the woods
often open and thin, and watercourses numerous. Bum
efforts to control are infrequent. Persons well acquaint-
ed with customs in the State say 1liat ten tires are pur-
posely set, for every one extinguished. The Florida razor-
back hog is indirectly one of the forest's worst enemies.
It is a gaunt, ungainly animal, adapted 'For foraging and
built for speed, and it roams lie woods in a never-tiring
search for something to eat. In the late winter the own-
ers of the hogs go out with a box of matches and burn
the range. That clears away old stalks, and tender shoots
spring up with a plentiful supply of swine pasture for a
few weeks. The men who set the fire care little for the











young trees destroyed and the old trunks weakened. A
thousand seedling pines perish that a hog may lay on a
few pounds of fat; and Florida sentiment generally does
not seem to oppose the process.

THE UNUSED WOODS OF FLORli'A.

Florida has 165 unused species of trees, a few nmre Ir
a few less, depending upon whether some of the minor
species are included or excluded. Trees which belong
in northern latitudes reach into the northern part ci rie
State and there have their southern limit, while others
which are tropical or semitropical reach their no,: rern
limit somewhere in the State.

It is a wealth of species rather than a wealth of \v\tli.
because in a commercial sense many of the trees ar; Ihnot
of much importance on account of scarcity, or the smial!
size, or poor form of trunks. A few of the most almhunan
supply nearly all the lumber cut in Florida: while lite
scores of others contribute very small amounts now. vwiil
little prospect that the amount can ever be much incr;sed.
The State is at present an important lumber prodnller:
but, with the depletion of the principal woods, it nmy 1 e
expected that the annual output of sawmills will fall to
a much lower place. That will tend to bring intm ii,
the numerous scarce and small species, and fle woil-
using industries may be expected to undergo a 'han.e,
The output of planing mill products will diminish as the
pine and cypress grow scarcer: and the manufacture ,J'
articles from cabinet woods, which are numerous and ar-
tractive, though in total amount not large. may be ex-
pected to increase until in lime that will become the
leading wood-using industry oif Florida.











In view of what will probably be brought about in
the future, it is opportune to examine the State's timber
resources. In the first place, after excluding the pines,
cypress, and a few other species which now furnish the
bulk of Florida's sawmill output, it should be borne in
mind that the State's timber consists for the most part
of species which do not reach large size. Therefore, in-
dustries which shall make use of them must produce ar-
ticles suited to the material. In the second place, most
of this timber belongs to the hardwood class, and a large
part of it is colored sufficiently to place it in the cabinet
woods list. Therefore, it may be expected that the fu-
ture wood-using industries of Florida will be such as
can profitably handle small timber, and hard and col-
ored woods. That will call for a rather unusual class
of commodities. They will be selected from many in-
dustries. That phase of the State's development lies al-
most wholly in the future, for very little of it is now
under way. The larger timber is being worked up, but
the great wealth of small woods remains-more than
one hundred species which at this time are scarcely
touched at all.

A study of the kinds and character of the many woods
suggests certain commodities which can be profitably
manufactured in Florida. The list, however, should be
considered simply as suggestive. Most of the articles
have not been manufactured to much extent in the State,
and in some instances a trial would probably show that
they could not be profitably made: but the majority of
the woods are valuable, and will some time attract manu-
facturers. The following list of commodities is suggested
as probably suited to the character of many of the Florida
species which at the present time are not in use:













Athletic goods,
Balls,
Billiard cues,
Brackets,
Brush backs,
Canes,
Carved ornaments,
Castors,
Chairs,
Clothes pins,
Curtain rings,
Dyewoods,
Easels,
Games,
Grilles,
Handles,
Inlay,
Insulator pin,
Knobs,
Manicure sets.


Marquetry,
Mathematical instrun), ir .
Medicinal extracts,
Musical instruments.
Pallettes,
Panels,
a rquetry.
Picture frann.
Rulers,
Shuttles,
Small furniture.
Souvenirs,
Spindles,
Sporting goodt-,
Toys,
Trays,
Turner,
Umbrella handles.
Veneer,
Wooden ware,


Various other commodities might lie added ir the lii.
For many of them a small tree may be used in that way
to advantage, though not large enough for ordinary lum-
ber. The list of species which follows includes o(nl1
those woods which are not. now reported 1by atn manu-
facturer in Florida, according to returns seemed in the
recent wood-using study in the Slate,. t shows a ie-
markable wealth of material waiting for manufaeiners.
It is impracticable in the space here available to des-cilBe
each wood very fully. In each ijnslance. however the
best available information is given concerning each spe-
cies' average height, trunk diameter, hardness or soft-
ness, strength or weakness, weight, and color. Such gen-
eral information will indicate to the prospective manu-
Facturer what woods will likely suit his purposes. If
favorably impressed with a sufficient number if them, lie











can make further investigation for himself along his par-
ticular line.

American Holly (Ilex opaca).-The common holly that
bears the red berries used in Christmas decorations.
The tree may attain a height of forty feet and a diameter
of a foot or more. The wood is nearly white when freshly
cut, and changes to a brown with age.

Androimeda (Andromeda ferriyinea) .- It is often
called titi, and attains a height of twenty feet and a
diameter occasionally one foot, but usually smaller. The
wood is heavy, hard, not strong, light brown, tinged with
red. It grows on Cedar Keys and about Apalachicola.

Angelica Tree (Aralia .pinosa).- Size is against
much use for this tree, which is often called Hercules
Club. The trunk may reach eight inches in diameter, and
a height of thirty feet. The wood is light, soft, brittle,
and brown with yellow streaks. It is found in the north-
ern part of the State.

Beech (Fagns a.tropiinicea .-The common and well-
known beech is found in the western part of Florida,
but the trees are small and rather poor, and are usually
found on sandy hammocks.

Bitterni t (Hicoria inin imal.-The bitternnt species of
hickory grows in western Florida, where it reaches its
southern limit.

Black Calabash (Crescentia, orata').-It is found in
Florida only in the south. and is too sm;.ll to be of use
for other than small articles. Its height is 15 or 20 feet,
trunk diameter 4 or 5 inches, wood heavy and hard. and
light brown or orange in color.
Black Cherry (Prunus scrotina).-The ordinary cherry
of which furniture and house finish are made is found
only occasionally in Florida.
Black Ironwood t Rhai indiin ferren ji.-Thir is one











of several ironwoods found in the south of Florida. Ic is
among the commonest of the small trees in the region
where it grows, and attains a height of 20 to 30 feer. and
a diameter of six to ten inches. The wool is exceed-
ingly heavy and hard, and is rich brown in color.
Black .fack (Qocrciis miarilandica ).-TTt i nor one of
the valuable oaks, but in some localities trees of usable
size are found. It grows as far south as Tampa Bay.

Black OliveeTre (Terminalia bcerasR.--A tendency
to branch near the ground is characteristic of the black
olive tree. Trunks may be two feet or more in diameter
and forty feet high. The wood is exceedingly hard and
heavy, and is usually light yellow brown. The tree is
found on the southern keys.

Black Sloe (Prulms tonbellia).--A Florida name fo::
the tree is hog plum. The trunk is small and generally
crooked, the wood reddish brown and heavy.

Black Walnut (Jiqglans nigra).--A little black wal-
nut, the well-known cabinet wood. is found in the west-
ern part of the State.

Black Willow (ai.r ngr.-Willow irees of comn'-
cial size are not abundant in ihe Staie. but speeinw n
exist in many places.
Blackwcood (Avicennia. nitidaj .-This 1ree is ft:;"
called black mangrove. It reaches a diameter of one or
two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood i, vr
heavy and hard, and is nearly black.
Blolly (Pisonia obtosata,).-The blolly is found in :bh
extreme south of the State, where it attains a hei ihr ,-
30 to 50 feet and a diameter 15 to '20 inches. The w,
is heavy and weak, and yellowish brown.
Blue Beech (Carpi nis carolian, .--The wood o1f blue
beech is strong, its color light, and the tree is generally
small and of poor form for Iiniber.












Blue Jack (Quercus brevifolia).-Large trees of this
species are not often seen, and the wood is too coarse for
any but rough uses.
Buckthorn Bumelia (Bumelis lycoides).-Some call
this tree mock orange, and some ironwood. It attains a
trunk diameter of six inches and a height of 25 or 30
feet; wood is heavy and weak, and of yellow color.
Bustic (Dipholis salicifolia).-Cassado is one of the
names by which the tree is known in Florida. It attains
a height of 50 feet and a diameter of 20 inches. The
wood is red, excedingly hard and heavy, and is found in
the extreme south of the State.
Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto).-The cabbage pal-
metto is abundant in many parts of the State, and trunks
40 feet high and a foot in diameter are not uncommon.
Chinquapin (Castanea pumila).-This little chestnut
tree grows in the northern part of the State, where it
reaches the southern boundary of its range.
Cinnamon Bark (Canella winterana).--A height of 25
feet and a diameter of eight inches are usual, and the
wood is very heavy and exceedingly hard. Its color is
dark brown. The species grows on the southern keys in
the shade of other trees.
Cockspur (Crataegis crus-galli).-This thornbush occa-
sionally becomes a small tree. Its wood is heavy, hard
and strong.
Cocoa Plum (C'hrysobolaminis icaco).-Gopher plum is
another name for this tree which may be 25 feet high and
a foot in diameter, with strong, hard, heavy, brown-col-
ored wood. It is confined in Florida to the southern part
of the State.
Corkcood (Leitneria floridana).-A small amount of
this species is found in western Florida near Apalachi-
cola. It is little more than a shrub in size, and the wood
is soft and very light.
2-Bull.












Crabwood (Gynmanthes lhcida).-The wood is dark
brown and rich in color; very heavy and hard. Trunks
are six or eight inches in diameter and 20 or 30 feet tall.
The species grows in the extreme south of the State.

Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).-This is common cot-
tonwood.
Dahoon (Ilex cassine).-In practical use this holly is
about the same as the common holly. It is neither abun-
dant nor of large size.

Deciduous Holly (Ilex decidua) .-Most hollies are ever-
green, but this sheds its leaves in winter. The wood is
white like the others.
Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).-It is often called
wild olive, and reaches a height of 40 or 50 feet and a
diameter of ten or twelve inches. Wood is dark brown.
heavy, very hard, and difficult to work.

Dogwood (Cornus florida) is the common dogwood. .
hard, heavy, smooth wood that may reach a trunk diame-
ter of one foot and a height of twenty or thirty.
Dwarf Sumach (Rhus copallina.).-This is generally
quite small, but sizes large enough for use are found.
The wood is richly colored with yellow and black or dark
brown.

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus).--This is not a na-
tive tree, but has been introduced from Australia, and
is often called blue gum.
Fevcrtree (Pinckneya pubens), called Florida quinine
bark in some places, is so rare that the wood will prob-
ably not be much used, though the bark may possess value.
Fiddlewood (Citharexyluin villostuiu abounds on the
southern keys, and is small. Trunks are four or five
inches in diameter and fifteen or twenty feet high. The
wood is bright red, heavy, and very strong.













Florida Buttonwood (Conocarpus erecta) grows on
muddy tidewater shores in southern Florida. It is 20 to
30 inches in diameter and 40 to 60 feet high. The wood
is very heavy, strong, hard, and burns slowly like char-
coal. It is dark yellow-brown.
Florida Boxwood (Schaefferis frutescens) or yellow
wood as it is occasionally called, is found on the south-
ern keys, attains a height of 30 or 40 feet and a diame-
ter of six to ten inches. The bright yellow wood is heavy
and hard.
Florida Caper (capparis jamaicensis), locally known
as caper tree, is found in the extreme south of the State,
and is usually quite small. The wood is tinged with red
and is hard and heavy.
Ftorida Cat's Claw (Zygia unguis-cati).-Some call this
tree longpod. It is found in the southern part of the
State, where it attains a height of 20 to 25 feet and a
diameter of 7 or 8 inches. The wood is a rich red, vary-
ing to purple, and very heavy and hard.
Florida Maple (Acer sacchiarum floidan, iu .-This
is a small maple found in western Florida.
Florida Plun (Drypctes lateriflora i, called also Guiana
plum and whitewood, is found in the extreme southern
part of the State where it reaches a height of 20 to 30
feet and a diameter of five or six inches. The wood is
dark brown, brittle and hard.
Florida Torreya (Tumnin taxifolinii), is a scarce spe-
cies found in western Florida near the Apalachicola River.
The wood is yellow, and the tree is often called stin;ing
cedar.
Florida Yew (Taxus floridanan'), called also Savin
and Chattahoochee pine, has its range on the east bank
of the Apalachicola River in western Florida. The tree
is seld( m more than 25 feet high and one foot in diameter.
Its wood is hard and is dark brown.











Fraser Umbrella (Magnolia fraseri), sometimes called
water lily tree, ranges through )ortions of western Flor-
ida. It is thirty or forty feet high and 1S or 20 inches
in diameter. The wood is soft, light, and weak.
Garber Stopper (Eugenia garberi) is scarce and i
found in the extreme south of the State.
Geigertree (Cordia sebestin.a) is 25 or 130 feet high. six
inches or less in diameter, and is scarce. The wood is
brown, heavy, and hard.
Golden Fig (Ficus area) is a parasitic tree reaching
its best development in the south of Florida, where it may
be three or four feet in diameter and fifty or sixty high.
It is one of the lightest, weakest woods in this coun-
try, and is subject to very rapid decay.
Green Ask (Fraxinus lanceolata) is found in quantity in the northern part of the State.
Green Haw (Crataegus viridis).-This is generally a
shrub, but is sometimes 30 feet high, with trunk a foot
or more in diameter.
Gnettarda (Guettarda elliptica). or nakedwood as some
call it, grows on the southern keys, and is small, but
the wood is heavy and hard.
Guiana Plum (Drypetes keyensis) has its range on the
southern keys, where it develops a trunk five or six inches
iM size. The dark brown wood is hard, heavy, and brittle.
Gumbo Limbo (Buscra simaruba), or West Indies birch,
is sometimes 60 feet high and three in diameter. The
wood is soft, weak, spongy, light, and of a brown color.
Its range is in the southern part of the State.
Gurgeon Stopper (Eugenia bu.i.ifolia) is confined to
the south of the State, where it is usually a shrub. bur
is sometimes twenty feet high and a foot in diameter. The
wood is brown, shaded with red, and is very heavy and
exceedingly hard.











Gyminda (Gyminda grisebachii), or false boxwood,
grows on the southern islands, where it is occasionally
25 feet high and six inches in diameter. The wood is
nearly black and is very heavy and hard.
Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis).-It grows in most
parts of Florida and is of commercial size. The wood
is light in color, rather soft, and not very strong.
Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), or wafer ash, is a north-
ern species, but reaches Florida, where it is too small
to be of much use. The yellowish brown wood is heavy
and hard.
Inkwood (Exothea paniculata), and also one of the
numerous species locally called ironwood, is confined in
the United States to the south of Florida. It is 40 or
50 feet high, a foot in diameter, and the wood is very
strong, and bright red.
Ironwood (Cyrilla racemiflora).-This is likewise
known as red titi. The tree may be thirty feet high and
one in diameter. The wood is brown, tinged with red,
and, though hard and heavy, is not strong.
Jamaica, Dogwood (Ichthyomethis piscipula), grows in
many parts of Florida, and may reach a height of 40
or 50 feet and a diameter of two or three. The yellow-
brown wood is heavy, hard, and durable in contact with
the ground.
Joewood (Jaquinia armillaris) is a rather scarce wood
of southern Florida, and the trees are small. The wood
is a rich brown and is beautifully marked with darker
medullary rays. It is hard and heavy.
Lancewood (Ocotea catesbyana) is comparatively abun-
dant in south Florida, and is a tree 20 or 30 feet high and
a foot or more in diameter. The wood's color is rich
dark brown, and it is hard and heavy.
Largeleaf Umbrella (Magnolia )nacrophylla) is known
as cucumber tree in Florida. The wood is hard, but is
light and weak. It is not abundant.










Laurel Cherry (Prunus caroliniana), or mock olive, is
30 or 40 feet high and six or eight inches through. and
its hard, strong, heavy wood is dark brown.

Laurel Oak (Quercu-s lairifolia) attain.- largest s:ze
in eastern Florida, where trees 100 feet high and 3 or
4 feet in diameter are occasionally seen. The wood is
heavy, very strong and hard.

Leucaena (Leucaena glauca).-The little of this species
in the State is on the extreme southern keys.

Lignum vitae (Guiajacuni sancthm is round ,on iie
Florida keys, where it forms a round-headed criw n 25 or
30 feet high, and the trunk is two or three fret in dian:e-
ter. The wood is exceedingly hard, and much of it is
richly colored.
Loblolly Bay (Gord.onia lasianthlis), or tan hay. is a
tree 60 to 75 feet high and a foot or more in diaimeer.
with light, soft, not durable, red wood.
Lo-ngstalk Willow (Salix occidcntalis loii li/.es s sn11.ll
and scarce in the State.
Manchincel (Hippomane iancinella .-Thi, tree i-
small in Florida, though larger in the West Indies. "t
grows only in the immediate neighborhood of the ocean.
Mangrove (Rhisophora mangle) is usually only fifteen
or twenty feet high and a few inches in diameter, form-
ing with its aerial roots impenetrable thickets: but some-
times trunks are thirty or forty feet long, clear ,f branch e.
while the trees are 70 or 80 feet tall. The wood i- ex-
ceedingly heavy, hard, and strong.
Marlberry (Icacorea paniculota.).--This tree is small,
but the wood is a rich brown beautifully marked with
darker medullary rays. It is heavy and hard.
Mastic (Sideroxylon ma.olichodendron'). or will live.
has a trunk three or four feet in diameter and nl (qr 70
tall. The hard, heavy wood is a right orange yellow.










Mockernut (Hicoria alba) is a valuable and well-known
species of hickory.
Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) does not often at-
tain tree size, though it is sometimes 30 or 40 feet high
and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is hard, strong,
and brittle.
Naked Stopper (Anamomis dichotoma) may be six
inches thick and 20 feet high. It belongs in the southern
part of the State. The wood is light brown or red, and
is hard and very heavy.
Naked-wood (Colubrina reclinata), or soldierwood as
it is sometimes called, is native in the extreme south of
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and three feet or
more in diameter. The hard, heavy wood is dark brown
tinged with yellow.
N arrowleaof Crab (Pyrus angustijolia), or crabtree, as
it is frequently called, in northwestern Florida is 20 or
25 feet high, with hard, heavy, reddish brown wood.
Odorless Myrtle (Myrica inodora).-This small tree is
very scarce in Florida.
Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) is a commercial species
with its southern limit in western Florida. It is not
abundant there.
Paradise-tree (Simarouba, glauca), or bitterwood, is
native of southern Florida, occasionally 18 or 20 inches
in diameter and 40 or 50 feet tall. The brown wood is
soft and light.
Parsley Haw (Crataegus aplifolia) is found in the
northern part of the State, with a small trunk, seldom
more than 20 feet high.
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba).-This tree is small and
the wood is light, soft, and weak.
Pigeon Plum (Cocolobis laurifolia) attains a diameter
of one or two feet and a height of 60 or 70. The wood










is strong, heavy, and exceedingly hard. It is a rich dark
brown, tinged with red.

Pignut (Hicoria, glabra) is one of the commercial hick-
ories and grows in northern Florida.
Planertree (Planera aquatic) is 30 or 40 feet high
and a foot or more in diameter. The wood is light and
soft, and light brown in color.
Poisoncood (Rhuis nmetopiumn), or coral sumach, grows
on the southern keys. It attains a height of 30 or 40
feet and a diameter of one or two. The wood is heavy
and hard, but is not strong. It is dark brown, streaked
with red, and within its range it is abundant.
Pond Apple (Annona glabra), or custard apple. ranges
through south Florida, and may be 30 or 40 feet high
with a trunk often much swelled at the base. The weak.
light wood is brown, streaked with yellow.
Poplarleaf Fig (Pious populnea), or india-rubber tree,
is found in southern Florida, and is 40 or 50 feet high,
and a foot or more in thickness of trunk. The orange-
brown wood is light and soft.
Pond Pine (Pinus serotina), sometimes called lobl;!1ly
pine in Florida, though it is not the true loblolly. is if
moderate size, the wood is resinous and heavy, and of
dark orange color. It occurs in the northern par of
the State.
Post Oak (Quercus minor) is .one of the commercial
trees of northern Florida and the wood resembles white
oak.
P! ;, 17,1 Ash, ( Iantho, 7. claraherculis) is also called
stingtongue and toothache tree. It is from 25 to 30 feet
high and a foot or more through the trunk. The wood
is soft and light.
Princewood (Exostemna caribaeumn) is found on the
southern keys, with trunks 10 or 12 inches in size and











20 or 25 feet high. The wood is very heavy and exceed-
ingly hard and strong, light brown, and handsomely
streaked with different shades of yellow and brown.
Pumpkin Ash (Fraxinus profunda) is too scarce in
Florida to be attractive to wood users.
Queensland Pine (Casua.rina torulosa) is an Australian
tree, which has been introduced in southern Florida,
where it grows with great rapidity.
Red Bay (Persea barbonia), sometimes called sweet
bay and Florida mahogany, attains a height of 60 or 70
feet and a diameter of 2 or 3 feet. The bright red wood
is strong, hard, and heavy.
Redbutd (Cereis canadensis), or Judas tree, is some-
times 50 feet high, but is generally small. The wood is
not strong, but is hard and heavy. It is rich dark brown,
tinged with red.
Red Ironwood (Reynosia latifolia), often called darling
plum, is a southern Florida species of a height of 20 feet
and six or eight inches in diameter, with rich dark brown
very hard and heavy.
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) grows as far south as In-
dian River, but is not important or plentiful.
Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) occasionally reaches com-
mercial size in the State. The wood is dark reddish, hard
and strong.
Red Stopper (Eugenia procera).--Heiglit 20 to 25 feet,
diameter one foot; wood light brown, heavy, and hard.
River Birch (Betula nigra) reaches commercial size;
the wood is plain, strong, and medium heavy.
Royal Palm (Oreodoxa regia).-Height 80 to 100 feet,
diameter 1 or 2 feet. The wood is spongy.
.'fi-frin Plum (Bumelia angustfolia), also known as
downward plum and antswood, is 20 feet high with a six-
inch trunk. The wood is hard and heavy, brown or orange
colored.










Sargent Palm (Psiuedophoenix sargentii) grows on the
southern reefs, but is very scarce.
Sassafrass (Sassafras sassafras) reaches the southern
limit of its range in central Florida, and is not commer-
cially important.
Satinleaf ( ,'a rOl',i'i; monlopyre n m) .-Height 20
feet, diameter one foot, wood hard and heavy, light brown.
shaded with red. The tree is not plentiful.
Satinwood (Xanthoxylium cribrosum).-This tree at-
tains a height of 30 or 35 feet and a diameter of one or
more. The wood is brittle, heavy, hard, and of i'ght
orange color.
Scarlet Haw (Crataegis coccinea) ; height 18 or 20 feet.
diameter 4 inches, wood hard and heavy.
Sea Grape (cocolobis uvifera), or seaside plum. The
wood is hard and heavy, and of dark blrowvi or viliet
color. The tres are small, seldom more than fifteen feet
high.
Shagbark Hickory (Hicoria ocata).-This is a valuable
and common species of hickory.
Shittimwvood (Bumelia lan gtinosa) reaches its south-
ern limit in the northern part of the State. and is nt,- '-,f
much commercial importance.
Silktop Palmetto (Thrinax' parviflora), also called sil-
ver thatch, grows on the southern keys. and reaches a
diameter of eight or ten inches and a height of 20 or 3:
feet.
Silverbell-tree (Mohrodendron carolinum), also known
as snowdrop tree, extends into northern Florida. which
is the southern limit of its range. The light brown wood-
is soft, and sometimes finely figured.
Silvertop Palmetto (Thriinar microcarpai or brirttl~
thatch, is native among the southern keys, where it may
reach a height of 30 feet.










Slippery Elm (Ulmus pubescens) is found in western
Florida, where the tree reaches commercial size. The
wood is strong and without much figure.
Small-leaf Haw (Crataegus uniflora) ; in northern part
of State.
Snowdrop-tree (Mohrodendron dipterum) ; height 20 or
25 feet, diameter 6 or 8 inches, wood light brown, soft,
strong.
Soapberry (Saqpindus saponaria), also called false dog-
wood in the southern part of the State, is 23 or 30 feet
in height, and 12 inches or less in diameter. The wood
is hard and rather heavy, light brown tinged with yel-
low.
Sour Tupelo (Nyssa 6geche), sometimes called gopher
plum, has the southern limit of its range in northern
Florida, where it is 50 or 60 feet high and Two feet or less
in diameter. The wood is weak and soft, and light in
color.
Sourwood (0 !...in..,r,',, arboreuin) grows in north-
western Florida, but is of small size. The wood is heavy
and hard, and is brown, tinged with red.
Southern Red Juniper (Juniperus barbadensis) .-This
species closely resembles the common read cedar.
Southern White Cedar (Chamacyparis thyoides). This
is a swamp cedar extending its range from the North into
northern Florida. The wood is light and soft.
Spanish Oak (Quercus digitata.).-This tree is some-
times called red oak in Florida. It grows as far south
as the center of the State. There are several oak species
in this country which are called Spanish oak in some
part of their range.
Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra).-A number of trees are
called spruce pine in some parts of their range. The
species here listed as spruce pine grows in the Chatta-
hoochee region. The wood is tolerably white and soft.
It is sometimes called poor pine and white pine.










Stopper (Chytraculia chytraculia); height 20 fet -. di-
ameter 4 inches, wood very heavy, hard, brown ringed
with red.

Strongback (Bourreria havanensis), also called str,,ng-
bark, grows on the Florida Keys to a height of 30 u; 40
feet, with a buttressed trunk 8 or 10 inches in diametTer.
The wood is brown, strong, and hard.
Sugarberry (Celtis miississippiensis) is very similar to
hackberry and often passes as such.

Summer Haw (Crataegus aestivalis), or apple haw;
height 18 or 20 feet, diameter 12 or 18 inches.
Swamp Bay (Persea pubescens) ; 30 or 40 feet high and
up to one foot in diameter; wood heavy and soft. but
strong; orange in color, streaked with brown.
Sweet Birch (Betula lenta).-This is one of the birchts
used for furniture in the North. A little grows in wesr-
ern Florida.
Sweetleaf (Symplocos tinctara), also called Florida
Laurel and horse sugar, attains a height of 30 or 35 feet,
with a slim trunk. The wood is light red, and soft.
Sycamore (platanus occidentalis).-A little of this
species grows in the northern part of the State.
Titi (Cliftonia monophylla). or buckwheat tree, is fund
in northern Florida; height 40 feet. diameter a fooT ,r
more, wood heavy, hard, and brittle.
Torchwood (Am yris marititna).-This is a south Flor-
ida tree, 40 or 50 feet high, and rarely a foot in diameter.
The wood is exceedingly hard, heavy, and strong. v-kry
resinous, extremely durable, light orange color.
Tough Bumelia (Bumelia tenax), also called ironwood
and black haw, reaches a height of 20 or 30 feet, with a
bole not above 6 inches. The wood is heavy and hard
and is light brown, streaked with white.












Tree Huckleberry (Vaccinium arboreaum), also known
as sparklebery, farkleberry, and gooseberry, is 20 feet
high and 8 or 10 inches in diameter, with wood heavy
and hard.
Tupelo (Nyssa aquatic) is a wet-land tree that attains
large size, and its wood is serviceable for many pur-
poses.
Turkey Oa.k (Quercus catesbaei), sometimes called
forked leaf, is generally a small tree of little commercial
importance, but occasionally is 60 feet high and two in
diameter. The wood is hard and heavy.
Wahoo (Evonymus atropurpureus), is a small slender
tree with heavy hard wood, and reaches its :southern limit
in Florida.
Water Ash (Fraxinus caroliniana), called also pop ash
and swamp ash, is seldom 40 feet high or more than a
foot in diameter. The wood is light, soft, weak, and
nearly white.
Water Gum (Nyssa biflora).-This is a small tree of
little commercial value.
Water Hickory (Hicoria aguatica), or swamp hickory.
This is one of the commercial hickories, and is sometimes
80 feet high and two in diameter.
Water Locust (Gleditsia aquatica, or thorn tree,
reaches a height of 50 or 60 feet, with trunk large enough
for sawlogs. The wood is strong and hard, and a rich
brown, tinged with red.
Water Oak (Quercus nigra) is often called red oak.
The wood is strong, hard, and heavy.
Wax Myrtle (Myrica cerifera).-This small tree has
many names, among them being puckerbush, candleberry,
and bayberry. The dark brown wood is brittle, soft, and
light.
West India Cherry (Prunus sphaerocarpa) ; height 25












or 30 feet, diameter 5 or 6 inches, wood clear red. heavy
and hard.
White elm (Ulmus americana).-This is the common
and most abundant elm in most regions of the Uni-red
States east of the Rocky Mountains.
White Buttonwood (Laguincularia racemosa'), or white
mangrove, grows in southern Florida. Height 30 feet or
more, diameter one foot and upward. The wood is heavy
and hard, dark yellow brown.
White Ironwood (Hypelata trifolia.ta).-This species
grows on the southern keys, but is rare; height 35 or 40
Feet, diameter 18 or 20 inches; wood rich dark brown,
hard and heavy.
White Stopper (Eugenia monticola) .-This tree is oc-
casionally 25 feet high, with a 12-inch trunk. The wood
is strong, heavy, hard, and is brown with red tinge.
Wild China (Sepindias marginatus) is sometimes called
soapberry. It may reach a trunk diameter of two feet
and a height of 50. The brown, yellow-tinged wood is
strong and heavy.
WTild Lime (Xanthoxylum fagarai) ; height 25 or 30
feet; wood heavy and hard; range, southern Florida.
Wild Sapodilla (Mimusops sieberi) ; only on the south-
ern keys and not abundant; height 30 feet: wood very
heavy, hard, and strong; rich very dark brown.
Wild Tamarind (Lysiloma latisiliqiia).-This species
in Florida is confined to the keys where it occasionally is
3 feet in diameter and 50 feet high. The wood is heavy,
hard, and tough, but not strong, and is of a rich dark
brown color.
Illln, Oak (Querous phellos), often called red oak in
Florida, is one of the State's commercial woods which
seldom appears under its own name as lumber.
Wing Elm (Ulmos alata l.-This wood goes into lumber












simply as elm. The name refers to a flattening of the
small twigs.
Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).-This is gen-
erally a shrub, but it may attain a height of 25 or 30
feet, with a diameter of a foot or more. The wood is
hard and heavy, and light brown in color.

Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria).-This species of holly is often
called cassena. The trees are small, the wood white,
hard, and strong.

Yellow Buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana), or yellow
wood, is seldom more than six inches in diameter. The
wood is rather hard, but is light and weak.

Yellow Haw (Crataegus flava).-This tree is small, sel-
dom more than 20 feet high, and 8 or 10 inches in diam-
eter.
Yellow Oak (Quercus velutina).-This is one of the
large commercial oaks, and its wood often passes for
red oak.










TABLE NO. 1.-SUMMARY OF KINDS OF WOOD USED IN FLORIDA.


KIND OF WOOD.


COxMMON NAME.


BOTANICAL NAME.


quantity y Used Annually. Average
cost per
Feet 1). in. Per cent. 1,000 ft.


Total cost (rown in (rown outl
f. o. I. Florida. of Florida.
factory. Per cent. Per cent.


Longleaf pine. .....
Cuban pine ........
Loblolly pine......
Cypress ...........
Short laf pine.....

Spanish cedar.....
Evergreen magnolia
Red gum ..........
White oak.........
White ash .........

Sand pine.........
Yellow poplar......
Hickory ..........
Sweet lmaglnolia ....
White pine ........

Mahogany ........
11ia:ck g in .........
Iive oak ..........
I;irch .............
Red o til ...........


Pin us palustris ..........
I'inus heterophyllu.......
P'ilus taeda ............ .
'Tu'xodiumi distichl 1.....
Pinus cchinata..........

(cdrala odorata .........
Magnolia foctida........
Liquidiuabar stryuciflua..
Quercis albu............
Fl''r.riln s (ameic'anIc u .....

Pinui( cla11 uS i l ............
Liriodcindroin tulipifcra. ..
Ilicoria ................
Mli/inolia / laucia .........
I'iuls s trobus ...........

Niriclcntia ma !l Li .....
\!lsta s!llr tlica ..........
Qlic rcl 'ls r'i !liiillla .......
( lh ula(i .. .............
Qcrcils rubaIll' . . ..


SIIU Ir I lllll ...... 1-. s1(''' .I''( h (I n .........
Spmit'c ............ PI' f i ...................


315,.330.872
03,51)3,000
33,049,000
32.,838,727
10,775,000

10.1S9,208
2.058,000
)92,000
701,179
280,000

250.000
104,344

10.()00
79,071

:1,3!)95
::3.000
32,000
;,200()

5,0001
5.,001


70.10
12.20
0.34
0.30
2.07

1.960
.51
.19
.13
.05

.05
.02
.02
.02
.02

.I)2


$11.CO
11.94
11.77
17.58
11.(;0

24.95
8.02
11.55
:5.91
25.07

13.20
9S.02
;:2.!0
22.00
S7.04

111;.l.2
10.00
5!.001
70.71
72.58,

30.00
17.010


.$4,259,,SS(;
758,710
3S9,023
577,372
124,950

254,1S5
21.,3:10
11. I;O
25.178
7,020

8,8001
!),2,S1)

1,7(10
1;,,SS2


5.50;!

1,981

1501


92.19
98.90
89,.41
99.16
100.00


100.00
87.10
1.14
-19.1i4

100.00
1 .(8:11
!::.72
100.00

:. 1 Il

111()0.00()(


7.81
1.10
10.59
.84


100.00

12.90
98.S(;
50.30


96.17
0.2S

1010.00

GiS.59


100.00
S100.00


...... 100.00
.. 100.00










Rasswood ......... T. ilia aicericani.. .......... 2,000 :: 35.00 70 ...... 100.00
Madeira .......... Lysiloina batlamensi. .... 1100 1 .75 ..... 10J.0O
T Teali ............. Teetoria nrao di ......... 1,000 : 225.00 225 ...... 1000.00

t Red Cedar......... luniperus rirgini n..... 500 44.00 22 100.0 ....
Rosewood ......... I'terocarpa crinoccu'..... 100 400.00 -0 ...... 100.00

Total .............. 52 1.141,7!(; 1 m0.o0 $12.41 $.;.4 ;4.,(1;t 1.4. 8..52
*L ..ss li:i:li 1-100 o1l 1 por iltl.










WOODS USED IN FLORIDA.

Table 1 contains a list of 27 woods used in Florida iast
year, according to reports made by manufacturers. 11 is
shown in the table also that some of these woods we1re
procured wholly in the State, others wholly from with-
out, while some came partly from within and partly fltrm
the outside. The average cost of each and all at the fac-
tory is stated in the table, together with the amoun:-.
The table is a summary which shows in condensed fwii,
the principal statistics of the wood-using industries of ihi
State. The detailed statistics are shown in the industry
tables which follow.
Preceding pages of this report list and briefly descriile
a large number of unused woods in the State, those which
manufacturers either do not now employ, or use them
in so small amounts that they do not consider them
worth reporting. It now remains to take up in a .imilar
way the woods that are used. Longleaf pine leads in
amount, and rosewood is least. Rosewood is highest in
price, madeira next, mahogany third, and evergreen mag-
nolia is cheapest. Seven of the woods come wholly from
the State, ten entirely without, and the others are di-
vided.
Longleaf Pine.-More than half of the entire wood sup-
ply of the State, as shown in Table 1, is longleaf pine.
It is reasonably certain that some Cuban pine and some
loblolly are listed as longleaf, but it was not practicable
to ascertain how much or to separate them from lng-
leaf. If the length of the needles alone is taken as a
means of identifying the several species of the Southern
yellow pines, it is not always a reliable test; for needles
of the same species vary in length, depending upon en-
vironment. Longleaf pine has thin sapwood and abun-
dance of heart: the other Southern pines may be expected
to show very thick sapwood in proportion to the heart.
That fact helps to distinguish longleaf logs and Inmber











from other species. Some lumbermen have only two
names for Southern pines: "heart pine" for longleaf, ani
"sap pine" for the others. These terms express pretIl
clearly the chief difference which lumbermen recognize in
the Southern pines. Of course there are other differences,
some of which do not appeal so directly to the eye. Long-
leaf pine is harder than the others, and stiffer, stronger,
and heavier than most. It is of slower growth and the
annual rings are narrower. The wood is generally but
not always of darker color than that of the other pines
associated with it. The longleaf pine occurs in the north-
ern two-thirds of Florida. Its reproduction is not gen-
erally vigorous, but in some sections many young trees
are taking possession of vacant places. As a whole. it is
doubtful if young growth can to any appreciable extent
make good the loss through-sawmill operations. ;ln the
result seems inevitable that longleaf pine supplies will
decline in the State, as in other regions, until scancity
results. The habit of frequently burning forest lands
perhaps works more harm to longleaf pine than to a;ny
other tree, by killing the young growth.
Cuban~ Pine.-Next after longleaf, this species sh'Iws
longest use in the State. The same difficulties as in the
case of longleaf pine are met in separating it from asso-
ciated pines. One is often mistaken for another. The
Cuban pine is known under several names. It grows in
nearly all regions of Florida where any pine grows. It
has thick sapwood and is resinous; the rings of annual
growth are wide; the wood is stiff and strong. As the
southern part of the State is approached, the Cuban pine
becomes smaller. A good many stands exist in which
the mature trees are too small to attract sawmills. It
responds to good soil, and patches of merchantable tim-
ber may be found, surrounded by scrub growth.
Loblolly Pine.-This valuable timber tree belongs in
northern Florida, extending south to about the center of
the State. In quantity of timber manufactured in Flor-












ida ii is third largest, its total falling a little shot tf
one-tenth that of longleaf, and its average price per th.-
sand being practically the same. It grows rapidly. ic-
produces vigorously, and is one of the softest and nw.
esl of the yellow pines. It is known by so many naimi,-
that the name alone is not a certain means of idenriti-
cation. It holds its ground better than longleaf pine.
and is more promising as a source of supply. The s 'r-
ness of its wood places it in a line of uses somewhat iit-
ferent from hose of longleaf. It is popular for doir-
and for window frames. It attains imerchantable siz. i1.
less time than longleaf.
C'Ipre.x.-.Fourth for quantity in tle list of Flor.lr;t
woods is cypress. It is very little below loblolly pii,.
but the average cost is considerably higher. Cypres i-
one of the substantial, all-round woods of the South. a lt
one of the largest species. The small trees are symmetri-
cal and graceful, but the old ones are not attractive wiih
their thin, ragged foliage, and dying tops. They ire
among the longest-lived trees of the South, and ;a ;:'i
of two or three centuries is not unusual. At least a huii-
dred years are required under ordinary circuminstnie- .'
produce a Irunk large enough for sawlogs. It is a swNixm
species. Tr ees live standing in water much of the year.
Some if thie best cypress timber in Florida grow s ;nllig
the margin and about the months of large rivers, where
lie land is frequently flooded. Some of the cypress f"r-
ests near the mouths of the Chattahoochee. Ap.\lachilti,!
and Suwannee rivers are dense and dismal in ili ex-
treme. When iliese forests disappear under thei itperarii,
of luimberimen, there will not be much y-11ung c\plres. 1e'in-
ing on to take lheir place, for it is uot a tree that repro
duces vigorously. It is mnt of mucli commercial im
portance south of the center of the State.
Shortlcaf Pine.-The Shorileaf pine is supposed to bi
the opposite of the longleaf species, so, far as needles ;a
concerned: for its leaves are shortest of the four leading











Southern yellow pines. The tree grows rapidly when
young, Ibnt after it reaches an age of forl y or lifty years
it is apt to increase its size more slowly. For that rea-
son the annual rings in a characteristic shorileaf trunk
are broad near the heart and narrower as the bark is
applronched. The sa!pwood is thick, the heart(wood com-
paratively small. The wood is rather soft. The com-
mercial range of shortleaf pine extends into the northern
part of the State. its best development being il regilions
farther north.
/Np 1 islh ('d1tar.- All of this wood is imported, as it
does not grow in the United States. ft colles from Cuba,
Mexico. and adjacent regions. Most of that used in Flor-
ida was cnt in Cuba.
Ercrrcciin Magnomla.-It lapears in Table 1 ;as the
cheaplest wood in Florida, and more than two and a half
million feet were used. It is an evergreen of beautiful
foliage, and with wood varying much in value. The best
has been compared with yellow )op'lar,. hut the poorest
is inlersected with hard streaks and black patches. The
largest trees are 8( or more feet high and three or four
feet in diameter: but an average size is scarcely half that.
It does best in rich, wet ground. In early lumber op~era-
tions it was frequently left standing because its conver-
sion into lumber was not profitable: but in recent rears
uses have been found for the wood and it is now cut
when lumbermen come to it. In Floridaf the boxmak-
ers are largest users of magnolia.
Rcd Gin. -Red gum is ent in most ipars of tle rl nrth-
ern half of Floridan but it is not as illporant as in solne
of the more northern and western Srates Tt atltins
large size and is of good form for sawlogs. but it does
not usually occur in thick stands like thle pine. and it
goes to the mills ;along with other hardwoods. Its chief
use in Florida is for boxes and crates, but farther north
its greatest importane is as furniture material and house
finish












White Oak.-A small quantity of this wood is credited
to Florida in the reports by manufacturers who use it.
but nearly all comes from outside the State. It is one
of the best known and most substantial of the oaks. IT
is used for nearly all purposes for which any Americ'a
wood is used. The chief part of that reported in thil
State went into car construction. While some of I]:,-
Florida white oak is of excellent quality, many users a':
of the opinion that the average quality of the State-gron-\
oak is much beneath that of some of the Northern Sra--.
White A-sh.-The southern limit of the white as!!'-
range lies in northern Florida. It is of the most common
of the same species of ash in many parts of thi corn:
Iry. The wood is characterized by stiffness and streoI-i
Its chief uses are for farm tool handles. boat o; -'. ;t!
vehicles.

Sand Pinc.-In certain localities only does this 1ii--
grow large enough for sawlogs. Trees of small pim'-
size are often numerous over considerable tracts. It ex-
tends two-thirds of the distance down the Florida penii-
sula from the north. Its most common name is sriii
pine.

Yellow Poplar.-Some of the yellow poplar inmanufi'
lured in the State was cut there. but most camnir r ,n il-
outside. The largest poplar timber comes frrin the innii:-
tains of Tennessee. Kentucky. and West Virginia. ii I-
among the highest priced of American woods. The v Cr-
age reported in Florida was $89.O2.

Hickoii/.-Several species of hickory are generally '.,,n
sidered as one wood when they -each the factories. in
I-he forest, the lumberman know the species sepaIr 'e'.
but the wood of one so much resembless another rhi : na:
go together under one common name. Its toughne-.
elasticity. strength, and hardness unite in such a reimrk-
able degree 1hat hickory has been called the indispensable
wood. N-, substitute has yrt heen found anywhere in












the world for this wood, particularly for parts of small
vehicles, hammer and ax handles, and some kinds of ath-
letic goods. The State supplies nearly all home demands
for hickory.
Sweet Magnolia.-The entire quantity of this wood
went to a single industry and was made into boxes at
an average cost of $22 a thousand. That is a high price
for box lumber, but magnolia is an attractive wood, and
much of it went into high grade boxes. All was cut in
the State. The heartwood of this tree is a pleasing red
or brown, which takes a fine polish.
While Pine.-Florida has no native white pine, and all
that was reported came from the Lake States. It grows
in several of the Northern and Northeastern States, as
far south as eastern Tennessee. Next to yellow poplar,
it was the highest-priced native wood reported in Florida.
A number of other woods in this country are called white
pine with a modifying term. Western white pine grows
in Idaho; California's white pine is the western yellow
pine; Mexican white pines comes from Arizona and Mex-
ico, and is a white pine. The Norway pine of the Lake
States is often mixed with white pine and sold with it.
Malhogany.-More than ten thousand feet of mahogany
were reported cut in the forests of south Florida last year,
and used by industries in the State. Nearly one-third
of all of this wood used was home-grown. It has been
popularly supposed that mahogany long ago ceased to
exist as a commercial wood in Florida, though it was well
known that botanical specimens were still obtainable.
The present investigation in Florda has shown that such
is not the case, and that the wood is still cut and mar-
keted there. More than half a century ago mahogany
cutters, who were likewise operating in the Bahama Is-
lands, invaded the keys south of the Florida mainland,
and also the mainland itself, and cut all the mahogany
trees within reach of water, and shipped the logs to Eu-
rope. Some trees escaped discovery in the dense ham-











mlock forests: and some lhat were then small have -i. 'e
grown to merchantable size.
Mahogany trees are now being cut. andi lihe lIgi rIe; -'
Miami, and other points, where boat builders andl ,rlier-
buy them. The number thus reaching market is not large.
Logs generally come in one or two at a time. They are
cut by negroes, for the most part. who tind a tree here
and there. The logs are rolled or hauled to the near-
est water and are towed by a canoe or boat through nar-
row and obscure channels, often several miles, t(o o!en
water, and are thence taken to some point design:iTed
by the buyer.
Black G-uim.- This tree is not in much favor anywhere.
hut when it is convenient, the sawmills cut it. and iT
finds its way to the factories. The whole reported Iuan-
tity used in Florida is only two carloads. Sometiime-
there is doubt as to what is meant when black gumn is
reported. That name is applied to water gum i i/.,i s
biflora) in Florida.
Live Oak.--Considering the abundance of thiis Xwood
in Florida, its use is small. Formerly it was in much
demand for ship knees, and a flourishing business was
carried on in the State; but it is not so used now. It is
not a tree of good form for lumber. The trunk is short.
and is generally rough; but the wood is hard. strong.
and when carefully selected, is of good grain and enlr.
Birch.-Two species of birch grow in hle State. but
none of either was reported by manufacturers. All came
from the outside the State, and the high price indicates
that it was the sweet birch or yellow hirch of the Nni-rh.
These two species go to market together. and little ar-
tempt is made to keep them separate. For that reason
birch is listed in this report without the species being
designated. The river birch (of Florida was not reportel
for any purpose.
Red Oak.--The true red oak tQclrruix r'lrI' doesI nor











grow in Florida. Other oaks pass by that name. The
red oak listed in Table 1 is the Northern tree, one of the
highest grade of the many species of oak. There is much
confusion in classifying oak lumber. A dozen different
species are called white oak, and so many others are
known as red oak.

sugarr Maple.-The maple sugar and syrup ,f com-
merce is made from the sap of this tree; and hron i hlis
species is cut the hard maple lumber, or most of it. The
tree is found in Florida, but it is not abundant, and none
was cut in the State, according to reports of manufactur-
ers. Very little was used.
,'/'pr,'.v.-Spruce is in the list with birch and hickory
in one respect-several species are often grouped under
one name. When the word spruce is used in Florida
it generally refers to the black or red spruce of the North-
ern States, but it might be the Sitka spruce of Oregon
and Washington. There are other spruces occasionally
found in the lumber markets, or woods which pass by
that name.
Basswood.-The demand for this soft, white wood is
so small in Florida that it is hardly worth taking note
of. It is a Northern species, the largest quantity of lum-
ber coming from the lake States and the central Appa-
lachian region.

Madeira.-This wood from the West Indies was used
to a small extent by Florida boat builders. It ranges
in price with mahogany, and is of dark color and is hard.
Other tropical woods sometimes pass by that name, and
it was once applied to mahogany in some parts of this
country.

Teak.-Boat builders brought this Asiatic wood into
use in the State because it is regarded by many as one
of the best woods in the world for some parts of boat
building. It is very hard and not very Ieavy.












Red Cedar.-Much red cedar is cut in Florida. and
scarcely any is used for manufacturing purposes. Pencil
makers take much of the best.
Rosewood.-This is the most expensive and least used
wood reported by manufacturers in Florida. A number
of trees in different countries are called rosewood. That
reported in Florida came from Africa.


PLANING MILL PRODUCTS.

This industry is much larger than any other armo:i
the wood uses of Florida. More than 92 per cent of a.I
the material considered in this report is found in the oir-
put of planing mills. Not only in quantity. but in va;iii
it surpasses all the other industries. The cost of 1he
rough lumber laid down at the planing mills ready for
the machine to work on, was $4.747,165: and the cost of
all the rough lumber used in the State was 86,464.SI,
Planing mill lumber averaged cheaper than the other. bur
that does not mean that it is of poorer grades.
Planing mill products are the simplest forms of man~.
facture after lumber leaves the sawmill. In fact, the
planing mill is usually an adjunct of the sawmill th1ii
cuts the logs. The product that comes from the rja
chines consists of flooring, ceiling. and siding. S~oc'L
sizes and kinds are made and put on the market. It is
commodity which goes from the mill that makes it with-
out having any particular market or buyer in view. anr
thus differs from those commodities which are largely
made to order and for a particular place or purple
Longleaf pine leads by long odds all the other woo 1i
appearing in Table 2. Nearly 77 per cent consiss s of
longleaf, which is at present usually regarded as the
most abundant timber tree of Florida. and among tlh
best. Its great strength makes it suitable for flooring, its
grain, figure, and color fit it for ceiling. and its lasting












properties qualify it for siding. The mills that turn it
out are generally those of large capacity, and it is lihn-
bered and otherwise handled by the most advanced scien-
tific methods, from the felling of the trees to the comiple-
tion of the finished product.
Cuba pine is second in quantity for planing mill prod-
ucts. This species is known under several names, and
it is not infrequently called longleaf, though the men who
work it know very well the difference between it and the
genuine, thin-sap longleaf yellow pine. Some call it slash
pine. That alludes to its habits of coming up in old cut-
tings when fire is kept out, which, unfortunately, does not
happen as often as it should. The relative abundance
of Cuban pine increases southward in the State.
Loblolly pine falls somewhat under Cuban pine in quan-
tity, according to the reports supplied by manufacturers.
Very probably that is a fact, but a good deal of confusion
exists at some of the mills as to what is Cuban and what
is loblolly; for the species hear considerable resemblance
both in the standing tree and in the wood. Both are
frequently called loblolly. The ground for confusion does
not extend far southward lirongh the peninsula, for lob-
lolly gradually disappears.
Ten million feet of shortleaf pine was reported by mills
in the northern part of the State. This species does not
range far south, and it is probable that some of that list-
ed under the name of shortleaf was loblolly or Cuban.
Four-fifths of the sand pine reported in the State was
listed with this industry. The trunk of this pine is usual-
ly quite small, but occasionally groups of trees are found
large enough for good sawlogs. The wvood ihas thick sznp-
wood which is nearly white, while the heartwood is light
yellow. It is moderately light in weight and not very
strong. It is likely that a good deal of this wood is mar-
keted under some other name. When the trunk is seen
at a distance of thirty or forty yards it resembles the









44

red or the black spruce of the Ne ii. iliimgh it is unually
more limby than the spruce which g nrow in the (dep inade
of Northern forests. The foliage, being light and rhin.
looks somewhat like that of spruce when too far :iv ,
for the individual needles to be seen. This similarily i:
responsible for the name spruce pine which is cimiinnly
given it.

The hirch and llif yellow pop lar in Table 2 are the mos>
costly woods listed. They were imported from the North.

Nearly half of the cypress reported in the State is found
in this table.












TABLE 2.-PLANIN.i .MLL PRODIWCTS.


I ,ongle;al' pino ................ ......
Cuban pine ..........................
Cuban pine ..
Loblolly pine ..................... .
C y press ...................... .....
Shortleaf piin ........... ......... .
Sand piine ..........................
P i rch ..............................
Yellow poplar ................. .... .
'IlT ,tl ............... ...........
"Le,-s than 1-100 of 1 per cenoit.


Quantity used
annually.


to

3,12,760.007
39.715,000
30,270,000
13,968,000
10,775,000
200,000
12,000
12,000
407.712.007


76.71
9.74
7.42
3.43
2.64
.05
si:
o~o


a
ci.




$11.36
13.46
12.08
11.82
11.60
14.00
65.00
65.00


C

0d



0 0
r -


39,015,000
26,770,000)
1 :.,'. S.0O O
10.775,000
200,000
....... 0


+-i
" S"'
S 80
o



534,725
365,680
165,160
121,95o0
2.S00
780
780


d
ca


c


.' I: l;' '
700,000
:,)500,000 q-



12,000
12,000


,,11 o I I Q. I7,'' !'7 I- .77,2 1 1 3 A,4 00, 92











PACK lN( BOXES AINI) CRATE'S.


Cuban pine leads in Table :. That is hecauie thi.
species is most abundant in the south of Florida where
the large market gardens and citrus orchards are located.
Boxes are made near where they are needed, when it i.
practicable to do so. The demand for large quantities
of shipping crates and boxes draws upon the most avail-
able supply of timber, and Cuban pine's geographicl
range makes it convenient and cheap for the orange and
grapefruit growers, and for the gardens which ship earl\
vegetables.

Longleaf pine is so close a competitor of Cuban Jine
that the latter has very little advantage in quantity. Tlh,.
longleaf averages forty cents a thousand feet cheaper.
which, in all likelihood, is due to better facilities for log-
ging it rather than to any weaker demand. The aver-
age is low for all woods used in box and crate making
in Florida, but three of them run fairly high. They are
Spanish cedar, sweet magnolia, and hickory. The lasr
named was made into crates for shipping vehicles and
machinery, and was employed to meet the demand for :i
strong, tough wood.

Spanish cedar and sweet magnolia are handsome woods
suitable for high-grade boxes for fancy commodities.
Sand pine supplies fifty thousand feet to the industry.
This rather small tree should be able to contribute liber-
ally to the supply of cheap box and crate material in
the future. In some localities it is abundant, and much
of the best is within easy reach of orange. pineapple, and
vegetable lands where crates and boxes in large numbers
are needed. Though it is not a very strong wood, it pos-
sesses enough strength to answer all ordinary purposes
of Florida fruit and vegetable shippers.
Evergreen magnolia is the cheapest material used hi
the box and crate makers, and many persons consider ir











about as good as the best, unless some particular property
is required; but it does not run even in color. Some trees
have wood much darker than others, and where printing
and stenciling of the packages are necessary, the mag-
nolia must be graded, and the dark wood thrown out.
Some of it is sufficiently white to meet all requirements
of a good stenciling wood. Now and then the wood of
a certain tree contains hard, flinty streaks which may be
objectionable, and there may he black knots which de-
tract from appearance and value.
Black gum is used in less quantity than any other wood
on the box maker's list. It is plain material, never sought
after, but is cut when it is found -among other woods.
In some localities the name black guum is applied to tnpelo
and water gum. but never under the mistaken notion that
they are the same species. Their leaves bear some re-
semblance, but the characteristic swell in the tupelo trunk
near the ground is not found in the black gum.
The abundance and cheapness of cypress in Florida
ought to lead to its more extensive emplo mnent by box
makers.










TABLE 3.-BOXES AND CRATES, PACKING.



Quantity used
annually.








loblolly pine .................... 2,750,000 .95 8.27 22,743 2,750.000 .
l:vergreen magnolia ................ 2,68,00 0 8.02 21,:30 2,658,000 ,.. ,
Spanish cedar ..................... 2120,000 3.81 28.47 (;0,: l ..... 2,120,000
Red gum ........................... 739,1000 1 8.58 ;,310 739,000 .......
Hickory ............................ 0.00o .11 25.00 2,000 80,000 .......
Sweet m magnolia .................... .. 0,000 .11 22.00 1,7;0 000 ...... .
Sa d pi e .......................... 5 ,000 09 11.I 0)t 5 ,o o ......
' ss ........ ...................... 19,00 .0 8.71 ,027 .00
Il iack umn ......................... 3:1000 .0; 10.00 0 ,0 .....
Total ...... ..... ........... .. 55,-5,s ,000 Ill) (0 $9.82 $516,11 25, 5: | :,4 9,000 | 2.121o,000











SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, AND GENERAL MILL
WORK.

Longleaf pine and cypress make up nearly the whole
amount of material reported in Table 4. Six other species
are represented, but altogether do not constitute a quarter
of one per cent of the total of the nearly 36 million feet
made into sash, doors, blinds, and general millwork in
Florida.
The presence of a little live oak in this industry is un-
usual, for the wood is almost universally rejected by man-
ufacturers of these commodities in the Southern Stares;
and the rejection is often without just cause. The lum-
ber does not come in as good form as white and red oak;
the logs are always short and frequently of poor shape;
but when live oak is carefully selected it is handsome and
serviceable. The people have not been accustomed to
use it, otherwise it would enjoy a better reputation. It
is strong, and though it does not show the variety in
figure of some of the other woods, it has a color that is
pleasing. The lighter flecks in the wood, dispersed in
profusion, show well in furniture and finish. The live
oak reaches its best development in northern Florida,
and good logs of large size may be had in many localities.
Manufacturers would do well to investigate its possibili.-
ties, and see if a trade in this wood can not be developed.
The industry shown in Table 4 differs from that in
Table 2 in being more highly developed. Four kinds of
machines are needed to make flooring and siding; but
more specializing is required, and machinery with greater
range of uses is needed in producing doors, frames, sash,
stairwork, panels, turned posts and balusters, spindles
for grills, and the many other commodities included in
the general term millwork.
Few doors other than pine and cypress are produced
in Florida. White oak, live oak, and birch are employed
to some extent, but chiefly as thin veneers covering soft-
4-Bull.










50

wood cores. The average cost of the hardwood employed
in this industry is about five times as much as in .oft-
woods.

A large part of the product is sold outside of Florida.
some of it reaching Northern cities and some going to
foreign countries.











TABLE 4.-SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, AND GENERAL MILL WRRK.


KIND O' WOOD.


Longleaf pine ........... .........
Cypress ..........................
W hite oak .......................
Loblolly pine .....................
Birch .............................
W hite pine .......................
Live oak .........................
Red cedar .....................
T otals ........................
*Less than 1-100 of 1 per cent.


Quantity used
annually.



aP4
k P>


21,220,000
14,545,000
36,000
25,000
16,000
12,000
2,000
500
35,856.500


59.18
40.57
.10
.07
.04
.03
100.00
*
100.00


$16.20
21.56
93.06
20.00
75.00
31.00
44.00
44.00
$18.49


$343,830
313,566
3,350
500
1,200
372
88
22
$662,928


S.

0

o


C-

530,000

36,000

16,000
12,000


594,000


20,690,000
14,545,000

25,000


2,000
500
35,262,500


I


I


'











TOBACCO BOXES.

The manufacture of eigar box-s is 'ih tourth in siei
in Florida's wood-using industries, and is shown in Tih1li,
5. More than nine and a half million feet are listed. A:
far as shown by statistics of wood manufacturers hliiu fa i
collected in the United States, Florida far surpasses ani
other State in the amount of wood converted into ciga'
ooxes. The center of this industry is at Tampa.

In most of the Northern States where ci;gar ,bxes a'.r
made, the Spanish cedar, which is the lea'inc miatel
is usually sliced in 1hin veneer which is 1lued over ,the'
woods in making boxes. The prevailing custom in Flor-
ida is to use the Spanish cedar solid. It is sawed in thin
lumber and is handled that way.

Most of the Spanish cedar comes from Mexico ;ant
Cuba. Some of the large Florida users procure their
supplies in Cuba. The Spanish cedar grows to large size
when circumstances are favorable and time is sufficiein.
Early explorers in the West Indies spoke of cedar cannes
large enough to carry twenty or more men, and the Carib
Indians made long journeys in vessels of that kind. Cedars
of large size are not often found now. The supply with-
in reach of the sea was cut long ago. The cigar box
wood imported into Florida comes from trunks about the
size of telegraph poles. These are carried to Florida in
the rough form, the knots being trimmed, and the !,ark
generally peeled from the logs. A whole tree often comes
in one piece. The larger box factories buy that way. and
have sawmills of their own for converting the logs into
box lumber. Small box makers purchase lumber partly
manufactured.

Spanish cedar enjoys the prominent place it holds in
the cigar box business because the wood has an odor which
adds to the value of the cigars packed in the boxes. 1
is handsome, and increases the attractiveness of the wares,











It is not a high-priced wood, considering that it is an
import from foreign countries and is nor very plentiful
there. It is lumbered by cheap labor and is brought from
the interior mountains where it grows. Transportation
from the stump to the seashore is often by oxen. The
average cost in Florida is .-"4.i2 per 1,000 feet log meas-
ure. It is too cheap to offer much temptation to the imi-
tator.

A million and a half feet of cypress was reported for
this industry in Florida, but the cost per thousand was
less than half that of Spanish cedar.











TABLE 5.-BOXES, TOBACCO.


KIND OF WOOD.






Spanish cedar ......................
Cypress ............................
T otal ...........................


Quantity used
annually.








8.069,208 88.91
1.547,027 16.09
9,G0;1,235 100.00


$24.02
11.00
$2.93
ff 0



$24.02
11.00
$21.93


o
0d
2-C)



$1980o25

17,017
$210,s42


o



P-




1,517.027
1,547,027


tP
o0
o8







8,069,208










CAR CONSTRUCTION.

No large car factories are located in Florida, but a con-
siderable amount of building and repairing is done. Twelve
woods are listed, but more than 81 per cent of all is long-
leaf pine. For many parts of car building it is ideal. It
is strong, stiff, lasting. It is made into sills and frames
where it carries loads and sustains jars and strains. It
is good for car floors and siding, for braces and roofing.
It may be had in long pieces, measurably free from knots
and defects, and with little or no sap.
No loblolly pine was reported by car builders, but it
grows of proper size and form in the State. and likely
some of that passing as longleaf is loblolly. It is not
considered quite as strong as longleaf, but for a num-
ber of purposes it is as good, and for some it is preferred.
Cypress is an all-round car timber, but it lacks some
of the longleaf's strength and rigidity, and was not used
in one-tenth of the amount of pine in Florida, but what
was bought cost more by the thousand. The small
amount of white pine reported in Table 6 was for pat-
terns. It cuts so easily and holds its shape so well that
it stands pre-eminent among pattern woods.
There is so much difference in the cost of the red oak
and white oak used by car builders in Florida that an
explanation is necessary. These two woods, if of the
same grade and in the same market, cost about the same;
but in Table 6 the white oak is less than nineteen dollars
and the red oak more than seventy-two. They were not
of similar grade. The white oak was used for repair
of freight cars, and the red oak was for high-class finish..
Both came from outside the State. By reversing the
grades, the costs might have been reversed-the red oak
would have been cheap and the white oak expensive.
Mahogany was the most costly lumber in the industry.
It is a cabinet wood and is employed for fine finish in








56

passenger cars, chiefly as veneer laid upon cheaper woods.
Yellow poplar is second lightest in cost, and it is used
much the same as mahogany. The smoothness of its
grain makes it among the best of woods for fine paint-
ing.











TABLE 6.-CAR CONSTRUCTION.


KIND OF WOOD.





Longleaf pine ......................
Cypress ............................
W hite oak .........................
W hite ash ..........................
R ed gum ...........................
Yellow poplar ......................
Cuban pine .......................
M ahogany ........................
R ed oak .........................
Spruce .............................
Sugar m aple .......................
W hite pine .........................
T otal ..........................


Quantity used
annually.

. a
a

a a
F" Py


6,970,865
505,500
457,679
257,000
250,000
72,344
8,000
6,500
6,200
5.000
5,000
1,500
8,545,588


81.57
5.01
5.36
3.00
2.93
.85
.09
.08
.07
.06
.06
.02
100.00


0,
a


rd o
5-2

$17.52
20.23
18.65
21.50
20.00
96.19
20.u0
137.23
72.58
37.00
30.00
60.00
$18.76


U
0
Sd



$122,102
10,225
8,535
5,525
5,000
6,959
160
892
450
185,
150
90
$160,273


0
a





5,204,435
255,500

125,000
125,000

8,000





5,717,935


0




Co
0



1,766.430
250.000
457,679 2
132,000
125,000
72,344

6,500
6,200
5,000
5,000
1,500
2,827,653











SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.

With more length of coast line than any other SLate:
with several fine harbors for large vessels, and with al-
most innumerable small harbors; with hundreds of miles
of navigable rivers flowing through semitropical scenes-
of rare beauty; with many lakes of ample size and with
romantic surroundings to invite the pleasure seeker: wirl_
a climate so mild and equable that the waters are en-
joyable the whole year round, Florida holds a very lw
place in the boat-building industry. It is not because
boats are not used. The harbors, rivers, lakes, and pas-
sageways swarm with vessels during many months of the
year, and the landscape, with its interlocking waters are
scenes of the greatest activity; but the boats seen by Thou-
sands are nearly all made elsewhere than in Florida.
The resources for boat building are ample, and the rmar-
ket for high pleasure boats ought to be among the best
in the United States. A large proportion of the winter
visitors in Florida are possessed of means sufficient to buy
yachts, canoes, dories, and craft of every kind that The
place and climate call for. Vessels in large numbers ply
the waters, but they are not made in Florida. They come
from New England, New York, Michigan, Maryland, and
many other places where lumber is not as plentiful ,r
cheap as in Florida.
A few manufacturers have taken advantage of the op-
portunities, and are building boats. Table 7 shows the
amount of wood used and the kinds. The total is a mil-
lion and a half feet, which is about one-fourth as much
as Maryland demands annually. The Maryland marker
calls chiefly for business boats, while Florida demands
pleasure vessels. Yet boats for business purposes are I1y
no means few in Florida. The tradesmen about Pen cola, the sponge fishermen in the shallow water off Apa-
lachicola, the lumber tugs which load the sea-going ves-
sels, the many fishermen on both the east coast anl lhe











west, and the barges which transfer freight up and down
its river-all of these constitute a market for home-built
boats.
Eleven woods were used last year by Florida boat build-
ers, and longleaf pine constituted about seventy per cent
of it all. Some vessels are built almost wholly of this
wood, and all that was used was grown in Florida. It
makes both inside frame and outside covering. It pos--
sesses the required strength, and its lasting properties
insure long service. The price of longleaf pine is higher
in this than in any other industry in Florida. High-
grade material was demanded, and price goes with grade.
Cypress is next in quantity, and is higher in price than
longleaf. It is used for finish and deckwork. The dif-
ference in price between it and longleaf is largely re-
sponsible for keeping cypress below that wood in quantity
in boat building.
White pine, which is soft, white, and expensive, is em-
ployed only when some customer demands it.
Live oak is reported to the amount of 30,000 feet, at
$60 a thousand. It was made into rudder stock, and is
bought in hewed logs eighteen inches square. These logs
are sawed into heavy stuff for rudders. Live oak is hard
and strong, and lasts well under water.
Nearly 27,000 feet of mahogany is reported in this in-
dustry, and more than a third of it is native of Florida.
This is the species cut in the West Indies and Mexico,
and it is not found growing in any other State than Flor-
ida. This and other expensive woods listed in the boat
industry show that high-class work is being turned out
of the yards.









!TABLE 7.-SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.



Quantity used Q
annually.

KIND OF WOOD.



*<0 0

Longleaf pine ...................... 1,110,000 69.76 $29.35 $32,574 1,110,000
Cypress ............................I 197,000 12.38 41.02 8,080 172.000 25,000
W hite oak ......................... 177,000 11.13 64.01 11,30 ....... 177,000
Cuban pine ......................... 40,000 2.51 40.00 1,600 40,000 ...
Live oak ........................... 30,000 1.89 60.00 1, 30.000...
Mahogany .......................... 26,900 1.69 170.74 4.593 10,500 16,400
W white pine ......................... 6,500 .41 80.00 520 ... 6,500
M adeira ............................ 1,600 .10 168.75 270 ... 1,600
Tea:Lk .............................. 1,000 .06 225.00 225 ....... 1,000
W white ash ......................... 1,000 .06 40.00 40 1,000
Ro ;s wood .......................... 100 400.00 40 ...... ( 100
Total .......................... 1,591,100 100.00 $38.38 $61,072 1,363.500 227,600
S*L ss 11i:l11 1-100 of I per 'ent.











VEHICLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.

Table 8 presents statistics of vehicle manufacturers in
Florida. The quantity of wood demanded is small, but
the shops are well distributed over the State. There are
only a few factories which make buggies and wagons as
a business. The shops occasionally make a few vehicles,
but their principal work is repairing. Nearly all coun-
try blacksmith shops, and practically all in the towns,
repair wagons. A considerable part of the 167,095 feet in
Table 8 was used for repair work. The same woods which
enter into new vehicles serve for repairs of old. The aver-
age price is higher than in any other of the wood-using
industries of Florida. The species are the same as in
other industries, but the grades are better. Cypress is
third from highest, and is twenty-nine dollars above the
cost of the wood in any other table. The other woods
higher in this table than in any other are hickory, loblolly,
pine, mahogany, and white ash. One of the contributing
causes of the high cost of wood to the Florida vehicle
makers is that many of them buy in small amounts, and at
retail, and must pay more than if they took advantage of
wholsPnle prices.










TABLE 8.-VEHICLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.


KIND OF WOOD.





Longleaf pine ......................
W hite oak .........................
Cypress ...........................
H ickory ...........................
W hite ash ..........................
Yellow poplar .....................
Loblolly pine ......................
M mahogany ..........................
T otal ..... ...... .1........... .


Quantity used
annually.


.0 Q
a)



40,000 23.04
30,500 18.25
27,000 16.16
23,500 14.06
22,000 13.17
20,000 11.97
4,000 2.39
95 .06
167,095 100.00


C)0



$24.50
64.36
70.00
59.79
66.14
77.50
25.00
189.47
$56.02


O







22,500

6,500
9,000
16,000

75
54,075


$ 980
1,963
1,890
405
1,563


1,455
1,550
100
18
$9,361


cd
Oa








40,000
8,000
27,000
17,000
13,000
4,000
4,000
20
113,020









63

MISCELLANEOUS.

Table 9 is made up of four woods and contains some-
thing over two million feet. This represents the odds
and ends left over after all that properly belongs with
industries has been taken care of. Some commodities are
not manufactured in amounts large enough to entitle them
to be called industries, and they go in this miscellaneous
table. Among some which fall in that class in Florida
are lard buckets, candy tubs, water pails, patterns, trunks,
sample cases, and wooden ware of several kinds.











TABLE 9.-MISCELLANEOUS.


KIND OF WOOD.



Cypress ...........................
W hite pine .........................
R ed gum ..........................
Bassw ood .........................
T otals ........................


Quantity used
annually.



da
,o



2,000,200 1,.00
50,071 2.86
3,000 .1-1
2,000 .10
2,064,271 100.00


-Y








$30.50
99.88
40,00
35.00
$32.50


5,900
dO-







120
70
$67,0.97


o*

0 .7:







2,000,200
..... 5 ,071
....... ,000 o
.2,000
2,000,200 64,071











APPORTIONMENT OF WOODS AMONG
INDUSTRIES.

Of the twenty-seven woods reported by Florida manu-
facturers, and listed in Table 10, ten are used by only
one industry each, and only one in all the industries. Cy-
press is that one, and as far as Florida is concerned, it is
the universal wood. The makers of vehicles use the
smallest quantity, the planing mills the most. Some of
the industries take woods because they are cheap, others
because of ,particular properties desired. Boxes and
crates afford an instance of the first kind, vehicles of the
second. Certain boxes make exacting demands upon ]um-
ber, generally whatever is convenient and cheap is used.


5-Bull.












TABLE 10.-PERCENTAGE OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF WOOD USED BY EACH INDUSTRY.


KIND OF WOOD




B assw ood .........................
B irch .............................
Black gum .........................
Cuban pine ........................
C press ..........................

Evergreen magnolia: .................
Ilickory .......... ...............
L ive oak ............ ..............
Loblolly pine ............... .. ..
Longleaf pine ....... ..........

MI:ulel ra ...... ........ ..
M h:logany ....... ... ........
led cedar ..... .................
Ited guni ....... .... ......
Ited oak .......... .......


T.1...
7-1.50


25.11


100. 0 .... .
ST. I5|........ 0.01
a .a a














100.00 ........ ........ .
77 .20 ........ ........
7... )... ........ ........
S. :2 ....... ........
;.:( ........ 1 .9 1


42.86

02.4.S
42.54





91.59
85. 01
ia~>
UnCi


.--------.------


57.14
.0 o











. 1

5.o1


66




.o




0.00





.00
.CO









1SO. :{i
11)0.00


I


I


I


I--------


.


- -



0.08


71

.01




.28


a

a



100.00




G.09


. . .. .. .
. .. ... .. ...
....... ........
.3o ... .
....... I.......











Rosewood ........................
Sand pine .......... ...........
Shortleaf pine ......................
Spanish cedar .....................
Spruce ..........................

Sugar m aple .......................
Sweet magnolia ...................
Teak ............................
White ash .........................
W hite oak ........................

W hite pine ............. .........
Yellow poplar ....................

Total per cents ..............


. .... .. .
20.00

20.81


70.19


100.00


.......... ........ 100.00
100.00 ........ .......

.. .. ... .. 91.78
.......... ........ 05 .27

......... ........ 1 .90
... ........ 69.33

10.07 1.84 1.64


....... 100.00
....... 80.00 ......... ......
...... j 1oo.00 ......... ...
.. ... .. . ...... ..... .. . .


74.70 ........
....... 11.50


.40 78.23 0.88


5.14

15.18


7.86
4.35


19.17


100.00
.36
25.24

8.22


.31











COST OF SPECIES BY IMNUSTRIES.

Table 11 is a companion of 10. One shows the appor-
tionment of woods among the industries, the other shows
the cost per 1,000 feet of the several woods by the indus-
tries. A cursory examination will show that wood is nut
fixed in price, as wheat and cattle, or many other staple
commodities are. Differences in prices for the same spe-
cies are not due to differences in freight and handling
charges, as is the case with many other wares. The red
gum for cars costs more than twice that bought by bix
makers. Ash employed by vehicle manufacturers is lhree
times as expensive as what car builders use. The white
oak which goes to the door manufacturers is five times
as high in price as that purchased for car shops. Cypress
varies in cost as four to one, depending upon what the
manufacturer is buying it for.
These instances are representative of the rule. The
cost of wood depends on quality to a larger extent than
with most commodities. Cypress good enough for boxes
would fall far below the requirements of the vehicle mak-
er who uses it in tops for light business wagons. Hickory
which will make satisfactory crates is too cross-grained
or knotty for buggy spokes or carriage poles, consequently
the buyer of wood for those purposes must pick his
grades and pay the price, while the crate maker Tnkes
the refuse at less than half the cost.















TABLE 11.-COSTS OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF


WOOD USED BY EACH INDUSTRY.


KIND O' WOOD.


'Iasswvood ........................... $.........
(irch .. ............................. ........ .
Black gum ......................... .. 10.00
(nhan pine ......................... 9).34
presss ............................ 8.71

1Ivergreeu magnolia ................ 8.02
IH ickory ........................... 25.00
Live oak .....................................
lAollolly pine ....................... S8.27
L l .. .. '
I,a (lje r pine .... ...................

M il 'ira ............................ ....... .
M:Iho .................................... .......
1Pr ,1 .ot'In r .......... ....... ........ .. ... ..
Il -11n ... .................... S
Il c i ( : ......................................


6
Q
.0
0;
CL
0
0



lii


CL
0



35.00



,O0.50


$. .





13.40(
11.82


................

.. 12.08S
. .. ....... i ;



4. .. .....
10.00 ..
.. ... .


75.00


21.50




44.00
21.
















20.00
1(. 20



4-1.0)
20.00CI
Ki.2


aC






-*1


70.00


59.70

25.00
24.50


40.00
0-










41.02
40.00






41 .02
0(0.004



1(0.75
17(0.74












Rosewood ..........................
Sand pine ..........................
Shortleaf pine ......................
Spanish cedar ......................
Spruce .............................

Sugar maple .......................
Sweet magnolia ...................
T eak ..............................
W hite ash .........................
W hite oak .........................

W hite pine .........................
Yellow poplar ......................

Total average costs.........


.........0 ... ..
10.00 ........

28.47 24.02



22.00 ........







$ 9.82$ 21.93


37.00


30.00


21.50
18.65

60.00
96.10

$ 18.70$


..... ... .....

.......'. 14.00
........ 11.60


99.88 ........
....... 65.00


93.06

31.00


32.501$ 11.64 $ 18.49


400.00 ...





225.00 .
40.00 66.14
64.01 64.36

80.00 ..
...... 77.50

$ 38.381$ 56.02











SUMMARY BY INDUSTRIES OF WOODS USED IN
FLORIDA.

Table 12 is arranged to show at a glance the quantity
of wood used by each of the industries in Florida, to-
gether with the average price paid by each industry, and
the per cent of the material grown in the State and out.
The average cost of the wood demanded by the Florida
manufacturers does not differ much from the reported
average cost in other States which grow large amounts
of yellow pine. Following are averages:

Arkansas .................... $11.49
Louisiana ................... 11.63
M ississippi .................. 12.22
Alabama ........... ...... 12.24
Florida ...................... 12.41
Texas ....................... 13.30

In the six large lumber-producing States of the South
the average cost of material varies only S1.81 per thou-
sand between the highest of the States, Texas. and the
lowest, Arkansas. No such agreement in price as this
could be found in an equal number of the N-orthern
States.










TABLE 12.-SUMMARY OF WOODS USED BY INDUSTRIES IN FLORIDA.



Quantity used
annually. a




INDUSTRIES. = a s .
an )
5, 0 0
Planing mill products ............... 4077,712,007 78.23 $11.64 $4,747,165 92.53 7.47
Boxes and crates, packing .......... 55,589,000 10.67 9.82 546,125 96.10 3.81
Sash, doors, blinds, and general mill '.
work ............................. 35,856,500 6.88 18.49 662,928 98.34 1.66
Boxes tobacco ...................... 9.616,235 1.84 21.93 210,842 16.09 83.91
Car construction ................... 8.545,588 1.64 18.76 160,273 66.91 33.00
Miscellaneous ...................... 2,0(4.271 .40 32.50 67,097 96.90 3.10
Ship and boat building .............. 1,591,100 .31 38.38 61,072 85.70 14.30
Vehicles and vehicle parts .......... 167,095 .0o 56.02 9,361 67.64 32.36
Totals .............. ...... .... 521,141,796 100.00 $12.41 C$.4 4,8C63 91.-,8 8.52











APPENDIX.

There are other wood-using industries in Florida than
those shown in preceding tables and statistics of this
report. The Bureau of the Census, in co-operation with
the Forest Service, collects certain data each year and
publishes it. These statistics show the quantity of lum-
ber cut annually by the sawmills in the State; the num-
ber of lath and shingles; the extent of the wood distilling
industries; amount of tanbark and tanning extracts pro-
duced; railroad ties bought; staves and headings for bar-
rels; cut of veneer and the kinds of wood used; and other
facts of interest.
In order to make this report for Florida more com-
plete, an abridgement of the several census reports is
presented below. The total cut of lumber in the State
for 1910 was 992,091,000 feet, apportioned among species
as follows:


Yellow pine .................
Cypress ....................
Yellow poplar ..............
Red Cedar ............... .
H ickory ....................
O ak ........................
Cottonwood .................
A sh .......................
T upelo .....................
Red gum ...................
M aple ......................


921,323,000
66.117,000
1.306.000
1,275.000
1,119.000
298,000
240.000
238,000
153,000
11,000
11,000


Lath used by plasterers are made at many sawmills
from large slabs and defective logs, which otherwise would
be wasted. Most of the lath are pine, but any wood.
except the hardest, will answer. The output in Florida
in 1910 was 42,404.000 lath.
Shingles in Florida are nearly all manufactured from











cypress and pine, the former predominating. A consid-
erable part of the output is a by-product of sawmills,
made from crooked or faulty logs, or from large slabs.
There are mills which make shingles only, and they use
good timber as well as poor. The latest returns give
Florida's yearly cut at 171,421,000 shingles.
Two classes of cooperage are made, one for liquids,
the other for dry substances. The former is called tight
cooperage, the latter slack. The former is much more
exacting in its demand for wood, and the material costs
more. Good tight cooperage should not only be free from
knots and other defects which might cause leakage, but
the wood must be dense. Otherwise the contents of the
barrel or cask may escape through the pores of the wood.
Most woods are of such open structure that they will not
hold alcoholic liquors. Slack cooperage is not so exclu-
sive. Nearly any wood will do for some classes of slack
cooperage, while others are more exacting. A consider-
able part of Florida's cooperage stock is bought by the
naval dealers who ship rosin in cheap, but strong bar-
rels. Fruit growers and truck gardeners use many bar-
rels for their products, and oyster rakers and fishermen
are pretty large users.
The output of tight cooperage staves in the State in
1910 was 1,350,000 staves and 61,000 sets of heading.
Slack staves were largely pine and totaled 24,451,000.
There were produced 1,122,000 sets of heading and 1,-
029,000 hoops.
The production of veneers in Florida was seven and a
half million feet less in 1910 than in 1909. The output
for four years was : 1907, 18,183,000 log feet; 1908, 28,-
256,000; 1909, 33,293,000; 1910, 25,842,000. Most of the
veneer is rotary cut; that is, it is produced by pressing a
heavy knife against the rim of a revolving log, and peel-
ing off long ribbons of wood, round and round, until the
log is reduced to a small center piece called a core. Sta-
tistics do not show what species of wood are used in











making the Florida veneers, but it is known that most of
it is pine, and that the veneer is manufactured into bas-
kets, boxes, crates, and other shipping containers.
There are higher classes of veneer than this, but little
of it is made in Florida. It is made by sawing or slicing
hardwoods very thin, and is used principally by makers
of furniture, fixtures, and interior finish. The thin sheets
of the costly veneer are glued upon backing of cheaper
woods. Most furniture, except the cheapest and the most
expensive kinds, is veneered. The chapest kinds are of
plain, inexpensive material, while the most costly rts
are often made of solid in order that the carver's orna-
ments may be cut in the wood.
Statistics of tanning materials are not compiled in a
way to show what each of the States contribute, but
the country is considered as a whole. The listing of
mangrove, however, shows that Florida is an Jimlorant
contributor to the general supply, because that is the
only State producing it. The principal supplY comes
from foreign tropical countries, and is of record among
the imports. In 1909, 18,925 tons of mangrove lark, and
1,401,000 pounds of extract were used in this country
for tanning and dyeing purposes. The imports of the
bark that year were 12,263 tons, leaving a balance of
6,662 tons whicl was presumably obtained in Florida.
Complete statistics later than 1909 have not been pub-
lished; but the imports of mangrove bark in 1.910i were
17,088 tons.
Next after Alabama, Florida contributes more to the
softwood distillation industry than any other State. Most
of the wood used in Florida is longleaf and Cuban pine.
The total amount in 1910 was 52,144 cords. which was
27,000 cords more than was reported the year before.
Both kinds of distillation are used. the destructive pro-
cess, which destroys the wood by burning, and The sieam
process which employs heat. but not enough to char the
wood. The principal products secured by the destructive












process are charcoal, tar, and turpentine; and by the
steam method, turpentine and heavy oils. Owing to the
difference in the resinous content of pine wood, the yield
per cord of the several products varies greatly. About
one-half of the material was body wood, the remainder
was limbs, stumps, slabs, sawdust, and other mill waste.
Florida contributes largely to the country's output of
naval stores. Almost half of the whole product of spirits
of turpentine in 1909 came from Florida, aind it led all
the other States in rosin.


WOOD USES BY SPECIES.


The manufacturers who reported the woods which have
been tabulated in this report, reported likewise the pur-
poses for which they were used. That information is
given in the following list:

Basswood.

Sample cases.

Birch.


Blinds.
Ceiling.
Doors.


Finish.
Flooring.
Molding.


Black Guim.


Sash.
Siding.
Stairs.


Fruit boxes.
Vegetable packages.

Cuban Pine.


Ceiling.
Crates (veneer 1.



Blinds.
Boats.
Cabinets.
Car lining.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Cases for cigars.


Finish.
Flooring.


r "It ,,

Coach roofs.
Counters.
Doors.
Furniture.
Interior finish.
Molding.
Packing cases.


Molding.
Siding.


Pails.
Sash.
Tanks.
Tubs.
Wagon bodies
[Wagon panels.














Hoops.



Crating.



Dredges.


Balusters.
Blinds.
Baskets.
Brackets.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.
Cases.
Ceiling.
Columns.
Crates.



Balusters.
Baskets.
Blinds.
Boxes.
Brackets.
Cabinets.
Car decking.
Car finishing.
Car repairs.
Car siding.
Ceiling.
Columns.
Crates.
Deadwoods.
Door frames.


78

Evergreen Magnolia.

Fruit boxes.

Hickory.

Handles.

Live Oak.

Friction blocks.

Loblolly Pine.

Door frames.
Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Framing.
Molding.
Porch work.
Posts.
Rails.
Sash.

Longleaf Pine.

Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Fruit boxes.
Keels.
Lighters.
Molding.
Novelties.
Packing cases.
Porch work.
Posts.
Rails.
Sash.
Scows.
Scroll work.


Vegetable packages


Vehicles.


Rudder stock.


Scroll work.
Siding.
Store fixtures.
Tables.
Vegetable packages
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.


Siding.
Sills.
Store fixtures.
Stringers.
Table legs.
Tables.
Tanks.
Vegetable packages
Vehicles.
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Wagon beds.
Window frames.


Madeira.

Boats.

Mahogany.

Boat finish.
Car finish.


Interior finish.


Red Cedar.


Flooring.
Moldings.


Siding.


Auto shields.
Auto trim.


Ceiling.
Finish.















Boats.
Crates.
Boxes.
Furniture.



Furniture.


Blinds.
Boxes.


Balusters.
Baskets.
Blinds.
Boats.
Brackets.
Cabinet work.
Car repairs.
Cases.
Ceiling.
Columns.



Cigar boxes.


Hoops.


Boats.
Cabinets.
Furniture.


Red Gum.

Hoops.
Shook veneer.
Store fixtures.
Trunks.

Red Oak.

Car sills.

Rosewood.

Boat finish.

Sand Pine.

Doors.


Shortleaf Pine.

Crates.
Door frames.
Doors.
Finish.
Flooring.
Framing.
Fruit packages.
Moldings.
Porch work.
Posts.

Spanish Cedar.

Cabinets.

Spruce.
Finish.

Sugar Maple.

Car building.

S,-eet Magnolia.

Cabinets.

Teak.
Boats.
White Ash.
Launches.
Store fixtures.
Trim.


Vegetables.
Packages.


Sash.


Rails.
Sash.
Scrool work.
Siding.
Store fixtures.
Tables.
Vegetable packages.
Veneer.
Veneer boxes.
Window frames.


Wagon bodies.
Wagon gears.
Wagon panels.











White Oak.


Blinds. Ceiling. Mldings
Boat ribs. D doors. Sash.
Boats. Filooriing. Siding.
Cabinet work. Frames. Sills.
Car repairs. Gunwales. Stairs.
Cases. Interior finish. \ehiclts.

\Ilh itc Phie.

Blinds. Doors. Patterns
Boats. Finish. Saibh.
Ceiling. Flooring. Siding.
Coach repairs. Moldinu.
Y"lioli lPophlt

Car repairs. Vehicles. Wagon bodies
Interior finish.



DIRECTORY.

Below is a list of Florida wood-using manufacturers
who supplied much of the data contained in this reorir.
Those manufacturing several products classified under
different industries will appear in the list, with their ad-
dresses, under more than one industry.

BOXES AND CRATES, PACKING.

Consumers Lumber & Veneer Co. .............. Apopka
Archer Crate & Basket Co. .................... Archer
E. O. Carver ................................ Carters
J. J. Mendenhall .......................... Clearwater
Biscayne Box Co. .................. .Cocoanut ;Grove
A. T. Kelley & Co ........................ Gainesville
Standard Crate Co. ......................Gainesville
The Irvine Crate & Basket Co. ................... Irvine
Lakeside Veneering Mills ................. Kissimmee
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ............... .Leesburg
Overstreet Crate Co. ........................ Lockhart
King Lumber (Co. .............................. ocatee









81

The McDowell Crate & Lumber Co. ............... Oak
Ocala Mfg. Co. ................................. Ocala
J. R. Pounds & Son ............................Ocala
L. Warnell Veneer Co .........................Plant City
W. M. Bothamly .......................... Sanford
D. N. Holway & Co. .......................Tampa
The Shelp-Weidman Co. .....................Tampa
Wauchula Mfg. Co. ...................... Wauchula
Newsom Mfg. Co ............................ Williston
Williston Mfg. Co. ......................Williston
Wolfenden & Co ....................... Worthington

BOXES, TOBACCO.

D. N. Holway & Co ............................Tampa
Sheip & Weidman Co ........................ Tampa
Tampa Cigar Box Co ..........................Tampa

CAR CONSTRUCTION.

John Marshall Co. .......................Apalachicola
Gress Mfg. Co. ........................ Jacksonville
Jacksonville Electric Co. ................ Jacksonville
Seaboard Air Line Ry. .................. Jacksonville
Florida East Coast Ry. ................. St. Augustine
Tampa Electric Co. ...........................Tampa
Edge-Dowling Lumber Co. .................Taylorville
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad ............. Wilmington

MISCELLANEOUS.

Florida Trunk Mfg. Co. ................. Jacksonville
Merrill-Stevens Co. .................. ... Jacksonville
G. M. Davis & Son .......................... Palatka
Florida Woodenware Co. .................... Palatka
Florida East Coast Ry. ................. St. Augustine
C. E. Wittmyre .............................. Tampa
6-Bull.











PLANING MILL PRODUCTS.

L. R. D avis ................................. A lachua
Standard Lumber Co. ............................ lton
Cypress Lumber Co. ................... .. Apalachicola
Aycock Lumber Co. ................. .......... Aycck
J. W Bevis .................................. Bascomn
Blountstown Mfg. Co. ....................Blountsiown
Bonifay Lumber Co. .......................... Bnifay
Southern Saw Mill Co. ...................... Bonifav
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co ................. Century
Carolina-Florida Lumber Co. .................. 'rey
Ingram-Dekle Lumber Co ................... Dade City
Beach Rogers & Co. .................DeFuniak Springs
McCormick Lumber Co. ........................DeL.and
Browning Lumber Co. ...................East Palatka
Dantzler, Williams Lumber Co. ............. Edenfleld
Geneva Lumber Co. .......................... Eleanor
Gainesville Planing & Coffin Co. ............ Gaine-ville
Holmes Lumber Co. ...........................(. Glen
Bond Lumber Co. ......................... Glenwood
Simpson & Harper .......................... Gracevil!e
E. D. Abernathy ............................ Graham
V. D. Eddy ...................... Green Cove Springs
Wager, Von Horn & Wager .......Green Cove Springs
Greenville Yellow Pine Co. ................. Greenville
Union Mfg. Co. ............................ Greenville
J. L. Greer ................ .............. Greer
Gulf Lumber & Railway Co .................. .. Helen
West & Reaves Lumber Mills ............... Inverness
Cummer Lumber Co. .....................Jacksonv.ille
The Doscher-Gardner Co. .................. Jacksonville
Enterprise Planing Mill Co. .............Jacksonville
Forsyth Street Planing Mill ............ .. Jacksonville
J. C. Halsema Mfg. Co. .................. Jacksonville
Middleburg Lumber Co. ................... Jacksonville
Morgan Lumber Co. ..................... Jacksonville
Renfroe & Williams .................... Jacksonville











Upchurch Lumber Co. .....................Jacksonville
Hamilton Lumber Co. ........................Jasper
Strickland Lumber Co. .....................Kathleen
J. Mizell & Bro. ...........................Kings Ferry
Kissimmee Lumber Co. .................. .....issimmee
Osceola Lumber Co. .....................Kissimmee
The E. W. Bond Co. ................. .....Lake Helen
Britton Lumber Co .........................Lakewood
J. S. H ussey ................................. Largo
Leesburg Saw & Planing Mill ................ Leesburg
McGehee Lumber Co. ..........................Levon
Geo. E. Porter, Jr. ....................... Madison
Marianna Mfg. Co. ......................... Marianna
Martel Lumber Co. .......................... Martel
Martin & Co. ................................ Martin
Scotland Mills ........................... Middleburg
German-American Lumber Co. ................ Millville
Alabama & Florida Lumber Co. ...................Noma
E. E. Converse ..................... ........... Ocala
Gulf Pine Co. ...............................Odessa
A. L. Beck Lumber Co. .................. O...Orlndo
Orlando Novelty Works .................. ....Orlando
Pounds Bros .......................... ..... Orlando
Otter Creek Lumber Co. ................. Otter (reek
Escambia Land & Mfg. Co. ....................... Pace
W ilson Cypress Co. ......................... Palatka
Battle Bros ................................... Pasco
Florala Saw Mill Co.................... ... .Paxton
The DeSilva & Ferriss Co. .................. Pensacola
B. C. Duvall .............................. Pensacola
Florida & Alabama Land Co. ............... Pensacola
Joel Frater Lumber Co. ................... Pensacola
S. H. Peacock .................................. Perry
McMillan Mill Co. .......................Pine Barren
Bay Point Mill Co. ........................ Pinewood
S. J. Fletcher ......................... River Junction
Rodman Lumber Co. .........................Rodman











Canfield Co ............................ St. Augu:-ine
Gulf Novelty Works .................... .t. Peterilunrg
W P. Carter & Co. ......................... anfrd
E. P. Rentz Lumber Co. ................... .ilver', urg
Childs Bros. ............................. Tallahli.--te
Tallahassee Lumber Yards .............. .. Tallaiw;--c
Gulf Pine Co. ..................... ......... Tampa
Kirkland Lumber Co. ..................... .T:.. lpa
T. W Ramsey ......... ........ ...... .... Tampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co ................... Tampa
Tarpon Springs Lumber Co. ........... Tarpon Springs
H all Lum ber Co ...................... ..... Tei ..ell
East Coast Lumber Co. ..... ........... .. Watertcrwn
W est Bros. .................... ....... .W es.tlke
Roess Lumber Co. ............... .......... Zuler


SASH, DOORS, BLINDS AND GENERAL MILLWT j K.

Cypress Lumber Co. ..................... Apalachicolia
Lamb & Price ................ ............... Ar adia
Carters Mfg. Co. ................ .......... Carters
Joe M. McCormick & Co . . . . . is
The Lumber Mfg. Co. .................. .... ain, The Doscher-Gardner Co. ............. ..acksonville
The Duval Planing Mill Co. ............. .. TJeksonville
Paul & Wayman ........................... Lakland
M. G. Rushton ............................ Manatee
Marianna Mfg. Co. ..................... .... Marianna.
Seminole Novelty Works ................. .Minmi
C. S. M arcy ............................ New Augustine
Orlando Novelty W works ............. ......... Orando
Selden Cypress Door Co. ......... .......... Palatka
E. T. Roux & Son ......................... Plant City
Quincy Variety Works ..................... .. Quiincy
G. E. Hood & Son ....................... St. A\ui tine
W H M itchell ....................... St. Au.gi sine.
St. Petersburg Novelty Works ........... St. Peterslinrg











Tracy & Richardson .............................Taft
Empire Novelty Works ........................ Tampa
Jetton Lumber Co ........................... Tampa
T. W. Ramsey .............................. Tampa
Southern Lumber & Supply Co. ................ Tampa
D. B. W hittle ................................ Tampa
Ybor City Novelty Works ......................Tampa
W. H. Lambert ............................Wauchula

SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING.

Merrill-Stevens Co. ...................... Jacksonville
W. I. Huffstetler ........................... Miami
Southside Boat Works ........................ Miami
Al McCabe ........................South Jacksonville
St. Johns River Ship Building Co.... South Jacksonville
South Jacksonville Dry Dock Co. .... South Jacksonville
Thiebeaut & Lundstrom ............ South Jacksonville
Tampa Steam Ways ............................Tampa

VEHICLES AND VEHICLE PARTS.

Chapman's Carriage Factory ............. Jacksonville
McMurray & Baker .................. ....Jacksonville
Smith & Neil Co. .........................Jacksonville
Terrill Wagon Works ....................... Lakeland
J. A. Dann Wagon Works .....................Miami
K. M. Large ................................. .Miami
G. M Dykes .................................. Miami
Magic City Wagon Works ......... ........... Miami
Florida Hickory Wagon Works ............. Tallahassee
























KUDZU

The following articles on the Kudzu vine and its value
as a forage plant for Florida, by Hon. E. B. Eppes, of
Tallahassee, and Mr. C. E. Pleas, of Chipley, Florida, are
the first authentic publications of special value or merit
concerning this plant.
The fact that both Mr. Eppes and Mr. Pleas are scientific
Agriculturists, who are successful farmers in the highest
degree, adds much weight to their statements concerning
this plant. Their experience with it continuing through
ten years or more of unfailing success, is convincing testi-
mony of its great value to the farmers of Florida. Its
adaptability to so many farm purposes undoubtedly places
it among the foremost of both forage and leguminous
plants.














KUDZU, THE MISSING LINK IN OUR CHAIN

OF LEGUMINOUS FORAGE PLANTS

By HON. E. B. EPPES, Tallahassee, Florida.

This remarkable vine gives promise of being one of
the leading sources of wealth in the Southern States in
future. It is really a pea vine that springs up from the
roots when the first warm days come in the spring of the
year and grows vigorously until a killing freeze comes
in the fall. This gives a growing season of at least eight
months in the year during which several cuttings of hay
can be made (some instances are known where four cut-
tings of hay, averaging two and one half tons per cut-
ting and making a total yield of ten tons per acre in a
single season, have been made). This hay is of the highest
quality, being equal to cow pea or alfalfa and much richer
than timothy.
The analysis made by the State Chemist of Florida
shows protein 17.43 and starch and sugar 30.20 being a
somewhat richer food than wheat bran. Another remark-
able feature is that although the hay is as rich a food
as alfalfa, yet it is entirely free from the tendency to
cause loose bowels and bloat in horses and other live
stock that interferes so seriously with the use of alfalfa.
When moistened, kudzu hay becomes almost like fresh
foliage again and makes an excellent green ration for
poultry in winter. It is well adapted for use in making
mixed feed stuffs and for all other purposes that alfalfa
can be used for.
The hay cures very quickly, retaining its leaves and
bright green color instead of shedding as cow peas and
velvet beans do; in fair weather it requires only one day
before it is ready to put in the barn. For this reason it
can be easily cured in the fields in stacks under duck
covers, thereby avoiding the expense of building barns











and saving labor by using sweep rakes instead of haul.
ing the hay on wagons, after first cutting it with a mow-
ing machine and raking it into windows with a common
horse rake. The hay is worth about $20.00 per ton and
up, making the product of an acre yield $200.00 or over.
Kudzu is of even greater value for grazing purpo-es
than for hay, as it requires no cultivation after the tirst
season and will thrive upon land that is too poor and
rough for any other crop. It has been carefully tested
on all of the types of soil found in Florida and found to
do well on all of them from pure sand to the sriffest clay.
provided the land is sufficiently drained to admit of grov-
ing corn or velvet beans: where the soil is too wet -o
grow these successfully it is also too wet for kudzu.
Like any other crop kudzu will make a stronger growthh
on rich land, but it does well on land that is too poor
for other hay crops and rapidly improves the soil by
drawing in nitrogen from the air through its leaves and
fixing it in the soil by means of the bacteria in the tuber-
cles on its roots, for it has the same power that cow
peas and other legumes have in this respect. This addi..
tion of nitrogen to the soil and the protection from wash-
ing rains and the baking heat of the sun afforded by the
dense growth of vines, causes rapid improvement in the
quality of the land planted in kudzu; even poor, worn
out land soon becomes like the rich soil that has been
recently cleared from the virgin forest. Yet although
poor land becomes rich within a few years when planted
in kudzu it is advisable to use some fertilizer on such
soil the first season in order to hasten the growth of the
kudzu until it can draw in this atmospheric nitrogen.
After this it will not require fertilizing, for its deep root
system draws potash and phosphoric acid from the sub-
soil while its leaves draw all of the nitrogen needed by
the plant from the air. In this way the soil becomes
richer every year instead of becoming exhausted as from
growing grasses for hay. These deep roots live to a great










age and become stronger and more vigorous as the years
pass by.
One planting is permanent and the yield of hay in-
creases as the ground becomes more thickly set with
plants from the vines, taking root at the joints. The
great number of vines struggling for air and light have
a tendency to become more slender and leafy also, and
this improves the quality of the hay by eliminating any
coarse vines, thereby enabling horses and other live stock
to eat it up cleanly without wasting any of it. The vines
that run along the surface throw out roots at the joints
that become new plants and bind the soil firmly together,
thereby preventing the washing and erosion of hill sides
by heavy rains. While this improvement of the soil is
taking place the field is giving fine returns to its owner
by the immense supply of rich green forage, on which the
cattle, horses and other live stock can graze, thereby
keeping fat and in fine health at a very small cost for
eight months of the year.
The roots of the kudzu penetrate so deeply as to make
it proof against any dry weather that is ever likely to
prevail here. This feature and its peculiar habit of neither
blooming or bearing seed causes the vines to remain green
and growing during the entire term from spring to fall.
The hay can accordingly be cut at any time that is con-
venient when weather conditions are suitable for curing
the hay, as kudzu does not become injured by waiting
for good weather as other hay crops do. This feature
gives an immense advantage over any other hay crop.
Kudzu is propagated by means of the plants that have
rooted from the joints of the vines and when transplanted
carry with them on their roots the tubercles that are
needed to inoculate the soil of the new field so as to
provide for fixing the nitrogen from the air into the
soil. In planting kudzu, first plow the land deeply and
harrow it, then check it into rows 81/2 feet apart each
way, setting a plant at each check. Lay tap roots along










the bottom of the furrow with crowns slanting upward
to within two inches of the surface, covering them with
loose earth to the level of the surface. This requires
1,018 plants per acre. Give them level cultivation during
the first season. A row of cotton may be grown between
each row of kudzu the first season if desired. After this
they will need no further cultivation, as the vines will
run all over the ground the next season and take root at
the joints, growing so rapidly as to choke out all other
plants, (even such pests as nut, Johnson and Bermuda
grasses), yet, it is an easy matter to get rid of kudzu if
desired, for the plants will only sprout from the crowns
and can be killed by cutting off these crowns with a disk
plow in hot, dry weather in summer. For this reason
there is no danger of kudzu ever becoming a pest.
Kudzu will be an excellent crop to replace cotton in
boll weevil sections; the demand for the hay is strong
and there is no danger of raising too much, as it can be
sent to all parts of the world for a market. After the
first season there will be no further expense except for
harvesting the hay, which requires much less labor than
making cotton, and it will enrich the soil instead of
making it poorer as cotton does; this will avoid having to
buy fertilizers. It is free from insect enemies and dis-
eases also, and for these various reasons will be far more
profitable than cotton.
Agricultural scientists have been searching in vain for
such a plant as kudzu and it will fill a long-felt want
among our farmers; unfortunately, however, the supply
of plants is very limited and the demand for them can-
not be fully supplied for many years to come.
Kudzu is perfectly hardy all over the United States
and endures the winters as far north as Nova Scotia.
It will therefore be a valuable crop in the northern States
as well as in the South, although the longer growing
season South will be an advantage.











KUDZU AND JAPANESE SUGAR CANE


The Solution of the Forage Problem
in the South

By C. E. PLEAS, Chipley, Florida.

The man who first introduced Kudzu to America as a
forage plant.

One great cause for the slow development in Southern
Agriculture has been, the lack of good nutritious pas-
tures and roughage that lasts throughout the entire year.
What we need, is a forage that stock can live fat on
the year round. There are many most valuable cultivated
crops that make great yields, etc., but their period of
mature life is short, making frequent plantings neces-
sary in order to have a complete succession. The Velvet
Bean is an all season crop, yet it is not ready to feed till
November. The cow pea, soy bean and the various sor-
ghums and millets are good forage crops, but all must
be planted in succession, and cultivated for best results.
And for those that are to be harvested before feeding,
the farmer only has a few days in which to get it in
in its prime condition and that is frequently impossible
in sections of frequent rains, especially during the rainy
season.
All the legumes, (with the exception of Kudzu), are
more or less bad about dropping their leaves and shat-
tering while curing and harvesting. And a heavy rain
on them, or any of the grass, hays or fodders, while cur-
ing, means serious injury if not ruin. Kudzu over comes
all these difficulties and has many other features in its
favor. One planting lasts for many years and it may
be cut or pastured at any time during the season, from
aoout the middle of April, in North Florida, till frost and











where a growth is left on the ground, stock will feed on it
all winter. I found that my stock would eat the dead
leaves and vines that had lain out and weathered till
March, and then been hauled in for bedding, in prefer-
ence to the best hay I could buy. They ate the Kudzu
out from under their feet and left the $20.c0 hay in
their mangers.
The next winter after making this discovery I liha all
this trash raked up and hauled and piled outside the barn
before we began .1;-.li.. and shipping planet,. and win-
tered two horses and a milk cow and a calf or tw,,. ain that
alone as roughage, giving them their usual grain feed of
course, and every one of them came through the winter
in as good condition, as they had formerly done on good
hay.
I do not mention this to advocate such a method but
merely to illustrate the fact that Kudzu does not lose
its feeding value as readily by rain or neglect, as other
forage plants do and that there is something about it.
even in its poorest condition, that appeals to the animal's
appetite. And the properly cured hay has a delicious
fragrance, resembling tea, that is irresistable to stock.
To illustrate the endurance of Kudzu hay in rainy
weather, I would cite that in 1908, we made our first
cutting with a two horse mower, cutting 5-12 of an acre
in July, from young plants set the year before. The yield
was 2.88 tons per acre and when almost dry the following
morning after cutting, it rained just enough to soak the
hay good. When dry the next day and men were in the
field cocking it up, there came a very hard rain and it
drizzled along for three days. Just how badly it suffered
could not be determined, but it looked better than velvet
bean hay ever does and the stock ate it with apparent
relish. In 1912, we cut near 20 tons from about six acres
planted in 1910, and with the exception of about two
tons, that were cut before the rainy season set in, all of
it was thoroughly soaked one or more times, while cur-










ing, and yet, no one who did not know the facts would
suspect that it had even had a drop of water on it and
it was doubtless better than most shipped hay.
As to Kudzu's adaptability for cutting or pasturing
at any time during the season, I would point out that
hay taken May 1st, analyzed 17.60% protein. That taken
July 30th, (a third cutting), analyzed 14.80% protein,
while that which had stood all the season without cutting
or pasturing, analyzed 1,- ..'''. protein, and an exception-
ally well cured sample analyzed as high as 19.82% protein
and about 35% carbohydrates.
In my 35 years experience in farming in different
States, and with various hay crops, I have never seen a
hay that cured so quickly, held its leaves so well, or kept
its color so perfectly, under various conditions, as Kudzu
does. It does not require lime, as is the case with Alfalfa
and some other legumes. It does not require a rich soil
and so far as our experiments have gone during the past
ten years, fertilizing is not only unnecessary but unprofit-
able, and I have had plantings in which some were located
in the very poorest of soils; soil that would not produce
corn, melons or even cow peas, and with the exception,
that the young plants did not start off quite so readily
on these poor spots, no one could tell the difference at the
end of the second season.
We -have never used a pound of fertilizer of any kind
except in a very small way as an experiment and I am
safe in saying that our poorest soil will produce six tons
of dry hay per acre, in a season, when the plants become
matured, without fertilizer, and I have had as high as
ten tons per acre' on ordinary soil.
Kudzu is known to thrive in all the United States as
an ornamental vine and therefore it must be adapted to a
greater variety of soils and conditions, than almost any
other plant; and if it will thrive thus as an ornament,
why not under field conditions, making allowance of










course for a proportional yield as the season is long or
short in different localities.
Our native cattle manage to subsist the year 1ro:,nd
on the indigenous wire grass and for two or three months
in the spring are fat enough for the block, while many
die of starvation during the winter, and are too poor
to butcher the balance of the year, for the want of nutri-
tion. Blooded stock cannot stand range conditions ard
subsist on wiregrass alone. They require nutritious feed
the year round and Kudzu comes nearer filling this want
than any other one forage, yet it is deficient in some feed
elements and to make up the deficiency I recommend lhe
Japanese Sugar Cane, the two making practically a
balanced nation. The best way of feeding this combina-
tion, is, in my mind, to put the cane in the silo and pas-
ture the Kudzu during the growing season, with the cane
silage to balance, say a feed at night, and in winter, feed
Kudzu hay and silage.
This cane is a true sugar cane and not a sorghum and
is not propagated from seed but by laying the matured
stalks, which grow very readily and increases in fieldd
from year to year, stooling out from the past sea-ion's
stubble, each year, until it makes a very dense growth
and producing as many as 75 or 100 stalks to a single
hill, with a yield of 25 tons or more of green forage per
acre.
But for the farmer who cannot afford a silo, this cane
may be cut and piled, about frost time, and fed in racks.
first running it through a cutter or chopping it into
short lengths, or it may even be pastured, but pasturing
is wasteful, as is also the method of feeding the stalks
whole, as much will be tramped under foot.
This cane is adapted to the various soils of our gulf
coast region from South Carolina to Texas and for a
distance of some 250 to 300 miles north of the gulf. For
sections north of the limits of this, cane sorghum m:ay be











substituted, though an annual and not nearly so produc-
tive.
In the green state, Kudzu contains less water than the
clovers, cow peas, velvet beans and alfalfa, etc., which
enables it to cure so quickly, the heaviest cuttings re-
quiring only 24 to 28 hours in ordinary weather.
It does not injure horses like alfalfa and is less liable
to cause bloat in cattle than clover. In fact, it has every
evidence of being ideal for all kinds of stock, and for
dairy purposes. One test was to feed it to a milk cow
that had never produced yellow butter in the two years
we had owned her. The effect was like magic and in a
few days time she was making the first yellow butler
since we had owned her and on the dry hay at that.
We have not been able to pasture Kudzu or cut it very
extensively owing to the great demand for plants which
has required our entire acreage to be devoted to plant
production, but we, as well as others have tried it suffi-
ciently to know that it is entirely successful, if not over
pastured. Our plan is to have a succession of three or
four fields and when one is pretty well eaten down say
in two or three weeks, turn into the next, etc.
Most people think that because Kudzu is a vine and
makes such a tremendous growth in a season that it
must be practically impossible to cut and handle it as a
hay crop. Our repeated experience has been that it is no
more trouble to cut or handle than a like heavy crop
of red clover, Mexican Clover or pursley, crabgrass or
any other hay that makes a matted growth and it is far
less trouble to handle than either cow pea or velvet bean
hay. Unlike the velvet beans or cow peas, Kudzu is
anchored to the ground every few inches so that the vines
can not drag ahead of the mower blade, as do the cow-
peas and beans.
We do not look for the dividing line in cutting but
watch the left mower wheel instead and see that it fol-
7-Bull.










lows in the track of the right wheel of the previous round.
We straighten out the guard rod, on the inner shoe of the
cutter bar and set it forward and just as high a. will
allow the doubletrees to pass over it without hanging
and the trick is done. Every vine is thus forced dovwn iby
the traces and under this rod and cut in two. leavi :c,,
cross vines longer than the width of the swarh.
We turn the hay with forks inunediately after nl :ng
and in doing this it is an easy matter to separate ii
fork fulls and handle it the same way Throuhiir 7lie
process of curing, loading and housing, and when thus
handled in bunches it will come out of the miw 'he
same way in feeding and is easier taken out of the i ,ow
than any other loose hay 1 have ever handled.
On a heavy crop of three or three and a half ii,,- .er
acre, there is little need of a rake, as it is nor Tih --..1-
ble to gather up that short hay is and where' in t : iw ,ck
it covers about 1-4 the ground. But when we dl rake it
we use a weeder for a rake. The teeth stand str.iiThi
down and do not catch on the ground vines, yet serves
the purpose perfectly.
1 believe the side delivery rake would work iin KI':;izu
all right though I have not Iried it.
Some writers and farm papers in describing and ,lon-
menting on Kudzu, make the mistake of saying that lie
vine is coarse and grows very large. This is in : -ense
true, when the vines are allowed to grow for years wirh-
out cutting or pasturing, hut as a field crop. hlie sraTe-
ment is misleading, for when allowed to stand ilie -nri:e
season, the vines are no coarser than velvet beans ;ind
they become woody when cut as hay. Under iold r ndi-
tions, the vines rarely live over winter and uismllv die
back between the plants. But even if they diI live over
it would be an easy matter to go over the fields wri, a
disc or cut away harrow and remedy that during winTel.
Even that will be unnecessary when pasturing, fr Tihe











stock will tramp these runners so that they will .,evr
make trouble.
After years of experimenting with the various methods
of propagating Kudzu we have discarded all except the
self rooted plants. The seed germinate very poorly if
at all and must be grown in beds for a year before trans-
planting and the resulting plants usually have but one
root, a tap root, that cannot be taken out whole. True,
the self rooted plants cannot be taken out wholo but
they have many branches usually which is far li(-iter
than only one piece.
The cutting method of propagating, we discarded ;ific'r
several unsuccessful attempts. We could get perlalps
one per cent to live, but they never made vigorous !,!nts
and had the same fault as the seedlings--they were nt
innoculated.
Our self rooted plants are all innoculated, in fa't it
would be impossible to find one that does not carry the
bacteria with it when handled in the usual manner. Th'us
soil inoculation is unnecessary.
For planting, I prefer old ground or at least second
year new ground, and if possible land that had vlvei
beans on it the year previous. I break the ground "b',oad-
cast" and prepare it as for a seed bed by using the drag
last. Then I lay it off in five foot rows and set the plants
about every five feet in the row. This will require haout
1600 plants per acre. One man and a boy can set se-er al
acres in a day. The man carries a shovel and opens up
the holes by sticking it in the roundd and pressing the
handle forward, while the boy, carrying the plants, slicks
them in back of the shovel, with the crowns about an
inch below the surface. The shovel is removed and the
man steps on each side of the lannt ro press the ,'arth
firmly, after it falls back on the plant.
The proper time for planting Kudzu is two to three
weeks in advance of corn planting time or a little earlier











if one can get the ground ready. A full crop of corn
may be grown on the same land, the first year, by dropping
the grains between the plants. Neither will interfere
with the other and both need about the same attention.
only the ground shall be left smooth and level at the
last cultivation to permit easy rooting of the vines or
runners and subsequent mowing for hay. Plants canno-
root so well on a rough surface.
The advantages of Kudzu over other hay crops are al
most legion and one cannot realize them, until he ha.
fully tried it out. Some get the idea that It will become
a pest, once they get it on their farms. I have had it for
ten years and have not found it so in any particular If
it gets into the fence rows let it go and you will soon
have some most valuable feed in the place of the Nworth-
less weeds and briars, When your crops are off. turn the
stock in and they will clear your fence corners out. If
you ever do wish to get rid of it, (and I would nor a;l-
vise it as it is the most valuable crop one can raise..
put enough stock on it to keep it grazed close for bout
two months in the spring and the work is done. Or it
may be thoroughly broken, preferably with a disc plow.
after cutting, during the hottest dryest seasons, or after
killing frosts in the fall and rarely ever a plant will
survive.
At the nominal price of hay, which is abour 82i..n
per ton in the South, and at the low estimate of five tons
per acre, think what a few acres of Kudzu would mean.
I have yet to see any other crop that will yield surh a
revenue with so little labor and expense, and at the same
time build up the soil.
It has taken the velvet bean fifteen or more years il
reach its present state of popularity and usefulness, and
there are now thousands of head of cattle and hog. fat-
tened on it annually and I venture the assertion that
in fifteen years there will be ten limes as many fattenei
on Kudzu and Japanese Cane.




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