• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Some vegetable and forage...
 Condition and prospective yield...
 Report of citrus growers' convention;...
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00025
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Some vegetable and forage crops
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Tomato growing in Florida
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Irish potato growing in Florida
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        The home dairy in Florida
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Japanese cane
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Sorghum for silage and forage
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Dwarf Essex rape for winter forage
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Office of inspector of nursery stock
            Page 54
    Condition and prospective yield of crops
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Report of citrus growers' convention; standard fixed by commission and adopted
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Report of citrus growers' convention
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        Report of commission
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
        Analyses of oranges
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
        To the citrus growers of Florida
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
        Agent's report on collection of orange samples for analysis by state chemist
            Page 153
        Agent's report on collection of grape fruit samples for analysis
            Page 154
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Special samples
            Page 157
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 158
            Page 159
        Market prices of chemicals and fertilizing materials at Florida sea ports
            Page 160
            Page 161
        New York wholesale prices
            Page 162
            Page 163
        State valuations
            Page 164
            Page 165
        Composition of fertilizer materials
            Page 166
            Page 167
        Average composition of commercial feed stuffs
            Page 168
            Page 169
        Commercial state values of feed stuffs
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 173
            Page 174
        Official fertilizer analyses
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
        Special feeding stuff analyses
            Page 182
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
        Special food analyses
            Page 187
        Official food analyses
            Page 188
            Page 189
Full Text

/f------
VOLUME 22 NUMBER 4




FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCT. 1, 1912


W. A. McRWAE
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part 1-Some Vegetables, Forage Crops, and Nursery Inspection
Circular.
Part 2-Crop Conditions and Prospective Yields.
Part 3-Report of Citrus Growers' Convention; Standard Fixed
by Commission and Adopted.
Part 4-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED fREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPLEYARD, State Printer,
Tallahassee, Florida
-404--


\^







COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA




















PART I.

SOME VEGETABLE AND FORAGE CROPS,
NURSERY INSPECTION CIRCULAR.

















TOMATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.


The Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the
order Solanaceae or Night-shade family which contains
something over twelve hundred species, among which are
three of our most valuable and important vegetables-the
Irish potato, the tomato and the egg-plant. It also in-
cludes the red pepper, and the narcotics, such as bitter-
sweet, belladonna, Jamestown or "Jimson weed," the to-
bacco and others.
The Tomato was first introduced into Europe from
South America in 1596, but for many years it was planted
only as an ornament to the flower garden. It came into
use very gradually in the preparation of sauces and soups,
and has only attained its popularity as a table vegetable
in comparatively recent years. Its importance as an
article of commerce really dates back little more than
twenty years, and as compared with the present it was
then indeed of small proportions, though at that time
the increasing annual crop was watched in fear and much
suspicion as to the probable effect on the markets. At
present in Florida it exceeds in volume and value nearly
four times that of the next most important vegetable crop
(Irish potatoes). In 1910 the crates marketed were
2,336,948, the net value of which was --.'.'..;-'2. The
Tomato, therefore is Florida's greatest vegetable crop,
standing next in importance and value ro the Orange.

SELECTION OF SOIL.

The Tomato will resist drought better than it will too
much rain, in fact it stands drought better than most veg-
etables; the soil therefore best adapted to this crop is a
good well drained sandy loam. The Tomato is not a gross












feeder; it seen-s to prefer a light soil to one that is too
fertile, or that has been made rich with heavy animal
manures; cow manure in moderate quantities is good, but
chemical manures in proper quantities are best in most
cases.
SEED BEDS.

We do not believe in the extreme views of some growers.
who plant the seeds directly in Ihe field, where the crop
is to be produced. A seed bed is really indispensable; it
makes success more certain and it should be well equipped
to afford speedy and ample protection against cold, and
of ample dimensions to furnish a relay of plants, if the
first setting is destroyed by cold, and even a second relay
is often necessary, for some times even these reserve forces
have to be brought into action.
It is best to have three or even four good, large planla
provided in the seed bed for every one the planter expects
to raise to maturity. This is the true wisdom of the fore-
sighted and provident grower, who, by his strong manage-
ment will force success against obstacles before which
weaker men will go down in defeat. The tomato is a feeble
plant in its infancy and an easy prey to frost and mys-
terious fungus enemies-yet, if we faithfully defend and
feed it, it will yield the dollars at last more generously
than anything else except the prodigal orange.
The seed-beds may be of light, rich, sandy loam, raised
a few inches above the level of the ground. It is consid-
ered best to have them six feet wide, and as long as de-
sired, running east and west. Have on the north side a
tight board wall, three feet high, on the south side half as
high, with tightly boarded gables. This will give a shed
roof with light rafters nailed across, on which to roll
down the roof of cloth, tacked to rollers anywhere from
thirty to fifty feet long.
Let the rafters have no projection, so that the cloth
may drop down snugly against the south wall. Such a












covering of cloth alone will proic! the plants again.-! ;
white frost; a hlietl iron coke bUrner, saiil as the pine-
apple men land orane grtivves use, placel ei.,ry li.'1 y 1 '1
seveinty-five feed. wi! protl'e itieo ;gi': -ilst a iia,!k frlst.
Make drills ciissw;v s of :I!e i edl hre to -u inic,-
ap;irt, s vow ihe s''ed in lini -, s i ;l1itl tlvo (or h o i e it
Iit i tnc Cover Tili e-]i'i rts of an inch. 'i', tlb, s.oil
tv;lh a illird or !ilil t ller, a d ; w;tr wiihi a liji ht s-arav.
ns lilay lie ]eeded i eep> e s(;ii iitiJ':!, )mim )-e sl ire n1o to
overdo it as tloo rlmhit moistile x will ct'ale ilhe iplani' t
damp oil'. and to gri,- small and sle-inde,' sipeeialvy near
the front and back walls of hae frame. ir is therefore ad-
visable to sow hie seed more thinly near Ithe front and
back than in the middle of the bed. IRoll down the cover
on chilly nights.
When the plants begin to have Ifour leaves, culli\vate
lightly at least once a week. P1fll out cinntps of spindling
plauls where tlie seed chanlced Io fall in a hnnchi. Thin to
three inches by entcin g across the drills with a narrow
hoe.
Where the plantation does not exceed a half-dozen
acres, it pays to take up and reset the plants once or
twice to render then more hardy and stocky. To toughen
them tmainst tli s removal it is recommended to redm e
their supply of waler for about len days to render theei
somewhat dornianl. This is to be continued up 1li the
lour or removal. This viiax bIe done without fear as t1ie
tonialo is very tolerant of a transfer.

TI\ANSPLA.NTING TO THE FIELD.

First, make ready the field two weeks beforehand. Sup-
posing it to have been plowed in November and thorough-
ly cross-plowed in January, then with a two-horse plow
run out furrows four feet apart and strew in the fertilizer
at the rate of 600 pounds per acre. Work in a little of the
furrow slice and mix it with the fertilizer with a bull-












tongue. Strew in as much more and mix again, thus giv-
ing 1,200 pounds per acre and leaving the surface level.
Set the plants two to three feet apart, according to the
strength of the land. Some growers prefer to manure the
plants in the hill, which probably saves in the amount of
fertilizer required per acre, but either plan is good, one
about as good as another, and is largely a matter of
choice only.
Reject rigorously all weakling plants. Leave them in
the seed-bed to grow; when relieved of the crowding, they
may come on and furnish a relay, if needed. Wet the
ground soft and pull the plants up carefully, running the
forefinger under, if necessary. Wet the rows down again
to restore the level after the upheaval.
We have very little confidence in plantsetling machines
with tomatoes. They are fine, and great time and labor
savers in the planting of some crops, but not for tomatoes,
they are too tender and easily bruised. The way is to set
by hand with the best-paid class of men and not with chil-
dren at all. Children are only fit to pick cut-worms. Take
hold of a plant and pull; if the leaf comes off, the plant
was properly set; if the plant comes up, the setting was
poorly done. Caution the setters constantly against leav-
ing airholes at the bottom: make them fill in at the bottom
first, then at the top. Fir m the earth; have an experienced
man follow along; place one foot on each side of the
plant; rock a little forward and throw his whole weight
on his toes, opposite the plant.
Keep the plants screened from the sun, in a vessel with
water enough to cover their roots. Let each setter have
his own vessel of plants; take one out at a time and imme-
diately place it in a hole punched in the ground, not ex-
posing the roots to the air two seconds.

CULTIVATION.

This is as simple as with corn. It may be deep and












close for a few weeks, but keeping further away and more
shallow as the plant advances, ceasing when the bloom-
buds come.

There is little doubt that staking the plant and nipping
out the terminal bud above the first cluster of bloom
hastens the maturity and improves the size of the toma-
toes; but it is questionable if it will pay with the present
prices of labor. In a small field tended by the grower's
family, it would probably be profitable. Do not prune the
plants if you expect to ship your fruit to market; you will
get fewer but larger fruit, but it will not pay you.
When picking the earliest fruits it should be remem-
bered that the cold weather in the North will permit them
to ripen very little on the road; hence they should not be
gathered until they have begun to redden slightly. A
greener one would remain hard and uneatalle and rot be-
fore it would ripen. Later on, as the weather in the North
grows warmer, they may be picked when they have fairly
turned white, preparatory to reddening. An immature to-
mato removed from the plants always remains more or
less tough. This objection may be remedied to a consid
enable extent by proper fertilizing. A tomato grown on a
well-proportioned strongly mineral fertilizer will be com-
paratively crisp and melting in the mouth, while the pro-
duced on nitrogenous manures will be tough and wilted
The tomato, though it is so great a crop, is well worth
being treated as a fancy product. In fact, all the early
produce of Florida is deserving of this distinction.
Coarse, brown wrapping paper cheapens -he fruit. The
buyer is only too ready to take it at the grower's own
estimate. Valuable packages are not wrapped in hard-
ware paper. The best printed tissue wraps should be
nsed, and-let the fruit also be worthy of the wrappings.













VA IZ iErTI ES.


;, .- are such ;i lar-,e n]mbr of eq ial] y go0od variel ie,''
o .e-.,;-; lroi'i tl! i one a n h; l rdi y ] 'i ] o' u .nissll und which al
on(l' Jhl" it w;ia ii .hi (,bait on!y 4 one oc r 1w' kiniis 0 ~,Iei
J C;I, v ll ] ill ist l l' i i c~ t !(I- 1' ,)V(21 }IOI O""Velle e I s I it c. ) ii!- ie
IenIr I ,hiiiii) a 4idiini iei uo e ;ro] .- vemilen ls Ii' neW ini(.1
lies hl;.v( 0 ihal ; d l nh si o(i;ii i i s !i ti i is ;l.,<,l ;
ilnciter o|f clicoe i;o o '..so ali e le(-i in the .ro(wer's o~iii nn.

I1GIT T A\N INSET.

'\\ith the toimio, as with all otllhr vegetables iln tlii
S`1lie, no tre(a;uilon against insects should be inelecled;
rev mention is much easier lalinn medication. The e (ne ie-
eniniienl pi'oecaltion is io ise strong tobacco dusi sprin-
klei airoind the plants is soon as they are set out. B] light
is also ifr easier to overcome in advance. lurn all the
old vines as soon as the harvest is over, thus destroying
ihe germs of blight or other diseases. It is best to plant
tonitoes in rotation with crops that are affected with
diseases dih 1 iiit from the tomato, sulch as corn, cabbages,
peppers, etc.

FEITILIZER.

A good fertilizer for rather lighl soil would be com-
posed of say-
No. 1.
Per Cent.
1,0111 I!s. of Plood anld Bonoe iI'-S) ......... .
100 Hihs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.) ..... 4 Ammonia
500 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.) .... 8 Available
400 lbs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.) 10 Potash

2.0001
State value mixed and bagged ........... $34.50
Plant Food, per ton ....................... 440 pounds

For heavier soils, as the best class of sandy or clay
loams:















No. 2.

. 1;;S Is. of ('stor '.u'inie 0;-2 per c1 r i
210 1. s. of' ij!. of Am. (25 pr ceLnt..
'!0 !i s. of A,.id PL'i. ,ie '; oPr cenl )
4 I00 l iS. ot' S l;l4 ]. Of ''o ;).! S ,,r llt. ..I


J e'. ( 'llt.

i L'. Alliilliai

'.1. I. L',.*tlish


Stale vthiu il- mixed tniud ial:iel. ... ............ 7.. ;
fl" lnt Food, per0 toin ............. ......... :. ; iiii















IRISH POTATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.



The potato (Solanum Tuberosum) belongs to the fam-
ily Solanacea the same as the tomato, egg-plant, bella-
donna, etc. Solanin the active principle is found in small
proportions and is poison to a small extent. This poison
is developed when the surface turns green from exposure
to the direct rays of the sunlight and is therefore un-
wholesome as well as unpalatable when in that condition.
For this reason sprouted or greenish colored potatoes
are less valuable for food even though in the process of
cooking a change is effected in the composition of the
tuber.
The chief organic ingredient of the potato is starch
which forms about one-tenth of its weight. According to
history it was first introduced into Europe by the Span-
iards from South America. It still grows wild in the
mountain regions of Chili. It also has been found in-
digenous to Arizona and Mexico. It was introduced into
England from Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh. It is said
that "The potato is one of the greatest blessings bestowed
upon mankind for next to rice, it affords sustenance to
more human beings than any other gift of God." It is
one of the few food products that can be consumed exclu-
sively as a food without limit as to time with no injury
to the system; it is a ration in itself that will sustain
life and strength for a great while. It is a wonderful
provision of nature, that the family which embraces
the deadly night shade, and other very poisonous plants.
should also have among its members this most useful vege-
table. Of all the crops of the truck-farmer, the potato is
the one which is always saleable at more or less renum-
erative prices, its general use among all classes and












nativities of population, makes it perhaps the most uni
versally planted vegetable known. The potato tuber is
not a root, as it has neither root hairs itself, nor has the
stem which connects it with the stock either fibrous roots
or hairs and, therefore, does not provide the plant with
nourishment; neither is it a seed any more than a stalk
of sugar cane is a seed, both having eyes. The potato is
simply an enlarged underground stem, the eyes of which
are also the buds. As is well known the larger number
of the eyes are on the end of the tuber opposite from
where the stem connects with the plant. When the po-
tato has dried out to a considerable extent and the atmos-
pheric conditions are favorable, the eyes or buds will
swell and begin to grow or sprout out. Until roots put
forth these shoots are dependent on the moisture and
starch in the tuber for their support, the same as seeds:
these eyes, however, are independent of each other, which
enables the cutting of the tuber into numerous parts for
planting. If the tuber and eyes are both sound, the shoots
will grow and make healthy plants, provided conditions
are favorable, whether they be planted whole on in pieces
with single eyes.

In cutting potatoes to single eyes. the cutter should
commence at the stem end, where the eyes are fewer in
number, and slice the pieces to single eyes each, in such a
way as to distribute the greatest amount of the tuber-sub-
stance possible with each piece. A good rule is, cut all
medium to large potatoes to single eyes whether sprouted
or not. Small potatoes may not all mature enough to
grow strong sprouts, but if a small potato is matured
enough to put forth strong sprouts, cut it also to single
eyes for very little substance will supply their support,
but if the potato has not sprouted it may be planted
whole without much danger of its putting forth more
than one stalk.











A potato delights in a comparatively cool atmosphere
and moist soil and therefore thrives best in cool months
of the early spring and fall. Mulching with leaves to re-
lain moisture often produces a good crop even if the
season is very dry as the vegetable matter serves to con-
serve the moisture in the soil. The soil best adapted to
tis crop is a rich sandy loam or a moderately light clay
loam underlaid by a sub-soil of a character to retain
moisture. It should be plowed deeply and thoroughly
pulverized. Plow and harrow until it is put in a thor-
oughly good condition and well rotted stable manure
may be applied broad-cast, should there be a lack of humus
in the soil, but in the event the stable manure is applied,
it should be done for spring crops early in the season or
very late in the fall months. If too much green manure
is applied it is apt to produce scab. The land should be
broken a month or six weeks before time for planting.
It should be broken with a two-horse turn plow and
subsoiled if possible. Into these furrows put a complete
commercial fertilizer at the rate of 800 to 2,000 pounds
per acre depending on the character of the soil. Mix
this with the soil and the subsoil by running two furrows
with a long narrow bull tongue plow so as to thoroughly
mix the fertilizer with the soil, then let stand for ten to
twelve days before planting. Cut the tubers as previous-
ly stated and plant when ready, covering about four
inches deep.
VARIETIES.

The best varieties for planting in the South and especi-
ally in Florida, are the early and extra early varieties,
such as the Bliss' Red Triumph, Bliss' white Triumph,
Irish Cobbler, Improved Rose Number 4, Dixie and Extra
Early Sun Light. These are the extra early and the best
for growing in Florida for the first crop. Second earliest
can in some sections be grown with profit, but not gener-
ally throughout the State for commercial purposes.











Beauty of Hebron, Early Rose and Carmen No. 3 are
favorite second early varieties. Burbank and Peerless
are late standard varieties for little later growing.
The lime of planting potatoes in Florida depends upon
the se,'ion of the State. In the far southern portions
they anm Ibe planted as early as December girowiing later
i:: tlo lMarclh ta we go farther norlh, indi(ca;in l!" the change
necessIar to conform to the seasons and localion, the
difference being almou ten to twelve days for each 100
miles.
The cultivation cf potatoes is very similar to that of
corn. Plow deep at first and shallower with each work-
ing until ready to lay by. In this way the roots that feed
the plants will not be troubled and the process of making,
the tuber will not be interfered with. When the vines
turn yellow the tubers are ready to digp which can best
be done with an ordinary pronged potato hoe and the
man. In some of the light sandy soils potato diggers are
successfully used and can be successfully used in most
Florida soils. The digger should not be permitted to pile
them roughly into piles or throw them roughly into the
baskets. The more carefully a vegetable is handled the
better it will strike 1he public eye and consequently the
more money it will bring the grower. Whatever nmay be
iis size. no cut or brui,:sed potatoes should be put in the
first quality, but may be in the culls. The barrels or bas-
kets should be well shaken down and so full that the
heads have to be pressed down. It is better that they
should be double headed and well coopered. The potatoes
should be classed as first and second quality and tile
culls, the small tubers, should be kept for feed purposes
or seed as suggested elsewhere. Cloudy weather is best
for digging the crop. as potatoes should not be exposed
to the hot sun and if picked while warmed by the sun they
are apt to rot before reaching the market. If dug during
the sun shine, they should be gathered as they are dug











and carefully emptied into baskets or barrels and prompt-
ly hauled from the field or shaded from the rays of the
sun. The potato is subject to various insects and dis-
eases, but in this country a Florida potato grower has a
great deal less to combat in this respect than those fur-
ther north and west, but it is unsafe to place full reliance
in this fact because there is no certainty as to when a
disease or insects may attack the plant unsuspected.
The potato scab is the greatest trouble to the potato
grower in Florida. This is a fungus disease and can b'
prevented in a large measure by treating the pieces of
potato before planting with solution of corrosive subli-
mate or formalin and a good plan to prevent this disease
is to burn the vines wherever there is any appearance of
the disease about them. The solution for treating this
disease is corrosive sublimate, 4 ounces to 30 gallons of
water. Soak the seed, after being cut, for one hour to
one hour and a half, then drain. The formalin solution
is one pint to 30 gallons of water. The potatoes are im-
mersed in this latter solution for about two hours. A
good plan to use in immersing potatoes in these solu-
tions is to put them one-half bushel or so at a time in a
gunny sack then lift them out and let the water drain
back into the vessel. Any other clean sack will answer
the purpose if desired. As soon as this is done spread
them out and let them dry so that they will dry quickly
and thoroughly. Be sure that the solutions are not too
strong or the buds or eyes will be damaged.

There is also a disease known as the late blight which
comes about the time the potatoes are beginning to ma-
ture. This disease can be controlled by spraying with
Bordeaux mixture. In a former Bulletin, the July num-
ber, 1911, the formula for all sorts of sprays, the Bor-
deaux included, will be found.













FERTILIZERS.

The following formulas are adapted practically to all
soils and sections in the State. The planter can choose
which ever seems to suit his soil best.


No 1.

1,000 lbs. of Blood and Bone (0-S) ......... .
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.) ....
500 lbs. of Acid Phosplihne (10 per cell ... .
400 lIs, of Muriate of Potash (50 per celit.)

2.000


Per Cent.

.\ ;il:i, ,
4! 1'otash


State value mixed an edbngged .......... ..34..4,f
Plant Food, per ton. .......................... 14U poullds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
500 ]ls. of Castor Poluace (i-2 per (enl.'l
200 ]hs. of Snlp. of Am. (25 per cent.i ..... Ai ,in
900 lis. of Acid Phospli:hte (16 per cit.) 7- 7 A, -inble
400 lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (I TS'r et.1 .\ I PlOtiSi

'.000

State value mixed nod bilgged............. .33.7;
Plant Food. per ton ...........................-. -12 pounds















THE HOME DAIRY IN FLORIDA.




BY C. K. MCQUARRIE.

Assistant Supcrinctendent Farmers' Institute.

The livestock industry in our State is in a backward
condition. Why this should be so is a question that seems
hard to answer. There is no section of Uncle Sam's wide
domain where feeds for live-stock can be produced in
greater variety and in larger quantities than right here
in our State. Every farmer who has embarked in this
industry in Florida, either for beef or dairy products,
gives the same report of low cost of production along
his special line. The livestock industry is the rock bot-
tom foundation of agricultural prosperity the world over.
Until the farmers of our Sonthland embark in ii to the
fullest extent, our agricultural prosperity as a section
will not be of the highest grade. Corn alone, o any lther
single specialty in crop production, such as coion or
tobacco, never has made a conutry universally lposper-
ous, and never will. We mus- have the live animal on
all our farms, and in --.ill. ; ul numbers to maintain
and increase our soil fertility in a way that the contents
of a "guano" sack never can. The importance of the live
animals on the farm as a means of increasing agricultural
prosperity is clearly indicated by the history of nations.
A comparison of the types of livestock farmers found in
the British Isles, Denmark, and Holland, with the pea-
sant wheat growers of Russia, and the rice farmers of
India, is ample to illustrate the close relation between
livestock and agricultural prosperity.











ADVANTAGES OF LIVESTOCK FARMING.

Livestock farming necessitates rotation of crops and
seeding down some of the land for pasture. It requires
activity and skillful management the year round. It
compels the farmer to keep an outlook on market condi-
tions, at both the buying and selling ends of his business.
It brings him into contact with his fellows as buyer and
as seller. It enlarges his outlook on the world, and
broadens his sympathies beyond the mere routine of sow-
ing, cultivating' and reaping. Mere grain raising or spe-
cial clop far;inug, on the other hand, leads to continuous
.!pi; lI.. in mest cases without proper crop rotation. It
does even worse, it eliminates the meadows and pastures.
It involves a strenuous lire for a short season of the year,
followed by a long period of inactivity. It te ids to create
an itinerani class of agricultural laborers, and encour-
ages tenant farming, rather than permanent farm owner-
ship. It fosters the soii-robbing spirit. Corn fari'ners,
wheat farmers, cotton farmers, rice farmers, and all
grain i'arlmels as a class are stron- gly led t(o overdraw on
their soil fertility account. The men engaged in that
class of faring, as a rule, show but a small interest in
The perlmI'nent lpos)peity of gricultire. The history of
agriculhiure in all countries in the world shows that the
livestock producers have taken a leading part in main-
taining and increasing agrieuliural prosperity, and as a
class they can ahvays be relied upon to lead the van of
progress wherever their lot may be cast.

ADVANTAGES OF FLORIDA FOR DAIRYING.

The money sent out of the State every year for dairy
products is away up in the millions of dollars. This
money could well be kept in the different communities, if
we had enough livestock farmers. The protein feeds
necessary to feed dairy stock can be grown here in pro-











fusion and in great variety. Our cowpea hay, analyzing
16 per cent protein, is equal pound for pound to the best
bran on the market. Our velvet bean hay, with almost
as high a protein content as the cowpea, and our never
failing beggarweed, are also equal to any other protein
feeds. Then we have the soy bean, the Kudzu, and a few
others that go to make a varied palatable feed. such as a
dairy cow wants. We also have carbohydrate feeds in
abundance, such as Japanese cane. sweet potatoes, cas-
sava, and others, that make our dairymen independent
to a certain extent in the matter of feeds from outside"
sources.
Another advantage we have in the South over any
other section of the country is our climate. We do no 1
have to supply an elxta 25; per cent. of feed for eight
months of ihe 'year to keep p the natural hi;at of th ,
animal as is the cn se during Ihe cold wea-ther !hat ,re-
vails in the northern States. Another advantage that ,.-e
have is freedom from fies and insects of all kinds. While
it may be difficult to believe, it is nevertheless a fact that
in Florida the flies do not become the nest to cattle that
they do in the northern States, and it is a rare occurrence
to see cattle tearing around in a half crazed condition
trying to get away from their tormentors. True we have
the tick, which if allowed to get too numerous becomes a
pest, but it is easily controlled if the proper methods are
used, such as keeping cattle well salted and well groomed
as all stock should be. We are also in a well watered
section of the United States, which is an important con-
sideration for livestock.

THiE fIEST BI EED.

Every dairyman has his own favorite l 'ee:i. 1 ii!
Florida the Jersey seems to be the most ;po!lnr. 'Ther
are several reasons for this; but the princiai one t11ha
concerns the man that makes butter is that the fat glob











ules in the Jersey cow's milk are larger than in the milk
of the other breeds. The butter made from the Jersey
cow's milk stands up better in warm weather, and will
not turn oily as soon as that from other breeds, while
its texture is good all the way through. From personal
experience I prefer a hi ghgrade Jersey. :ioit seven-
eighths Jersey and one-eighih naiiv-. This iiade of cow
will give you a hardy animal ihat is a good 'oraer when
turned to pasture or o ille range. 1ts smiling capacity
will, in most cases, equal ilit (,f 1he pure ck. and as a
general rule it will prodce nik at le: il ; osI hlan 111"
pure Jersey. Such animals do not require ih: same care
and pampering as the thoroughbred, and col d and wet
spells of weather do not af!'ect their milk production so
much. Anyone wishing to get good results and build up
a herd of good animals can easily do so by keeping a full
blood Jersey bull. and so grading up his he1d. This bull
should be changed every 'four or five years co prevent in-
breeding. Every dairiyman should raise his own cows by
selecting the best of his heifer calves. lBy doing 1his he
can build up a herd of a certain type. and c-an select the
best milkers as they develop their milking qualities, while
those not coming up to the mark can be sold off.

TRAINING THE CALVES.

To get the best results and develop good milkers, the
calves should not be allowed to run with the cows. When
the calf is dropped it should be taken away and put in a
dry dark stall to dry off and get up its strength by rest-
ing. It should not be disturbed for at least 24 hours,
and then some of its dam's milk may be offered it to
drink. If slow to learn, the middle finger dipped in the
milk can be given it to suck. If, however, it refuses to
drink or suck, let it alone for about 12 hours, when it
will readily take what you offer it. This seems at first
rather a cruel practice, but in the end it is the best











method to pursue. A cow that is sucked by her calf will
never develop into a good milker, because she will taper
down her milk production as far as possible to the calf's
needs, and as the calf never can suck her dry, her flow
of milk will gradually decrease to the amount which the
calf takes. On the other hand, if the cow is milked, she
will naturally develop her full milking capacities in pro-
portion to the feed she gets, and will naturally look upon
her milker as the one site is providing for. It is right
hefe that the good dairyman that knows his business
seldom fails to develop the con's full milking capacity by
the proper treatment and judicious feeding necessary at
this time in her life.

THE KIND OF BAi;N.

One great consider a(ion in connection v-ith dairyinll in
this State is that we do not require the co"tly- and elamiu-
rale barns that are needed in the northern Sttes. A le-n-
to on the south side of the regular barn. entirely open on
the south, is all that we want. The stalls should le made
4 feet wide and 41 feet long, with a cement gutter run-
ning behind the cows to save all tie manure made, both
liquid and solid. The floor on which ihe cattle stand.
however, should be m ade of board, and so Si heid the
platform outside the gutter.
An airtight locker or cupboard should he provided in
which to keep the milk as each individual cow is being
milked, and then when the milking is done the separating
should be started right away, the cream put where it be-
longs and the skimmed milk fed to calves and pigs. If
the dairy is located near a market where the milk can be
hauled twice daily, the milk trade is the most profitable:
but the dairy a few miles from town has to cater to the
cream or butter market, and to get a high-grade article a
cream separator must be used. Cream produced by the
gravity system is not of as good quality, and the loss in











butter fat is greater, since much of the cream is not ob
trained from the milk. With the separator this is avoided.
Separator cream, being of a smooth velvety texture, makes
a high-grade butter, and the butter fat is completely re-
moved from the milk, thus making the industry more prof-
itable. It has never been successfully contradicted that a
man with five cows or over can pay seventy-five dollars for
a cream separator and be certain of getting his money
back in a year from the increased yield of cream obtained
by the separator method over the old gravity system of
cream collecting.

BUTTER-MAKING.

It is generally supposed by those who have not studied
the matter that we cannot make solid hard butter in Flor-
ida in the summer time without the liberal use of ice.
This is a mistake, for the natural temperature of the well
water, more particularly in our clay lands, is never over
66 degrees and often 62.
This in itself shows us conclusively that we are in a
dairying section of the country. And having wells dug to
cool the cream and cylindrical cans to hold it, we can
churn the cream into butter under the most favorable
conditions. The required temperature can be had by
keeping the cream in a well; and by using as a starter
a tablespoon full of buttermilk from the last churning
we can get the necessary acidity to make high-grade
but ter.
It is a well known fact that when one uses ice for cool-
ing purposes the supply has to be kept up or the butter
will get oily. Cream cooled with water at the proper
temperature gives a firmer grade of butter than when ice
is used, and the butter stands up better, that is to say,
it is not so apt to get oily and seldom does so.
The kind of churn used influences the quality of butter
very much. A barrel churn is best. One does not want a











churn with any devices on the inside to break the grain of
the butter, as a dasher in the churn will do. These barrel
churns are fitted with small glass disks on the lid so that
one can tell when the butter has come. Good butter is
often spoiled by churning too long. One of the greatest
mistakes in butter making is to keep churning so long as
to gather all the butter in one lump. This should nueer
be done, since it can never be washed thoroughly ulider
those conditions, and in an effort to wash the butterinmiik
out of it the grain of the butter is spoiled making it s h'y
and oily. C'liiiin should always be stopped when the
grains of butter are about the size of a sorghum .-ed.
The buttermilk is then run off, and a couple of gallons of
clear water added. The churn is then turned a dowI:
revolutions or so and this water run off. It will then be
found that the residual buttermilk runs ol' with it. nol
being mixed up with the butter as it would be if the lt-i-
ter was gathered up into a lump. The salting of the but-
ter is of importance. The finest grade of dairy salt is
necessary. This is easily obtained from dairy supply
houses. The market calls for butter salted at the rate
of an ounce of salt to a pound of butter. As a gallon of
cream will produce about three and a half pounds of
butter we will know what amount of salt to use without
having to weigh the butter. The salting should be done
immediately after the butter is washed, sprinkling the
salt over the butter inside the churn and mixing it with
a wooden paddle. Then leave it in the churn for a couple
of hours, when it can be taken out and put on the butter
worker to press out the remaining water and mix the
salt. It is then ready to print. The print should be
wrapped in parchment paper bearing the name of the
dairy and owner.

With fifteen years of experience in butter-making in
Florida we can say we never have found much trouble in
producing the highest grade of butter all the year round,











and there is always an unlimited demand for it by the
best families in the community. This trade always calls
for print butter put up in pound prints or less, and when
one uses his own special mold there will always be a sure
market.

CONCLUSION.

There are, however, a few minor points along the line
of successful dairying that some of our farmers are per-
haps not prepared for. A dairyman's temperament must
be such that he is universally kind to animals. Rough
treatment and loud talking in the dairy barn do not pay.
The milk cow is a lady in her own particular sphere, is he
highest type of the brute creation, and she must be treated
accordingly. Absolute cleanliness must be observed
everywhere, the cows groomed every day, and before be
ginning milking their udders must be washed and wiped
with a cloth. The man that is not prepared to attend
to these important matters had better let dairying alone,
and take up some branch of farming more suitable to his
make-up. And every dairyman must not overlook the
fact that strict attention to business is the keynote to
success. Dairying means 365 days in the year of con-
stant and careful work twice a day. But at the same time
it means a better system of farming, maintaining and in-
creasing the fertility of the soil, and above all it means
more dollars per acre than any other line of farming that
can be engaged in.














JAPANESE CANE.



BY JOHN I3. ScoTT.
Animal Indulstrialist and Assistant Director
Experiment Station.

INTRODUCTION.

For the successful production of live stock it is impor-
tant to have an abundance of feed and forage at all times.
If the natural grasses do not ;'I..!1 This. we must plan our
crop rotation so as to supply the feed when needed. It
may be that the natural grasses will supply sufficient
feed for all live-stock, except for a short period during the
winter months or during a severe drought. It is just at
such times that the animals most need our help. If we
fail to supply sufficient food to young growing animals.
development is retarded or growth stops. We get as a
result undersized and poorly developed beasts, and aften
what are commonly known as runts. Such stunted ani-
mals never develop into as good live-stock as do those in-
dividuals that are kept growing from birth to maturity.
During the past ten years the numbers of cattle in this
State have doubled. On January 1, 1900, we had 412.82)'
head of cattle. On January 1, 1910, there were 80l7,000
head of cattle. If the number of cattle should increase as
rapidly in the next ten years as in the last ten years, we
shall own one million and a half head in 1920. Such a
rapid increase would require that our farmers take steps
to produce enough forage to properly feed the increment.
There will probably be a like increase in hogs and sheep,
and also a considerable increase in the number of horses











and mules. The needed extra supply of forage can easily
be obtained by the growing of Japanese cane. There is
no other crop that we can grow that will produce such a
large yield of forage at so small a cost.

Florida is more of a live-stock State than many realize.
On January 1, 1910, there were 807,000 head of cattle,
98,000 sheep, and 4.,,iiii hogs. These are all forage-
eating animals. To supply the needs of all these animals
we must provide forage of some kind from November to
March. Japanese cane is a crop that supplies a large
amount of roughage at the very time of the year when the
nalursal pasturage is limited. The want of an abundant
supply of forage is one of the hindrances to the produc-
tion of good live-stock in Fioriia. Stockmen have been
negligent in supp lying lie necessary food to maintain
their live-stock during the winter seasons and during the
times of severe drought. To produce a good grade of live-
stock an abundance of good feed must be supplied. The
bes: forage to grc.w- is one lhat will produce the best
yield per acre, and I hat will supply the largest amount of
nutrition in the feed. As well as being nutritious it must,
of course, be palatable.

HISTORY.

Japanese cane as introduced into Florida from the
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station some sixteen or
eighteen years ago. The Louisiana Station grew it for a
number of years for comparison with other varieties of
sugarcane as a source of sugar and syrup. It is rather
probable that the Japanese cane was imported from Japan
into Louisiana by General LeDuc, U. S. Commissioner of
Agriculture, 1878. (There is, however, also a possibility
that it came from Brazil.) However, the question as to
where it came from is of secondary importance. The
question of most importance is how we can so handle











Japanese cane as to obtain the best results in feeding it
to our live-stock.
USES.

Its chief value to the farmers of Florida is a ; ,' forage
crop for the feeding of live-stock. It may be scsed as
silage, winter pasture, or dry forage. When hiirs intio-
duced to Florida, Japanese cane was grown i'i1r tli pro-
duction of syrup. In most sections of the Slate atid I:inler
the usual conditions, the regular suglar-canes '1' h
more satisfactory as crops for syrup production. This
is because the Japanese cane is harder, and reqii!rh-s more
power in grinding. It is also more dificuik to siip.
which increases the cost of striplpinzg. How-e: ;.. ;: u re-
gards the quality of tihe syrup, there is m! little di ,n -e
between the regular sugar-cane and Japanrese O!:w'e. The
yield of syrup per acre from Japanese cane v'i!] vry
from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of .Jaianese
cane will be all Florida, southern Georgia, Alabama,
southern Mississippi, Louisiana and southern Texas.
Any section in which the velvet bean will mauiu re seed
will be found a good place o grow the Japanese cniie.
This will be up to 200 to 250 miles north of tlie Guill of
Mexico.
PASTURE.

Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the mid-
dle of November to March. Cattle waste but little of it
when pastured. They first eat off the green blades then
the tender joints at the top, and continue to eat from the
top until there is nothing left but the short stubble. It
should not be pastured late in the spring. If pastured
after growth starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will
eat off the new growth and soon kill out the plants. It
is not advisable to pasture later than March 1, or after
new growth begins in the spring.











SILAGE.

Japanese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is
relished by cattle, and the yield that can be secured
makes it one of the cheapest and most economical crops
that the Florida farmer can grow for silage. It has been
used in feeding experiments with the dairy herd at the
Experiment Station with quite satisfactory results. The
cost of silage from this crop should not exceed 81.75 or
I.' l'l per ton. As compared with sorghum or corn silage
the cost is about one-dhird less for Japanese cane silage.

DRY FOLAGE.

Japanese cane will be found a valuab e crop for dry
winter forage. It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in
storage is small. If it is stored in a barn or shed there
will be hardly any loss. At the Experiment Station we
have stored it in a barn in Novembor and December and
kept it until the following June and Ju Six months
after harvesting there as pra:clically no loss; and when
run through a feed cutter it was relished by catle, horses
and mules. If barn or shed room is not available, it can
he stored in the barnyard and fed out as wanted. But
with this mlethod the loss will be considerable. It vwill ie
found profitable to put up a temporary shed under which
to store the dry forage. This need not be an expensive
shelter. It may be made of any material that will shed
rain. It will perhaps be advisable when stacking the
forage to set the butts of the cmans on the ground. In
this way the canes absorb some of the moisture from the
soil, and will not dry out so much.

Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding
experiment in beef production. In this tesr the following
feeds per 1,000 pounds live weight were fed : corn, 12.50:
velvet beans in the pod, 18.75: sweet potatoes. 20.S: and
Japanese cane, 12.550 pounds. During a period of sixty











days the steers made a daily average gain per 1,000 pounds
live weight of 6.5 pounds, at a cost of 4 cents per pound
of gain.
SOIL.

Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils.
Good hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest
yields. But even the high pine lands will give good re-
turns when properly fertilized. On swampy muck land
Japanese cane will make a fairly good growth. On such
land the growth will be greatly increased by an applica-
tion of lime (ground limestone, or burnt lime). The
amount of this which it is necessary to apply will depend
upon Ihe amount of acid in the soil, and will vary from
2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone, or one-half
these amounts e;' air-slacked lime per acre. An applica-
tion alt the rate of 2,00t pounds of ground limestone per
acre on high pine land on the Elxperiment station farm
increased the yield to the extent of 10.'7 tons per acre
during tie season of 1iW'.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a few acres of
Japanese cane, whether he has the class of soil best suited
to it or not. If it is not the best soil, Japanese caue will
produce as heavy a yield as will any oiher crop that can
be grown on the same soil, or even a heavier yield. High
pine land properly fertilized will give a yield of 15 to 20
tons per acre. Good limm(ock land will produce yields
beyond these gfiures.

SAVING SEEDCANE.

Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last
many years if properly handled. This in itself causes
quite a saving in the expense of growing the crop. In
fact, it reduces the annual cost of production by about
50 per cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes












or by divisions of the stools. The cheapest and most
economical way of propagating it is by cane cuttings.
Therefore care and attention must be given to the saving
oi' the seedcanes. Poor seed-canes, like poor seed, result
in J'oor stands and unsatisfactory yields. The seed-canes
should be selected and cut before there is danger of frost
so as to insure soundness. The buds will only stand a
very slight frost without injury, and it is not safe to risk
possible exposure to frost. The canes should be cut and
banked before there is any likelihood of the first fall frost.
The date for this will, of course, vary in different sections
of the State.
Almost every farmer has his own method of banking
his seedcane. Perhaps one method is about as good as
another. The important facts to keep in mind are: The
canes should be covered sufficiently deep to protect them
against frost; the bank should be situated so as to get
perfect drainage; if there should be standing water or
abundant moisture, the canes are likely to rot; if the soil
about the beds should become dry the canes may take the
dry rot, and a large amount of the seed he lost. It is,
therefore, important that we get the proper conditions as
to moisture in the bank where we store our seed-canes.
It will be found better to make two or three small beds
than one large one. It would be well to bank more canes
than you expect to use for planting. There is always
some possibility of loss from various causes. Sometimes
the loss may not exceed 10 per cent. while at other times
it may be as high as 25 to 50 per cent.

CANE FOR PLANTING.

The number of canes required to plant an acre will de-
pend upon the distance between the rows, the distance at
which the canes are dropped in the row, and the length to
which the canes are cut. Our experience has shown that,
putting the rows 8 feet apart, 3,000 whole canes are suffi-











cient to plant an acre; and if good seed is used, are
enough to give an excellent stand. Select only healthy
canes, and reject all that are green and unripe. Plant
in rows eight feet apart, cut the canes in pieces having
three to four eyes to the piece, and drop them in a double
line.
Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to
18 inches apart in the row. By this method of planting it
will only require from 1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an
acre. The disadvantage is, however, that a thin stand
will be obtained, which will result in a small yield of
forage. This small yield of forage will not only be for
the first year, but there will be a light yield for several
years. It is nearly impossible to fill in the missing places
properly. Where new canes are planted in the misain'
hills, it will be found that they either make no growthh
or a very unsatisfactory one. The old established cai s
have such an extensive root system and draw so heavily
upon the plant food. and soil moisture, that the new
canes have little chance to make any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of canes shn:rl
be obtained at the first planting. If only a b:itf r two-
thirds of a stand should be secured, it will follow i!1hat
one-third to one-half of the crop will be weeds. For weeds
will grow up between the canes unless the stand is Thick
enough to smother them out, and it costs less to cultivate
an acre that will produce 20 tons of cane than one of
half that yield. Hence we should obtain at the start the
very best possible stand.

PREPARATION OF SEED-BED.

Before planting, the ground should be plowed broad
cast to a depth of six inches. Plow n der a'l veg,-rahle
growth on the land. As soon as the land is Iplwed it
should he harrowed wiith the lootl harrow. Harrow it
twice if necessary so as to pul the surface in ,i(od tilth.












The rows can be laid off by the use of the marker, which
is made of 2 by 6-inch lumber, the runners being set on
edge at the distance apart that the rows are wanted and
then braced sufficiently to keep them in place. A tongue
is attached to the cross-brace in front, and a guide mark-
er is attached at the side, at the proper distance to mark
the next row.
For opening up the furrow in which to drop the seed-
canes the disk cultivator will be found most satisfactory.
The beginner, however, is likely to have trouble until he
learns how to set the disks. In throwing out the rows,
they should be set close together, so as to leave as nar-
row a ridge as possible in the bottom of the furrow. The
cultivator should be set to run quite deep. If not, when
the canes are covered the ground will be left in ridges, in-
stead of being level. In covering the canes it will be
found necessary to set the disks as far apart as possible,
so as to give room for the canes between the disks. When
the disks are set close they will catch the canes, which,
instead of being covered, will be thrown out on the top
of the bed. The use of the disk cultivator for this work
will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to 40 per cent.,
which means much in the total cost of production.

PLANTING.

Just when to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends
on the locality. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the
time of selecting the canes. This method reduces the
expense by the omission of the cost of banking. Fall
planting is perhaps not well suited to all parts of the
State. In the northern and western portions of the State,
where the winters are more severe than in the southern
part, there is likely to be a greater loss of seed-canes dur-
ing the winter season. Hence if fall planting should be
practiced, the result may be an unsatisfactory stand. If
the seed-canes are banked and kept till spring, then only
3 Bul











first-class cane will be planted. This will insure a good
stand. Fall planting would be advisable for central
and south Florida and spring planting for north and
west Florida. For fall planting, November 10 to 20 will
perhaps be the best time. For spring planting, the month
of March will be the most satisfactory. All territory
north of Gainesville should practice spring planting. All
south of Gainesville may find fall planting satisfactory
under ordinary conditions.

FERTILIZING.

The best formula to use in fertilizing Japanese cane is
yet an unsettled question. We know, however, that Jap-
anese cane has a very large root system and is a gross
feeder, and so we may use quite a liberal amount of ferti-
lizer. Any crop that produces such a tonnage of forage
must necessarily draw heavily upon the fertility in the
soil. The following formula has given good results on the
Experiment Station farm, and perhaps may be taken as
a guide until we get better information :
Ammonia ........................... per cent.
Phos. acid .......................... 6 per cent.
Potash ............'................. 7 per cent.

(Apply fertilizer at the rate of 4001 to ;0 pounds per
acre.)
Ground limestone, 2,000 pounds per acre.

It makes little difference whether our source of ammonia
is dried blood or sulphate of ammonia. Likewise the
source of potash makes no material difference.
Since it requires a long growing season (from March 15
to November 15 at Gainesville) for this crop to mature,
it will be found advisable to give the fertilizer in two
applications. The first application may be made in the
latter part of April, and the second during the early part










35


of August. By putting the fertilizer on in two applica-
tions, there is not likely to be so much of it lost by leach-
ing during the rainy season.

TABLE X

Japanc.e Cane, Fertilizer Test. 1009-1910.


Plot Plot Plot Plot
1 2 3 4

Dried Blood ...................... 112 ...... 112 .....
Sulphate of Ammonia ....................... ...... 72
Muriate of potash................. 84 84 ...... 84
Sulphate of potash ............ ... .............. ...... .....
Acid phosphate .................. ... .. 224 224 224
*Ground limestone ................ .. .
Total fert, per acre................ 90 1308 1336 380
fYield, tons, 1909 ................. 24.2 17.7 i 10.1 19.1
fYield, tons, 1910................. 14.6 12.4 10.0 14.4
Sucrose per cent., 1909............. 11.85 13.501 13.75 13.65
Sucrose, per cent., 1910............. 11.00 10.85- 10.50 11.00
Brix, 1909 ....................... 16.7 17.2 17.7 17.4
Brix, 1910 ....................... 15.35 15.40 15.30 15.40


Plot Plot | Plot Plot
5 6 7 8

Dried blood ..................... 1112 ...... 1112 112
Sulphate of Ammonia.................... 72 ...... ......
Muriate of potash..................[ 84 ...... ...... ......
Sulphate of potash................ ...... 84 84 84
Acid Phosphate ................... 224 224 1224 224
*Ground limestone .............. ...... ...... ...... 2000
Total fert, per acre. ............... 1420 1380 420 420
tYield. tons, 1909 .................. 19.5 18 9 16.6 27.0
tYield. tons, 1910................... 11. 16..7 14.1 16.0
Sucrose per cent., 1909............ 13.00 13.501 13.581 13.78
Sucrose, per cent., 1910............ 11.20 11.101 10.951 10.90
Brix, 1909 ....................... 17.4 17.5 17.6 ] 17.8
Brix, 1910 ........................ 15.001 15.60 15.501 15.50

*Ground limestone is not considered as a fertilizer, but as a
soil corrective.
tGrecn material.

Since the Japanese cane makes a new root-system each
year, it is not necessary to give the first application of












fertilizer so early in the season as many have been doing
in the past. If we examine the roots of the canes when
growth starts in the spring, we will find that the feeding
roots do not start until the tops have made a considerable
growth. In fact the tops may have grown as muh as a
foot before the roots make a start. This early growl h
comes from the stored-up plant food in the old stubs ,f
the ratoons, and the plants do not draw on the soil fer
utility until the roots have begun to grow.

The amount of ground limestone or lime to apply, will
depend on the acidity of the soil. The more acid in the
soil, the heavier should be the application of ground lime-
stone or lime. There should be an amount sufficient t,
neutralize alour all of the acid in the soil.


CITLTIVATION.

The cultivataio of .Japanese cane is netaly the same a
that of corn or (ation. The important poin to remi-mi-r
is the thorough preparation of the seed-hed )efore plilm-
ing the canes. in the succeeding years the early sIpin-
cultivation should be somewhat as follows. Albot. the
time growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring
the ground to a depth of three or four inches. This may
be done with the disk harrow going between the rows. nr
with the two-horse cultivator. There is no danger of in-
juring the roots at this time of the year, as The new rto,'
have not yel made any growth. The first application of
fertilizer should be applied just before the second cou!:iv;
tion. The second cultivation should be Iholroi': I,. 1,1 rPo
as deep as the first. As the crop continues to grow. 7il-
depth of cultivation should be less each time. Deep .l-
tivation will be found to do much root pruning. If one
will take time to examine the root system when the caanl
is nearly matured, a mass of fine feeding roots will be
found very near the surface, many of them not more than











one-half inch deep. Deep cultivation destroys these roots,
reducing ihe feeding capacity of the plants and so reduc-
ing the growth of the crop.


HARVESTING.

There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of
a hurry to harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best
quality of feed all forage crops must reach a certain stage
of maturity. This is especially true of all saccharine for-
age crops. The chief value of this crop as a feed is its
high sugar content. The higher the percentage of sugar,
the higher its feeding value. The formation of the sugar
does not take place while the crop is making a rapid
growth. When growth ceases, and the crop begins to
mature, which occurs in the fall when cool weather comes,
is the time the formation of sugar takes place most rapid-
ly. Harvesting, therefore, should be delayed until near
danger of frost. If it is to be used for silage, the silage
will keep better and will have a higher feeding value if
the cane is allowed to mature before putting it into the
silo. If used for dry forage it will also-give better results
if not harvested until well matured. However, there is
the danger of allowing it to stand in the field until in-
jured by frost. If it is used for feed a short time after
being injured by frost the loss will be but slight. The
feeding value after freezing deteriorates with time.
At the present time we cannot recommend any machine
that will successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes
are too hard and heavy for a mowing machine. After a
couple of years' growth the rows spread out too widely
for a corn harvester to work successfully. A machete
corn knife, or hoe will be found to do satisfactory work.
No doubt as more farmers grow Japanese cane there will
be a demand created for the necessary machinery for
harvesting this crop.











JAPANESE CANE AND VELVET BEANS.

The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be in-
creased by planting velvet beans between the rows. If
the rows of Japanese cane are eight feet apart, a row of
velvet beans may be planted between the rows and still
leave room to cultivate both cane and beans. Plant the
velvet beans as soon as the cane starts new growth in the
spring. Drop the beans about two or three feet apart
in the row. Give both cane and beans good cultivation
until the beans throw out long runners. If the beans
are not planted early in the season the Japanese cane
will get the star and will almost completely smother the
velvet beans.
ANALYSIS.

ANALYSIS OF AIR-DRIED SAMPLE.

W ater ........................... 6.75 per cent.
Protein ........................... 1.27 per cent.
Fats ............................. 1.89 per cent.
Fiber ............................ 20.60 per cent.
Ash .............................. 2.04 per cent.
Nitrogen-free extract (sugars, etc.)..67.35 per cent.

(Analysis from unpublished data of the Chemical
Department of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station.)

Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in pro-
tein.
This should be remembered when feeding it. We should
not expect it to take the place of all the concentrates in
the ration. However, since it is rich in carbohydrates. it
is only necessary to supply feed rich in protein in com-
bination with Japanese cane to obtain the best results.
If this point be kept in mind we will not be disappointed
in the results we obtain by feeding this to our live-stock.












TABLE XI.
Good Rations.

I Percentage Composition.


Japanese cane, 10 pounds.....
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds........
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds.

T otal ..................
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.5)


Japanese cane, 12 pounds......
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds.
Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds ....

T otal ..................
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.6)

Japanese cane, 10 pounds......
Cowpea hay. 10 pounds.........
Velvet. beans in pod, 8 pounds..

T otal .................
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.7)


Protein Carbohydrates Fats

.14 7.30 .19
1.08 3.86 .11
1.71 6.19 ..46

2.93 17.35 .76



.16 S. 7 .23
1.71 6.20 .4(
.74 .34 .24

2.61 15.30 .03


.14 7.30 .19
1.8S 3.86 .11
1.37 4.95 .37

2.50 16.11 .67


Is Japanese cane hard on land?-This is a question
asked quite frequently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard
on land. Any crop that produces such an abundant
growth of forage must necessarily draw very heavily upon
the plant food in the soil. If then the plant food is not
supplied by liberal application of fertilizer the soil will
soon become exhausted and the yield obtained from the
crop will be unsatisfactory. The plants produce a new
root system each year. Hence there is some humus added
and a small amount of plant food returned to the soil
annually, but the amount left in the soil does not equal
the amount taken out each season.

IMPORTANT FACTOR.

1. The great need of Florida stockmen is an abundance
of nutritious forage.










2. Japanese cane is the cheapest forage and silage crop
that we can grow.

3. Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planning will
last for many years if properly cared for.

4. Japanese cane will supply an abundance of good
pasturage during the time of the year when this is most
needed.

5. To obtain 1:he best results in feeding, Japanese cane
should be fed in combination with feeds rich in protein.

6. Japanese cane produces good yields of forage on a
variety of soils.

7. Japanese cane has an immense root system and is a
heavy feeder; hence it should be given a liberal applica-
tion of fertilizer.

S. Japanese cane should not be pastured in the spring
after new growth begins.

9. Japanese cane should be well matured before it is
harvested.














SORGHUM FOR SILAGE AND FORAGE.



BY JOHN M. SCOTT.

Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director Experiment
Station.

The sorghum crop has received too little attention from
our farmers. This is doubtless due to insufficient appre-
ciation of the qualities of the grain produced by, this
plant, and to the common cultivation of varieties of sor-
ghum which are not the best kind for our climate. With
the present rapid improvement in stock. and with the
greater demand for better beef and for milk and butter,
we are forced to search for more productive and more
nutritious forage crops than sufficed in the past.

CLASSIFICATION.

It is supposed that all the varieties of sorghum now in
cultivation originated from a single species, which was
probably a native of Africa. The botanical differences
which distinguished the various varieties are of almost no
importance.
The sorghums may be divided into three classes: (1)
Saccharine sorghums, (2) non-saccharine sorghums, and
(3) broomcorns. The saccharine varieties are character-
ized by their tall. leafy stems, which are full of sweet
juice. The non-saccharine varieties, as a rule, do not
grow tall, and the stalks do not contain as much sugar.
The broomcorns may be distinguished by their dry, pithy
stalks, and by their long, loose seed-heads. The seed
heads of the saccharine and non-saccharine varieties dif-











fer in size, shape, and color. The saccharine varieties
are grown for syrup-making and for forage. The non-
saccharine varieties are grown for either forage or grain.

SOIL ADAPTED TO SORGHUM.

The sorghums grow well on almost any good land.
Ground that is well-suited for growing corn, cotton or
vegetables, will give good yields of sorghum, either forage
or grain. Neither heavy clays nor very light sandy soils
are well-suited for the crop.

SILAGE IN GENERAL.

It is a well established fact that some form of succulent
food is a desirable addition to the ordinary winter-rations
for live stock, and the question arises as to the best and
cheapest method of producing it. In England the farmer
depends upon root crops, but in this country the raising
of root crops will not in all probability be extensively
practiced. Some have advocated the steaming of all feeds.
but this method has failed to solve the problem. The silo
has been extensively tried, and has been found to be the
cheapest and also the best method of curing feed and
keeping it in a good, palatable condition, so that it is
relished by all classes of live stock.

SORGHUM SILAGE.

The question which confronts the farmer is: What crop
can I raise most economically for the silo? This means:
What crop will produce most tons of good nutritious
food per acre? Cowpea hay is known to be an excellent
forage, but the yield is small; moreover it does not make
a good quality of silage. The same is true with oats. rye.
or beggarweed hay. It comes then to the question of de-
ciding between corn and sorghum. Analysis shows sor-
ghum silage to be a little richer in total digestible nu-











trients than corn silage. Sorghum has also a heavier
yield of green forage per acre than corn. If then, sorghum
produces silage richer in total digestible nutrients, and
also gives a larger yield of green forage per acre, it has
two important points in its favor. It is not only the best
crop for the silo, but also the cheapest.
The cost of cultivating an acre of ground is the same
regardless of the yield; that is, the time and labor re-
quired to produce an acre of corn will be the same,
whether two tons or ten tons of forage are produced per
acre; but the cost of production per ton will be reduced
as the yield per acre is increased. For example, if it costs
$10 to fertilize and cultivate one acre that produces only
four tons of forage, the cost per ton will be $2.50; but
if for the same expenditure of money we can produce
some other crop that will yield from twelve to fifteen
tons per acre, then the cost per ton will be reduced by
nearly 60 to 75 per cent.

SOWING SORGHUM.

Sorghum seed may be sown at any time from April 1 to
July 20. When possible, it is advisable to sow early (from
April 1 to April 15), as then the first cutting can be
harvested in July, and with favorable conditions, an-
other good crop may be harvested in October.
The quantity of seed required depends upon the method
of sowing, whether in drills or broadcast. If sown in
drills, 20 to 30 pounds of seed will be required per acre.
If sown broadcast, more seed will be needed, varying
from one to two bushels per acre. It is likely that if sown
in rows, a distance of three or three and a half feet be-
tween the rows, and from two to three inches between the
plants in the drill, will be found the most satisfactory.
This distance will permit of cultivation being carried on,
which will insure larger yields, and the cost of harvesting
is also reduced.











The depth of planting will depend upon the conditions
of the seed-bed at the time. If the seed-bed is well pre-
pared, and there is plenty of moisture in the ground, then
a half inch to one inch is as deep as the seed should be
covered. But if the soil is very dry and loose the seed
may le planted as deep as from one and a half to two and
a half inches.

FERTILIZING.

Sorghum is a gross feeder, hence it requires a large
quantity of fertilizer. The amount, however, will vary
with the quality of the soil. From 400 to S00 pounds of
fertilizer containing:

Ammonia ........................... 4 per cenr.
Available phosphoric acid ............ 6 per cent.
Potash .............................. t per c- enT.

should be used. The ground should be thoroughly pre
plared, and the fertilizer should be applied a week or tea
days before sowing the seed.
After the crop is harvested, with a small plow throw a
shallow furrow away from the sorghum stubs: apply the
fertilizer in this furrow, and then cover it by throwing
the furrow back again.
If sorghum is planted after a crop of vegetables has
been taken off the ground, fertilizing will not be neces-
sary, as there will be enough fertilizer left in the soil to
produce a good crop of sorghum.

CULTIVATION.

Too much attention cannot be given to the preparation
of the seed-bed, and to the cultivation of the growing
crop. If the seed-bed is not thoroughly prepared, the
result will be poor germination, which means poor stand.
perhaps not more than half a stand. A poor stand means











a small yield of forage per acre. Where the seed-bed is
thoroughly prepared, cultivation can begin much sooner,
as the young plants will not be so easily covered or pulled
out during the first cultivation, while they are quite
small. This early cultivation will not only keep down
weeds, but the stirring of the soil will also tend to hasten
the growth of the crop. Sorghum is a slow-growing crop
at first, hence the earlier its cultivation begins the more
will the growth of the crop be hastened.
The two-horse cultivator should be used for cultiva-
tion. With this implement one man or boy, and two
mules, will cultivate more than twice the area, and the
soil will be left in much better condition, than when the
old-fashioned one-horse plow or sweep is used. This
means that the labor of cultivation will be reduced one-
half. In other words, with the use of improved machin-
ery the farmer will be able to double the area he is now
cultivating: which will mean that lie will raise double the
amount of feed, and so can keep twice as much live sock
as he is now keeping. Thus his gross income per year
will be largely increased.


SORGHUM HAY.

Aside from being a good cmiop for silage. well cured sor-
ghum makes an excellent hay crop. As hay, the saccha-
rine varieties perhaps make a better quality of forage:
but even the non-saccharine varieties are almost equal to
crabgrass hay in feeding value, and give a much larger
yield. In fact, from one acre of sorghum hay we geet
nearly double the amount of feed that we do from the
same area of crabgrass. SorhInm hay wh-eln fed with
bran and cottonseed meal. will be found to cive good
results in the dairy. In fattening cattle for the market,
sorghum hay supplied in addition to the grain feed will
give good results.











PASTURING SORGHUM.

Sorghums make a good pasture for all classes of live
stock. Perhaps the saccharine varieties will be found to
give the best results. For pasturing, the seed should be
sown a little thicker than usual, about one and a half
bushels per acre. The ground should be well prepared
before-hand. Pasturing may begin when the plants are
only a few inches high; but, for the best results, the crop
should not be pastured until the sorghum is about one
and a half or two feet in height. It has been estimated
that one acre of good sorghum will pasture ten head of
cattle for ten days. If not pastured too closely before
the cattle are removed, a second growth can be secured.
which will furnish additional pasturage.

GRAIN.

Tests by various Experiment Stations have shown thar
the grain of the non-saccharine varieties of sorghum is of
considerable importance as a feed. The seeds of the sor-
ghums are very rich in carbohydrates (fat-producing ma-
terial), but are low in protein. This, however, is not a se-
rious drawback for Florida, as we have an abundance of
feed rich in protein; such as cottonseed meal. or velvet
beans, either of these fed in combination with sorghum
seed will give good results for either milk or beef produc-
tion.
Comparing the feeding value of Kafir corn (one of the
non-saccharine varieties of sorghum) with that of corn, we
find that 100 pounds of Kafir corn are equal to 80 pounds
of corn in feeding value. In other words, when corn is
worth $1.50 per hundred, Kafir corn is worth about 81.20
per hundred for feeding.

YIELDS IN THE SORGHUM VARIETY TEST. 1907.

These figures are the results of only one year's test. and












should therefore be taken only as indicating roughly what
the yields may be.


Yield per acre of
NAME OF VARIETY. green forage
in tons.

Red Kafir Corn .......... 3.968
Sirak .................... 10.225
H oney ................... 6.281
Sapling .................. 5.900
Brown Durra............. 5.350
Minnesota Amber......... 8.612
Planter's Friend, No. 36... 13.068
Orange .................. 13.813
Gooseneck, Erect.......... 16.907
Planter's Friend, No. 37... 16.318
Amber ................... 10.461
Sum ac ................... 12.449
Shallu ................... 11.556
White Iafir ............. 8.15:
Gooseneck, Pendant....... 19.036
Collier .................. 13.896
Red Amber ............... 12.283
Cigne ................... 12.450
Jerusalem Corn........... 8.204
Yellow Milo.............. 9.487


Yield per acre of
grain in the head,
in pounds.
1,187.50
1,050.00
562.50
550.00
450.00
975.00
787.00
1,336.50
793.00
887.50
1,033.50
429.50
2,112.50
727.00
856.25
742.50
1.500.00
900.00
458.00
900.00















DWARF ESSEX RAPE FOR WINTER

FORAGE.



BY JOHN M. SCOTT,

Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director EIp.rie ,loi
Station.

INTRODUCTION.

Dwarf Essex rape is a crop well suited to Florida con-
ditions. It is excellent for feeding hog., dairy cows. an'.
sheep; as it will produce many tons of good nutritimus fee'i
per acre, at a time of the year when green feed are sca',i;.
Throughout a large portion of the State, farmers and
stockmen could, with advantage, grow more of the succu-
lent forage crops for feeding stock during the autumn and
winter months, when the supply of grass and orher grIee'1
forage is often limited. Such crops may usually be grown
on land that has already produced an early maturing
crop. One of the best of these succulent crops is perhaps
dwarf Essex rape-a plant closely related to the cablhae.
turnip, and mustard.

A WINTER CROP.

Rape is a forage crop 1hat does not flourish in hot. i!1y
weather; but in most parts of the State, especially in The
center and south, rape grows well throughout the winter.
and suffers very little from the cold. Last winter The
rape grown at the Experiment Station was injured only
very slightly by the lowest temperatures. It is conid-
ered that rape will stand as much as six to eight deorees










of frost, with little or no injury. This, of course, de-
pends upon the stage of growth; the young tender growth
being more readily harmed than the more mature leaves
and stalks. It is not at all likely that the weather will
become cold enough to kill the roots, even if the tops
should be frozen down. In the latter case, the plants will
soon shoot up again and produce a good crop.

THE SOIL FOR RAPE.

Rape does well on nearly all kinds of soil; but, like
many other crops, the better the soil the larger the yield.
An old vegetable field would be a remarkably good loca-
tion, and would require the addition of only a small
amount of fertilizer. For the best results, rape should be
planted on a rich, moist loamy soil. It will usually do
well on any but light sandy soils or stiff clays, such soils
being deficient in vegetable matter. Any soils that will
produce good crops of vegetables, will also give good
yields of rape. It is reported by several writers that rape
is also well adapted to newly cleared woodland.

FERTILIZERS.

Practically nothing has been done at this Station to
ascertain what fertilizers, or combinations of fertilizers,
give best returns; but almost any good vegetable ferti-
lizer, containing about six per cent, of ammonia, seven
per cent. of phosphoric acid, and eight per cent. of potash,
applied at the rate of from 200 to 700 pounds per acre,
will be found to give good results. The larger amount
would be applied on poorer lands, and the lesser amount
on the richer soils.

PREPARATION OF SOIL.

Too much attention cannot be given to the preparation
of the field for this crop. Thorough preparation of the
4-BULL.











field is the secret of successful farming, whether in Flor-
ida or elsewhere. Such preparation of the field will not
only reduce the after cultivation by half: but it will also
conserve a large amount of soil water, which would wcher-
wise be lost by running ofi or by evalpratiu.n. A _ud
fourteen or sixleen-inch two-horse plow is the 1 eOt im-
pleinent to use in preparing the field for seeding. With
the plow, all trash and litter can be buried: ifr the ,iire
vegetable matter w e can get into the soil, the more ier
utility we add to it, and the more its water-holading ;tpa-
city is increased. The plowing should be f'airv d--I
about four to six inches. If the land is ru2'ii i!'n: .w-
ing', tlie disc harrow is needed. In using the disi. h j in w.
it is best to lap half the wid1h of the harniew efi!. -
since the surface of the soil will then le kepit leve. which
other wise would be ridged. It is well to harriv, v,;!ih
a toothed harrow after using the disc, so as ti gtr hlie
surface in the best tilth.

HOW TO PLANT.

Rape may be planted in drills or sown hroad,.a-r. It
the ground is badly infested with seeds ,t n,,xious weeds.
it will be better to plant in drills and give some cultiva-
tion. Rape is rather a slow grower at first;: lbu after
reaching the height of three or four inches. ir grows rapid-
ly. If planted in drills, the drills should not be mure
than two feet or two and a half feet apart. Ir is the
writer's opinion that more sailsfactory results w ill ib ub-
tained if it is planted in drills. for the followxin 1 r ons:
First, there there is less waste when upastred, ai '"ck
naturally walk between the rows, and so dt( nlit Tcrample
as many plants or leaves under foot. S cnd. l -- eed
is required. Third, drilling permits cultivetiii. iin-iiin'-
larger yields. The amount~ i(f seed required per airie '-i!
vary from three to five Ipounds, according as it is plan-d
in drills or sown broadcast.











The seed may be sown at any time from the fifteenth of
September to the fifteenth of December. The farmers of
West Florida will find it best to plant during the latter
part of September, while those of Central and South
Florida can plant later in the season. The seed may be
obtained from most seed houses.

HIOW TO FEED RAPE.

Stock may vle turned into the field and allowed to pas-
tine on Ihe rape, or it may be cut and fed to them. With
the later 1mehod much larger yields will be secured, if
care is taken in cutting. If cut so as to leave the stubs
five or six inches high, a second-and under favorable
conditions. a third-crop may be secured. If pastured,
some care must be exercised at first, until the soclk be-
come accustomed to it. When cattle are first allowed to
pasture on rape, there is danger of bloating; but this can
he easily avoided by feeding the animals a little hay or
grain, just before turning them on the rape. In other
words, do not turn the stock on the rape to pasture when
they are hungry. When first turned on to pasture, let
them graze for only a few minutes the first day--say ten
or fifteen minutes: the second day allow them a few
minutes more, and so on, until they become ac-istomed
to rape. Another difficulty found in pasturing cows on
rape is that it may cause a disagreeable taint in the milk.
This may be overcome by using a little care a-id judgment
in feeding. If the cows are allowed to pasture on the
rape for about an hour just before and after milking. and
at no other time, very little, if any. difficill will be
found.

YIELD PER ACRE.

The experience of this Station in growingll rape hias
shown yields of from 27.200 to 2n,296 pounds per acre.
'These c su!ls are based on the crops of two years. Many











of the Northern States report yields of thirty to fifty tons
of green forage per acre. No doubt there is plenty of land
in Florida capable of giving equally good returns.

RAPE TEST, 1907-8.

Three plots of dwarf Essex rape were sown in drills.
the rows being thirty inches apart. Plots 1 and 2 were
sown on September 25, 1907. The ground was thorough-
ly plowed, and a good seed-bed prepared. before sowing
the seed. The soil on which the rape was grown was a
very light sandy loam. On December 21. 1907, plot 3
was sown. The character of the soil was the same as
for plots 1 and 2. The ground had been in sweet potatoes
during the previous season. The potatoes were taken up
in November, at which time the ground was well plowed.
and then harowed. Nothing more was done to the ground
until just before planting, when it was again harrowed.
Each plot was given one cultivation for each cutting
made.
On better soil the yield could be increased from 25 t,,
50 per cent. without additional cost. Even with the yield
of 16.59 tons from plot 2, the cost per ton was less than
$1.50; and if we increase the yield, we will at the same
time reduce the cost per ton.
The tables which follow give the date of planting, the
date of harvesting, and the yield of green fnrare per acre
for each cutting, and also the kind and amount of fer-
tilizer used.










53

TABLE 1.

Amounts of Fertilizer Used in Pounds Per Acre.




6 2 _Date When Fertili-
Sr zer Was Applied.
o *< "-o 3 o

1 150 64 175 389 September 25, 1907
2 300 128 350 778 September 25, 1907
... 150 64 175 389 February 10, 190S
3 200 115 300 615 December 21, 1907

TABLE II.

Yields of Green Forage in Tons Per Acre.




6 Date of Planting. Date of Harvesting



1 September 25, 1907 December 6, 1907 3. 3. 9
2 September 25, 19071December 6, 1907 S. 9 ...... 16..59
.. .... .......... M arch 27, 1908 ...... 7.09 ......
3 December 21, 1907 March 28, 1908 3.24 ...... 3.24

The following is the composition of rape:

Dry Matter. | Protein. Carbohydrates. Ether Extract.
14 per cent. 1.5 percent. 8.1 percent. I 0.2percent.


It is practically the same composition as cabbage.













A l ( [. 1!12..


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


OFFICE OF

Inspector of Nursery Stock

GAINESVILLE


After due consideration of certain continigencietc. per-
taining particularly to hle supply of seed potartoes avail-
able if lie restrictions on such were not snuspindie! ir
modified, and other presentations made by ; rep 1I-eC1 ta-
tive body of potato growers. principally from the Hat-
ings potato se(l ion, it was recommended, and the r.'ard
of Control adopted a resolution suspending Iu t!s. :.4-:.'
(inclusive) until April 1st. 1!913.
The resolution was adopted at the regular monthly
meeting of the Board held at Jacksonville. Florida. on
Saturday, August 3rd, 1912.

E. NV. BERGER,
Inspector of Nursery Stock.


ClRcrLAIn 4.



















PART II.

CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD
OF CROPS.


















DIVISION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton.
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla-11.

Western Division.
Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Santa Rosa,
Walton.
Washington-7.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.
Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Sumter,
Volusia-9.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee,
Manatee,


Monroe.
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Pinellas,
Polk,
St. Lucie-12.

















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

W. A. McRAE, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk



CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NORTIIERN DIvISIO.-lReports from our correspondents
in every county of this division are very discouraging
in their statements. The cotton crop is stated as being
almost ruined by the unusual and excessive rain-fall
throughout the entire growing period and -he corn also
has been cut short by the same causes from planting to
maturity, and is reported from every county as sprouting
in the ear. Under these conditions it is insisted by our
correspondents Ihat ii is impossible for the cotton crop
to make more than about half the usual crop and that
the corn cannot possibly make more that from 60 to 70
per cent. of a crop, and then it is damaged at that and
much of it will be unfit for consumption in any way.
The only crop that seems to have done well the past sea-
son, is the oat crop which is larger by a great deal than
ever before, at least for many years. The unfavorable
climatic conditions have also affected the condition of
live stock and especially that of hogs, as the outbreak
of cholera is attributed directly to the unsanitary con-
ditions produced by the excessive and continuous rains.
Unless there should be a change in climatic conditions
in the immediate future, the cotton crop will undoubtedly
fall far below its present indications; being practically
a month late already with only four or five weeks until
frost, it is a serious condition indeed that presents itself
and, in this connection, we make the suggestion to every












one growing standard crops, to plant rye. oats and such
green crops as can largely assist in carrying his stock
through until next spring, otherwise with the short corn
crop and exceedingly short hay crop, great suffering will
be entailed upon all live stock, and under these conditions
farming for the next year will be done under great dis-
advantages, for poorly fed live stock cannot render the
service necessary to produce good crops of any kind.
WESTERRN 1)IVISION.-The conditions in this division are
practically the same as in the one just described and the
affect on the crops and live stock des not differ
materially,, if any, from that mentioned aibve. Un-
doubtedly neither cotton nor corn nor hay can ,posibly
reach a normal yield by :I8 to :53 er ce.it. possibly 40.
The same condition as to live stock obtains as in the first
division and the same statements are made as 1o the
causes which have produced the diseases among the hogs.
Better climatic conditions are absolutely nece-sary to the
saving of the hay as well as the corn and to enable the
cotton to develop. There is no disguising the nruhful-
ness of these statements. It is better to loo(! the con-
ditions squarely in the face and prepare to coitrl th-im.
NORTHEASTERN 1)IVISION.-The sam1e conditions exist in
this division as in the two former ones. except if any
thing, the sea island cotton crop is in a w-orse condition
and corn is reported as less than TO per cent of a normal
crop. The corn also in this division is reported as rotting
in the ear and very small. The cotton is rotting in the
bolls and sprouting also. We tender the same advice as
to winter crops as we have given in connection with the
preceding divisions. We see nothing else that will pro-
tect the farmers from actual want of stock feed, except
the growth of crops for winter pasture. In this section
other crops have been planted which have been successful
to a considerable extent, but our reference is particularly
to the standard crops which furnish the food necessary











for man and beast. Vegetable crops can be depended on
to sustain people to a great extent, but not live stock,
and on their condition depends successful farming.
CENTRAL DIVISION.-Reports of crop conditions in this
division are somewhat better than in the preceding ones.
and this refers also to the condition of live stock as
well. The rain-fall has been excessive in this district
also, but it has not had quite as bad an affect on growing
crops, as the crops mostly grown in this section are not so
subject to excessive rain fall as the principal farm crops
in the farming districts. Citrus fruit trees and others have
apparently not been injured by the rains, nor has the
fruit, as under some circumstances, been subject to split-
ting to any extent. This is accounted fo: by the fact
that the rains have been continuous throughout the zrow-
ing season from the blooming to the maturing of the
fruit. Our reports also indicate that a full crop of citrus
fruit may reasonably be expected. Live stock in this
district is in good condition and hogs are in much better
condition than in the northern and western sections of
the State. While the rain-fall has been excessive in this
district it has not equaled that in the more northern and
western divisions.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.--As far as climatic conditions are
concerned there is little difference between this division
and the foregoing ones. This being the great fruit and
vegetable producing section of the State, it naturally
requires greater amount of moisture than the other por-
tions of the State where the standard crops are grown
principally, so that the evenly distributed rains have
had the effect of producing large crops of fruit and
vegetables. The indications are that in this division
there will be probably a larger yield of citrus fruits than
ever known before. Our correspondents express the
opinion that with the very favorable prospects and the
yield of fruit now on the trees, that the yield of oranges









02

for the State will possibly be from six to six and a
quarter million boxes and that the grape-fruit will yield
some where close to one and a quarter million bxe'.
possibly a little Irorie, Ibut the reports that are l.-in
circulated of such an enormous crop oIf seven ;and .hr!i
million boxcNs of orianges and Iwo million Ix.vN.. af .;
fruit, w'e look u]o ti as eniirevly t o ft tllt qt i, 'i ,I. Ihe
obser-vaions of oun correspondents, who are experienced
men all of them, in this respect, tell Is that these tre; Irts
cannot possibly be correct therefore we cinsir' tihat
these reports should be disctonraged in every repeEr, am
they will tend to reduce tle price of )ot lhe o iw'n:- a:ind
thi .'rape-fruit.










63
Report of the Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops. Fruit
Trees and Fruit for Quarter Ending Sep ember 30, 1912, as
Compared icith Same Period Last Year.
Upland Cotton. Sea Island Cotton.


COUNTIES. .


\or1liirrin Dir'iion- "
I SO Ci IT0 S5
HIamni!on .............. 35 35 435 05
Jefferson . . .... 75 50 75 5U
Leon ................... CO 50 ..
Li erty ....... 50
A1adisonll .. ............ 50 45 4.5 45
Sun, n ie e ................. 7
W n kulla .............. COi -0 ..



E('~ r ni ia .. . . .. 1 S O .T 5
]Su\ 'a! I 'ia ............. s 75 I ...

IIolnm s ............... O0 55
Jacksonl ............. 75 .
Santl a losaL ........... 90 90 .
TW gallon ............... SO 5 .
W ashin-ton ........... 100 (;5. ....
Div. Averai.e per cent.. 71; 71 40 35
Northlea stcrn Dicrision-
A tla hut a ............... ... ... i 55
Claker ................. ... ... 55 5
Braldf'ordc .............. .. ... 7 .50
C lay ................ 7 I 75
Colu nl ina ............. . .. 75 70
D u val ............. .. ... .
Putnalm ............... 0 5 0
CSt. Johns .............. ... ..
Iiv. Avor :'sro ier cent.. ... i ... 1') 59
Ccintru' ii''ixion--
C itrus ................ . .
IITorT a o ............ .... .. ..
L ak e .................. ... ...
Levy .................. 75 5 70 70
M arion ................ .. .r 9))
O ran 'e ................ .. .
Pascoa ................. ... 50 5
IVoluni t ...... ........ ..... ...
Div. Aver o lper nT:t.. 75 75 73 70
nteilthcin Diriiion-
BrP ovard ............... .
Sndt e .. ............. I .......
DeSoto .-. ... .
MA inatee ............... .....
O sceola ........ ...... 1 ...
Pahl Bcach.l ............ .
P inellas ................ I ... .
St. L ucic .............. I ... ...
Div. Averau:e peter cent.. ... .
State Average I)r cent.. 70 (;5 02 57










(64
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Corn. Suv-;r Cane.

COUNTIES. -


iorthiern Div:ision- U
Gadsden ..............I (0 70 90 S5
Hamilton ............. 100 SO5 70
Jefferson .............. 75 75 50 0
Leon ................... 65 O 5
Liberty ............... 50 50 0 750
M adison ............... 40 45 '.0
Suwannee ............. 90 5 75 7
W akulla ............... 0 SO 75 75
Div. Average per cent..[ 70 7 77 74
Western Dirision-
Calhoun .............. 50 45 7 ,i
Eseanmiia ........... 755 75 7 7
ITolnes ............... 50 50 75 0i
Jackson ............... 50 45 0
Santa Rosa ........... I 95 I S5 10 :
W ialton ............... ;0 0 1 ')
W ashington ............ 7o 70 j
Div. Average per cent.. 4 2
X.,'t!h'a.~t( rni Diri.io,--
Alachuan .............. bU .. -
Baker ................ 600 0 (;0
Bradford .............. SO i 0 50 7.'
Clay .................. 75 75 100 1.",
Columbia ............. 75 70 9 00
Dural ................. 100 120 ]00 12
Putnam ............... G60 45 110 127,
St. Jolhns ............... 50 35 i15
Div. Average per cent.. 73 (7 3 91
Central Divisio,--
Citrus ................ 7. 05 '.
Ilernando ............. 5 S5 !.0 11'
Lake .................. ..I Co 50 ;5 4',:'
Levy ................. -5 (;5 140 0'
Marion ................ 07 00 100
Orange ................ 70 70
Pasco ................. 100 95 100 li0
Volusia ............... SO 75 100 111,'
Div. Average per cent.. 80 74 I 2 1: 1
Southern Division-
Brevard ............... .. 0 11)
Dade ................. 100 100
D eSoto ................ 75 75 i '::0
Manatee ............... 100 100 100 100
Osceola ................. 9 00 1,1 110H
Palm Beach ............ 100 100
Pinellas ............... 50 50 50 50
St. Lucie .............. 100( 100
Div. Average per cent.. SB 62 87 SS
State Average per cent.. 75 70 85 1 96












Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-


Field Peas. Rice.

COUNTIES. o


Northern Division- O 0
Gadsden ............... 80 0 ...
Hamilton ............. 75 75 ... ...
Jefferson .............. 50 50..
Leon .................. SO 85 ...
Liberty .................. 75 SO .
Madison ............. 75 75 50 50
Suwiunee ............ 100 95 ...
Wakulla ............... 50 50 ... .
Div. Average per cent.. 73 74 50 50
Western Dirision-
Calhoun .................. 100 100 100 o
Escambia ............. 70 70 100 100
IIolmes ............... 90 85 75 77
Jackson ............... 100 100 .
Santa Rosa ............. 0 80 100 101
Walton ............... 75 85 100 120
Washington ........... 90 00 ...
Div. Average per cent... s 87 :. n
Yorltheastern Division
Alachua ............... SO SO ...
Baker .................. 6 5 60..
Bradford .............. 75 75 ...
Clay ................... 100 100 .
Columbia ............. 90 00 .
D ural ......................
Putnam ............... 100 150 100 2'
St. Johns ............. 85 95 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. S5 93 i 10i 1:,( i
Central Dirisiow--
Citrus .................1 0 0I l
Hernando ........... 90 5 100 (1i
L ake ..................[ 90 ....
Levy ................... 100 100 1 ]00 III0
M arion ................ j 105 .5 1i. 1 i o
Orange .................. 50 5.0 .
Pasco.................. 100 100i 100 l
Valusia ................ 10 11]0 ... ..
Div. Average per cent.. Ju 102 | 10, !
iNouthcrn Dicision-
Brevard .............. .- .
D ale ................ ..... 100 100) .
DeSoto ............... 100 100 1(1 00
Manatee ............. 1. 0 100 10(0 1I(
Osceola ................. 12.5 120 100 100
Palm Beach ............ 75 75
Pineclas .............. 70 75 7'5 j
St. Lucie .......... .. 5 75... .
Div. Average per cent.. 92 '2 4 2I
State Average per cent.. 9S 0 7 )0 90
5-Bull.


-Continued.











S t ii
Coilitioii (aind 1'o'prcctirc Yicldl of Ciro i


- 'll t I,, ,,


Swx et 1'utat',e,,.


CO(INTiES. "


Aortllhc'il li'isiuon-
,Gadsdn .' ............. .
Ilami ilton ............
Jefferson ..............
L eou ..................
L iberty ...............
M adlison ...............
Su\\ a ee .........
W akulla ..............


1441


Div. Avera;g per .ent. l 522 1 1 ,
i'stcrn I)irixion-
('a ll o 111n .. . . . .5 .
E.;; ina ia ............. l(o0 I)0(
H olm es ............... Hil Ill
Jackson ............... !, I
Santa Rlosa ........... 5
Wialton ............... 1010 luHi
Wnashington . . 0 1
)iv. Average prc cent.. i04
Northlcastcrn Di ci.iion--
Alachua ............... 100 100 .
B aker ................. .I) .
Bradford ............ .75 ... i
Clay .................. 1 U 110 ...
Colum bia ............ ( ...S
D uval ................. 10i 120
P'utnl im ........... !i 151i '.n .o1
St. Johns ............. lu100 l0 l m1..I
Div. Average' per cent.. !I1 103 1i2T
Central Dirixioi--
Citrus ......... ...... .l )
Hornando ............. 9 0 .
Lake .................. 1(0 100)
Levy .................. i,)0 s-, 1(Ii I I
M arion ................ ]10 100. ..
Orange ............. SU 0
Pasco ................. 100 90 lW 11;1
Volusia ............... 100 1(00 l(n, ]1,4
Div. Average per cent.. !.5 P1 11T 1i
Southern Diri.sion--
B revard ............... 1 ( I. 1 i ...
D ade .................. lo (, 11.
D eSoto ............... 10(0 ]2.( .
Manatee ............... .. io 1i00
Osceola ............... 75 ...
Palm Beach ............ 90 100
Pinellas ............... 50 50
St. Lucie .............. 0 90 )0
Div. Average per cent.. S 2 ... ..
State Average per cent.. 3 ; 'i92 70 ,


i__~ -__


--. 111-












Condition and I'rospicjtivc Yidcll of Cropsa-C('oiin ied.


Peanuts.
1 8

-


Broomn Corn.


COUNTIES.


( a sden . . ...
H am ilton .............
Je'ferson ..............
L on .................
Liberty ..............
M adison ........ ......
SMwannee .............
W akulla ..............
Div.. Average per cent..


,-0 100 .. ...
50 0 ... ..

sO 5-
S00 O ,

10 i10 20 25-
S 2') 2.5


'tsltcrni Diriision- -
itihoun ............... 100 .
Escamnbia ............. 100 0. ..
H ones .............. .O .
Jacksonl .............. 90 100 .
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 1 ...
W alton ............... 100 115 ...
Washington ............ 90 300 .
Div. Average per cent.. ')4 7
Northlctstern Division-
Alachua ............... 90 0 .
Baker ................. 75 70 .
Bradford .............. 50 0GO ..
Clay .................. 110 80 .
Columbia ............. SO S.80 s
Duval ................. 100 100 ..
Putnam ............... 100 75 ..
St. Johns ............. S5 85 ..
Div. Average per cent.. 85 S ... |
Central Division-
Citrus ................. 100 100 ...
Hernando ............. 7. 7i ..
Lake .................. 9W '. 0 90
Levy ................... 90 s0 .
M arion ................ 115 100
Orange ................ .....
Pasco .................. 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 100 .
Div. Average per cent. 2(; 92
Southern Division-
Brevard ............... ... .
D ade ................. ... ... ...
D e/Soto ................. ..
M anatee ............... ..
Osceola ............... .
Palm Beach ........... ... .... 100 100
Pinellas ...............
St. L ucie ............. .. ...
Div. Average per cent... ... "r- 10-) 1600i
State Average per cent.. 8 I 87 t0 1


Vorther, I)Dicion- \










6S
Coalition an1(d Pr'ospcctive Yield of Crops-


Native Hay Grasses Alfalfa.


COTNTI ES. -


Norithcr, Dirisbion- --
Gadsden .............. 120 5 ...
H amnl iltoll .............. .....
Jefferson .............. 100 ) 100..
Leon ................. 100 i 10 ...
Lierty ....... 100 100 ..
M adison ............... 100 100 ..
Suwan nee ............. O 00 G( '
W akulla ............. 100 100 ..
Div. Av\eruge per cent.. 100 00 /'
Western Dirixion--
Calhoun ............... 100) 100 ...
Escanihia .............. 0 90 .
Holmes ............... 100 100
Jackson ............... 100 10)
Santa Rosa .. ......... 100 100
W alton ............... 0 5 .
Washington ............ 100 110 ..
Div. Average per cent. !7 ) ..
N(il'thcrstern. Diriioin--
A nIl.hua ............... 100 100 ..
Baker ................. .55 50
Bradford .............. 100 100
Clay .................. 10 10l )
Colnumil a .............. ;) I'l .
D uval ................. 10
Putna ............... .. .
St. Johns .............. 1 100 1n() I _i 1 in
Div. Average )per cent.. 7T 7i Ii,) 4l
CctItr il Dirision--
Citrus ................. 75 .
Hernando ............., 10o0 () 00
Lake .................. 150. 7-
Loevy .................. 100 ..
M arion ................ 120 11
Orannge ................ ;) O i
Pasco ................. i !>0) ...
Volusia ................. 100 1 (H)
Div. Aver.ne per cenl.. I !s ... .
,ouith'rn D)irision-
Brovaard ............... ..
D ade .................. 100 i 100 .
DeSoto ................ 100 15 1(-)
Mlanatee ............... ...
Os.eola ............... SOI IO
Palmi Beach............ 100 100
P inellas ............... 7i T.
St. Lucio ..............' 1001( .(.))
Div. Average per cent. 2 14 ]
State Average per c('en.. 02 1)


-Con tinu etld.












Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops--Con tinu'ld.

Velvet Beans. Pastures

COUNTIES. t


Northlcr Dirision- Q I
Gadsden ............ ..... ..... 120 112 00
IIh m ilton ...................... .0 G00 0
Jefferson ........................ .. 0
Leon ............................ 75 .0 100
Liberty ........................ 75 00
M adison ........................ GO C( SO
Suwannee ....................... 100 90 1 J0
W akulla ........................ 50 50 00
Dir. Average per cent ......... 78 75 94
IVextern 1)Dirision-
Calhoun ......................... 100 100 300
Escambia .................. 10 100 100
H olm es ......................... SO < 8 100
Jackson ........................ 00 101) 100
Santa Rosa ..................... 100 1]0u0 I
W alton ......................... 70 S5 100
W ashington ..................... 100 100
Iiv. Average per cent ............ 3 !)5 1)0
Xortlihcatern Division-
Alachua ......................... (5 (15 109
Baker .......................... 45 45 CO
Bradford ........................ 75
Clay ............................ 110 100 100
Columbia ....................... 100 100 100
D uval .......................... .. 150
Putnam ......................... 100 125
St. Johns ....................... 100 100 100
)iv. Average per cent ....... ...... 102
Ccnintral Dirision-
Citrus .......................... 100 100 100
I ernando ....................... 100 100 105
Lake ............................ 1 (;0 SO 200
Levy ................. .......... 300 100 100
M arion ......................... 97 S5 120
Orange .......................... .. O SO 50
'asco .......... ................. 90 85 S5
Volusia ........................ 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent............. 9(i 91 1 07
NS'othelrn Dirision-
Brevard .......................... ... .
D adol ............................ 9;5 95
D eSoto ......................... 100 (10 150
M anatee ........................ 100 | 100 100
Osceola ......................... 1235 125 100
Palm Beach ..................... 100 100 100
P in ellas ......................... ... ... 75
St. Lucie ....................... 100 1 001 1300
Div. Average per cent............ 103 103 104
State Average per cent........... 91 [ 90 101












70
Condition and Prospective Yicld of Crops-Contiurid.


Bananas. Mani e.
'2 i. '-


COUNTIES.


Northern Ici)isioin- .
G adsden ............... ...
H am ilton .............. ....
Jefferson .............. .
Leon ...............
Liberty ............... .. .
M adison ...... ..... .. ...
Suwannee .............
W akulla ............... ..... .
Div. Average per cent.. ... ... .
Wesrt rn Dicirisioin-
Calhoun ............... .. .
Escam bia .............. .
H olm es ................ ... .
Jackson ..... ........ .. ..
Santa Rosa .. .. .
W alton ................ ... ..
W ashington ........... I .. .
Div. Average per cent.. ... .. ..
Norlheastecrj Dirision-
A lachua ............... .
B aker ................. .
B radford .............. .
C lay .......... ... ...
Colum bia ............... .
D uval .................
P utn ...............
Div. Average per cent.. .... .
Ccntral Uirisioiin-
C itrus .............. ... ... ..
Hornando .............
L ake .................. .
L ev .................. .
M arion ................ ..
O range ................ .
P asco .............. .
V olusia ............... .
Div. Average per cent.. .
Southern Dii'l;ioin-
Brevard ................ 5.
Dade .................. 00 100 l 0l 01, I
DeSoto ................ 100 100 .
Manatee .............. I 100 100 10 1o i,
Osceola ................ 120 120 ..
Palm Beach............ ... ..
P inellas ............... .
St. Lucie .............. T 1 0 100 7.
Div. Average per cent.. 101 102 i1 54
State Average per cent.. 101 To2 I1 "4










71
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.
(;uavas Orange Trees.
.- .
COUNTIES. e.


Northern Division- U
Gadsden ............... ... ...
Hamilton .............. ....
Jefferson ............ ... ..
Leon .................. ... 100 SO
Liberty ............... ... ...
M adison ............... ... .
Suwannee ... ......... ... ... SO 75
Wakulla ............... ... ... ... ...
Div. Average per cent.. ... ... )0 0 77
1ecstern Dicision-
Calhoun ............... ... ... 00 90
Escambia ........... .. ... ..
H olm es ................ ... ...
Jackson ............... ..
Santa Rosa ........... ... .....
Walton ..... .......... ..
Washington .. .......... .
Div. Average per cent.. ... ... 100T 90
Northcastern Division-
Alachua ...............I . SO 100
Baker .................. ... ... 95 90
Bradford ................
Clay .................. .. 100 20
Columbia .............. .
Duval .................. .. ... 115 100
Putnam .............. ... .. 100 175
St. Johns .............. ... ... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. .. ... 9S .s
Central Diviion--
Citrus ................ ... ... 1 0 100
Hernando ............ .. 101 100
Lake .................. 200 200 300 300
Levy ................ ... 100 95
M arion ................ ..... 115 100
Orange ................ 0 80 SO 75
Pasco ................. 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 100 100 CO
Div. Average per cent.. 120 1 124 104
Southern I)irision-
Brevard ............... I10 100 100 10 0
Dade .................. 100 100 110 120
DeSoto ................ 100 200 90 10n
Manatee ............... 150 200 100 12-
Osceola ............... 150 200 100 70
Palm Beach............ 100 100 100 75
Pinellas ............... 100 200 110 125
St. Lucie ............. 100 100 SO 0 70
Div. Average per cent.. 113 150 9I I S
State Average per ceut.. I 115 135 102 I 03












Condition andi I'Pro.p(tilc Yieil o(f C'ropi-- T oti,''i
ci2io11 Tr e'' li -I' ".


COUNTIES.


Aorthcru Dic.ision--
Gadsden ....... .
IIam ilton .............. ... .....
Jefferson ........... .
Leon .......... .
Liberty ........ ..
M adison ........... .
Suwanuee .............. i .
W akulla ............... ...
Div. Avera;re per (cent. lo ... .
lWecstern Dicixioic-
Calhoun ............ 10 .
Escam bia ......... .
H olm es ................ .
Jackson ......... .
Santa Rosa ...........
W alton ......... .....
W ashington ........... ..
Div. Average per cent.. 100 00 ...
Norleii stern Dirixioi-
Alachua ............... .. "
B aker ................ [ ..
B radford ............ . ...
C lay .................. ... ...
Columbia ........... . .
D u ral ................. . .
P utnam ............... ..... ...
St. Johns ............. .. .
Div. Average per cent. ....
Ucndruti Diri.ion-
Citrus ................ !. !o0 i I,
Hernando .............. ... ... .
Lake .................. 100 00 111o0 i I
L evy .................. ...
M arion ................ 115 00J
Orange ................ .. ... ...
P asco ................. 0. 0 .. H 'I
V olusia ............... ......
Div. Average per cent. 8I '.-
Southlicrn Dicision-
B regard ............... ... ... ...
I)Da e .......... ....... .0 ..0
)eSoto ................ 10 0 1,10 in
M anatee ............... 10(0 125 ('" 1
Osceola ..... .... .. 100 (;n 1 i 4c
Palm Beach ............ 100 75 1 i10 7.
Pinellas ............... 100 100 1( li(i 1'.
St. Lucie ............... 7O 0 To 7-
I)iv. Average per cent.. .; 4 S; 1. -
State Average per celnt..| TI4i 14 ]'1











73
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.
Grapefruit Trees.

COUNTIES.


Northern Division--
G adsden .................................. .....
H am ilton ................................
Jefferson ............................... .
L eon ..................................... 100 95
L iberty ...................................
M adison ................................ .
Suw annee ................................. 10
W akulla ................................. .
Div. Average per cent ...................... 55 95
IWestern Dirision-
Calhoun .................................. 100 .5
E scanlbia ................................. .. .
Holmes ................. ................. ...
Jackson ................................... .
Santa R osa ............................ .
W alton ...................................
W ashington ................................ ..
Div. Average per cent...................... 100 85
Yorthcuastern Division-
Alachua .................................. 0SO 100
B aker .................................... 65 (i5
B radford ................................. ..
C la y .. ... .. .... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... .. ..
C olum bia ..................................
Duval ...................................
Putnam ................................... 100 175
St. Johns ................................. 100 100
Div. Average per cent..................... 110
Central Dirision-
Citrus ............................... ... 100 100
H ernando ................................ 101 100
Lake ..................................... 300 300
L evy ..................................... 100 95
M arion ........... ........................ 115 110
Orange ................................ .0 50
P asco ..................................... 100 90
Volusia ............. ................... 100 CO
Div. Average per cent ........... ......... 124 113
Southern Division-
Brevard .............. ............100 Uo10
Dade ........................... 110 110
D eSoto ................................... 100 125
Manatee ..................... ............. 100 150
Osceola ..... ... ...... ................... 100 60
Palm Beach ............................... 100 100
Pinellas ........ ....................... 100 125
St. Lucie ........................... ... 90 00
Div. Average per cent .............. ........ 100 104
State Average per cent.............. ...... 93 102























PART III.

REPORT OF CITRUS GROWERS' CONVEN-
TION;
STANDARD FIXED BY COMMISSION AND
ADOPTED.










REPORT


OF


CITRUS


GROWERS'


CONVENTION


HELD AT


GAINESVILLE, FLA.


AUGUST
191
















Report of Convention

of Citrus Growers.


Gainesville, Fla., August li, 1912.
The Convention of Citrus Growers was called to order
by State Commissioner of Agriculture W. A. McRae at
1:15 p. nm. today, who spoke as follows:
To the Orange Growers and Shippers of Florida:
It is indeed a happy privilege to be present with you
on this occasion to discuss, and we trust to forever set-
tle the long mooted and knotty question of "When is an
orange mature??"
In this meeting here today we trust that everyone will
lay aside every bit of personal feeling or prejudice and
that the question before us will be discussed logically and
fairly by those of you who are more or less authorities
on orange growing, and that all of the discussions may
have for their object to give more information on the
subject under consideration.
inlnediately upon assuming the duties of the office of
Commissioner of Agriculture, we saw facing us this
knotty problem. Because of the heavy work of the De-
partment, it was June, before we had time lo give any
consideration to the question.
We viewed the subject from every angle, and after per-
sonal discussion, and after much correspondence, we were
satisfied in our own mind that the first step to be taken
was to find some common ground on whice we could
stand, i. e., a standard for maturity.
On July 5th, we mailed out a circular letter, suggesting
that a commission be appointed to recommend a stand-
ard, and being so sure that the course we had suggested
6 Bul











was the only course to pursue, on July 9th, we issued a
circular letter making the call for this convention.
The Department recognized first that a standard of
maturity was necessary, and second, that the commission
to be appointed must be men of unquestioned ability and
integrity, and men wholly disinterested and impartial.
The personnel of the commission is as follows: H. Har-
old Hume, President State Horticultural Society: P. H.
Rolfs, Director of Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion; Prof. S. E. Collison, Chemist Florida Experiment
Station; Professor E. R. Flint, Chemist State University.
and Honorable R. E. Rose, State Chemist of Florida.
This commission needs no introduction to a Florida
audience. The gentlemen composing the commission are
scientists of the highest class, and each man is holding
his present high position on merit only. And right here
let me say, I doubt if there are any men in the United
States who are better authorities on citrus culture than
are Professors Hume and Rolfs.
People, as a whole, are more or less skeptical about
making changes or departures from long-established cus-
toms or practices, and we have found no exception to the
rule in this case. Nearly or quite all with whnm we have
talked, or with whom we have had correspondence, mre
that a standard of maturity is necessary, but a few are
afraid to suggest a standard of maturity, and the same
few are afraid for some else to suggest one.
A standard of maturity is necessary. The time has
come when the shipment of immature fruit should i-ease.
The salvation of the industry demands it. The ma irity
of the growers and shippers realize the imp-irince if a
standard and the trade also demands it. The only ques-
tion is, who shall fix the standard, and what shall the
standard of maturity be? These questions are easily
answered. All standards must be determined by those
directly interested, and on you, the orange growers and











shippers of Florida, devolves the task of fixing this stand-
ard of maturity for your fruit.
The Agricultural Department has at all times dis-
cussed this great question from the standpoint of merit
only, and as a department we make no suggestions to
you. We have faith in you, as good citizens. We have
faith in your ability to meet the issue when you come
face to face with it.
We have faith in your doing your full duty here in
this great convention. We have faith in you and we fully
believe that as broad-minded good citizens, you will stand
for the good of the orange industry of Florida, and that
you will not permit some petty jealousy or small personal
interest now to keep you from doing your full duty in
forever settling the great question before you today.
Men, today we are making history for Florida. This
is the greatest meeting, in our judgment, ever held in
this State, viewed from a financial standpoint. Literally
millions are involved. The orange crop in Florida this
year, will possibly reach the mammoth sum, if properly
handled, of $12,000,000.00. The orange crop is conserva-
tively estimated at 6,000,000 boxes, and we would not be
surprised to see the 7,000,000 box mark. We cannot
afford this season, with this mammoth crop, to paralyze
the market by the shipment of immature fruit. When
we take into consideration the short crop of California,
you need only to handle with good business judgment and
care, Florida's present crop, and the prices will take
care of themselves. Under these conditions the law of
supply and demand will logically assert its control.
Before closing this address, we desire to thank you for
your presence at this convention. Your presence here
means you are interested, and where there is interest we
may always expect results. There were a few growers
who wished the meeting called for September 15th. This
was wholly impracticable, for the reason that the shipping
season would soon be on, and there is a good deal more to












be done yet, and some considerable time to be consumed
in preparatory work, even if a standard uf maturity is
now agreed upon. This is a big question and all rhe de-
tails necessary to put it in force cannot be arranged in
a day.
To you, gentlemen of the commission, we wish to ex-
press our heartiest appreciation. We are aware th yoiu
have made personal sacrifice in giving up yur vacation
to serve on this commission, a position you accepted on;;
as patriotic citizens. We trust this meeting will lv- ,ne
that will bear much fruit, and that you may all iok 1,ack
as time goes by, and have the pleasure of knowing that
through your efforts one of the greatest questions '.f this
State has been settled, and one of her greatest indlstrie-
preserved for all future time.
We wish to express our appreciation to the C'omQnitti-e
on Arrangements and the citizens of your lbeautifi I and
progressive city generally for their many cortesies ex
tended and the cordial manner in which this convt'nTnin
has been received. Gainesville is truly a queen amion-
convention cities. Mtiy her star of progress and pros-
perity continue lo grow brighter with each passing year.
Gentlemen, the work of the commission is completed.
and the commission is ready to make its report tr you.
We now turn the convention over to vou. and at such
time as you desire the commission will. in due form. pre-
sent their report for your consideration.




The organization was perfected by the election of Com-
missioner W. A. McRae as permanent chairman and
Josiah Varn as permanent secretary.
After a discussion as to whether the growers present
were in favor of preventing the shipment of imn:mrt'!-
fruit, Ihe question was put to a standing vote. and the
convention unanimously voted in favor of pIreventin.r the












shipment of immature fruit. No one voted against pre-
venting such shipment.
The report of the Commission was then presented by
State Chemist R. E. Rose, the duly-appointed representa-
tive of the Commission, who spoke as follows:

ADDRESS OF R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST
OF FLORIDA.

Gentlemen of the Convention:

The Commission appointed by the Hon. W. A. McRae,
Commissioner of Agriculture of Florida, to prepare a
chemical standard for Immature Citrus Fruit, con-
sisted of:-
Prof. H. Harold Hume, President of the Florida Horti-
cultural Society, Chairman.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs, Director of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
Dr. E. R. Flint, Professor of Chemistry of The State
University.
Prof. S. E. Collison, Chemist of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
And R. E. Rose, State Chemist, Tallahassee.
Owing to the unavoidable absence of Prof. Hume, the
Chairman of the Commission, I have been delegated by
the Commission to present their report to you for your
consideration.
It is not necessary for me to call the attention of this
body of Florida orange growers to the eminent fitness of
at least four members of the Commission selected by the
Commissioner of Agriculture for this important work;
men who are known to all of you as authority on the
subject presented to them; men trained as horticulturists,
each a scientist of ability and repute, thoroughly familiar
with the orange industry of the State.
The Chairman of the Commission, Prof. H. Harold
Hume, is acknowledged to be an authority on citrus cul-











ture, and, as President of the Florida Horticultural
Society, has the confidence of all the orange growers of
the State.
Prof. P. H. Rolfs, the Director of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, is also known to the entire
State as one of the most competent horticulturalists of
the age, and particularly for his knowledge of citrus cul-
ture in all of its phases, from the seed bed to the market-
ing of the mature fruit.
Dr. E. R. Flint, Chemist of the State University, needs
no introduction by me to this audience. His reputation
as a chemist is second to none in America.
Prof. S. E. Collison, the Secretary of the Commission.
and the Chemist of the State Agricultural Experiment
Station, is also known to every orange grower by his
work as an investigator in this particular line of study-
the development of the citrus industry of Florida.
These four gentlemen are probably the best fitted by
training and experience, to investigate the subject and
deduct correct conclusions, that could have been selected
in this or any other State.
Their official positions, in addition to their scientific
attainments, and familiarity with the subject. to say
nothing of their personal reputations for fairness and
integrity, give their findings unusual weight and dignity.
This subject-A Chemical Standard for Immature or
mature) Citrus Fruit-has very properly been the sub-
ject of much discussion among the parties interested.
That it is an important subject is evidenced by the
great interest shown by the discussion, pro and con. by
the press and in all gatherings of citrus growers.
That there is a general demand to prevent the shipment
of immature oranges is evident to anyone who has been
familiar with this industry, particularly since the crops
have assumed large proportions. No one, I believe, will
deny the damage done to the industry as a whole, by the












shipment of sour, immature oranges from this State.
This, I believe, will be conceded by all.
The problem then, is, can a standard be fixed by which
an immature orange can be distinguished from a mature
or ripe one? If so, what shall the standard be?
By whom shall the standard be fixed? All standards
are fixed by the persons directly interested in the pro-
duction and sale of commodities. I know of no exception.
Standards when fixed by the persons engaged in the busi-
ness of producing, manufacturing or selling a commodity,
are the standards accepted by the Legislative and Execu-
tive officers, regulating the trade therein, and are used
in all controversies for the settlement of differences-
either by arbitration or by the courts. Therefore, the
only persons who can make a standard for oranges are
the growers and shippers of oranges.
This was evidently the position assumed by the Legisla-
ture, when enacting the Immature Citrus Fruit Law.
The demand was for a law preventing the shipment of
immature fruit. The inquiry was made-what constitutes
immaturity? and full discussion was had. The bill
passed by a large majority, leaving, however, the fixing
of a standard or definition, where it belongs-to the
producers and shippers of citrus fruits, the only persons
interested and to be protected by the law.
Shall color be the standard? This is answered prompt-
ly by a negative, as it is well known that certain varieties
are green in color when they are at their best and most
desirable stage of maturity. Other late varieties are
beautifully colored months previous to ripening, though
still sour and unfit for consumption. Color is, therefore,
no proper standard for ripeness.

Shall different dates be fixed for the shipment of vari-
ous varieties? It is needless to say to you that inter-
minable confusion would follow when locality, soil, alti-












tude, season, culture and fertilizing are all factors in
the date of maturity.
If color or date be eliminated, what remains by which
to distinguish a ripe orange-one fit for consumption?
Texture cannot be used in determining the maturity of
an orange. Mellow, soft or tender oranges can not be
shipped, nor would they be desirable for consumpti n.
We are therefore forced to examine the fruit chemi-
cally, to ascertain what the sugar and acid content is.
When it is palatable and desirable as a fruit. When the
consumer is pleased with its taste, and desires to repeat
the pleasure of eating it.
Can a chemical standard be fixed? One that will do no
injustice to the early orange. Will insure excellence in
the seedling, and protect the late orange from condemna-
tion by the consumer?
Your Commission is convinced that such a standard
can be fixed and have unanimously recommended such
a standard. A standard that will work no hardship on
the grower. That will protect the consumer; eliminate
the speculator and jobber, and secure for the industry
fair prices for the entire crop during the entire shipping
season, which, as you knew, extends from October to July.
It has been said that a standard could only be fixed
by a horticulturalist and citrus grower. On your Com-
mission you have two, at least, of the most eminent horri
culturalists and orange growers.
It has also been said that a chemical standard would
be "a gold mine to the chemist and of great cost to the
grower."
The facts are, the "field test" can be made by any fairly
intelligent man with apparatus not costing to exceed
$2.00-in fact, less. It can be applied quickly and inex-
pensively. In case of doubt an appeal for a laboratory
analysis by the State Laboratory is provided for. There












are no costs or fees of any kind paid to the State Lab.
oratory.
The work of the State Laboratary will probably be in-
creased very considerably, and there will probably have
to be additional analytical force employed during the
shipping season. However, the cost to the individual will
not be increased, though the State may have an increased
cost for inspection and analytical work.
As the revenues of the State Chemist's office increased
from .1 :.iIno in 1901, to .71,000 in 1911-with a net bal-
ance over all expenses in 1911 of .7:' iin --there can be
no impropriety in asking your Legislature to make an
additional allowance for the benefit of the citrus industry,
particularly as the revenues derived from the fertilizer
and feed inspection fees are largely paid by the citrus
growers.
The cost of a chemical standard to the individual is
therefore eliminated. This argument against a chemical
standard therefore falls short when we consider that the
shipment of Immature Citrus Fruit is acknowledged by
all to be of immense damage to the industry, destroying
the reputation for excellence of the Florida orange.
Mature Florida oranges are acknowledged to be the
superior of any grown in the world. Until the shipment
of immature oranges began to be considerable, no fruit
was more eagerly purchased by the consumer.
On your decision, gentlemen, depends much of the
future prosperity of the industry. May the discussions
of the problem be fair and unprejudiced, your decision
wise and for the general good of the entire industry.
We have carefully compiled all data available from
official and individual sources. We have the data from
which we drew our conclusions subject to your inspection,
and will have the same published.
We find the ratio of acid to sugar remarkably constant,
at the season of ripening, for all varieties. The ratio of
one part citric acid to seven parts of sugar, as invert, we












find to be the least ratio at which an orange may be
deemed fit for shipment; though it is not yet fully ripe, it
is in a fair shipping condition.
The maximum acid fixed at 1.25% for field test will
cut out few oranges, if any, that are fit for consumption.
A very few sweet oranges contain 1.25 % of acid.
Your Commission organized July 6th, divided the work
among its members, met subsequently on July 18. and
worked early and late in analyzing, studying and digest-
ing the data compiled-that of the United States Agri-
cultural Department, the California and Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Sations, and other published data
from reliable sources was compiled by the gentlemen of
the University and Agricultural Station.
The large number of analyses made by Wiley and Com-
pany, for the "Florida Citrus Exchange," and by Genth
& Company, for the "Florida Fruit and Vegetable Ship-
pers' Protective Association"-both reputable and com-
petent commercial laboratories-were compiled by the
State Chemist. There were in these recent analyses for
the season of 1911-12, 218 made by Wiley & Co., and 62
made by Genth & Co., submitted to us.
These various analyses when reduced to uniform chemi-
cal terms, their dates chronologically arranged, varieties
and known seasons of ripening considered, were found to
be exceedingly concordant. In fact, your Commission
was struck by the agreement between all analyses, when
considered from the same viewpoint.
The ripening of the various varieties at the proper sea-
son was readily seen, while the decrease in acid and in-
crease in sugar was uniform up to full maturity. The
change in the fruit after picking was little, if any. The
statement that oranges do not improve after plucking is
found to be true, and the broad statement that oranges
do not improve (ripen) after plucking, is well borne out
by the investigation.
All these facts, however, have been carefully compiled









91

and detailed study made, and are ready for examination
by yourselves or any committee appointed by your body.
As stated, the analyses and compilations of data are pub-
lished for your information.
Your Commission has labored long and faithfully, and
now submits to you the results of its labor, for your
careful and earnest consideration.

















Report of Commission

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
John M. Scott, Animal Industrialist.
B. F. Floyd, Plant Physiologist.
J. R. Watson, Entomologist.
H. E. Stevens, Plant Pathologist.
S. E. Collison, Associate Chemist.

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station.

Gainesville. Fla., July 6, 1912.

MINUTES OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY
THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE TO
PREPARE STANDARD FOR IMlMATURE CIT-
RUS FRUIT.

-1-

The Committee appointed by the Hon. W. A. McRae,
Commissioner of Agriculture, to prepare a tentative stan-
dard for immature citrus fruit to be submitted to a con-
vention of citrus growers to be held at Gainesville, August
15, 1912, for approval or rejection; to compile all analy-
tical data now obtainable-that of the U. S. Dept. of Ag-
riculture, the California and Florida Experiment Sta-
tions, the State Agricultural Department and all other
reliable chemical data, met at the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, at Gainesville, Fla., July 6, 1912, at 9:30
A. M.
There were present P. H. Rolfs, Director Fla. Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, E. R. Flint, Prof. of Chemistry,
University of Florida, S. E. Collison, Chemist, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, and R. E. Rose, State
Chemist. Absent H. Harold Hume, Pres. Florida State










Horticultural Society. On motion, Prof. P. H. Rolfs was
made chairman and S. E. Collison secretary, of the meet-
ing. After discussion of analytical data available, a plan
of research and study was outlined; Profs. Flint, Collison
and Rolfs to compile analytical data from the reports of
the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and of the California and
Florida Experiment Stations; R. E. Rose to codify and
arrange such data as furnished by the Florida Citrus
Exchange-analyses made by Wiley and Co. of Baltimore
-and such other reliable data from commercial labora-
tories as may be furnished by parties interested in citrus
culture in Florida.
After general discussion of various analytical data and
authorities the Commission adjourned to meet again at
Gainesville, July 18, 1912.
(Signed.) P. H. Rolfls.
S. E. Collison, Chairman.
Secretary.

Gainesville, Fla., July 1S, 1912.
The Commission met on July 18, 1912, at 1:30 P. M.
in the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
There were present H. Harold Hume, P. H. Rolfs, E. R.
Flint, R. E. Rose, and S. E. Collison.
On motion of E. R. Flint and seconded by P. H. Rolfs,
H. Harold Hume was elected chairman and S. E. Collison
Secretary.
The various compilations of analytical data were pre-
sented by the two committees appointed at the previous
meeting and were discussed fully by .the Commission.
After due consideration of all analytical work obtainable
at present date it was moved by E. R. Flint and seconded
by P. H. Rolfs:
Be it resolved that we recommend to the convention of
citrus growers that the following standard be adopted:

"One. All round oranges showing a field test










of one and twenty-five hundredths (1.25) per cent
or more of acid, calculated as citric acid, shall
be considered as immature."
"Two. Provided, however, that if the grower
(or shipper) consider the fruit mature he shall
have the right to appeal from the field test,
to the State Chemist for a chemical analysis,
and if this chemical analysis shows that the
percentage by weight of the total sugar, as in-
vert sugar, be seven times or more than the weight
of the total acid as citric acid, the fruit shall be
deemed mature."
"Three. That the juices of not less than five
average oranges shall be mixed from which a
composite sample shall be drawn for the field
test."
"Four. That the juices of not less than twelve
average oranges shall be mixed, from which shall
be drawn a composite sample for laboratory
analysis."

The resolution was passed unanimously.
On motion of P. H. Rolfs and seconded by R. E. Rose,
the following resolution was passed:
The Commission recognizes the fact that the analytical
data regarding the analyses of immature citrus fruit is
limited.
We recommend that analyses of immature grape fruit
and round oranges be made during the months of Septem-
ber, October, November, and December.
We recommend that the State Chemist, the Chemist
of the Experiment Station, and the Chemist of the Uni-
versity be earnestly requested to make such analyses
during the ensuing shipping season.
The Commission further recommends that the conven-
tion of citrus growers make every possible effort to assist
these various officers in securing the necessary fruit and










also aid them in securing the necessary funds to employ
the assistance needed to carry out this work.
Owing to the fact that H. H. Hume, Chairman, and P.
H. Rolfs will be absent from the State at the date of the
convention, it was moved by E. R. Flint, seconded by P.
H. Rolfs, and favorably acted upon by the Commission
that Capt. R. E. Rose be appointed a committee (f one TO
present the recommendations of the Commis~.iin to T!he
convention of citrus growers to be held August 15.
It was further moved by P. H. Rolls, seconded by S.
E. Collison and adopted by the Commission:
That this Commission recommend that the analvrical
data secured by the Commission be compiled by the Stare
Chemist and he published as a part of the Quarterli Bul e-
tin of hle (",nnissnVioner of Agri.ulture. ,ion. V. A.
McRae. This infornmaTion bein deemed very im-,T:,rant
for the citrus grower.
(Signed. 1 U. Har'oll Hume.
S. E. Collison, Chairman.
Secretary.













APPARATUS, MATERIAL NECESSARY, A D 1METH-
OD OF APPLYING FIELD TEST FOIR MAXI
MUM AC(D IN IIMMIATURE ORAN.GES.


APPARATUS.

One one-quart granite ware cup.
One lemon squeezer.
Cheese cloth strainer, 18 inches square.
One white porcelain tea cup.
One 25 cc pipette.
One quart bottle of standard alkaline solution, Equiv-
alent to 1.25% solution of citric acid.)
One 2-ounce bottle, with dropper, or indicator
(Phenolpthalein .
Cost approximately q1.50.


METHOD.


Peel five oranges, cut across plugs, squeeze and strain
through the cheese cloth into the granite cup. (Throw
cheese cloth and pulp away. Do not attempt to use
cheese cloth twice). Rinse with alkali solution and fill
pipette to mark 25 cc with alkali solution and place
contents in tea cup. Carefully rinse pipette with orange
juice, then fill pipette to mark (25 cc) with orange juice
and add to alkaline solution in tea cup. Mix by revolv-
ing cup. Drop several drops of "indicator" into the mix-
ture. If the acid be less than 1.25% a change of color
will occur-orange to pink. If the acid be greater than
1.25% there will be no change in color.

CAUTION.

The alkaline solution must be of exact strength to neu-
7 Bul











tralize an equal volume of citric solution, containing
1.25% of citric acid.

NOTICE.

Preparation of Alkaline Solution.

An alkaline tablet, with an indicator, of exact alkaline
value, is now upon the market.
Correspondence has been had with Florida dealers
who will carry in stock 25 cubic centimeter pipettes.
eight ounce prescription bottles, and Farrington's Alka
line Tablets.
To make the alkaline solution, dissolve 96 tablets in
8 ounces of pure rain or distilled water. Measure the
water in the 8 ounce graduated prescription bottle, pour
into a larger, clean clear bottle. Add 96 tablets. After
dissolving the tablets-which will require two hours with
frequent shaking-the solution is ready for use.
An equal volume of this alkaline solution will exactly
neutralize an equal volume of orange juice containing
1.25% of citric acid. 25 cc's of alkaline solution added
to 25 cc's of orange juice, will show a pink color, if the
acid be less than 1.25%. It will not show a pink color
if the acid be more than 1.25%.
These 25 cc pipettes, 8 ounce prescription bottles, and
Farrington's Alkaline Tablets can be purchased from
the Groover-Stewart Drug Co., of Jacksonville, Fla.
Not more than 8 ounces of the alkaline solution should
be prepared at one time. The alkaline solution, properly
stoppered, and kept out of direct sunlight, will not de
compose for several days. The dry tablets will not de-
compose. Freshly made alkaline solution should be
used.

After a prolonged discussion, in which many growers










participated, the following resolution, offered by Mr. L.
B. Skinner, was unanimously adopted:
"Resolved, That it is the sense of this Convention that
the report of the Commission shall be adopted, and shall
obtain until the 5th day of November in each and every
year; Provided, That after the 5th day of November in
each and every year the standard shall be, 'that if each
orange is two-thirds its total area colored yellow, it shall
be considered as mature and fit for shipment.' "
The following amendment was also offered and unani-
mously adopted:
"That no variety of oranges or grapefruit shall be
allowed to be shipped before October 1st of each year that
has bloomed during that calendar year."
After several demonstrations of "field test" by State
Chemist Rose and Assistant State Chemist Henry, the
meeting adjourned sine die.
W. A. McRAE, Chairman.
Attest: JOSIAH VARN, Secretary.













COIMPILATION AND STUDY OF


62 Analyses of Oranges
Made Iby Te A. Gcith Labwratjorl, Philadelphia, Pa.,

For CHASE & COMPANY,
SEASON 1911-12,
ALSO

218 Analyses of Oranges
Milade by the iUi'lcy & C(o.'s Laboraiori,, Balnimore, Md.,

For THE fLORIDA CITRUS EXCHANGE,
SEASON 1911-12,

COMPILED AND ARRANGED BY THE

Florida State Laboratory
From Data Furnished.
t Maximum Acid 1.25 Field Test.
Proposed Standard Maximum Ratio-1 Acid, 6 to 7 Sugar.

Arranged by Variety, Taste, Ratio of Acid to Sugar,
anoi Months.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.
A. M. HENRY, B. S., Assistant State Chemist, Food and Drug
Analyst
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA,
August 15, 1912.







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