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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Articles on pig-feeding, hog cholera,...
 Crop acreages and conditions
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00027
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Articles on pig-feeding, hog cholera, cattle breeding and peanut culture
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Pig-feeding
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Hog cholera
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Hog cholera serum
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Native and grade cattle-breeding
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        The peanut: its culture and uses
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Crop acreages and conditions
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
        Composition of fertilizer materials
            Page 104
        Commercial state values of feed stuffs
            Page 105
        Average composition of commercial feed stuffs
            Page 106
            Page 107
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
        Official fertilizer analyses
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
        Special feeding stuff analyses
            Page 115
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
        Food and drug section
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
        Special food analyses
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
Full Text












FLORIIDA

QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


APRIL 1, 1913


W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part 1-Articles on Pig Feeding, Cattle Breeding, and Pea-
nut Culture.
Part 2-Crop Acreages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida


r
I


VOLUME 23


NUMBER 2




































COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA




















PART I.

ARTICLES ON PIG-FEEDING, HOG CHOLERA,
CATTLE BREEDING AND
PEANUT CULTURE.
















PIG-FEEDING.

VY J.110IN 3M. SCO TT

Animal Industrialist and Assistant Direclor A. ...:t'li
Experiment Station.




M .\!A1RY.

This bulletin gives the results of experiments with
eighty-seven pigs. All of these pigs were pure-bred Berk-
shires. The experiments were conducted al: different sea-
sons of the year. The length of the feeding periods
varied from 30 to 114 days.
The cost of producing a pound of pork w :ts different
with the different rations. The cheapest pork was pr-
duced at a cost of six and eight-tenths cents per poumn.
The feeds used in producing this cheap pork were shelled
corn and sweet potatoes in equal parts by weight. This
experiment was conducted during January and February.
During the thirty days the pigs were fed they made a
daily average gain of 0(.65 of a pound, cr an average daily
gain per 101)0 pounds live weight of 6.43 pounds. I re-
quired 512.7 pounds of feed to make 100 pounds of gaii.
(See Tables XIII and XIV.)
The most unsatisfactory financial returns were in E;x-
periment 11. In this test velvet beans in the pod, Jap-
anese cane, and sweet potatoes were used. Lot I, con-
sisting of five pigs fed velvet beans in the pod, made a
gain of only 23 pounds in sixty days. Lot II. consist-
ing of five pigs fed equal paris by- weight of velvet beamn
in the pod and Japanese cane, gained only 4.3 pIounds











in sixty days. Lot 111, consisting of five pigs fed velvi-t
beans one part and Japanese cane two parts by weight.
lost 7.7 pounds in weight in sixty days. Lot IV. con-
sisting of five pigs fed Japanese cane, lost 61 pounds in
weight in sixty days. Lot V, consisting of five pigs fed
velvet beans in the pod and sweet potatoes, equal pJtIs
by weight, gained only 12.3 pounds in sixty days. S
Tables 111 and IV.)
This shows clearly that none of these rations weri:
satisfactory. Velvet beans in the pod, when fed alone,
gave better results than any of the other comininalr ins-
It is evident from these results that Japanese ,-nM is-
not a good feed for pork production when fed al,,ne.
Neither was it satisfactory when it made up na minl: as
one-half of the ration.
In Experiment I, when shelled corn, velvet lea;n in ihe
pod, and Japanese cane were fed, satisfactory gains were
obtained. The cost per pound of gain was eight and -ix-
tenths cents. In this test it required 1400 pounds of
feed to make 100 pounds of gain. This large weight ,f
feed was due to the Japanese cane. (See Talles I ;and
II).
In Experiment III, Lot I, fed shelled corn inly. made
a daily gain per 100 pounds live weight of 4.4 pomuns.
The cost per pound of gain was eight cents. F',ir every
100 pounds of gain produced it required .546 pounds of
feed. Lot IT, fed shelled corn and cull velvet beans. equal
parts by weight, made an average daily gain per 1000
pounds live weight of only 3.3 pounds. With this com-
bination of feeds it cost ten cents to make a pound of
gain, and it required 707 pounn:s of feed to make 100
pounds of gain. Lot ITT. fed equal parts hy weight of
shelled corn, cull velvet beans and shorts, made an aver-
age daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight of 4.7 pounds.
The cost per pound of gain wilh these feeds was nine
cents. With this combination it required 641 pounds of
feed to make 100 pounds of gain. Lot IV was fed the











same as Lot II, with the addition of green sorghum.
This ration produced a daily gain of 4.5 pounds per
thousand pounds live weight. The cost per pound of
gain was eight cents. It required 1113 pounds of feed
to make 100 pounds of gain. When we remember that
520 pounds of this is green sorghum, the total amount
will not seem so excessive.

COMPOSITION OF THE ANIMAL BODY AND
ANIMAL PRODUCTS.

Investigators have found that the bodies of animals, as
well as animal products, are mainly made up of the fol-
lowing group of substances: Water, ash, protein, and
fat. These substances occur in the animal body in some-
what varying proportions, depending upon the age, con-
dition, treatment and other factors. Water is an essen-
tial constituent of the animal body, and composes from
40 to 60 per cent. of the live weight. Ash occurs most-
ly in the bones, and forms from 2 to 5 per cent. of the
live weight. The fat occures in greatly varying propor-
tions, but rarely constitutes less than G per cent. or more
than 30 per cent. Protein includes most of those sub-
stances which contain nitrogen in Iheir composition. It
is an important group, and is largely present in lean
meat. The white of eggs also consist mainly of protein
and water. In its pure state protein contains about 16
per cent. of nitrogen. The flesh, internal organs, brains
and nerves, contain a large proportion of it.

COMPOSITION OF FEEDS.

Plants also contain water, ash, fat and protein. In
addition to these the plants which compose the food of
herbivorous animals contain a group of substances called
carbohydrates (starches, sugars, etc.) which may be con-
verted into fat or energy.










\WATER.-All food-i I!i-, no matter how ddry tlhe may
seem, contain a considerable amount of water. In glaini
and dry feeds the water ranges from 3 to 15 per cetil. ,f
the material; in green forage and silage it is albot i ptIer
cent.; while in some tubers and fleshy roits the water
reaches as high as 90 per cent. Water is essential to
animal life, and in food it fulfills the same fu ici(-i as
that drunk by tie animal. In cankllating tie fidl valie
of any feeding material tlle water contained is. of alluree
not taken into consideration.

ASt.--When a food stuff is burned until the organic
matter is all driven olf, the residue is the ash It is com-
posed largely of lime, magnesia, potash, sulphuric aind
phosphoric acids, and a few other oxides. The ash of the
food is the source of the mineral matter found in the
animal body, and as such is of importance. Ordinary
combinations of feeding stuffs, however, usually ronrain
an abundant supply of mineral matter for tlie use of the
animal; so this is not often a matter ol' prnT t li-; i i-1n-
cern, except as it lhas a hearing on ithe iiiinl.iil rl n
of fertility in the manure.
FATs.-Thiis class of substances inclules ti e fat in rThe
meat or butter which we ealt. The ll oporoliin nI far
in feeding stuffs vary willin wide limits. I ,'~r"A,].
seeds and their by-products contain mrle fal iiii c.m:.rl i
fodder. Straws contain less fat tlan hav m Tlhe ;,ii.ir
varying froni one-1hlf to (me and a half per cent. Bin
little fat is found in the dry matter olf r(oi n. TOl!i r,
Corn and oats contain from four to five. while cTrrTn-
seed meal contains from eight to twelve per cemn. of far.
CARBOIIYDRATES.-This class includes st;.arlch sugar. l"u
and other minor substances. and also the filler or woild
part of plants. The first are quile freely digested: rhe
last is much less so, though fulfilling the same fiunri,'n as
far as it is digested. The carbohydrates cTtnstirtre the
largest part of most veget ale foods. They are nOt stored










in the body as such, but are converted into fat, or used
to produce heat and energy. Since the carbohydrates
andi flas serve nearly the same purpose in the animal
body, they may, for convenience, be grouped together.
ExLperiments, however, have shown that fat, as a food,
is aboul two and one-fourth timers as effective, weight for
weight, as are the carbohydrates. That is, one pound of
fat will produce aboutll as much heat or energy as two
and one-quarler pounds of carbohydrates.
PROTEINl.--The protein of foods, like that of the animal
body is characterized by colonaiing nitrogen. It is, Ihere-
fore, included in what is termed -inilrogenoias matterr"
The function of protein in the food is first of all to build
up new tissue and repair the working machinery of ihe
body. and to supply material for tie production of milk,
wo'l. mlluscle, and repair of organs. No other f(ood c(n-
stinentl can fullil! ihis function.
Since tlihe animal body and all animal products are
comil:psed of tle same Lgrioup of substances is food stul's
contain, we have ai basis o( which to begin thle feeding of
animals. National feeding of animals is to supply these
dilffereHnl eleienis in sulilaiient quantilt and in the proper
proportions for tle icels of the animal's body. This is
wxha.t is known ais a balanced ration. We should not,
(or ano. expect ani llnilml to grow and develop as it
ouglil less we supply it with the proper amounts of
tlie I:l'i'e'ei substances its body needs. There is no one
hoi feed, excepting' milk, thai supplies all of the neces-
sary vmtrlienis in the correct ratio. It is necessary. there-
fore, lo use a mixture of 1wo or more feeds to get the
best results.
Tn selecting and combining feeds it is not only necessary
to iake into consideration their composition. but also
their digestibility and palatability. It is worse than use-
less to give an animal a food that cannot be digested, and
one that is not palatable will not be eaten in sufficient
quantity.










10


HOW TO CALCULATE RATIONS.


From tile table which gives the percentage iof 1lig-trib.
nutrients in the various feeds we can easily work Oin u a
balanced ration. For example, suppose we are feeiii..
flint corn 12. sweet potatoes 12, cottonseed meal 1.75. and
cowpeas 5 pounds per day, to find the amount nf Iprtein
in 12 pounds of corn, we divide the amount in 100 poundN
(the percentage) by 100, and multiply by 12, and s, on.
We will thus get the following results:

CORN.

In 1nn pounds I' 12 poured
Crude protein ..................... .. .0 .9
Carbohydrates ..................... .... .1.2 7.4
Fat .............. ..................... 4.3 5 1


SWEET POTATOES.

In 100 pounds
Crude protein ........................... .8
Carbohydrates .... ..................... 22.9
Fat .................................... 0.2

COTTONSEED MEAL.

In 100 pounds
Crude protein ......................... ;7.6
Carbohydrates ...................... ... 21.4
Fat ..................................... 9.6

COWPEAS.

In 100 pounds
Crude protein .......................... 1. ;.S
Carbohydrates ................. ........ 4.9
F at .................................... 1.1


In 12 pound<
0 19





In 1.75 pc.uns

037
17



In 5 pounds

2.74


If we then arrange these results in another table we
have:


Pounds
C orn .................... 12
Sweet potatoes .......... 12
Cottonseed meal ......... 1.75
Cowpeas ................ 5.

Total ................. 30.75


Protein Carbohydrates Fat
Pounds Pounds Poun(s
0.96 7.94 0.51
0.09 2.75 0.03
0.66 0.37 0.17
0.84 2.74 0.06

2.55 13.S0 :.7












One pound of fat is equal to 2.25 pounds of carbohy-
drates; therefore, we can reduce the fat to carbohydrates
by multiplying 0.77 pounds of fats by 2.25 and the result
is 1.73. Adding this to the carbohydrates, we get 15.53
pounds total carbohydrates. Dividing the total carbo-
hydrates, 15.53, by the total protein, 2.55, gives 6.09. The
nutritive ratio then is one part protein to 6.09 parts car-
bohydrates, and is written 1:6.09.


SOME GOOD RATIONS.

Any one of the following rations should be found sat-
isfactory for fattening hogs. The question of cost will,
of course, enter into the selection of a ration. It will
be found necessary, perhaps, to estimate the cost of the
different feeds and see which will be the most economical
to use.

RATION I.
Protein Carbhyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ...... ........ .. 12 0.96 7.94 0.51
Sweet potatoes ...... 10 0.09 2.75 0.03
Cottonseed meal ..... 1.75 0.66 0.37 0.17
Cowpeas ............ 5 0.84 2.74 0.06
ToTal .............. 30.75 2.55 13.30 0.77
Nutritive ratio, 1:6.

RATION II.

I Protein Carbhyd. Fat
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Corn ................ 15 1.20 9.93 0.64
Soy means .......... 3 0.87 0.70 [ 0.44
Dwarf Essex rape .... 25 0.50 2.02 0.05
Total .............. 43 2.57 12.65 1.13
Nutritive. ratio. 1 :5.9.













RATION III.

SProtein
Pound Pounds
Sorghum seed ....... 10 0.45
Corn ................ 10 0.80
Cowpeas ............. 7.5 1.26
Total .......... 27.5 i 2.51
Nutriltiv ratio. 1 :1.

FEEDS.


Carbhyd.
Pound-
6.ll
3.31
4.11
13.5:;


Faz
Pounds
0.24
0.43
0.01
7 T7a-


Average Percentage Composition and Digestible Matter.


Carb'hy-
drates


Feedinll Stuffs






Flint corn ........
Corn meal ........
Corn and cob meal.!
Wheat bran ......
Shorts ............
Cowpea ...........
Soy bean ..........
Kaffir corn ........
Sorghum seed .....
Milo maize seed...
Cottonseed ........
Cottonseed meal ..
Sunflower seed .. ..
Chufa .............
Sorghum, green .. ..
Cowpeas, green .
Skim Milk ........


10.5 1'.,
9.2 1.9
S.5 6.6
15.4, 9.0
16.9 6.2
2051 3.9
33.5 4.5
11.2' 2.7
9.1 2.6
10.7 3.0
S.4 23 2
45.:;' G.3
10.3; 29 9
0.7 2.2


-7




T0.1 5.0'
68.7 3.S
64. 3S.5
53.9 4.10
56.2 5. 1
56.3, 1.5
2S.31 17.2
71.5 3.1

72.2 2.'
24.7 19.'
24.0 1i.2
21.4 21.2
10.5 0.


4.7 '.1'


Bul termilk ........ 0.1 4.1 ... 4.0 1.1
Dwarf Essex rape.... ... .... .
Sweet potatoes ... ... .
Berm uda grass ..... . . ..


4.4n
11.9

12.'
2'.

4.5
45.
12.5




1 '
I2.'


0.1
1.3


5.1 0.2
1'.4 '.4


1POIK I' ) )ITT'I( N


Pork production in Fll rida is inilt r'ceivinX lt'. aTrife
tion it deserves. At file ]ptrese l Tiie there 1 art- ptetlllap












a hall' million head of hogs in the Slate. This number,
howev er, does not supply the demand for pork. Fifty per
cent, ior more, of the pork consumed in Florida is pro-
duced in States farther north. Florida fan-mers can cer-
tainly produce pork more cheaply tlian the cost of pro-
duction elsewhere plus the freight.
'o make the largest profit from hogs they should be pun
on the market at the youngest possible age. Many of
the Florida hogs are from one year to a year and a half
old before Ihey are ready for market. The Florida nma-
ket demands a hog that will weigh 125 to Lcil pounds.
Animals of such weight can le produced in five to seven
months. When they have to le kept and fed for a year
to a year and a half, the risk of loss and the cost of feed
become too great to yield any assured profit. Farmers
in the corn bell, wherlie he demand is for hogs weighing
from 200) to 25-0 pounds, have heir hogs ready for mar-
ket at nine months to one year of age.
There is a too common impression among' many farm
ers that the hog is a sort of scavenger, that any refuse will
do for it to eat, and any filthy pen will doi for it to live
in. It is true that hogs do often act as scavengers, and
also that they can live in filthy places, but these condi-
tions are generally brought about when lihe animals have
no choice in the matter. Hogs are not naturally filthy
animals, hut they are capable of existing under unsan-
itary conditions.

PEN-FEEDING; UNPROFITABLE.

If we are to get 1he largest possible returns from rais-
ing hogs it will be found necessary to make ihe hogs pay
for their keep. How can this be done? One of the best
ways will be to insist upon ihem harvesting the crops
grown for feed. The cost of harvesting the various crops
adds considerably to the cost of production. This, in a
measure. explains the high cost of production when we











try to raise hogs by keeping them in small pen-. \Vhen
they are kept in small pens we do not only have ti har-
vest and carry the feed to them, but in many ce;i- we
are obliged to carry all the water which they drink.
Therefore we should make the hogs harvest as ma.r. 'f
the crops as is practicable.
In the small pen it is impossible to keep the animals
under sanitary conditions. If they are not kept under
healthy conditions we are inviting disease to vi-it lhe
herd, which means a big loss instead of a profit. It will
also be found that hogs will not make as rapid growth
while kept shut up in small pens as when given the run
of a small field.


CHOOSING A BREED.

There are many breeds of hogs. Some breeds are lier-
ter adapted to certain climatic conditions than ither-.
For Florida there are several breeds that will be fi nil
well adapted to our needs.
Farmers wishing to produce pork should raise Birk-
shires, Poland Chinas, Duroc Jerseys, and Essex. Tih 'e
wishing to produce bacon should raise Hampshires ond
Tamworths. A hog that is raised for pork alone or rnr
bacon alone is more profitable to us than iine rha i-
raised for both pork and bacon. In general. Fl'rida i- h-
ditions are more favorable for 1prk pril.>ri tiii Thn ."r
bacon.
In selecting a breed for Fl)rida cimdiriins i wil
found advisable not to select a white im as these l
not do as well in our climate as the black or ri-ed lree -.
White hogs sun-scald easily and become scurf.v and
mangy. When in such a condition they can ,nt le l x-
pected to grow and develop as they would if healthy. If
given an abundance of shade and water at all times there
is less trouble from this source.












However, the selection of the breed is a personal mat-
ter. A person should choose the one he fancies most and
which will produce the results he desires. It may be
that the Duroc Jersey will meet with your approval, while
your neighbor across the road will say that the Berk-
chire is the only breed for him. This is because lie has
had better success with the Berkshire, and is prl,.:!bly
better temperamentally adapted to that breed. There-
fore select the breed you like best, barring the white
ones.

GRADING ITP.

The disappearance of unimproved blood ty the con
tinuous use of pure-bred sires is shown in the cusi jiar .
way in the following table:

Sires Dams Offspring
Pet. of Pet. of Pet of
Generations Pure breed Pure breed Pure breed
1 ........................ 100 0 50
2 ....................... 100 50 75
3 ........................ 100 75 87.5
4 ........................ 100 7S.5 93.75
5 ........................ 100 93.75 96.87
6 ...................... 100 96.87 98.44

Hypothetically the offspring from the sixth generation
will have retained on the average 1.5I per cent of unim-
proved blood from the original dam or the dam of no
breeding. (This applies only to the average of large
numbers, and does not apply to individuals.)
The breeder must 1(e c(,:Aiinded that to I produce the high
grade no other sire than a pure-bred one of the breed
selected can be used. No progress will he accomplished
by using a grade, scrub, or crossbred sire. Nor can pro-
gress toward eventual purity of blood be made by using
pure-bred sires of different breeds for each cross or occa-
sional cross. Grading-up means using a pure-bred sire
for the first cross and continuously crossing the female












offspring w ith pure-bred sires of the breed first select li.
until all impure blood has been practically bred ,or.
It is not necessary for Ihe farmer who is prii.l]1.:il
pork for the mlarkelt to keep a hreedingl herd of ri:-re',,d
sows. A herd of high grades will answer the piijp.
nearly as well and thiey caln le 1puichiaed iat a :1 Il.
cheaper rate. The one important thing is That the i .i
er use a pulre-bred sire. If he liust star with a ]herd
inferior sows, by using a pure-bred sire it will only w.
a iqueslion of 1wo o1r lhree years until le wil li ave
herd of good grades.

IAi[4'ATION AN (;IN \1 E I;(4)1'S.

The ideal farm for raising hog's is one ili li ,:'.
an abundance iof shade, with enough fresh ruliiniii \\ix-.
and in addition a liberal amount of grazing. I1 111;
not lie (possible 1o find all of these conditions i ainrr]i
in one iehl, lint they can l he supplied at a cumIparlivelx
small outlay. Shade can he furnished in a short line 11v
planting some (quickly-growing Irees 14r. shr lihllliery [f
llecessary5 sonii a;niuals Iinay he gl ni i' fii' t1 e tl'-r \,; !
until the permlanen plantings liecome larg. eonil. i
supply the shade. If there is not already a -.il-
amiount of water at hiand, it can hle supplied ],v '!, iniL'
down a well and erecting a windmill or installing a g_1a
line engine. The suplyd of fresh water is as imprl Itant
to the welfare of the hog, as is lhe grain given. Ti i. well
known that if pigS are not given an labundanrice if water
they will not fatten as rapidly as 11he shnlid
Soilm kind of green feed for the hogs in gr]'ae '. or
as soiling, will gio a long way toward: redillin2 71- O' t
of production. The green feed sunipied will nort anirelv
replace the grain: butt it will replace a part of ir. and at
the same time increase the gain that it is p.s get froii a given amount of grain. For instance if one
hundred pounds of corn fed alone will produce eiihr or











ten pounds of pork, Ihis same amount of corn when fed
with some green feed wil produce from 12 to 15 pounds
of pork. This is not entirely due to the food value of
the green feed, but partly to the fact that the green feed
regulates and tones up the digestive and circulatory sys-
tent and keeps the animals in healthy condition.

There is hardly any grass or grain that hogs will not
eat when green, and there are many weeds on which they
will feed. The following is a list of useful forage crops
for hogs in Florida. The crops in this list will give pas-
ture through the entire year.

Can be pastured from
Dwarf Essex Rape......................... December to March
Japanese Cane ............................ November to March
Rye, Oats, Barley .......................... November to April
Sorghum ................................... .M ay to November
Chufas .................................. August to December
Sweet Potatoes .........................October to December
Cowpeas and Soybeans ..................... July to November
Peanuts ............................... September to December

For a permanent pasture it is doubtful if we can get
anything better than Bernmda and Johnson grass. These
do not furnish pasturage for the entire year, but can be
depended upon from early spring until late fall.


CARE OF THE HERD.

The brood sow and boar are the foundation of the hog
industry. It is important, therefore, that the most care-
ful attention be given to these. They must receive such
food and care as will ensure good healthy brood sows
and strong, healthy litters of pigs.
Prolificacy, though more or less an inherited charac-
teristic, is, to a large extent, controlled by the feed and
care of the sow. Good breeding sows are often reduced
in value as breeders by improper feeding. If the sows
are fed largely on a carbonaceous ration they are likely
2-Bul.












to become too fat. \heln the sows are Inkt 1i, t. ri:n,
are not regular breeders. When they do farrow !li ._
sult is a small litter of weak pigs.

The sows should not be starved at any time. The
should be fed on a well-balanced ration with ilemy ,t
protein to produce an abundant flow of milk. Afier the
pigs are weaned the sow rieqlnires nearly i p samine rI.;;iiil.
It is a common practice with many fantmaers inl pi ilir
brood sow on a starvation ration a's soon as ihe pl:' are
weaned. It is as Ihad to feed them on cirn only. 1'> i
alone may do fo far tening an animal. binll when fIed a;lte
to pregnant s\ow s does not supply enough prilein rT
properly develop hle growing fetus. The result in the
sows will farrow small litters of weak pigs. If we wi-'
to maintain a prolific strain of brood suws we 11in11r i\-
atientio) Ito how Ilhey are fed.

EXPIE1I{ E1NT 1.

All of h111 pigs used in i lhe oll \vin iXp 'illelil \V, :
Ierkshliires 'Thlese pigs were Inl all rngi';,ereed. 1,11i r! ,
were all eligible t o I regisllr;i ion.
in calculating the cosl o(' producing a piun l i ( ,' I
in the experiments 1hat follow, the feeds were vinalml at
the prices here given : 'orn,. sl.T : shlior S.7Tu : lx \e t
beans in tlle pol d. ;).:1; : sweer ]iniWal es. S, l.1nH : .Ii t,;1n1. .
cane, SO.2A). anld sr, lium. 1I.25I 1|er lMIunlred.
The tirst lest was c. ndnied wilh l ive\ ItS'-l; ]i' I] i .
The lest was I)egun .Jauai y l"2. 19111 aind l aniill T(
i1 days, closing March 20. 1910. Thle olij t "e ihi -
jierinient was to test the valle of cio)'n l on pairi \ l\-It
leans in the pod lone parti ). and .Japail e ;nle Tl '\
arts by weightl, for pork production. lIr)llinig I i Time
lthe pigs were under dobservation, they were fed '1hel,1
cortin and velvet hqans ill thle p)d1, (e[lil] pat' l wii! t
In addition, hey were g'ien wll Ill nii s 1i ,' .f ;lIal' e











cane for each pound of corn fed. At the beginning of
the test the five pigs averaged 118.6 pounds per head,
and weighed altogether 593 pounds. At the end of the
feeling lest they weighed 775 pounds, making a gain of
s182 pounds, with an averega daily gain per head of 0.71
pounds.

The cost per pound of gain in this test was 8.( cents.
The records show tlha after feeding the pigs for Iliirty
Idas Ihey weighed 70-1 pounds, and the cost per 1und1
of gain vwas 6.5" cents. From a practical standpoint tlhev
should have been sold at that time. When sold al the
cl]se of Olie test lhe buyer objected that lhe pigs were
too fal lo tfl'nisli tile best pqality of pork.

TABLE I.

Weights and Gains.
Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, .January 29, 1910 (5 pigs).... -I):
WVeight at end of test. March 20. 1911 (51 days. 5 pigs) ...
Total gain in 51 days...................... .. ...... ... .1
Average daily gain ................... .... ........... 0 .71
Average daily gain per 1.11110 pounds live weight ......... ).02
I'oIunds of fte d I llalke 10) ]polllunldls c li.ii ... ... 1. i;
Cost per pound of gain. $0.8;.

TABLE II

Cost of Feeds.

642 pounds of corn at $1.75 a hundred. .................. $11 2":
642 pounds of velveTl hans in pod at :"0 cents a hundred. 1.u1:
1.275 pounds of Japanese( cane at 20 cents n lindred... 2.).3

Total ............................. .. ... . ... $ 57 1

IPE; ':1 )IE NT 11.


Thlie second lest wIas conducted with twenty-five pigs.
Ti is te's began I)ecenher 1:i, 19)10 and lasted sixty day N,
closing Feibruar 11, 1911. The twenty-five pigs in this
test were divided into five equal lots, of five pigs eaci,
size and qualiiity ieing considered. The feeds used were










20


velvet beans in the pod, Japanese cane, and sweet Jpoi
toes. These were fed just as they came from the field,
except the Japanese cane, which was cut into short pieces
with a hatchet.
Lot 1 was fed velvet beans in the piod only. LI II
was fed equal parts by weight of velvet beans in the pl"I
and Japanese cane. Lot III was fed velvet beans in the
pod, one part, and Japanese cane, two parts, by weight.
Lot IV was fed Japanese cane only. Lot V wa- fed vel-
vet beans in the pod and sweet potatoes, equal panrt bv
weight.
The three crops used in this feeding experiment are
grown, ov can le grown, in all parts of Florida. It is.
evident froImi the results of this feeding te>T thi., in thei
proportions in which the feeds were fed, they were no:
all satisfactory in financial returns. However, it is the
information that comes from such work that is of vatuie
to the live-stock interests of the State.

TABLE III.

Weights and Gains, Pounds.


Lot 1 Lot II ,Lr III L': ItV L,- V


Weight at beginning, Dec.
13, 1910 ................ 230
Weight at end, Feb. 11, |
1911 (60 days) ......... 255
Total gain or loss in 601
days .................... 25
Average daily gain or los. l0.081
Average daily gain or loss
per 1,000 pounds live
w eight ................ 1.-


24.43 227.3 1154

4.3 --7.7 -- 12.
0.01 -- 0 -- 2


II I -4 4


T.\;ILE IV


Pounds of Feed Consumed.


Feeds Lot
Velvet beans in pod ....... C ;73
Japanese cane .......... ..
Sweet potatoes ............


I Lot II
450
S450


Lor Ill
105.5
8,4.5


Lot IV Lot V

30 16 5
4",











If we should judge the results of this feeding test by
the gain in pounds produced by the different feeds, we
would be likely to condemn the whole test, and say it was
a failure, and that the feeds were no good for pork pro-
duction. But the information obtained from this work
is of considerable value to the farmers of the State who
are feeding hogs. To know that Japanese cane when
fed alone to small pigs is not a maintenance ration, is
worth more to the farmers of the State than the cost of
the whole experiment.
A glance at Table III will show the weights at the be-
ginning of the test, the weights at the close, and Ihe
gain or loss in pounds during the sixty days the pigs were
in the test. By examining Table III it will be seen that
all lots of pigs were of nearly equal weight. They were
also of nearly equal age, being about three months old
wlen the experiment began. At the end of the experi-
imnt, sixty days later, Lot IV has lost 61 pounds in
weight. This fact was quite evident, and it could easily
he seen that the pigs were daily growing smaller and
weaker.
It is not necessary to make much comment on this
table. It is evident when the ration is composed entirely
of Japanese cane, or when as much as two-thirds of the
ration is Japanese cane, especially when feeding young
pigs, that it will not maintain the original body weight.
The reason for this is evident. Although hogs eat a con-
siderable amount of grass and green feeds of various
kinds, yet the arrangement and size of their digestive or-
gans is not such that they can handle and digest large
quantities of forage, such as Japanese cane. In fact they
ate but little of the cane, other than the juice. They
would chew a mouthful of cane until nearly all of the
juice had been extracted. They would then spit out the
refuse, and take a fresh mouthful, and so on. The trouble
with the Japanese cane is that it requires too much work
from the hogs for what they get out of it. That is, they














11111s ii \ork over 11ilm1, to ge ll eiilough f i md lli ii o-11,.
ipIw(1 i iIies. In feediiii., vehi\ ef erl ) ill B- f, 110 ill,









EXPERYJA IENT 111.






sejvi le ifi]] le~ If -I !W-, 1d, millef pj ii (,;1111

she le (IT I''1 i ( '1 1 1 '1 1I I ;1 l od c, ,-I,


Ill(ffel. be;Iull ('11ee 1 1 el\X v i ,-V w' i _-fl I ,



silodlS cm -(I (c,111' 1(1 I l ;11'1 1111 l



Ill~c i ii Il -ii (11, XX eve mI1. h -i- e i12 I
wid rid]~ \ olvel lwmls, :Illd Ill oF illwl~l~






iifl leemi XX as (,;eif. I((1 ((XII illl i l wi l:ll)12 vcmud jf, I ll,
TheI e well e~i flemiI~l rd-n --I ('ol1' 1. 1 -


'14 H MnA 1 1 111 T III













TABLE V.

Weights and Gains, Pounds.


Lo,(t I Lot I[ LoJrt III iiit I V


W eikht olf pi'ws ;it hogiinlilg. Al;rc'il
21, 1911 .................. .. 2!"
\Vei hlj al end. June 1(. 1911 ...... 41;G.
( tiin i per il )t l t l l ) ... ........ I 1 .
Doily :iin ]per head . .. .
D ail 1;ii i! | r 1.1 11,m 1 ] i l s li\ v '
N ilht .... ... .... ....... 4
Cost p] 'r IpoUnd of gaill . .. $U.
Cost |p c /r IO p illllids olf' .: lill ... ... .
Pollldii of l' iiito lO k l 11 I poll iiin1
o f L linll .. . . . . 5i d i
:7_" d2 p1olsl o11 ihis \\td theen >vz .- tllIe


15 1


0. 6


I 4 ,;

o '1 7. i*


ii ii


S T 2 ;41. I 1


T.ls of Fd \I.

Pounds of Feed Consumed.


I.. I I


("I li, .
Vexlvii w m cli
(;l ot In i, .. .I ...


2s 1


FThe Nvei-lls of tllt differeild bils- 111T p i-o Neh* iw~lIil




lhii zl t O 11111". ii haill l Vi h liW Z IN-N 020 ihli t -Ztil till
N1il wll IlC olls 'I~lle I'-Is bx 1 ilei I oii 4u pt-lt Zte. 1 oiu
for the pioii i ll Lot Itiwe C. w jilliii er Fed. h ot1 rjil niloil of11





ENS PEH\I EXI~T IV~.
v lv>jeit ttI t 1 \ xx1i'l O)I~ s l-old~ ( Nvi jlti. ii T e Ph apsitig porki




Iv s tu ut eed lot. v r NNW I'((i- 1 ViVl I'IXd (41)1 It u or
the .vul e(Iitot

'I'lle pI'i"S Ivel \-c Nvemtlc nltld Ilre l phlol-d in the e cxperi-i
mcnol eedlot In 1is lesht Nvere sevei\t~leen helid (if~
pigs. 'T'lteir total wei-lit wns -)!)0 *t'.ds )V or :314.7 polinds
peI hea-d.
The puigs in this test wits Iiken fliromt fjour litters. rChe
e of the pip~s varied fiou I x itoi titree mlonlthsT. The


2'. ii


Lx ix,


i;











feeds given were shelled corn, and shorts (equal parts
by weight). In addition, the pigs were given about
forty pounds of milk per day, and all the green sorghum
they would eat (14 to 16 pounds per day i. The pigs
made satisfactory gains. The daily gain per heal was
nearly one pound. During ihe first thirty days the sevtn-
teen pigs almost doubled their weight.

The object of the experiment was to get the cost oi pi-
ducing a pound of pork with young pigs. Addirimnal in-
formation was also wanted in regard to the length ,'f
time from weaning until the pigs are ready for market.

The experiment began June 1. 1911. at which time the
seventeen pigs weighed 590 pounds. On July 1 1l911.
thirty days after the experiment started, the -v-nt-ren
pigs weighed 1081 pounds. The seventeen Iig6s mul e a
gain in weight of 491 pounds during the thilriy dl;s.
The amount of feed required to make li() pounds it gain
during the thirty days was: corn. 14S.5: shorts. 17::.4:
milk, 239.3; and green sorghum, S:.)., or a total 4f I-'.
pounds.

TABLE VII.

Weights and Gains of Pigs.

Weight at beginning of experiment, June 1, 1911....... 5.)
W eight at end of thirty days .......................... l.1,'
Total gain in thirty days .............................. 4 1
Average daily gain per head. ........... ........ .. ... .9
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight ........ 27.4

TABLE VIII.

Feed Consumed During Thirty Days.
Pound=
Corn .............. .. ....... .. ... ..... ........... 729
S h orts ............................................... 753
M ilk ........................... ...................... 1.175
Green sorghum .................. .................... 412











TABLE IX.

Weights and Gains. Pounds
Weight at beginning of test, June 1, 1911 (17 head)..... 590.0
Weight at close of feeding test, September 22, 1911.... 2,461.6
Total gain in 114 days............................... 1,871.6
Average gain per head in 114 days.................... 110.09
Average daily gain per head.......................... 0.97
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds live weight........ 27.95
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain....................... 716.00
Cost per pound of gain, $0.114.
Cost per hundred pounds of gain, $11.40.

TABLE X.
Feeds Consumed. Pounds
Corn ............. ................. ................. 3,585
Shorts ......................................... ........ 3,105
Sorghum green ........................................ 3,268
M ilk ......................................... ......... 3,443

EXPERIMENT V.

Experiment V was conducted with ten head of Berk-
shire pigs. These pigs were considerably older than were
those used in the preceding test. The average weight at
the beginning of the test was 99 pounds. The feeding
test began on July 18, 1911, and closed August 29, 1911,
covering- a period of -!i days. During the test the ten
pigs gained 339.3 pounds in weight. They made an aver-
age daily gain per head of 0.79 pound. The average daily
gain in this test was not so good as in the preceding
test, but it is quite saoisfactory. The cost per pound of
gain, however, was about the same as in the preceding
experiment.
TABLE XI.
Weights and Gains. Pounds
Weight at beginning of test. July 18, 1911 (10 head) .... 990.0
Weight at closing of feeding test, August 29, 1911...... 1,329.23
Total gain in 43 days ................................. 339.23
Average gain per head ............................... 33.9
Average gain per hend ................................ 0.79
Average daily gain per 1,000 pounds, live weight....... 7.97
Feed to make 100 pounds of gain. ................... .. 1,413.75
Cost per pound of gain, $0.11.
Cost per hundred pounds of gain, $11.20.












TA I-LE XTi


Feeds Consumed.


(C i rc s rghum .. .. ..... .. ...
Gr(%1 I 1 till I .. ..





I',xljeriiii iil V I \w s rc IIi n lel ,luri ] ,.
s; l ii. T lit' r' l s I L n ;i! l \ 1i. .

1lhirly tl' s. !r, ill, F7 1'H ,\ 1 1!1 -




]Toi l s. i eil ini .q:] .irls i y v\i..ih .
Thl e liiil> ilhis letI \vI. i li -!' ]!'\ ,r.
Cost ]ir IP1. id 11 ; i is c llsi lt w,\v tll- ,


tCo t te l 1 ill \\t N s i~ :I iIil ;i ill <. $
I' nO0flfl2 1t-st l"11 1 he ], \ m a- pq pt ni] ,



TABLE XI Il

Weights and Gains.

VW e i" i l :\ 11 Ib in n in oI t1s ;i;I h i l]; ,V l l ,, ,
V'ei"lt ;or c-losp of test. Fplinariy 15. 112
Total r n in in thirl y i.n. s .. ........
AvSern -npin per lh ........
Avora e daiily gain \pe' lh nl .... .
Avera (, daily nin jw 1.liHi ]i ils m" ', i\v !
Poo(l to malkp 100 ]polunls of sain ..... .
Cost per pound of o'ain. $n ill'-.
Cost pr 10W ]p>)nlds of pain. $L;.7..

TABLE XIV.

Feeds Consumed.

C o r n . . . . . . . . . .. ,
S w eet potatoes ......... ............ .. .... -















HOG CHOLERA.






Issi.'. mlS inl 1il (txii lllt. Ion 1 Ninhcritil IF lorid(l.
Gfliocsritlc.c





c~llmg ill I ]1w.-



N1iI fi t i i Ithe I ilo 115('HM IS


c142m 14) Ai] ciSli('I')li f e o'-il4)ttSillte l i Itlle d411)5 hiislt'

fl-,)Ill ~ '' '4)" c~i e a 111 i 'm i I l FI~wt h I' m- P002 ItS.










aIcv' (dI eti jil 111< t'1tolei'. F1w .ietel'ttllo v le, thins lie istl-

'thIle lm 15 S( l ll ii s l ( tIt lim tie appleliote tt (i4 i i 0
d1ink niucit wa h lr', soha e diarrlhoeai ill flllwed eves, n itlt a
sthy disthoo!( "( h le gluing the til e litis togethler












red blotches, which afterwards turn purple, over the
body. Usually the hogs live only from 3 to 1U days after
the first sign of disease. Few recover, and the recovery
in such cases is slow, while frequently the hair comes
off and ulcers appear on the body.

TRIEATM rT.

It is the general opinion among those who have had
most experience wilh lhis disease, that ordinary medi-
cines are of little or no value in curing it. and that tie
only treatment that has ,been effectual is the serum rea--
ment prescribed by tlh( lHiueau of Animal Inldultry.
Washington, I). C. To describe in detail the method of
obtaining the serum and the precautions that must ie
observed in its manufacture, would require too much
space. It is, however, suficient to state that the mann-
facture of this serum must hle under tlie conrrl of a
competent Vererinarian. It mut e produced undet-
sanitary condition. and then judici usly distributed.















HOG CHOLERA SERUM.

F'rom Florida Health Notes.
(Ofjicial Bulletin tale Board of Health.)

METHOD OF DISTRIBUTION.

In accordance with Chaplter 6167, Laws of Florida,
1911, the State Board of Health last August commenced
the administration of hog cholera serum, sending its
Veterinarians to such points as requests came from; but
the number of calls for this service increased so rapidly
that it was found impracticable lo attempt to detail men
oftentimes a long distance to perform this work, and in
many cases the Veterinarians were so busy that corm-
pliance with requests was delayed and the owners dis-
satisfied because of the loss of hogs from cholera.
At the 1912 annual meeting of the State Board of
Health the compliance with this statute and methods
to be followed were thoroughly gone into, and the work
has been placed upo n an entirely new basis. The Board
now furnishes 1he serum free to hog cholera agents of
the Board. These agents, one or more Io the county,
administer the serum at a specified cost to the owner,
and make reports of their work to this office. The Board
also retains its present staff of field Veterinarians who
attend to inquiries from those counties in which there
is no cholera agent and who are always seeking to find
men in such counties to recommend for this appoint-
Illent.

QUALIFICATIONS AND DUTIES OF HOG CHOLERA AGENTS.

The duties of these agents consist in the administration
of the serum to hogs for the prevention of hog cholera.












In 1, infa sl/ih u(/ppoini t eno( Its the lio ird Iq i" s t '/i
prompt t(ad reliable rqeorls of tri fl diome sa i l li ,,,ul,
to this office upon ,forms lt be furnifshcd for th' pri/c, .,.
mnd that the irork rill hbc ( inc in strict aucordlMac itth
thc rules to he is. '/d by /I' ,'n'ti H1r1c lth (ffti',.r i '1 fI'',
CIta cl tri u riin.


lion o.If s crim i l / l h0 / o 1 dor1.t( lot pl- r f t l h, 'i .,
illn/I to si/k u/ ce's d/ns/ not cure it. WhII ot il do s d s 1i),:
When l dm ill ist'ri l to hli/ys s,/on lift r thily (ire x.//po, 'I
to lhog cholcr ii and Ibefore th/('!/ hiirc dcirelioprd1 t1i '1;,-
casr' it .n mfodifics lthc courxc of the dlis '.asc thJet f icri e I.
dic, after which l hJ i cor' hof/s f are ipel an /' nflC ii i/ t ii /1 1 /i .
lB t to admi nistl c it i/ tihr hl. adli/ i ist i r if to the il/ ii l thi hf/op/ of orI i 'ni; i/ i ,t
I/ch] irai'i. "'f e r 'l f!/.

'The Bl itd f'l rii i.he'.iis to thicxc a ientls. i r10 e ,f ch lr ii .
Ks'l// //ifi/l flil oi f / '/ in f/ s ii'r iic( .'a.sarcf/ for th r)- '],:
of cime h slich' iqll/it. huil it is rcq/tire 'd tih t tih dilspo./it'
Of oilr 10l of .scri/ ./shfill be rCfpor'tci ifIpon before anrotir
is l i/rl ish c lTh ... i .' /i c.pcf tcd to f'urn tis hI is ono
Ihyi/opgoil IIII sy riagf for hli wiork, and I i hrre pWi' "
sp-/ri ,l 's C(lli notl 1n' 1il h l o/ /f 'l ie( I tl / (,I otfi f h ,,' ". /!,
lBio rd q1ff ists ill pro'uringi 111csr-

'II.\ t E;IS.

'iThe fIllowing' scale 'of charg s Fo' r l/llli/n isui rin// lo'-
iicholerin crum w51 l ell NI whrIl is idone atl a 1rea/sfolabl/ Ili'
lance fromT fic residence of the genr, is sbves-te 1" the
Board, :n1l n.d rm.ldical depalrtu'e thevrefromn is Io 1wn ( ,!-
sidered nu imniosidion 1iqon Q1e owner of the hli's ind
will be sul'li:ien+ rewsn for wil hdMrwinq lahp ug 'f- ;;.-
]pilli inmei1ll.

10 hogs. $1.50; 15 hogs, $1.75; 20 hogs. $2.00: 25 hos. $2 5.
30 hogs, $2.50; 35 hogs, $2.75; 40 hogs. $3.00; 45 hogs. $3.2 :












hogs, $3.50; 55 hogs, $3.75; 60 hogs, $4.00; 65 hogs, $4.25: 70
hogs, $4.50; 75 to 85 hogs. $5.00; 90 to 100 hogs, $6.00; or over
100 head, add the stated charge for each number.

fu cases where the distance is real, special arrange-
menls as to charges mtay be made between the owner and
the agent for doing the work.

I NS'IT 1'('TI NS.

The hypode'rmic syringe for administering hog cholera
seruiin should be of oloult 21) to ;N) cubic centimleters cpa-
city and should have rubber fttiings so Ithat is can lie
thoroughly disinfected by boiling.
It is suggested in all cases where the agent is preparing
to comipl with an owner's request for the adminisi ration
of sel11rum1 thatll arrangements he made beforehand soi that
thlie work may proceed with the grealtesl dispatch. The
owner should be requested 1() have his Logs penned pre-
vious to arrival the arrival of de agent and should furnisl at
least two mten to cateh aid1 hold tlie hogs, as the oplertlor
must keep his lhnds and syringe clean and free of dirt.
This lie can not do if he handles the hogs.
The seruml is to be injected according to ilie following
dosage :


Dose to Dose to
Weight of pigs. be given. eight of ppgs. beit e given.
Small pigs ........... 10-15c.c. 225-275 pounds ........ 43c.e.
:10- 50 pounds ....... 20c.c. 275-325 pounds ........ 50.c.c.
.0- 75 pounds ....... 25c.c. 325-375 pounds ........ 3c.c.
75-125 pounds ....... 30c.c. 375-425 pounds ........ 6G c.ec
125-175 pounds ....... :35c.c. I 425-475 pounds ..... c c.
175-225 pounds ....... 40c.c. 475-523 pounds ........ 7iic.
For sick hogs double the dose. In all cases of large doses
small quantities in several places.

The in section is made under lihe skin on the inside of
lhe thighl where the skin is loose and where there is leasr
fat. The serunm should be poured into a cup which lions
been previously slerilized wilh boiling water. This cup











should be covered to keep out dirt and flies. Before each
puncture with the needle tie same should be dipped into
a solution of formalin, one to four parts of water. -o as
to disinfect the wound made by the needle and this pre-
vent abscesses. When the dav's work is done. The >vr-inoe
and needles should be thoroughly washed free of all blood
and then boiled for a minute or iwo. The shrine, hIow-
ever, should not he suddenly immersed in her or biliu;g
water. After this boiling, it should be taken apart. The
rubber plunger and needles dried and greased with car-
bolized vaseline. By careful attention to these details a
syringe will last indefinitely.

PROCEDURE.

When an owner finds or suspect-s that any of his hiis
have hog cholera, he should communicate at once wilh
the State Board of Health al Jacksonville, or with the
bog cholera agent in his county, furnishing information
as to the number of hogs, status of the disease. location
of animals, etc., as prescribed by the application form
issued by the Board.

Where there is a hogy cholera agent in the country ar-
rangements can be ile at once for the work. In ithl-r
cases the Board will detail one of its Veterinarians tr
the point and the work expedited as much as possible.

In applying for serum or its administration, or in re-
porting outbreaks of cholera, if the telegraph is used,
the message should not be sent collect. This expense is
to be borne by the owner or agent.











AGENTS.

Names and Post Office addresses of Agents of State
Board of Health and who are authorized, to supply and
administer Hog Cholera Serum.

County. Name. Pi.-I..,iie.
Alachua ...................... G. A. Byles, W indsor.
Alachua .................. J. O. Frederick, Alachua.
Alachua ........ .M F. Studstill, R. F. D. No. 3, Alachun.
Alachua ................. Dr. E. R. Flint, Gainesville.
Alachua ...................... J. B. Smith, Newberry.
Baker ...................... R. C. Crews, Macclenny.
Baker ..................... W E. Schoch, Macclenny.
Bradford ...................... L. J. Wynn, Hampton.
Bradford ....................... Theo Tison, Starke.
Calhoun ................... J. L. Griffin, Blountstown.
Columbia ................ Dr. B. D. Jordan, Lake City.
Citrus .................... Dr. Puterbaugh, Hernando.
DeSoto .................. K. K Albritton, Limestone.
DeSoto ................... Jas. S. Goft, Punta Gorda.
DeSoto .................. Dr. C. A. Gavin, Fort Green.
DeSoto ..................... H. B- Rainey, W auchula.
Escambia .......... Walter H. Johnston, Pine Barren.
Escambia .. .. J. L. Godwin, R. F. D. No. 1, Atmore, Ala.
Gadsden .................... D. D. Edwards, Gretna.
Gadsden ........................ J. B. Ball, Quincy.
Gadsden..W. D. Richards, Express Greensboro, Juniper.
Gadsden ................ M. E. McCorquodale, Havana.
Gadsden ................... J. L. Shepard, Greensboro.
Holmes ............... H. D. & J. K. Brock, Bonifay.
Holmes .................. Dr. D. G. Milton, Westville.
Hamilton ................. Dr. J. H. Corbett, Jasper.
Jackson ................. Dr. J. G. Phillips. Marianna.
Jackson ..................... T.W W ester, Inwood.
Jackson ..................... A J. Brunson, Sneads.
Jackson ............. A. M. Singeltary, Granm Rirdge.
3-Bul.











County. Name. Pusrilice.
Jefferson...Dr.W. I. H. Walker, Express Aucilla, Lamil.
Jefferson ...................... S. V. Coxetter. L1 od.
Jefferson .................. G. C. McCall, Monricel'.
Jefferson ................. Dr. W. N. McLeod, Aucilla.
Lafayette ......................... M J. Fowler. Day.
Lafayette ................ J. D. Johnson, Steinhatchee.
Lafayette ........................ J. M Gornto. Mayo.
Lake ..................... J. M. W alton, Lady Lake.
Lee ....................... W H. Towles. Fort Myers.
Leon ................... T. M. Atkinson, Tallahassee.
Levy ......................... W. E. Brown. Raleigh.
Madison ................ B. Sever, Ebb or Sirmina.
M arion ................... S. H. Gairskill, Mel: ,,h.
Marion...C. R. Tydings, Dist. Agt. for Emergency. ( iala,
Marion ..................... Dr. W H. Counts. (Icala
Marion ......................... W 1.. Martin. Siarr
Marion ......................... R. F. Rogers. Cn'i er
Marion .................... Dr. S. H. Blitch. Blitc hrn.
Orange ................ Dr. B. D. Wineenga. Orlaini: .
Pinellas ............ Dr. W T. Tanner. St. Peteis'iir2.
Polk ......................... A. O Graddev. Iiri-w.
Polk ......................... R L. Young. M uli,'rry.
Putnam ..................... J. P. Newbeck. P :~in a,
St. Johns ....................... Dr. Dolan. Hasrn'i r .
St. Johns ................ H. Paris, St. Auu. iie.
St. Johns ................. Dr. F. S. W hitney, i" i ..
Santa Ros ................. J. W Urqualhar. ii",n.
Santa Rosi .................... J. R. M miller. 11ii1 an.
Suwannee ..................... M A. Best. Br::n : i. .
Sunanne ......... ........... C. P. )Odom. Brar'i ''d.
Suwannee .................... S. Ho an. W elib! rn.
Suwannee .............. Dr. J. H. Reynolds. O'BIrien.
Taylor ....................... Barney O'Quinn. P,-rry.
Walton ......................... Alex McRae, Florala. Ala.
Walton ......... Prof. H. J. Rogers, DeFuniak Springs.
W aukulla .................. Allen, Sopchl ippT













NATIVE AND GRADE

CATTLE-BREEDING.

-BY-

JOHN M. SCOTT.

At the present time there are about eight hundred
thousand head of cattle in Florida. Perhaps 95 per sent
of these are the native Florida cattle, which no doubt
are mostly descended from the old Spanish stock, with
little or no improvement. It is stated, however, that
many cattle were shipped into Florida from North Cora-
lina, South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia. This influx
of cattle from States further north took place from 1840
to 1850, and perhaps before then. At that time the cat-
tle must have been similar to our native cattle, as four to
six-year-old steers weighed from 350 to 500 pounds.
What are probably the first efforts toward improve-
ment of the native cattle took place about 1845. About
this time Mr. McKinnon of Walton County imported di-
rect from Scotland a large Shorthorn bull. This bull (lid
good service for a number of years. The improvement
over the native cattle was noticeable. The size of the
grade cattle was larger, the four-year-old steers weigh-
ing from 450 to 750 pounds. But little was done toward
improvement after this time, except to use grade bulls
resulting from the use of the pure-bred Shorthorn bull.
The improvement brought about by the use of this one
bull made an impression on the cattle in that part of the
State which was evident for a number of years after the
old bull was dead. Had the good work started by Mr.
McKinnon been continued, Florida would d today have as











good a grade of beef cattle as any other State in the
Union.
At the present time, Florida is more of a live-strik
State that many suppose. The following r-,'.,' taken
from the Twelfth Biennial Report of the Commissioner
of Agriculture show how the cattle industry of the Staie
compares with other industries:

Value.
Cattle (exclusive of cows kept for milk) ........... .. .ti',i,,
Dairy cows and Dairy products .................... 4.124 311
Poultry and Poultry products. ..................... 27.2' ;
F ield crops ....................................... l1 '. I.1.73'
Vegetable and Garden products ................... ... ;.,.
Fruit products .................................... ..;. .T74.
(No value is given for the fruit trees.)

BEEF BREEDS OF CATTLE.

From experimental work and observations, there seems
to be but little to choose between the standard beef
breeds (including Shorthorn, Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus
and Galloway). The choice would be very largely a mat-
ter of personal fancy. We would, however, discourage a-
much as possible the use of dairy breeds, such as Jersey;
and Guernseys, in a beef herd. We find that a certain
number of stockmen in. the State are using grade Jersey;
and grade Guernsey bulls in their beef herds. The use
of such bulls in a beef herd will not make the desired im-
provement. The Jersey and Guernsey as breeds lack both
the size and conformation desirable in the beef animal.
Good size in the beef animal is desired for the follow-
ing reason. One animal weighing 1,200 pounds on foot
will not require as much feed for growth and mainten-
ance as will two animals weighing 600 pounds each.
Therefore, more pounds of beef will be produced from
the same amount of feed when fed to a large animal.
making the larger breeds of cattle more economical for
beef production.












COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENT WITH GRADE
STEERS.

At the Experiment Station farm, during the spring of
1908, fifteen native cows were selected. These fifteen
cows were separated into three lots of five cows. The
lots were arranged to be as nearly equal in size and qual-
ity of the animals as possible. The cows in Lot I were
bred to a Hereford bull; those in Lot II were bred to a
Shorthorn bull; and the cows in Lot III were bred to a
native Florida bull. From these fifteen cows twelve
calves were produced. (One cow failed to breed; a sec-
ond cow was found to be in calf when the experiment
started and was discarded; while a third cow met with
an accident and aborted.) Each lot of cows and bull
was kept in a separate pen until every cow was known
to be in calf.
The following table gives the date of breeding each cow,
and the date when each calf was dropped.
TABLE XII.


Date when cows
were bred.


Date when calves were
dropped.


Cows Bred to Hereford Bull.
1 April 18, 1908.... January 6, 1909.
2 April 24, 1908..... January 10, 1909.
3 April 28, 1908...... January 31, 1909.
4 June 10, 1908...... March 20, 1909.
5 Aug. 23, 1908...... June 2, 1909.
Cows Bred to Shorthorn Bull.
6 May 5, 1908....... February 16, 1909.
7 July 10, 1908 ......] April 26, 1909.
8 July 2, 1908...... April 12, 1909.
9 July 18, 1908...... April 7, 1900.
Cows Bred to Native Bull.
10 I May 18, 1908..... February 24, 1909.
11 June 24, 1908..... Aborted January 18, 1909.
12 July 14, 1908 ...... April 18, 1909.
13 July 20, 1908...... April 28, 1909.


Cow. No.












The cows were all kept on the same range until the
calves were weaned. Under these conditions all calves
had the same chance so far as range conditions were con-
cerned. After the calves were weaned, observations -wre
continued on only two calves from each lot of cows.
After weaning time the calves were all kept on the same
pasture in summer, while during the winter season they
were given the range of a velvet-bean and Japanese-cane
field. So that each calf was given as nearly equal a
chance as was possible.

TABLE XIII.
Weights of Calves.
Grade Grade
HIerefordsi. Shorthor. Native.
Time of
weighing. -
V i > ; ,2 > 2 >


At Birth ............. 5 552 *47.91 521 61 '56 4s 47 t4-.6
At Weaning Time ...... 265 34 *352 390 330 342'3 31 -.30
Oct. 28, 1909
At One Year Old.. 442 36S 405 425 4701 447 45 41l 447
May 1, 1910 ...... .... 410 442 426 .5024721 457 457 7 47
June 1, 1910 ........... 442 475 45S 52 507 517 51 4' '
July 1, 1910 ............ 4S61510 49s '566 532 .49 552 -,22 5 7-
Aug. 1, 1910............. 5 : 530 517 |590 ,545 507 5:,I0 5 1 54
Sept. 1, 1910........... 500 525! 512 '5- 2 545 5'. 572 5. 5
Oct. 1, 1910............. 505 5451 525 565 3 5C 5573 5 -, .-, 55-
Nov. 1, 1910............ 495 535,3 515 559 547 553 5i S 47 :
Dec. 1, 1910............ 490 5353 512 1540 530. 3 50 5.0 5 5
Jan. 1, 1911............ 460 515 487 525 52.5 525 550 53 532
Feb. 1, 1911............ 1462 542 502 537 555 546 57 542 54:,
Mar. 1, 1911. ..... .... 4S2560 521 552 5577 4 52 579
April 1, 1911......... 50715.sO 543 5T7;1:0 9 53 11:' 10 ;1 ;i
May 1, 1911 ............ 535 6251 580 1602"610: 60631 5 63 2 41
June 1, 1911............. 540 630! 585 600 600 600 640 C3 6:5
July 1, 1911 ........... . 595 635 61.5 635 610 622 6;75 3 67
Aug. 1, 1911............ .640 695 667 !6701655 662 T7 I':0 6'5
Sept. 1, 1911 ........... 7151730' 722 !73 7775: 7560 755 67 77
Oct. 1, 1911............ 6801710 605 1680!70,' 690 735 71 72-
Nov. 1, 1911............ !6971727 712 682 720 701 750 745 747
Dec. 1, 1911............ 660n672' 666 16671710 6SS 713 71:" 71;
*Average of five calves.
tAverage of four calves.
:i:Average of three calves.











Table XIII shows that at birth the grade Herefords
averaged 47.9 pounds; the grade Shorthorns, 56 pounds;
and the natives, 48.6 pounds. At weaning time, October
28, 1909, when the calves were about seven and a half
months old, the grade Herefords averaged 351.6 pounds,
the grade Shorthorns, 342.5 pounds; and the natives, 305
pounds. Thus there is only a slight difference in weight
at birth and weaning time. This difference in weight is
not more than one would expect to find in weighing up
three different selections of young cattle, taken from the
same range.

The weights when the animals were one year old were
quite uniform. The grade Herefords averaged 405 pounds;
and the grade Shorthorns and natives averaged exactly
the same, 447.5 pounds. For the first year the Herefords
made an average daily gain of 0.97 pounds; the Short-
horns, an average daily gain of 1.07 pounds; and the na-
tives an average daily gain of 1.09 pounds. Thus there
is only a slight difference in the average daily gain of
the three lots.
The weights at one year of age were not great for good
yearling steers. But when we compare these weights
with that of the average native cattle, we find that at one
year these animals were about twice as heavy as the aver-
age native steers of the same age. In a slaughter test,
conducted four years ago, ten native three-year-old steers
averaged only 516 pounds per head.
If the calves in the foregoing experiment had been
turned out on the open range to hustle for themselves,
they would doubtless on March 1, 1910, have been from
25 to 50 per cent. lighter than when weaned on October
28, 1909. The heavy loss in weight would be due to
the fact that during the winter season the pastures are
very poor, and if forage of some kind is not supplied
(which is not done by the majority of stock-raisers), the
animals are almost starved. Under these adverse condi-











tions our native cattle never grow and develop as theta
should, or as they would if supplied liberally with forage
during the season when the pastures do not afford suf-
ficient grazing.

Although this experiment shows that the native cattle
made as good gains from birth until two and a half years
of age as did the grade Hereford and grade Shorthl-.rn,
it does not indicate that the native cattle are more pr'fit-
able than grades. There is no doubt, however, that by
the proper selection, and the supplying of an abundance
of good forage during the winter season, we can increase
the size of our native stock as much as 30 or 40 per
cent.

On December 2, 1911, the six animals were put in a
small yard and fed for ninety days on a ration of slhilk-
corn, cottonseed meal and Japanese cane. Table XIV
gives the daily ration fed, also the total feed consumed
by the six animals during the ninety days while on fee-d.
At the beginning of the feeding test they were started
an a light ration, and the feed was gradually increased,
until at the end of the fifth week they were eating tihe
full ration. Table XV gives the weights at the begin-
ning of the feeding test, the weights at thirty-day in-
tervals, the total gain and the average daily gain per
head.

TABLE XIV.

Daily Ration.

C orn .......................... .............. 8 pounds
Cottonseed M eal .................. ............... 4.6 pounds
Japanese-cane forage ................... ......... 21.7 pounds

Total Feed Consumed.

Corn ................................ .......... 3.935 pounds
Cottonseed M eal ................................ 2.253 pounds
Japanese-cane forage ................... ... 11,502 pounds











TABLE XV.

Weight and Gains.



Sc d 0
o .o d ." o .
.) a C;

December 2, 1911. Begin-
ning of feeding test.... 660 672 667 710 713 719
Jan. 1, 1912. End of 30 days 710 723 717 769 772 785
Jan.31,1912. End of 00 days 722 757 700 8S27 S4i; 813
Mar. 1,1912. End of 90 days 773 784 831 886 856 893
Total gain in 90 days..... 113 112 164 176 147 174
Average daily gain....... 1.26 1.24 1.821 1.96 1.63 1.93


Table XVI shows the live weight at the time of slaught-
ering, the dressed weight and the percentage of dressed
weight.

The live weights were taken just a few minutes before
slaughtering. The dressed weights were taken imme-
diately after slaughtering. (The dressed weight is the
weight of carcass with the head and feet taken off and
liver and heart taken out, but kidneys not removed).


TABLE XVI.

Live and Dressed Weights.


ab





Grade Hereford, No. 1..... 800 398.5 49.81
Grade hereford (heifer), No. 2 780 408 52.30
Grade Shorthorn, No. 3.... 800 408.5 51.06
Grade Shorthorn, No. 4.... 830 440.5 1 53.00
Native, No. 5............... 850 458 53.88
Native, No. 6............... 830 436.5 52.59
__________I__________










42

SMALL SIZE LARGELY DUE TO INSUFFICIENT
FEEDING.

It is the opinion of some that the small size of ,ur
native cattle is due to our climatic conditions. This
opinion, however, is not well founded. For large breeds
of cattle live in the tropics, as in India.
Another opinion is tlat the small size is a character
of our native cattle. Breeding no doubt has its influence.
but we find that even when thorough-bred animal- are
reared under the same conditions as our native cattle
they, too, are small. We must therefore look for -,me
other reason than that of climate or lack of care in
breeding for the small size of our native stock. In-bree,-
ing, and breeding at a young age, both of which are
sure to occur on the open range, may have some influence
in reducing size. But the reduced size will be found
to be due largely to the lack of nutritious forage iur-
ing the winter months.
In a slaughter test of twenty head of native cattle. The
average dressed weight was found to be 2S 0. pounds.
These animals were three years old and over. They were
about mature, as far as size is concerned. These car-
tie were slaughtered during the latter part of Septem-
ber, and their light weight was not due to lack of dreh.
as the animals were in good condition. The la~k of
size was due to the animals not having been sur. lied
with sufficient nutritious feed to keep them in a he~l!hy
growing condition from the time They were weaned uinrt
they were ready for the market.
As already mentioned, at the Experiment Station farm.
during the spring of 1908, a number of native cows were
bred to a native bull. The calves from these cows were
dropped during the spring of 1909. At weaning time
(October 28, 1909) these calves averaged 305 pounds
per head. At one year of age they averaged 447.5 pounds.










This is almost as heavy as many of our range cattle are
at three years of age. On October 1, 1911, when these
calves were about two and a half years of age, they
averaged 722.5 pound per head. They were given no
better care and feed than the average farmer could read-
ily supply. The summer pasture was similar to the
ordinary pine-wood pasture. During the winters they
were given the run of a velvet-bean and Japanese-cane
field. This supply of winter forage kept the animals
in a growing condition, so that they did not become
stunted.
This shows that the small size of our native cattle
is not due to heredity, but largely to the lack of feed.
We do not mean that the animals must be kept fat
enough for market at all times, but we do mean that
they should be kept in a healthy growing condition.
When an animal becomes so emaciated that it can hardly
get up when it lies down, it is certainly not in a healthy
condition. Neither is it in a condition to grow and de-
velop, but rather all development will be stopped. When
the development of a young animal is once stopped or
checked, the animal will never make the growth that
it would otherwise have done.
It is now the time of year when we should give some
thought to growing supplies of feed for our cattle dur-
ing the coming winter. An abundance of good forage
can be had by planting such crops as sorghum, German
millet, and, later in the season, cowpeas and sweet po-
tatoes.

YOUNG BEEF MOST PROFITABLE.

Almost every stockman has to consider at what age
he should sell his cattle so as to obtain the largest profit
from the investment. This is a question that should
receive due attention. The results of the experiment










given in this bulletin would show that, in this case, the
greatest profit would be obtained by selling the calves
at weaning time.
The calves were born from January 6 to June 2, 1909.
Three of them were born in January, two in February,
one in March, five in April and one in June. This varia-
tion in age covered about the entire breeding season as
practiced by Florida stockmen. Had the calves all come
in January or February, one might form the erroneous
opinion that only the calves that come in January or
February could be put on the market at a young age.
The fact of the matter is that the calves dropped in
April made nearly as good gains, and were nearly as
heavy at weaning time, as were the January calves.
The birth-weights of these calves varied from 41.- To
61 pounds, with an average of 50.8 pounds per hend- The
birth-weight does not seem to have much to do with the
growth of the individual up to weaning time. Somei of
those that weighed the least at birth were among The
heaviest at weaning time. The figures seem to show That
the birth-weights of the calves dropped in January are
less than those dropped in April. However. before we
can make any definite statement regarding this, it would
be necessary to gather like data on a large number of
animals.
From birth until weaning time the cows and calves
were all given the same care; that is, they were all
kept on the same range, so that all calves had the same
chance so far as range conditions were concerned. The
calves were all weaned on October 28, 1909. At this
time the oldest calf in the lot was not the heaviest.
But, as would be expected, the youngest calf in the lot
was the smallest. The heaviest calf at weaning time was
born on January 31. Its birth-weight was 51 pounds.
and at weaning time it weighed 398 pounds. The young-
est calf was five months old when weaned, its birth,
weight was 52 pounds, and at weaning time it weighed










265 pounds. The average weight of the twelve head
at weaning time was 338 pounds.
The average age at weaning time was about seven and
one-half months. The market value of these calves at
weaning time was $3.75 per hundred. At this time the
heaviest calf weighed 398 pounds, which:, at $3.75 per
hundred, gives it a value of $14-92. At weaning time
the smallest calf weighed 265 pounds, and at $3.75 per
hundred, was worth $9.94. Since they averaged 338
pounds per head, a price of $3.75 per hundred gives them
an average value of $12.66 per head. From $10 to $14
per head may well be considered a good price for calves
at weaning time. There have been several thousand
head of two and three-year-old steers sold in Florida
in the past few years at from $10 to $14 per head. These
same animals, had they been given reasonable attention,
could have been sold at weaning time for the same
price, and the net profit per head would have been a
great deal more.
The profits derived by selling calves at weaning time
are much greater than by keeping them until two or
three years of age. The calf up to this time eats but
little grass, as it depends largely upon the milk of its
mother for nourishment. The cost of keeping the cow
is the same whether the calf is sold at weaning time
or kept until three years of age. When sold at weaning
time, the cost of keeping the calf through the winter is
eliminated. The winter season is the critical period
for the calf. It is also the season of the year when
the cost of keeping the animal is largest. Another point
that must be considered is that when the crop of calves
is sold at weaning time a much larger number of breed-
ing cows can be kept on the same range than it is
possible to do when the beef herd is not sold until two
or three years of age. This is an important considera-
tion since the overstocking of the range is a serious mis-
take in the production of live stock.








46

SUMMARY.

1. Native cows were bred to Hereford, Shorthorn. and
native bulls.

2. At birth and at weaning the weight of the three lits
of calves did not differ much.

3. In dressed weight the two natives, at two and a half
years old, made an equally good showing with the
grades.

4. The native cattle can be much increased in weight by
good winter feeding.

5. It would have paid better to have sold these calves
at weaning, than to have kept and fed them.














THE PEANUT.

ITS CULTURE AND USES.



BY W. R. BEATTIE,

Assistant Horticulturist, Bureau of Plant Industry,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.



INTRODUCTION.

Very little is known regarding the early history of the
peanut in the United States except that it was brought
into the country during the period of slave importation
and became established along the James River in Vir-
ginia. It is not until after the Civil War that we find
any record of peanuts becoming a commercial crop, and
then only on a small scale. Prior to this time peanuts
were grown in gardens for home use, and the nuts when
parched were considered a great treat by the children.
Soon the value of peanuts as a money crop was recognized
and farmers began growing an acre or two for the mar-
ket, and upon this beginning has been built an industry
that represents ten o0- i. ve millions of dollars annually.
During the early duxys of the peanut industry only one
or two varieties were recognized, those having the largest
pods being known as "Virginians" and tLe smaller pod-
ded sorts as "Africans." Soon the farmers observed that
among the large-pod variety there were certain plants
that were of a more compact or bunch hab t than the gen-
eral crop, which spread or ran upon the ground; also











that these bunch plants produced larger pods than the
runner type. Accordingly the two sorts were separated,
and the names of "Virginia Bunch" and "Virginia Run-
ner" given them.
The habits of the peanut render it especially adapted
to cultivation on the sandy soils throughout the SurhIern
States, and the wide ranges of uses to which it may be put
makes it a valuable addition to our farm crops. During
past years the greater part of the commercial peanut cr',p
has been produced in Virginia. North Carolina. S1.':h
Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. With the bol! we"eil
injuring the cotton crop of the Southwestern States T'.e
peanut promises to become an important money crip ;nd
a part of the regular farm rotation of this section. In
many cases the peanut has proven fully as profitable as
any other farm crop. The production of peanuts 'as
not kept pace with the increased demand, and therO is
little danger, for the present at least, of overstocking the
market. Spanish peanuts can be grown for 2, cent: a
pound, and when the general market becomes sup!p;ed
the oil mills can handle the surplus, making th-refr.,m
one of the finest cooking oils that can be produced. The
cake resulting from the manufacture of oil is valuable ',r
stock feeding and fertilizer. There is always the opplr-
tunity to convert peanuts into pork that will bring fancy
prices. The famous Smithfield hams and bacon, which
sell at from: :-;0 to 40 cents a pound, are made from bis
tlht are pa1ily fed on peanuts. All kinds of live st.
will eat and thrive on peanuts and peanut hay.
The peanut belongs to the same family of plants a d!o
the clovers, alfalfa, beans, and peas, but has the pecuiiar
habit of developing its seeds underground instead of -rn
top, as do most of the legumes. During the early days
when peanuts were first cultivated it was thought necez-
sary to cover the blossoms with soil in order to secure
well-filled pods. It is only necessary, however, that there
should be a bed of loose soil surrounding the plants and









they will then care for themselves. The blossoms of the
peanut appear above ground, shooting out from where the
leaf joins the stem, and after fertilization takes place the
flower withers and the little stem or peg elongates and
pushes down into the earth, where the pod develops.
This habit of the peanut has an important bearing upon
the production of the crop in that peanuts should be
planted only upon loose, sandy soils, and the soil must be
well cultivated and loose in order that the pegs may enter
the soil and form pods.
In common with other legumes the peanut has the
power, through the agency of bacteria upon its roots, to
draw the nitrogen from the air and not only use it for
its own growth but to store it for the use of other plants
as well. An illustration of this may be had by pulling up
a peanut plant and noting the immense number of nitro-
gen-gathering nodules upon its roots.

THE SOIL AND ITS PREPARATION.

Peanuts thrive best on a rather loose, sandy loam soil,
such as is found in abundance throughout the Southern
States. The soil should be well drained, or what is or-
dinarily termed a "warm" soil. Peanuts can be grown
on the heavier alluvial soils, but are easier to cultivate
and mature better on the light, sandy loam soils. It will
pay to prepare the land for peanuts in a most thorough
manner, and much of ihe difficulty in keeping the crop
clean will be avoided by harrowing or disking the land
two or three times before planting. The Spanish variety
may be grown on much heavier land than the Virginia
Bunch or Runner.

CROP ROTATION IN PEANUT CULTURE.

Peanuts should not be grown exclusively on any farm,
but in rotation with other crops. Peanuts are adapted
4-Bul.










to growing in a system with corn, cowpeas. oats, c',ttiin.
and Irish potatoes, the cropping arrangement being made
to conform to local requirements. The crop of peanuts
should invariably follow some crop that has been kept
cultivated and reasonably clean, as this decreases the
labor required to keep the weeds under control.
When fitting land -for peanuts it should bh. ip'xned
about the same depth as for corn, broadcast plowing be-
ing preferable to bedding. If the land has been in in
the previous season it should be plowed in ample liii- to
allow the materials that are turned under to thor'll.iuily
decay before planting time. Some growers prefer io led
the land and 1hen drag down almost level before p ant-
ing, but on the whole it is better to keep the surface
smooth and then work the soil toward tle rows in '.i-
vating.

FERTILIZElS,' REQUIRED BY PEANL '-T

Commercial fertilizers, if any are used. shoiul 1,. alp-
plied about the time the land is given its last harro ing
before planting. A crop of 60 bushels of peanuts w ill
require about 85 pounds of nitrogen, 15 pounds of plih-
phoric acid, 32 pounds of potash, and 4S pounds ,f 1! ,'n
It would be difficult to secure a fertilizer that w,,uld !-
ply these elements in the above proportions: in fact. ir
would not be profitable to return all of these elemenrs.
especially the nitrogen, in the soil by means of commercial
fertilizers. A fertilizer containing about 2 per cent nitri-
gen, 8 per cent phosphoric acid, and 8 per cent potash is
recommended for peanuts, and this may profitably 1I ap-
plied at the rate of 200 to 400 pounds to the acre. This
will add the necessary phosphoric acid and potash o
grow a crop, but only a small part of'the nitrogen: the
remaining nitrogen can be secured more cheaply through
the agency of cowpeas, crimson clover, and the peanuts
themselves if they are properly handled.











Stable manure is not a desirable fertilizer for peanuts
unless applied about a year in advance. The objections
to manure are that it carries with it too many weed seeds
and also produces a rank growth of peanut vine at the
expense of the peanuts.
Lime is essential to the proper ripening of the pea-
nuts, and where not already abundantly present should be
applied to the soil. Marl is often used as a substitute for
lime, being hauled and spread upon the land during the
winter months. Ordinary lime may be used at the rate of
300 to 400 pounds to the acre on land being planted to
peanuts. In many cases the soils of the Southern States
are pretty well supplied with lime. Where there is any
doubt about the matter lime should be applied to a por-
tion of the field at least and its influence upon the yield
and ripening of the peanuts observed. The lime should
be applied to the surface after plowing and while fitting
the land for planting.
Wood ashes are an excellent fertilizer for peanuts, as
they contain both potash and lime. Unfortunately, the
supply of wood ashes is quite limited and only small quan-
tities may be secured. Where obtainable, unleashed wood
ashes may be applied to peanut land at a rate not exceed-
ing 1,200 pounds to the acre.
Several methods are followed in distributing the ferti-
lizers for peanuts, and while some growers employ a one-
horse distributor and sow the fertilizer where the row
is to be, others scatter it broadcast and harrow it into
the soil- The roots of peanuts do not spread like those
of corn, and it may be more economical to apply the fer-
tilizers to the row rather than broadcast.

PLANTING PEANUTS.

SELECTION OF SEED.

Careful selection of seed is just as important with pea-










nuts as with any other farm or garden crop. Our best:
varieties have originated by selection, and it 'tands To
reason that they may be still further improved by the
same process. The best of the crop should alwaysU be
saved for seed, and wherever a particularly fine plan
is found it should be saved separately and the peas plant
ed in a row to themselves, or in a small patch where they
can be closely observed. If several extra fine plants
were selected and the peanuts from each saved separately.
this seed might be planted in a special seed plat. a row be-
ing devoted to the product of each plant: in this way
comparisons may be made from time to time and the best
saved for further selection. The ideal plant should not
only produce a large number of pods, but the pods should
be well filled, uniform in size, smooth, and of bright color.
The peas themselves should be plump, bright, uniform in
shape, and well filled. If a grower does not have a good
strain of seed, he should purchase from someone who has
given the matter attention; then in future years give
especial care to the matter of saving good seed.


PLANTING ,11E ILED ) OR NSHIELLED PEANITTS.


The seed of the large varieties of peanuts are I'aenciii-ally
all shelled by hand for planting. In the case of lie S pan-
ish the peas practically fill the pods, making it difficult
to remove the shell lIv hand. The machines used in The
factories for shelling peanuts break the peas more or les.
and even when the peas are not broken the germination
is often injured by the rough usage in shelling. For this
reason it has been found safer to plant the Spanish peas
in the shell almost exclusively. The shelled peas will
sprout a little more quickly than those in the shells, but
a few days' time will not make any material difference.
If desirable, the pods may be soaked in water for a few
hours before planting, in order to hasten germination.













PLANTING MACHINERY-

The machines now upon the market for planting pea-
nuts are constructed somewhat upon the plan of the one-
horse cotton planter. These machines are well adapted
to planting the shelled peas, both of the large and small
varieties, and, if the peas are clean and free from stems,
are quite satisfactory for planting the Spanish nuts in
the shells.
In using the one-horse machines the land is first laid
off in rows one way by means of a marker similar to
that used in laying off corn rows. The planter is then
run in this mark and it drops, covers, and rools at one
operation. The different distances of planting are re-
gulated by changing a gear wheel on the machine.

PLANTING BY HAND.

For hand dropping, furrows or marks are made with a
sweep-stock or single shovel just a little in advance of the
droppers to prevent drying out. The seed peanuts are
hauled to the field in bags, and close-woven baskets of
about half-bushel size have been found desirable to drop
from. The droppers simply take a small handful and
work them between the Ilumb and first finger at the same
time stooping slightly in order to drop the pods at regular
distances. Behind the droppers the seed is covered by
means of a cultivator having the center teeth removed
and a notched board placed across the rear portion, the
notch coming directly over the row. The horse that
draws the covering cultivator or harrow should be hitch-
ed with a side draft so that it will not walk directly upon
the row.
DISTANCES TO PLANT.

The planting distances will depend upon the variety
being grown; also upon the strength of the land. For









54

the Virginia Bunch variety the usual distances are 30 S ,
36 inches between the rows and 10 to 12 inches in the row:
for Virginia Runners the rows are placed 36 to 40 inches
apart and the plants 12 to 16 inches apart in the rows.
For Spanish and other similar varieties the rows are
placed from 32 to 38 inches apart and the plants S to 12
inches apart in the rows.


IIEPTH TO COVER THE SEID.

The depth to cover the seed will depend somewhat
upon the compactness of the soil- If the soil is of a light
sandy nature and in good condition the seed should be
covered about an inch deep. Should the soil at planting
time be quite dry it will be desirable to cover the seed
at least 1} or 2 inches to insure germination.


I'IOTECTION 01 SEED FROM ENEMIES.

After planting, seed peanuts are often molested by
moles, crows, and pigeons; blackbirds are also accused
of destroying the young plants just as they come through
the ground. For the protection of the seed in the soil
from moles it is permissible to coat the shells very lightly
with pine tar thinned with kerosene. It would hardly
be permissible to coat the shelled seed with tar. although
a few peas might be tarred and mixed with Ile regular
seed. For protection against crows stretch lines of white
string across the field; also scatter a few tarred peas
over the surface of the ground. Pigeons are perhaps lthe
most difficult to either frighten or repel, and the use
of a shotgun is the most certain remedy. If the seed are
all securely covered in planting there will not be so great
danger of crows\ r other birds getting a start upon them.












CULTIVATION.

TOOLS REQUIRED.

The tools adapted for the cultivation of peanuts are
practically the same as those required for corn. Shortly
after planting the peanut field may be gone over once
or twice with a weeder of the King or Hallock type, or
with a light harrow; to loosen the surface and destroy
weeds that are starting. In using these tools very little
attention need be paid to the rows; in fact, many growers
prefer to go directly across the rows. Later, after the
plants appear and the rows can be followed, one or two
teeth can be removed from the weeder, and this type of
cultivation continued until the plants are large enough
for working with regular corn cultivators. A two-horse
spring-tooth riding cultivator is one of the best imple-
ments for handling the peanut crop, and after the plants
attain considerable size the spring teeth can be changed
for the regular shovel teeth. A one-horse cultivator hav-
ing five teeth is also an excellent implement, as the size
of the shovels can be increased as the crop becomes larger,
or hillers can be attached for working the soil toward
the rows of plants.

METHOD OF HANDLING THE CROP-

Throughout the growing of a crop of peanuts it should
be the aim to keep the entire surface of the soil fine
and loose, and a bed of loose soil near the plants in which
the pods may form. It is scarcely necessary to add that
the crop should be kept free from weeds. At the first
cultivation it is considered a good practice to throw the
soil well toward the plants, forming a bed. at the same
time leaving a small furrow in the center of the alley
to provide drainage in case of heavy rains. It is not
necessary to cover the blossoms or to throw soil over the












vines. Some growers follow lihe practice of rolling ilte
peanuts to make the pegs go into the ground and form
pods. The best method is to provide an abundaln ean of
loose earth near the plants and they will have n, di'ii "ity
in pants setting pods. Care should be taken. hiiweve:.
that the pegs that are already rooted be not diS -ibutr, 1 V
the final cultivation, land hoeing may .-.:
especially during a rainy season, when tlhe gra-- -: Y,
rapidly.

1 IARVESTING.

i'eanuts are hirvesiedi by lifting io le vines from The
ground with the pods attached and then stacking- ,i:!
around small poles to cure. Proper harvesting and cui':
is the most important part of the handling if the !ean:1
crop. Many persons xwho are grow-ing peannis for lhi
first time have an idea 1hat the crop may he handled i
some easier and cheaper way than by stacking. but many
years of practice has shown lihat stacking around pioes
is the simplest and best method. By pllaing the viCis
and peas in the small slacks they are plermiTteid TO V.-
slowly and at the same time are in so small quantity tlhal
they will not become mustiy.
The proper time for harvesting lThe planut crI is i-
dicated by a ripening appearance of the vines. This con-
sists of a slight yellowing of the foliage and a droonpimg
of the vines. A few days later some of the lower leav-
will begin to fall, especially if the weather is dry. To T.i
northern limits of the peanut territory the harvesring
should be done just before frost. Many beginners insist
upon digging their peanut crop too early and before the
peas have full matured. It is true that there may be a
pod now and then which bursts and sends forth a sprouts
but the number of these are few as compared with those o'
later formation which are rapidly filling. Where go,
peanut hay is especially desirable the crop should e












harvested in time to secure the best quality of vine and
leaf.
LIFTING THE PEANUTS FROM THE SOIL.

The usual custom in the older peanut sections has been
to simply run a plow under the roots and lift them from
the ground. Sometimes a specially designed plow is used
having a share or point with a broad wing to extend be-
neath the plants; in oilier cases an ordinary plow is used,
but the turning or moldboard is removed to prevent the
furrow being turned, the idea being to simply loosen the
plans. This practice of plowing out the crop has been
responsible in a great measure for the general depletion
of soil fertility throughout the peanut belt. To maintain
soil I'erlility these roots must be left in the soil. By the
old method of plowing out the crop almost all of the roots
are removed, and as they have not subsequently been re-
turned to the soil, depletion of fertili-y has been the
result. The proper tmelhod is to employ a tool which will
cut off the greater portion of the root and leave it in the
soil. In several sections the farmers have had special
tools made for running under the peanut vines, and
some of these are worthy of more general use.

MACHINES FOR DIGGING 'EIANIVTS.

Some of the regular machine potato diggers have been
found quite satisfactory for harvesting peanuts, but as a
rule these i lmplemenis have not sufficient clearance to
allow a heavy growth of peanut vines to pass through.
At present very much larger machines are being perfected
and especially adapted to the work in the peanut fields.
The machine or elevator potato diggers require about
four strong mules to pull them, but may be so regulated
that the sharp point of the digger will cut off the roots
just below where the peanuts are formed, carry the vines
with the peas attached up and over the elevator device..












and deliver them on the ground behind the machine with
practically all of the soil shaken from them. An outfit
of this kind will dig from S to 12 acres daily and require
about 20 hands to stack the vines behind it. In land that
is weedy there is always difficulty in harvesting the crop,
regardless of the kind of implement used for digging.

METHOD OF STACKING PEANUTS TO CURE.

As already mentioned, the proper method of curing
peanuts is to stack them, vines and all. around stakes set
in the field where the crop is grown. Before starting
to harvest the crop provide the small poles to be used as
stakes around which to stack the peanuts. These stakes
should be 7 feet in length by about 3 or 4 inches in diam-
eter, and may be either split out of large logs or simply
small saplings with the bark upon them. From 12 to
35 of these poles will be required for each acre. accord
ing to the stand and growth of vine; the rule. however.
is about 22 stacks to the acre. Have the poles hauled
and piled where they can be conveniently distributed
through the peanut field when the rush of harvesting
comes on.
As a rule 11, 13, or 15 rows of peanuts are placed in a
single row of stacks. The digging machine is started in
the center, on the row where the stacks are to sand, and
is worked outward until the necessary number of rows are
lifted. After the machine has gained sufficient headway
the poles are distributed at distances varying from 12
to 20 paces and set in the ground by means of a pointed
bar, a peg and a maul. or by a post-hole digger, and
tamped in place. The stake should be set into, the sil
sufficiently deep lo prevent the slack blowing over. 1:
the other hand, they slholld not lie set so dleeplyl :as
prevent their being,, easily lif'ied with 1he stack at thrli,-li
ing time.
Peanuts should not he hliniiiled whei There is dow ir











rain upon the foliage, but, aside from this, they may be
stacked within an hour or two after digging. Before
starting to build the stack nail a couple of short pieces of
lath at right angles across the stake about 8 inches from
the ground, then simply build the stack upon these, keep-
ing the peas or roots close around the pole and giving
the outer part of the stack a downward slope to carry
ofi the water during rains. As the stack is nearing com-
pletion it should be kept higher in the center and drawn
in to a point. If convenient, the top of the stack may be
finished with a bundle of dry grass, or a few peanut vines
may simply be rolled together and pressed down over the
top of the hole. Wet or green hay should never be placed
on top of the slack. When completed, the stack should
be about 6 feet in height and 30 inches in diameter.

LENLGITI OP TIME THIIAT PEANUTS SHOULD REM AIN IN THE
STACKS'

()ice the peanut vines are in the stacks they will be
comparatively safe for 5 or 6 weeks, or until they are dry
enough to pick from the vines. As a rule the curing
period will require at least 4 weeks, and if the peas are
not molested by birds, field mice, rats, or thieves they may
remain in the stacks for 3 or 4 months without injury.
The crop will not be ready to pick from the vines until
the stems have become brittle and the peas have attained
a nutty flavor.

I'CKING PEANUTS FROM THE VINES.

Formerly peanuts were all picked from the vines by
hand, the work being done largely by negro women and
children. Recently there have been developed several
machines for doing this work. These peanut-picking
machines are of two types, one having a cylinder like
the ordinary grain thrasher, and in the other a picking
mesh of diagonally woven wire is employed.













PEIANi IK INI'G % M A<'i I I i !:IIV.

The essentials of a satisfactory pieanut-picking maichi ne
are, first, that the pods should be picked clean fr,'mn the
vines without breaking or cracking rlit shells, and. \ccond.
that the peanuts be cleaned of all the c'r ii'er dir and
separated from the pieces of slemns. There i< always a
small quantity of very fine dirt adhli-iitg t,1 The hIi'l.s
of the peanut which must he separate:1 '] -nII hem iIn re
cleaning factory. The g'reniesi oljeciiln tir the wrk if
peaiut lihraslers in the past is hliat they l' nike t,. !;1iany
of the shells, in many cases breaking tlie 'kerniPl n- vl.,
and rendering them unsalable. This b1akil. ,f the
shells is a more serious damage than aiiighr ap!;ear ;'t
first thought, as the keeping t!ualities Iof 'hi nit. 1
upon their not hecomini' broken. There ari a lllnnll'r f
insects which a tack peanuls while in Sirai.r. -,.iiallyv
during the summer months, a n] ihese iairl!,r iilljiiu. tlhe
kernels unless the shell is cracked or hr oken.
The picking of peanuts is paid for at s(, much peIr 1ag
of about 4 bushels; 3. cents a b1g: being ill; rulii.g p'i ie.
In some sections the owners of the picking" ii,,-ichini.e do
tihe work for every tenth ba., or where e Th-y lri a
balingh, machine and press the peanut hay ii;n i le T Ley
take every eighlh bag. but none of the hay. tlal picking
is paid for at the rate of from 40 to 5io cents a hundred
pounds.

SACKING AND IIANDLING PEANUTS AFTER FICKIN';.

As the peanuts come from the picker they are pl;iced
in sacks and either hauled direct to the ears or st, red
for later delivery. The standard peanut bag is abinct
4 bushels, 90 or 92 pounds of Virginias and 110 to 120
of Spanish. As the bags are filled they are sewed and
tied at the corners to facilitate handling. If the peanuts
are not to be sold immediately, they are often taken from









the bags and stored in bins or in slatted cribs where they
will get air. The storage room should be proof against
rats and mice.

The peanuts vines, if properly cared for after the re-
moval of the peas, make an excellent hay. The best plan
is to have a baling press working while the thrashing or
picking is being done and press the vines into moderate-
size bales.

The peanut-picking machines break the hay considera-
bly, but by careful handling in baling the leaves and
stems can be worked into the bales together in the proper
proportions. The feeding value of peanut hay renders
it worth while to take special precautions in curing and
handling it. One important point in curing peanut hay
is to get the vines into the small stacks soon after digging
them; also to avoid having the hay become wet by rains.

VARIETIES OF PEANUTS.

At present about five varieties of peanuts are grown in
the United States, these being known as Virginia Runner,
Virginia Bunch, African (or North Carolina), Spanish,
Sand Valencia, commonly known as Tennessee Red. The
Virginia Runner and Bunch produce peas that are prac-
tically alike, these being the Jumbo or parching peanuts
of our markets. The African, or North Carolina, as it has
come to be called in this country, has a spreading vine
and produces a medium-size pea, which is used for shell-
ing purposes and for the smaller grades of parching stock.
The Spanish variety is the small peanut, with only two
peas in a pod, which is used so extensively for the mann-
facture of salted peanuts, peanut butter, etc. The Span-
ish has an upright or bunch habit of growth, with the
peanuts clustered about the base of the plant. The
Valencia, or Tennessee Red variety, has rather large and
sometimes very long pods, with any where from two to










seven small red peas crowded together in the pods. The
Valencia is in demand for use in the manufacture of -alt-
ed peanuts and peanut butter. A form of the Valencia
known as Georgia Red or Red Spanish is extensively
grown for hog and cattle feeding in parts of the Southern
States- However, this variety is not desirable for the
market. For the present, the true Spanish. or xhite
Spanish as it is sometimes called, is the proper variety
to grow througolt the Southwestern states. ; i- s
easy of cultivation and contains a high p-lcentagte if
oil.

MARKETING OF IEANUTS.


The peanuts as they come from the picking machine
on the farm are generally bagged, and either hauled direct
to the cars or stored for a short time in barns or Iieds
until they can he shipped. It should be the aim of -very
grower to have his crop go into the bags in just as clean
a condition as possible, free from stones, sticks, dirt. and
pieces of stems. Where the peanuts are not properly
cleaned the buyers are compelled to dock the weigh~ts.
and this always results in dissatisfaction to both parties.
If the peas are not clean as they come from the thrnaher
they should be run through a fanning mill to blow out
the dirt, and afterwards picked over by hand if necesa:ry.

Peanuts are comparatively light to handle and ca:n he
transported considerable distances, and it is not neices-
sary to have a factory in every section where pe:)i[ults
are grown. As a rule the buyers from the factories cime
to the various shipping points to inspect, purchase, and
load the peanuts into the cars as they are hauled in by the
farmers. Another method is where the factory is repre-
sented in a town by a merchant who buys the peanuts
from the farmers and stores them until wanted for ship
ment to the factory.









WEIGHT OF PEANII'S.

The unit in handling peanuts is the pound rather than
the bushel or bag. The large Virginia peanuts weigh
about 22 pounds to the measured bushel, while the Span-
ish weight about 30 pounds to the bushel. Two and one-
half cents a pound for farmers' stock would mean about
75 cents a bushel for Spanish, while 3 cents a pound,
or 77 cents a bushel, would be the ruling price for Vir-
ginias. By using the pound as the unit in buying and
selling peanuts the troublesome question of weight per
bushel will be avoided. Peanuts grown in one section
nay weigh more to the bushel than those grown in an-
cther or even an adjoining territory.

THE (LEANING FACTORY PROCESS.

In the factory the peanuts are fanned and polished to
remove the dirt, and are separated into a number of dif-
ferent grades. During the process they are all carefully
picked over by hand and cleaned until hie finished pro-
ducts would scarcely be recognized as coming from the
rough stock that was shipped in by the farmer. All of
the shelled or broken peas must be separated from the
whole ones and worked into shelled stock of various
grades.
In the factories where the Spanish are handled the
process is not so complicated, yet even here there is the
same careful hand picking to remove inferior peas and
refuse not taken out by the cleaning machinery. The
peas are passed over a fan, then are shelled and the hulls
blown out. Next the peas are run through a machine
which separates the split or broken peas from the whole
ones. The different grades are then run on what are
termed picking belts besides which a large number of
women are seated and pick out every inferior pea or par-
ticle of foreign matter. The refuse from a peanut factory









often contains practically every waste or cast-oftt article
that may be found on the farm. After the cleaning pro-
cess is completed the peanuts are bagged in clean. new
burlap bags and marked with a stencil showing the brand.
grade, and name of the cleaner.

1USES UF PEANUTS.

USES OF PEANUTS AS FOOD.

Peanuts now find uses in a great many ways aside from
being roasted and sold in packages. There is a great
and ever-increasing demand for peanuts to be used in
the preparation of salted peanuts, peanut butter, peanut
candies, peanut flour, and vegetarian meat substitutes.
Owing to the high nutritive properties of peanuts they
are rapidly assuming an important place as a standard
human food, ranking in this respect with other legumes
which they resemble in composition. The consumption of
peanut butter alone amounts to hundreds of carloads of
lhe product annually.

PI'IlOUCTION OF OIL FROM PEANUTS.

In France and Germany millions of bushels of peanut
are annually crushed for oil, the oil being used for cook-
ing, for salad making, and in the place of butter, while
the cake resulting from the manufacture of the oil is used
as stock food. In this country we have many oil mills
that are either idle or running on short time on account
of the shortage of cottonseed, and it is only a matter of
a little time until our production of peanuts will enable
us to build up a great industry in the manufacture of
peanut oil- In general the oil from the peanut has the
same culinary and table uses as olive oil, cottonseed oil,
and some other vegetable oils, and, like them, is consider-
ed a wholesome and valuable food product. Thirty













pounds, or a bushel, of Spanish peanuts will yield 1 gal-
lon of oil and about 20) pounds of cake. A gallon of this
oil is worth 75 cents wholesale and the cake is worth 1l
cents a pound, or 25 cents, making a total of $1 from a.
bushel, from which the working cost must be taken. As-
suming that an average of 40 bushels of Spanish pea-
nuts can be grown to an acre, we have a very promising
proposition in the manufacture of peanut oil, especially
when the peanut hay will almost pay the cost of growing
the crop.

VALUE OF PEANUTS AS STOCK FEED.

All of the inferior or refuse peanuts can be used to
advantage on the farm for feeding to hogs and also to the
general farm animals. There is not a pound of the entire
peanut crop, including roots, stems, leaves, and peas, but
that has some value, and not an ounce should be wasted.
The tops when used as hay have a feeding value equal
to the best clover, alfalfa, and cowpea hays; in fact, pea-
nut hay is one of the best dairy feeds for milk produc-
tion. As a result of the handling of peanuts in the clean-
ing factories there are quantities of finely broken and
shriveled peas that are sold for hog feed, and sometimes
ground into meal and sold for feeding" to cows. The
cake resulting from the manufacture of peanut oil is
equal to the best cottonseed meal for feeding purposes.

COST OF GROWING PEANUTS AND RETURNS.

The total average cost of growing an acre of peanuts
in the Southern States is about $12 where no commercial
fertilizers are used. Add to this the cost of 200 to 300
pounds of fertilizer and the total will not exceed $16 an
acre. On a block of land consisting of 54 acres in north-
ern Louisiana during the season of 1910 the itemized cost
per acre of production was as follows: Plowing and fit-
5-Bul.












ting the land, seed. and planting. S5.l: cultivariin. A'.*":
harvesting and stacking, including i the cut ling ;Ild ha11-
ing of poles, .: -7T; thrashing and hauling to car. s4.' n:
bags and twine, 1..05; rotal cost. 17.LT. This lain: pi-
duced an average yiehi of 60) bushlels ii an .iarie and
1 ton of hay. The peanuts sold for si a bI lmel f :21
pounds and the hay f'r 12 0 ton. nma.king ;i !Tiil ~m-nun
of $72 an acre. Deduuring the cost if r' i'in. whih i:-
cluded the foreman's liwm. lhe grmver received a nr re-
turn of about 8. 4 an acre. or s2,!i flronii thle ,!4 airm-.

Doubtless a great iany more peanu its will lie grw\n iu
the future than in the past; hut lte dimaind is a'- in-
creasing and there is money to be timia; a ,li it ; A
price for Spanish peanuts remains above 2' cc tir ;, a wmiin
for farmer's stock. There is great inle'ir i i ll ii I-
throughout the Southern Slaies, and pleanlllt rtle ;a
ble adjunct to corn for !ihe liproi'duin it :, 1a
hains and bacon.

















PART IL.


CROP ACREAGES AND CONDITIONS.

















DIVISION Of THE STATE BY COUNTIES.


Following are the divisions
ties contained in each:

Northern Division.
Franklin,
UGadsden,
H1 a ii i t on,
JeIlersoin,
J e; l';i clle,
L'fayette,
Lenii,
]Libcrty,
Aildison,
Suva;inuee,
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.

Western Division.
Calhoun,
E scma ibia,
Ilolines,
Jacksoln,
Santa Rosa,
Wal ton,
Washington-7.


of the State, and the coun-


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Colulmbia,
D)val,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.
Citrus,
U ernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Sumsier,
Volusia-9.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee,
Manatee,


Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach.
Pinellas,
Polk,
St. Lucie-12.
















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chiei Clerk



CONDENSED NOTES OF COR1 ESP'ONDEN'TS..

BY D)ivisioNs.

NORTHERN DIVISIONS.-The climatic conditions of this
district are not essentially different from what they were
last year at this time. Then the whole country was
deluged with excessive rain which retarded and cut lhoct
all of the troops in this section of the Siate. l'p to the
present there has been little favorable weather for break-
ing land or planting crops, and the consequence is that
throughout the district planting is much behind the usual
lime. A great many farmers throughout the entire sec-
tion have as yet not half completed the breaking of :heir
lands for corn or cotton. There is also one thing notice-
able in regard to the planting of cotton, and that is that
the acreage is nialler than last year, especially with the
sea island cotton. The low price of sea island cotton
brought down by the importing of Egyplian cotton has
liad the effect, apparently, of reducing the acreage to be
planted to sea island cotton. Whether the shortage in
acreage will continue or will be made lup. is ques-
tionable because of the weather conditions. There is also
apparently a aefflort being lmadte to grow an increased
acreage to corn, also oats, the latter beiLn a much larger
acreage and in better condition than for several ears,
owing to the wet winter and slping.

WESTERN DIVISION.-The same condi ions l practically
exist through ont this section as in tlhe previous one.










Breaking and planting is far behind and it is quite possi-
ble that the planting of cotton will not be completed until
well into May, especially if climatic conditions continue
as they have been to this date. As in the former division,
the standard crops such as corn, potatoes, etc.. will be
planted on a more extensive scale than they were last
year. The shortness of these crops for the past year and
the complete depletion of the stock on hand require a
greater acreage to be planted to these crops. It is a mar-
ter of necessity to the fanrers and aplparentl they realize
it and are profiting by the last year's experience.

NORTiiEASTERN DIVISION..-The climatic conditions in
this district are no better than in the two previous ones.
Being in a little different sectio l of the Slate, cir'ps arel
planted somewhat earlier, anld soil being cnsilderab!.-
different in the eastei n section of the State, it is wrnkalbe
earlier and unier more ad-vese circumslltaInese, as far as
rainfall is concerned, than in the northern and western
sections of the State, but even in 1his section the rains
have been excessive and crops are not in the condition nor
near as forward as they would be under more favorable
circumstances. However, full crop averages have lieen
planted in almost all of the field crops and especially so
with the vegetable and fruit crops; the vegetable crops ir
this district being in remarkably good condition, and also
the fruit trees. In this division there is notably a falling
off in the acreage planted to sea island cotton. The rea
sons given for this are stated in the division first dis.
cussed and applies to this section quite as well as to the
first.

CENTRAL DIVISTON.-There is practically no difference
in climatic conditions in this district and the one just
referred to. The same conditions practically obtain
throughout the State, as a matter of fact. The vegetable
crops have not done quite so well in this district. with











some exceptions, as in the one previously reported. It is
stated that the rains have had a bad effect on quite a large
quantity of this class of crops, but it has had a very bene-
ficial effect on the growth of citrus fruit trees. It is
stated, however, that in some localities the grapefruit
trees are not blooming as full as they should. What the
reoson is, as yet, we have been unable to learn. The prob-
able solution of the question is the overbearing of the
trees during last year.

SOUTHERN DIVISION.-As far as climatic conditions are
concerned, this division is practically in the same condi-
tion and has been subject to the same unseasonable in-
fluences that the rest of the State has had to contend
with. In some sections the vegetable crcp has been con-
siderably injured by the excessive rainfall, while in oth-
ers, on the high lands especially, they seem to have been
considerably benefited. The crops in the law lands have
suffered considerably. The fruit trees, however, seem to
have been benefited greatly by the rains and have put on
a great deal of wood and have grown perceptibly. In
this district also complaint is made from some localities
of the lack of bloom on the grapefruit trees, but no one
has, as yet, suggested a probable cause or, if one is known,
it has not been reported. There is noticeably in this dis-
trict a very large increase in the prospective crop of a
number of more tropical fruits, especially mangoes, gua.
vas and avocado pears. It is stated by a number of or
correspondents that the largest crop of these fruits ever
known in the State will be harvested. One condition
worthy of note in the production of crops throughout all
parts of the State is the increased production of sugar
cane. Apparently there will be the largest crop of sugar
cane grown in Florida this year that has ever been. Prac-
tically the same remarks will apply to several other stand-
ard crops, such as corn, sweet potatoes, peanuts, cowpeas








74

and velvet beans. Apparently throughout every s- cv inll
of the State these crops are being largely planted fl',r ;i-
table as well as forage for stock.





75

REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION PER CENT OF
CROPS PLANTED AND BEING PLANTED FOR THE
QUARTER EDL)ING MAltCIC 31, 1913.

COTNTIES. pht J l c lu.aid orn.
Cotton,. Cotton.
orfthrn Division. Acreage. Acreage. Acreage.
(Gadsden ............... 100 70 100
IIam ilto .............. 5 75 105
Jefferson .............. .i 100 100 105
Lafayet te .......... ..... ... 0 85
Le ................ 100 ... 115
Liberty ............... 100 ... 105
M adison ................. 125 75 100
Taylor ................. ... 90 121
W akulla ............... !)0 ... 10o
I)i-. Average per cent... 10 97 104
WIcsetcrn D)ivision.
Calhoun ................. 100 100 125
Escailn ia ........... ... 100 .. 125
Holm s ................. 10s .. 112
Jack-il i. .................. 1 100 105
Sani ta Iosa; ............ 100 .. 100
Wailtm ................... 105 05
W ashington ............ 305 ... 10
])iv. Avenrae per cent. .. 104 0Lo 111
\Yorithcavl'rn D)iiision.
Aliclhm .................. ... T7 120
I;likelr. ................. 125 70 125
IBradlf rd ............... I ... 7T5 115
C hi ...................... 101 100
D ur i ............... .... .... 100
N assau ........... ...... 0 I 0 110
Putna .............. .... 75 100
St. Johns .............. .. . I(
Div. Average per c'enlt.... A 107 sl 109
Central Dirision.
Hernando .... ........ ... 1 0
Levy ................... 10, 50o 100
M ari .nl ........... ..... 1S5
O range ................... ..... 100
Pasco .................. .. 100)
Sui er ................. ... 10(
Volusia ................. ... 100
Div. Average per cen .. 100 74 101
SouthlCrn Dicision.
Brevard ............ .... .....
Dade ........... .. .
rDeSoto ........... ....... ... 100
Hillslioroulgh .. ........ ... 100
M nnntee ............... ... 1)00
Osceola ................ .. oo
Palil Beach ............ ...
Pinh llas .......... ..
P ollk ................... .. 100
St. L ucie ............... .. .
Div. Average per cent... ... I ... 100
State Average per cent. 103 SS 105








76


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Oats. yauar C(ane. B, jown un.

Northern Dirision. Acreage. Acreage. Acreage.
Gadsden ............... 100 110
Hamilton .............. 100 110
Jefferson ............... 110 110
Lafayette .............. ... 100
Leou ................... 125 105
Liberty ................ ..1. I 1
Madison ................ 100 U 1o
Taylor .................. 100 110
W akulla ............... 100 10, .
Div. Average per cent .. .. 105 107
Wc.si/c'n L)iision.
Calhounl ................ .0 1o ...
Escamll ia ............... 100 12-5 10
Holihes ................. 100 10U
Jackson ................ 110 120
Santa Rosa ............ 100 1' ..
W allou ................. 0 1i '
W ashington ............ 103 1 ..
Dive. .Aver;e per cent. 110 1.
A oirllh axt i n Iliriion.
Alaltchllut ................ 1111 12,7
B aklcr .................. 125 117
Bra ; dford ............... 30. 0 12(1
C lay ................... 100 110
D uval .................. 7.5 lil
N ssau ........... 100 11 'I
PutuL nin i ... .............. 100 (2i
St. Johns ............... .. 100 1(l
Div. Average per cent... 100 12I: 1
'(ctraiil Diiiisiotn.
IIernando .............. T.100 12'
L evy ................... ,0 100
M arion ................. l i :
Orange .................. .
Pas o .............. ..1 100
Sun ter ................
Volusia ................. 50 510
Div. Average per cent... | S 01
Southern )irision.
Brevard .......... ... 101
D ade ........ ........ ...
DeSoto ................ 125 1(00
IHillsborough .......... 100 1 (0
M anatee ............... 100 1 :'o
OsA eola ................. .120
Palim Beach ........ 11
P inellas ................ ... 1 2
P olk ................... I 100
St. Lucie ............... .. 200
Div. Acreage per cent... 10.r ; 119
State Average per cent. 102 110 n1 1













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.
I obacco o ,Tbacco
COUNTIES. tobacco oba Re
-J l!L...I 11 V it lU {T. J,,rn


Northern Dirision. Acreage.
Gailden ............... 120
H am ilton ...............
Jeiferson ............... .
Lafayette ...............
Leon .................. .
Liberty .................
M adison ................ ..
Taylor .................
W akulla .............. ..
Div. Average per cent... 120


Acreage.
100





110


105


Acreage.
100
100
90

100

100


S122


Western Di'ision.
Calhoun ................ ... ... 100
Escambla .............. 100 sO 100
H olm es ................ ... ... 100
Jackson ................ ... ... 100
Santa Rosa ........... ..... .
Walton ................... ... ..
W ashington ...... ...... ... ....
Div. Average per cent... 100 80 j 100
Nortlheatern Division.
Alachua ............... ... ... 100
B aker ......... ... ... .. ..
Bradford ............... .
C lay ................... .
D uval .................. .
Nassau ................. ... ... 100
Putnam ................ .
St. Johns ............. .. ...
Div. Average per cent... ... J 100
Central Division
Hernando ..............
Levy ................... .. 100
M arion .................
O r nge ................. .. ..
Pasco .................. .. 100
Sum ter ................ .. ..
Volusia ................ _
Div. Average per cent... ".. 100 100
Southern Division.
Brevard .. .............. ...
Dade ......
D eSoto .................
Hillsborough ........... ...
M manatee ............... ..
Osceola ............... ..
Palm Beach ........... .....
P inellas ................ .....
P olk ................... ... ...
St. Tucie .............. ......
Div. Average per cent .. .. .... .
State Average per cent.. 110 95 105


O en 1 tld.


1


t











78


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.
,o t Fi('d
COUNTIES. Rice. /,,,, t,

uortlicri Diriiojn. ] Aereage. Arrat'e. A.rea-e.
Gadstl en .............. ... 1
IH amiilton .............. 70 1(UU 1i 'i
Jefferson ............... .
Lafayette ..............i ... lu 1I
L eon .................. .. l. I"i
Liberty ............... 100 11' 111
M adisoln ................. lill i
Taylor ................ .. 10(l
\VW kullal ................. .. 1 ..05 1'
Dir. Average per (-et ... _,7 Au:; :,
11l'c.s4 11l Diriiion.
Callioiin ............... .. 10 12 1.4
E sc;nil, ia .............. I i I
I olilnes ................ 0 111) :
Jacksoll .............. 111
Si;!ia ]ois..a ............ Td i l. 1
IWaltO ..l ................ ... 10 l
t. Jll din .... ............ i '
Div. Avera.'o per ,eit. .. 1 il
Ao rthlrullcin l__iriiln._____

Blake r ................ ... i 1 7
B rial'dford ............... 11'
(l r:i. ................... 1. ,))
D 11 -.:11 . . . . ... ] I '.
N ass; iu ........ ... 1 11 11
'llt ;lll .. . . 12 12
St. John-. .............. ... i'"
)iv. .\vernle 1per cent. ... 1100) 1 ,
( tcli'tl Dicisioon.
llerlal!do .............. 11 N
L e v .................... T 1.1 1 '
M ;A-rion .......... .......... .. .l I '
O rani,i ......... .. .... T.
'Pasco .... ......... .... 1.
Sunirc r ................ 111" 1,11
V olulsia ................ I 1"1
D)ix. Avxnra~u per celit... l!i2 12;
c';io tln'r a Di ivion.
]',rv;ard .......
] ildl or .... .. ........ .. ...11 i1
OD eeo1l ........... ..... 1 11 1h"
rai Ish Ro ucih- .......... ... 11I0 l',
INIi ll zlt ee ................i 125 10(0 i;
O s<,eohi ................ I i 11 t ) !
lPahlll Bench ........... . .
I v elhl s .... ........... I,, 10)
P olk ........ .... ...... 100 1' lIi I
St. Lucie ............ .. ] 0 21 il) o11, ,
Div. AvoraLge per cen,.it. 11 121
State Averag.e Ie












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION--Continued.

(COU'NTIIE. P canuts. Cassacu elet

\or'tlil'r Ilirixioi. Acrenge. Acreage.. Acreage.
Gadsden .... ....100 .. o11
Ilam ilton .............. 115 ... 115
Jefferson ............... 1001 100
Laf; yetle .............. 100 10
Leoll .................. 120 ... 110
Liberty ............ 10 ... 100
Madison ................ 100 .. 30
Taylor ............... 10l 7(
W akulla ............... 10 ... .
Div. Average p~er cent... 105 1
Ilcst/ern Diri'sion.
Cnllbioun ......... ..... 120 1)(
Esc .nllhia .............. 1. il 1110 125
1lolhn s ................ 112 ... 12
JacksII n .............. ..... I 12
ISanti Rosa ............ 10 1
W;tlton ............... 10 3 ... 105
Wn shin, tol ............ i 03 .. 10

JDiv. Average per cent .. 113 1) 111
\ Northastcrnl Diri.inm.
A in c'hlm a ......... ..... 121 ... tlt)
RBa ;er .................... 1411 ... 12i
B raid1lord ............. ... 1 111 l
Cl];y ................... 1,00 ... 1 l i
D ut \ a i ................. 10,
N .assiu ................. 112 10i 1 11
P'l iul n11 ................. ... i 100 1 17il
St. 1 Johns .. ......... .. ..1 ...
DIiv. Average per cent. 112 100 170'
Crtrail Division.
Hlernaiuld .... ..... .... 100 11
]Lovy ....... ...... ..... 100 li
M a'riol ............ ....... 1.11 11
Orhn/l ( ........ ........ ... 1
alsc( ............... 100l 10,0 1 10
Suniler ............... 100 T) < .
Volusin; ................ 100 I 40 11 l
Div. Avenrae per elt!.. 101 7T2 7
NIrl l Dl'h 'li irision.
B .v ......... .. .. .
.)!.1e!t ....... ......... 100 1..00 100

Iil slhor M 1 Iat e ............... ... 100
Osweola . . .. i 120 1. 70
P ahn T e.ea i ............ ......
P in lli1 s ................ 100 100l
P olk ................... .. n
St. Luci. .............. 100 i 100 ) 250
Div. Average por Stat,, Avernae per cent..' 10s 03 10.-,












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. Irish Potatoes. Cabbaye.
N northern Diriion. Acrtage. Condition. Acreage. Condition.
Gadsden .......... 100' 100 100 1lu1
Ilamuilton ......... 120 100 700 1l'o
Jetersol .......... 100 100 10(0 100
Lafayette ....... ....
Leon ....... 100 100 100 1 H)
Li ierty .. . ...
Madisoin ........... 100 100 00 1'"l
Taylor ............
Wakulla ........... 100 100 900
Div. Av. per cent.. 103 __ 9100 __ 97
Wlc..tcn Di)risioln.
Calhoun ........... I100 120 120 11;
Escamlia ......... 100 SO SO 7.
Holmes ............ 10( 100 110
Jackson ........... 100 100 I 100 11
Santa Rosa ........ 100 100 t 0 i.I
hnalton ............ 100 100 100 90
Washington ........... 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent.. 101 89 100 99
ort7hli'astern JDirinion.
Alhcliua ............ 100 100 120 1(0
Baker ............ 125 100 140 100
Bradford .......... 100 100 100 100
Clay ........... 100 100 100 11, 1
Dural ............. 100 100 125 10
Nassau ............ 110 100 110 100
Putnam ........... 100 100 125 1(K)
St. Johns .......... 110 100 125 100
Div. Av. Iper cent. 100 100 118 10;
Central Dirix.ion.
IIernando ......... 110 0 i 100
Levy .............. (; 0 110 100 10
Marion ............ 90 95 100 li)
Orange ............ 100 100 100 100
Pasco .............. 90 80 10 1
Sumter ............. 100 100 75
Volusia ............ 110 120 90 100
Div. Av. per cent.. 93 99 96 90
nouthcrn Dirision.
regard ........... ... 100 5
Dad .............. to100 I 10 100 1 )
DeSoto .. .........I 50 100 125 1 Hi
Hillslorough ....... 75 75 I 5 0'
Manatoe ..........I 120 100 120 100
Osceola ........... 120 100 200 90
Palmi each ....... 150 90 200 100
Pinellas ........... 100 90 300 90
Polk .............. 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie .......... 200 100 300 200
Div. Av. per cent... 113 107 143 10N;
State. Av. per cent. 103 99 111 101














REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

SoUNTIES. Tomatoes. Cucumbers.
Northern Division. Acreage. Condition. IAcreage. Condition.
Gadsden .......... ... ....
Hamilton .......... ..
Jefferson ........... 100 85 0 90
Lafayette .......... .
Leon ....100 S... 100 90,
Liberty ........... .. 1 .
Madison ...... 7 75 .
Taylor .............. ....
Wakulla .......... I -.. ...
Div. Av. per cent.. I 92 82 95 85


Western Division.
Calhoun ........... 100 300 100
Escambia .......... 125 S5 100
Holmes ............ 30S 90 100
Jackson ........... -
Santa Rosa ....... 75 I > 75
W alton ............
Washington ........ ... .
Div. Av. per cent..l 102 S 7 94


I]t

I sr,
; ^i


i '


Northeastern Division.
Malchua ........... I15 1(00 100 1 (1
B aker ............. .. .. ..
Bradford .......... ...
Clay .............. 00 100 100 100
Duval ............. 100Tlo 7) 0 0 n
Nassau ............ 110 100 110 100
Putnam ........... 100 300
St. Johns ...............I
Div. Av. per cent. 112 U19500 97
Central Division.
Hernando .......... 100 90 I 00 !0
Levy .............. 100 SO ] 00
Marion ............ 7 I 9 100 .I-
Orange ............ 150 100
Pasco ............. 100 100 100 100
Sumter ........... 1000 10 R5 75
Volusia ........... 100 100 100 100
Div. Av. per cent..| 307 905 9O 91
Southern Division.
Brevard ........... 100 SO 300 100
Dade .............. 105 100 105 00
DeSoto ............ 75 100 75 100
Hillsborough ..... I 100 90 90 90
Manatee ........... 120 100 100 100
Osceola ............ i 180 100 120 100
Palm reach ..... 100 90 90 75
Pinellas ........... 100 100 00 00
Polk .............. 100 100 100 100
St. Lucie .......... 100 150 1150 100
Div. Av. per cent..l 108 101 103 96
State. Av. per cent.. 104 92 98 91

(-Bul.













RIEPORIT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES. EnDlish 'Pca.. Ben.

Northern Divisio. Arege Condition. Acreage. Conlitii.
Gadsden .. ....... ...
Iamilton ..........
Jefferson .......... 100 100 1( sI
Lafayette .......... ... .
Leon .............. 100 100 1(10 .i
Liberty ............ .......
M adison ........... ... ... lM
Taylor ............. .. .
Wakulla ............ .
Div. Ac. per cent.. 100 1l 1
Vcstern Division.
Calhoun ............ 10 10 1 o Iln)
Escamllia .......... 100 i 7 125 ,I
Holmes ............ 110 100 115
Jackson .......... i ... ..
Santa Rosa ........ 90 9 1.(1 1oii
W alton ............. ... ..
Washington .......
Div. Av. per cent ... 100 1 I11
North eastern Dirision.
AXlac1ua7 ..7.... 1( 11 o O 1 TI
B aker ............. ... .
Bradford .......... ... ...
C lay ............... ... 1i n .ii
Duval ............. .. .. 1(10 II ,
Nassau ............. 1.. 1(00 11(1 I'"
Putnam ........... ... .
St. Johns ......... ... 1'00 1 'l
Div. Av. per cent... 100 100 102 In,
Central Division.
IHernando ........ .... 1 1
Levy .............. 100 100 1 0 .11
Marion ............. 100 100 1 .15
Orange ........... ... 1:,0
Pasco ............. ... 1 ) 1
Sunter ............. IT. 75
V olusia ............ .. )
Iiv. Ae. per cent... 92 92 2 i .5
Southern Division.
Brevard .... ...... ; ]0.
D ade .............. i 1(15 11
DeSoto ............ 125 100 100 lnn
Hillsborough ...... ... .1 0 11
Manatee ........... 100 100( i 120 1 !)
Osceola ............ 140 120 120 n11
Palm Beach ....... 150 11
Pinellas ........... ... | 10 1
Polk ......... .. ... 100 1n1i
St. Lucie .......... _100 100 150 1-
Div. Av. per cent... [ 115 105 115 1111;
State Av. per cent. 101 T 98S 104 91











83


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


Nort
Gads
Ham
Jeffe
Lafa
Leon
Libe
Mad
Tayl
Wak
)iv.


COUNTIES. Lcttuce. E.g l' Plants.

hern Division. A.r.vage. Condition. Acreage. Condition.
den ........... ... .
ilton .............
rson .......... 100 100
yette .... .
.............. 100 100
rty ............ .
ison ........... 0 90 90 50
o r ............ ...
.ulla ........... ...
Av pir cent.. 97 | 97 50 9I


Wlstcrn Division.
Calhoun ........... .. 100 100
Escalhia .......... t100 75 10 .-
IIohnes ............ 105, 100 100
Jackson ........... .. .. ."
Santa Rosa ....... T, 75 SO p
W alton ............ ... .. -
Washington ....... .. .. -..
Div. Av. per cent... 9 3 s 95 T7!
Northeastern Division.
Alachua ........... SO 75 100 li
B aker ............. ... .... .
Bradford .......... ... ...
Clay .............. ......
Duval ............. 1 75- 75 90 0
Nassau ....... .. 100 100 100 11 00
Putnamn ............ . .
St. Johns .......... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent... 8 0 57 97 !l7
Central Division.
Hernando .......... S .0 o'
Levy .............. 100 100
Marion ............ 105 100 00 100
Orange ............ 125 100 113) 1oo
P as(co ............. ... .
Sumter .............. 7 90 75
Volusia ............ 110 120 100 101
Iiv. Av. per cent.. 1083 102 93 -t
Southern Division.
Brevard ........... ...... 90 I !
D ade ............. .. ... 100 100
IeSoto ........... 25 100 2 100
llillsborough ....... .5 .
Manatee ........... 200 100 100 10 100
Osceola .......... 200 90 100 100
Palm Beach ....... 100 100 100 100
Pinellas ............ 100 90 100 90
Polk ............... 100 100 110 100
St. Lucie .......... 100 100 100 100
Iiv. Av. per cent... 118 97 90 96
State Av. per cent.. 100 93 85 | 3













REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


(COUNTIES. (Celry. Bats.

Nortliern Divisiio. I Arege. Conditi.m. Acreage. ' G adsden .......... . .. ...
I alnilton .......... ...
Jefferson .......... .. l' llii
Lafayette .......... ...
L oon .............. ... .. ill l
Liberty ........... .....
M adison ........... .. .. .i
Taylor ............ ... .
W akulla ........... .. .
Div. Av. per cent. ... .. 11
Western Divisioin.
Calhoun ........... i! ..
Escambia .......... 11 0 1 'i "
H olmes ............ l I i
Jackson .......
Santa Rosa ........ .
W alton .........
Washington ....... .
Div. Av. per cent... | l00 .7 Ir
ANortlieaustern lirisic .
Alachua ............ I:0 so T! n
B aker ............. .. ......
Bradford .......... ......
Clay ............... .
D uval ............. .
N assau ............ 110 I 1.
Putnam ........... ... ..
St. Johns. .......... .
Div. Av. per cent... 1i 1 I"
Central D)iisiion.
iteriinaiilo .......... .. .. i. 1
Levy .............. ...
M arion ............. (10 !-4 lii,
Orange ........... 1 125 1
Pasco ............. ..... .
Sumter ............ ... ....
Volusia ........... 1 00 120 1'n Ti"
Div. Av. per cent.. 1 ) ]Wi 7 ,.
Soithlern I)irisioin
Brevard ..... ..... ...
rDade .. ................
I)Dade...................... ....
DeSoto ............ .. I
Hillst oron lgh ....... .
M nIIntec .......... 5 ') 100 100 los
Osceola ............ .. 00 120 100 10i
Palm reach ....... 80 )0 110 1ill
Pinellas ......... 100 ..
Polk .............. 100 00
St. Lucie .......... 100 o 100 100 I' i'
Div. Av. per cent.. 180 I 97 1 102 I 100
State Av. per cent.. 123 i 8S 100 '












REPORT OF ACREAGE AN) CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES. W atermelons. Cun'taloupes.

Northern Division. Acreage. Condition. Acreage. Condition.
Gadsden ........... 100 90 100 5
Hamilton .......... 120 100 .
Jefferson ........... 115 t)'O 0 0 0
Lafayette .......... 100 75
Leon .............. 100 80 j 10 soI
Liberty ........... 100 S5 .
Madison ........... 100 100 100 loo
Taylor ............ SO !0
Wakulla ........... 100 00 100 0i
Div. Av. per cent... 102 I s!~ OS 89'
Western Division.
Calhoun ........... 95 95
Escambia .......... 150 so0 !:0 s|
Holnes ........... 10S 80 1100 So
Jackson ............ 100 90 .
Santa Rosa ........ 100 100 .
W alton ........... 90 90 ..
Washington ........ 90 90 ...
Div. AV. per cent... 1 105 89 115 '5
A ortheastern )iriision.
Alachua ........... 90 90 T0 0,(0
Baker ............. 100 100 ..
Bradford .......... 100 ,0 .
Clay .............. 100 100
Duval ............. 100 100 `5 91
Nassau ............ 100 100 ,0 I'ii
Putnam ........... 100 100 50 ,
St. Johns .......... 110 100
Div. Av. per cent...| 100 97 '-I- !
centrall Dirision.
lierando .......... 100 S5 t'1 '5
Levy .............. 0 90 0
Marion ............ 105 100 1 ; 10I
Orange ............ 70 100
Pasco .............. 100 100 I 0 10i(
Sumter ............ 90 90 5
Volusia ............ 00 100
Div. Av. per cent ...I 95 1;5 0
Southern Lciriiion.
Brevard ........... 0 II .
Dade ............. .. .
DeSoto ............ 100 10i i ,0
Hillsl orough ....... ..
lManatee ........... 150 10 | 1o00 101
Osceola ............ 200 1040 150 i 100
Paint Beach ....... 120 0 1 00 lo 11(o
Pinellas ........... 100 S,5 1o00 !i
Polk .............. 120 100 11 1(0)
St. Lucie .......... 200 100 1 ( o 10
Div. Av. per cent..I 134 97 101
State Av. per cent.. 107 93 ')S









86

IKI'(IitUlT ()F AC't'E.AGEI AND C('f)NI)TION- (',mtinluit

[tlj I'1,,, Tv ,,,

Northern Divisi.on AereItn"e. ( Inditi(i. l 'II(IlitiI.I. I iu biI
Gadsden ........... .
Hamnilton .......... i .
Jefferson .......... .
Lafayette .......... .
Leon ............. ... 1
Liberty ............
Madison ........... .I
Taylor .............
W akulla ........ ....
Div. Av. per cent ... 4lo 5 1.
IVcstcrn Division.
Calhoun ...... 10 1..1 1 7 1.'
Escamlia ......... 1 ...il
Holmes ............ 1.. liiI
Jackson ....... ........ ... ..
Santa Rosa .........
W alton ........... 1(.(00 I( ...
Washington ....... ...
Div. Av. per cent.. 100 1In 175 1. T
Nortlicastern Divisiol.
Alachua .......... I ..( 1)I l(id 1,
Baker ........... 1,0t 10 in1
Bradford .......... 1.25 100 1l
Clay .............. 11I i 11 lt
D ural ............. .. .
Nassah ............ 110 110 111'
Putnam ............ ... 1
St. Johns .......... 1. 1 ii i ,i 0
Div. Av. per cent ... 101 111 1(14 11'
Ccntral Dirisioi.
Herna ndo .......... !. 1 0i 1 0( 1n 4 I] ,
L evy ........... .. ... .11
MT;rinln ........ ... >7 TI(1. 1
Orange .............. ... 121
Pas o . . . 100 10 1 l(01
Sunlter ........... 75T 1(I 1
Volnsia .............: 120 120 1i(1
Div. Av. per ceint ... 17 (; 102 i,1
RohllVirn Dirisioi.
T'rerviard ....... 100( 7(. 110(
r)ada e ..............' 100 105 100 (
DeSoto ............ 1.(0 100 t100 ItI
Hillslior.nugllhl ....... 100 1(0 10(i lit0
Manatee ........... 200 100 (In( ir
Oseenlal ........... 300 200 120 120
Palm Beach .......I 120 100 100
Pinollas ........... 110 100 110 11 ,'
Polk .............. 200 100 120 110
St. Lucie .......... 150 100 150 150
Div. Av. per cent. 153 108 111 110
State Av. per cent.. 102 91 113 115












IPOR()T OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION--Continued.

Lime Grapue P rine-
NTIE es. Fruit Trees Bana s. apples.

Northern Dirision. Condition. Condition. Condition. Condition.
Gadsden ........... ... | ..
Hamilton .......... .. i SO
Jefferson .......... ... ..
Lafayette .......... ... ..
Leon ............. .. 100
Liberty ........... ... .....
M adison ........... .. .
Taylor ............ ....
W akula ........... ... ....
Div. Av. per cent... ... 90 ...
Western Division.
Calhoun ........... .. 15 150
E scam lia .......... .. . .
Ilolmes ............ .... .... .
Jackson .............. ....
Santa Rosa i ........
W alton ............
W ashington ....... ... .
Div. Av. per cent...| ... l0 150 ..
Northeastern Dirision.
Alachua ........... 100 | 1 0.
Baker .............. 100 ... ...
Bradford .......... 100 .....
C lay ............... ...
Duval ............. .. 11 110
Nassau ......... ...... 110 1 00
Putnam ............ ...
St. Johns .......... .. 100 i 100.
Div. Av. per rent... .. 102 10( 100
Central Division
Ilernando .......... .. 100 .. .
Levy .............. ... .
M arion ............ ... 100 ...
Oran Ce ............ 125 .. .
Pasco ............. ... | 100 100
Sumter .............. .. 100 100
Vol sia ........... ... 110 ....
Div. Av. per cent... .. 10 ( 100
Southern Division.
Brevard ........... 110 100 10
Dade .............. 100 I 0 I n.
DeSoto ............ I 100 1000
Hillshoroungh ....... I 100 .
Manatee ...........| 100 100 100 100
Osceola ............ 120 120 100 150
Palm Beach ....... 90 100 125 12 15
Pinellas ........... ... 120 .
Polk .............. ... 120
St. Lucie .......... 150 150 100 150
Div. Av. per cent... 109 112 103 121
State. Av. per cent. 109 112 92 110












REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES. Manqoes. Guavas. a
SP"car,
Vorthlr. Division. I Condition. Condition. ; Condition.
Gadsden ..................... .. -- I
I am ilton ....................
Jefferson ................ .
L afayette ....................
L eon ......................... i
L iberty. .....................
Madison ...................
T aylor ......................
W akulla .....................
Div. Average per (cnt......... .
Western Division.
Calhoun .....................I
E scam bia .................... .
lIolmnes .....................
Jackson ...................... .
Santa Rosa .................. ... ..
W alton ....................... .
W ashington ...................
Div. A per cent ..............
A orrlheut'rn Dirision.
A laclnia ....................... ...
B ak er ....................... i
B radford ..................... ...
C la y ........................
)u va l .... ...................
N assau ......................
u ttn; lln ........ .............. .
S t. Johns .................... 1 ..
D iv. Aver'e I'er .rlnt ........... .
C7e5tr'(l Diri) io
H erni udo ................... ..
L evy .........................
M arion ...................... .. .
O ran ge ....................... n1
P asco ........................ l il
Suml ter ....................... .. ...
V olusia ...................... .11
Di-. Average per cent .......... :
outhlicrni iris0ion.
Broeva:rd .. ..... .... .. .... (I.. 0 -.
D ade .................. ... 1(0 3ln11
D eS, to ................ ..... .
Tlillslorough ........... .... ..
iM anatee ............... .... I 1 I
Osaeola ................ ..... .50 20i
Palm Bech ................. 1 111112 1'
P'ilh e la. s ................ .....I 1 0 110 T "
I'( ,lk ................... ...... ] lin ..' l-"
St. Lucie .................... 200 2i 0 '
Di i. .Av(rare per cent ........ 124 12 1.7
SlAte Avera-, i per cent. ........ .124 117 127







89


REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES. Peaches. Peurs.

Northern iricison. Condition. Condition.
iadsdeu T ...... ...-..^ .. i.... 1 120 ..
H am iltlon ............................ .. SO
Jef'tGde ................................ 100 5
Laf tie ....... ................ .......... I ...
l, .................................... 100 3
!,I erty ................................ 85
M adison ......... ........................ 5. 0 50
T aylor ....................... ........... 0G 40
W akulla .................................. S5 35
Division Average per cent ................ 5 3s
Western Division.
Calhoun ................................. I o 5
Escainbia ............................... 50 50
H olm es ....... .......................... 75 75
Jackson ............................. .
Santa Rosa .............................. 75 70
W alton .................................
Washington ............................ 75
Division Average per centl ................ 70 ;5
Northeastern Division.
Alaclhua ............ .. ..... .......... ... 0 100
B aker ................................... 1 0 ...0
B radford ................................ ..
C lay .................................... ..
D uv: ll ................................... 100 .,
N assau .................................. ... .
Prutii i .......... ...... ................ 100) 75
St. Johns ................. ............. 110 110
Division Average per cent ................ )S o
(C'(nral lHirision.
Hlernando ...................... ......... 1- 00iD S 7
Levy .................................... 10
Mariin ............. ................... 100 1li
O r i .. . . . . . . . . .
I'asco ................................... 1* .0 1
Sumter .................................. 100 o10
Volusia ...................... ...... ... ... 14) 4 )
Division \. vpr':l' e il. r cenl. .............. 10 i 4

~hi~ri..1 ci~lm................. .........
;I: tr .....................................
ID 'e ................................. I
'1111is! I o h ............................ .
M : ii; ttee ................................ 100 !
i( l'e l;I ... .. . . . .. . . . .. : ,

iSt. s .... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .... .. ... .
k . . . . . . . . . . .
St. L u 'i, ........ ... .................. i ....
Division u .\v r:l';e per rent ....... .... : ;- ,i -
Slilto .\A vc r:r-:' 1wr enil ................... "S5 ~ ; .























PART III.

Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and
Foods and Drugs.

















iEGIULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND
FORWARDING OF FERTILIZER OR COMMER-
CIAL FEEDING STUFF SAMPLES TO THE COM-
MISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.




SECTION 15 OF THE LAWS.

Special samples of Fertilizers or Cominiercial Feeding
Stuffs sent in by purchasers, under Section 9 of the laws,
shall be drawn in the presence of two disinterested wit-
nesses, from one or more packages, thoroughly mixed, and
A FAIR SAMPLE OF THE SAME OF NOT LESS THAN EIGHT
OUNCES (ONE-HALF POUND) SHALL BE PLACED IN A TIN CAN
OR BOTTLE, SEALED AND SENT BY A DISTER:STED PARTY TO
THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AT TALLAHASSEE. NOT
LESS THAN EIGHT OUNCES, IN A TIN CAN OR 30TTLE. WILL BE
ACCEPTED FOR ANALYSES. This rule is adopted to secure
fair samples of sufficient size to make the necessary de-
termination and to allow the preservation of a dupli-
cate sample in case of protest or appeal. This duplicate
sample will be preserved for two months from the date
of certificate of analysis.

rTh Slate heistt is not the proper flii(er to receive
special samples from the purchaser. The propriety of lie
method of drawing ; and sending the samples as fixed 1b'
law is obvions.

The dI;',w inL: and sending of special samples, in r0are
laserss is in 'coiilmelianc wilh law. Samnples are ftre!iinntly
cseit in paper )p:akages or paper boxes, badly packele and
frei(uently in very small quantity (less than ounce) : fre
(queinly there are no marks, numbers or other means ,l'
identification: ihe postmark in some instances beint
absent.












I would call the attention to those who dujilc i' t\ ;i
themselves of this privilege to Sections !l and i of tlh-
law, which are clear and explicit.

Hereafter, strict compliance with above regulations
will be required. The samples must not be less than one-
half pound, in a tin can or bottle, sealed and addressed to
the Commissioner of Agriculture. The sender's name and
address must also be on the package, this rule a,p., ..
to special samples of fertilizers or commercial feeding
stuff.

A one-pound baking powder tin can, properly cleaned.
filled with a fairly drawn, well mixed sample taken from
several sacks, is a proper sample. It should be scv,,le and
addressed to the Conmnissioner of Agriculture at Talla-
hassee. The sender's name and address should also be
placed on the package. If more than one sample is sfcn .
the samples should be nunibered so as to identify them.
All this should be done in the presence of the irit ness.s
and the package mailed or expressed by one of th,
witnesses.

The tags oil the sack should be retained b the sender
to compare with the certificate of analysis when received.
and not sent to this office. The date of the draicinjg an
sending the sample, and names of the witnesses, should
also be retained by the sendlr; not sent to this office.




INSTxrrCTI'ONSX TO 1SIEITFFS.

The attention of Sheriffs of the various cou.,ntie. i-
called to Section 3 of both laws, defining their dmiies.
This Department expects each Sheriff to assist in main-
taining the law and protecting the citizens of the State
from the imposition of fraudulent, inferior or deficient.
Commercial Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding Stutl '.












SPECIAL SAMNIL LES.

Florida is the only State in the Union that provides for
the "special sample," drawn by the consumer or purchaser,
under proper rules and regulations fixed by law-to be
sent to the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost.
Any citizen in the State who has purchased fertilizers or
feeds for their own use may draw a sample of the same,
according to law, and have the same analyzed by the State
Chemist free of cost. And in case of adulteration or de-
ficiency he can, on establishing the fact, receive double
the cost of price demanded for the goods.

The law requires the "special samples" to, be drawn in
a manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Bulletin for
drawing and transmitting "special samples."

This special sample has been a most potent factor in
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.

Special samples of foods and drugs ma. also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost, when the
sample is properly drawn according to law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
and transmit samples of "food and drugs' will be sent to
any citizen requesting the same.

"THE SPECIAL SAMPLES FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS MA-
TERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER 'OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE OF
TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FERTIL-
IZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."












FORM -LAS.

There are frequent inquiries for formulas for various
crops, and there are hundreds of such formulas published:
and, while there are hundreds of "brands," the variations
in these grades are surprisingly little. Dozens of "brands"
put up by the same manufacturer are identical goods, the
only difference being in the name printed on the tag or
sack. A good general formula for field or garden mighi
be called a "vegetable formula," and would have the fol-
lowing: Ammonia, 31' : available phosphoric acid.
6.,%; and potash, 79 ,. The following formulas will
furnish the necessary plant food in about the above pro-
portion, havIe purposely avoided the use of any fraction
of 100 pounds in these form-ulas to simplify them. Values
are taken from price lists furnished by the trade. January
1, 1912.

For cotton, corn, sweer potatoes and vegetables: Am-
monia, 3~l%: available phosphoric acid. 6( A: ,potash.



(A) "'VEGETABLE."

No. 1.
Per Cenr
900 pounds of Cotton Seed Meal (7T-2 -11 ..... 3.25 Armon!:n
800 pounds of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent) .... 6.46 Availab:
300 pounds of Muriate or (Sulphate) (50 per c"nt) 7 0 Pot--iz

2.000
State value mixed and bagged............. $. 27.52
Plant Food per ton......................... 42 poundi-

No. 2.
Per Cent
1,000 lbs. of Blood and Bone (6-S) ........... .25 Ammonii
400 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (13 per cent) ...... 7.0i A1ivailable
600 lbs. of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 per cent) 7.Sr Potash

State value mixed and bagged.............. $2S.45
Plant Food per ton...................... 360 pound-












No. 3.
Per Cent.
300 lbs. of Dried Blood (16 per cent).......... 3.25 Ammonia
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent)...... 8.00 Available
1,000 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent)..... j 7.80 Potash
600 lbs. of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 per cent).


2,000


State value mixed and bagged........... $29.45
Plant Food per ton .......................... 381 pounds


(B) "FRUIT AND WINE."


No. 1.

Fruits. Melons, Strawberries. Irish Potatoes. Ammonia, 4 per
cent., Available Phosphoric Acid 7 per cent., Potash 10 per cent.


Per Cent.


1,000
400
500
100

2,000






500
200
900
400

2,000


lbs of Blood and Bone (64-8) ............
Ibs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent).... 1
lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent)......
lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent) ......


8 Available
4 Ammonia
10 Potash


State value mixed and bagged .............. $34.50
Plant Food per ton ......................... 440 pounds


No. 2.
Per Cent.
Ibs. of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent) ...... 4.00 Ammonia
Ibs. of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent)........ 7.70 Available
lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent) ...... 9.60 Potash
lbs. of Sulp. of Pot. (48 per cent) .......


State value mixed and bagged ............. $33.76
Plant Food per ton ........................ 4'1G pounds


No. 3.
Per Cent.
500 lbs. of Cotton Seed Meal (7 -2i 1l)........
,1 100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent) ...... 3.97 Ammonia
100 Ibs. of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent)........ .8.30 Available
900 Ibs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent) ...... 8.97 Potash
400 lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent) .. .

2,000
State value mixed and bagged ............. .$:3..
Plant Food per ton ........................ 425 pounds
7-1iul.











FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by............ 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by.............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by ............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by. ...... 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by .............. 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Muriate of potash into actual, potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by (.41
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.$5
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by...... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.6S1
Actual potash into carbonate of potash, multiply by 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit," multiply potash (K.,O by. 2.:33

For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply i'5
per cent. by 0.1647, you w.ll get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen:
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent, carbonate of potash inro
actual potash (KO), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (K,O).




COPIES OF THE FERTILIZER, STOCK FEED AND
PURE FOOD AND DRUG LAWS.

Copies of the Laws, Regulations and Standards will be
furnished by the Commissioner of Agriculture on appli-
cation.










COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FERTILIZERS
FOR 1913.

Available Phosphoric Acid .............. 5c a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .............. lc a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen)..174c a pound
Potash (as actual potash, K0O) ......... 51c a pound

If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid ............... :1.00 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .............. 20c per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). 3.50 per unit
Potash ................................ 1.10 per unit

With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ten for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent., in a ton. We
find this to be the easist and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, htke
for example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid...6.22 per cent.xOl.00-$ 6.22
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid...1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia .................3.42 per cent.x 3.50- 11.97
Potash ..................... 7.23 per cent.x 1.10- 7.95
Mixing and Baging .......................... 1.50

Commercial value at sea ports ................. $27.94

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid.....8 per cent.xS,1.00--$ 8.00
Ammonia ...................2 per cent.x 3.50- 7.00
Potash .....................2 per cent.x 1.10- 2.20
Mixing and Bagging .......................... 1.0

Commercial value at sea ports .................. $18.70

The State valuations are for cash for materials deliv-
ered at Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one-











Ion lots :i1 these prices at the date of issuing this Bulle-
tin. Where fertilizers are bought at interior points. The
additional freight to that point must be added.
The valuations and nia-lke prices in lpeceiin' illusira-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.

H[AIKTli' ] ;'H,'ES ,F C'IIEMIC'ALS AND FERTILIZ-
ING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEA
PORTS, APRIL 1, 191:2.

ATl MONIATES.

Nitrate oif '- ';!, '' Animoni... .......... .
Sulphaie of Amniiinm:oi 2,, 2 Ammonin ......... T.;."..
ItDr,'d 1Bloo1., 1 4i' Amii olninl ..................... 0i
Cviannanili', IS: A. nllonia l .................... 1li.
Dry Fish Scrap, 'I ; Ammonia ............. : "'

POTASH.

Hi IS', K ................................ .I I
Low,- Orale Sulpiihat of Potash, 4ISI S.h'ifat.
26) K ,O ...................... ...... .....
Munrite of Pol;sh. 8if : h 4,q"; K0. ............ 4.."0
Nitrate of Pot,1sh, imiolied. 16G AmmInia.
46% Po!ash K,0 ... ................ ..... 1.. "
Nitrate of P i;1s1,. ,'v' i';ni. 1t' Ami.,,,ni a .
S- Poinsih K .,O .................. ........ 11
Kainit, Polash, 12, K.c ................... .. n. !
Caia'la IHardwood As-1i. ); ;, 4n K ,. ) r
a sh . . . . . . . . . .. 1. .




W';ter I 1n '' T nk' .,n \. 17 \ ~lila ....... 'l
High Orade T'nka'e, 10, Amnmonia. 2', % Phos-
phoric A cid ............................... 40.




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