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APRIL 1, 1912? ,,
W. A. McRAE
COMMISSIONER. OF AG RICULTURE
Part 1-Articles on Sugarl M1anufacturinig, Nursery Stock
Law, 1'oultry Rlaising and the Growing of Various
Crops in Florida.
P'rt 2-Crop Acvireages and Conditions.
Part 3-Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.
Entered January 31,190;3, at Tailahassee Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
THESE BULLElINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM
T. J. APPLEYA RD. State Printer
COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA
ARTICLES ON SUGAR MANUFACTURING, NUR-
SERY STOCK LAW, POULTRY RAISING
AND THE GROWING OF VARIOUS
CROPS N FLORIDA.
THE POSSIBILITIES Of SUGAR PRODUC-
TION IN FLORIDA.
By R. E. ROSE,
The constantly growing demand for information and
literature on the subject of cane growing and sugar man-
ufacture in Florida, particularly since the widespread in-
terest on the subject caused by the State's undertaking the
drainage of the Everglades, has induced me to re-publish
this pamphlet, "The Possibilities of Sugar Production in
There are a few facts not generally known that should
be stated as a preface.
The general conditions are the same now as when the
pamphlet was published in 1!00. The increase in con-
sumption has continued, while the price of sugar and
syrup has materially advanced, with every indication
that they will not again decline, but will continue to
advance as the consumption increases, the consumption
per capital being 83.00 pounds, against 65.5 pounds in
Machinery has advanced in price. At the same time
il- has been improved, and processes made more economi-
cal, thus reducing the cost of manufacture.
This applies not only t( the factory, but to the field.
I improved implements for cultivating and harvesting the
cvop have materially reduced the cost of production.
Sugar cane is successfully grown in all the counties of
Florida and those of South Georgia and Alabama.
It is successfully and profitably cultivated one hun-
lired miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.
While cane is a tropical plant and obtains full matur-
ity only in those regions where frost is practically un-
known, it is profitably produced in the Southern portion
of the Temperate Zone-as in Southern Louisiana, Geor-
gia and Alabama and North Florida, where for nine
months there are no frosts. Full maturity demands
twelve months' freedom from frost.
South of the twenty-seventh parallel in Florida cane
reaches its full maturity-annually-as is evidenced by
its forming "tassels" or seed arrows, a condition only pos-
sible when the plant is fully mature.
However, the largest acreage and most numerous fields
of sugar cane in Florida are found in the northern coun-
ties-the agricultural counties-where corn, cotton, sugar
cane and dairy farms predominate, as distinguished from
the southern or peninsular counties, where citrus fruits,
early vegetables (trucking) and pineapple growing are
the principal occupations.
While vast sugar plantations formerly existed-"be-
fore the war"-on the Halifax River, in Volusia County;
on the Manatee River, in Manatee County; on the Homo-
sassa River, in Citrus County, the industry has been
abandoned for the more fascinating orange grove and
The soil best adapted to cane is well drained, low
hammock, swamp, or bottom land, though fine crops are
grown on high, rolling lands. Still !)i per cent of the
cane grown in Florida or Louisiana is grown on well-
drained, rich, bottom lands.,- cypress swamps and re
No heavier crops, nor richer cane has been produced in
any country lhan has been grown on the reclaimed
(drained) saw grass marsh lands of Florida; lands iden-
tical in every way, physically and chemically, to tle saw
grass muck lands of the Everglades.
These lands, the Everglades, when properly and per-
fectly drained, will produce maximum crops of sugar
cane at minimum cost.
The soil of the "Everglades" is similar in composition
to the marsh and swamp lands of Southwest Louisiana-
No. 1-Cane Cutting at St. Cloud, Florida, 1888-9. Reclaimed Muck Land, six to eight feet
deep, formerly covered with water. Yield 60 tons per acre. Photo by Havens.
in the Parishes of Lafourche, Terrebonne, St. Mary and
other Parishes-where vast areas of overflowed marshes
and swamps have been reclaimed by canals, levees, or
ditches, and by a system of drainage pumps similar to
those used in Holland. Vast areas of these Louisiana
swamp lands are now cultivated in sugar cane and rice.
The Everglades are similar, physically and chemically.
They, however, have a greater altitude, being from eight
to twenty-one feet above tide level, while a large part of
the reclaimed lands of Southwest Louisiana are but little
above tidal overflow, and all of them below the high water
level of the Mississippi River, requiring levees and pumps
to insure drainage and immunity from overflow by floods
in the Mississippi.
The Everglades can, and will. he drained by gravity-
only requiring canals sufficient in number and size to
carry off tle rain water from a comparatively small water
The lowering of Lake Okeechobee by canals to tide
water in the (lulf and Atlantic, of greater cross-section
than the streams flowing into the lake, will not only pre-
vent ovrflow from lie lake, but will provide means for
the land owners adjacent to the canals to drain their
fields inio lhe canals by proper laterals and field ditches.
It is not contemplated Ihat Ihe State canals will drain
the adjacent fields, but- that they will provide an outlet
for Ihe waters of the lateral canals and field ditches,
constructed by the land owners.
When this vast area of wonderfully fertile soil is prop-
erly reclaimed by the State canals and the necessary lat-
erals constructed by the land owners, no more productive
sugar fields can be found in this or any other country.
Fields which when properly drained and intelligently cul-
tivated will produce maximum corps of sugar cane, rice
and corn at a minimum cost of production.
Dr. H. W. Wiley, late chief chemist of the United
States Department of Agriculture, in his report on these
lands, published in the Report of the Secretary of Agri
culture for 1891, says:
"In this region the sugar cane is absolutely
'ree from any danger of frost, although occa-
sionally light frosts have been known to injure
more delicate plants.
"It may be said then, with confidence, that in
the region of Lake Okeechobee the lands that
may be recovered for sugar-making purposes have
all the advantages of the climate of Cuba.
"The manufacture of sugar from the cane in
this region may be postponed with perfect safety
until the beginning of February, and the months
of February, March and April will be of great-
est activity in sugar manufacture.
"Another important consideration in connec-
tion with the muck lands of the Okeechobee coun-
try is found in the method contemplated for their
cultivation. These lands will be intersected by
numerous drainage, canals, and by means of these
canals not only can the land be cultivated by
from steam engines carried on boats in the canals
themselves, but also the products of the fields can
he transported on the same canal, with an econ-
omy which will render the competition of mule or
horsepower methods of cultivation almost impo-
"Competent engineers have made estimates
for the actual cost of steam cultivation on the
canal system indicated above, and, allowing for
all contingencies for unexpected expense, it ap-
pears reasonable to say that, with the yield of
cane which can be secured on such lands, it will
be possible to place the cane at the doors of the
factories by means of a system of canals used
in irrigation and cultivation at an expense which
will fall below $2.00 per ton. This expense in-
eludes all the cost of cultivation, harvesting an'J
"I is not l necessary 1(; ihvwel upon the fact
t1iat with calle produced upon such s ; cost-, even
the Island of Cuba could not compete with Flor-
id; in thle production of sugar. There is prac-
tically no other body of land in the world which
presents such possibilities of development as the
muck lands bordering the southern shores of Lake
Okeechobee. With a depth of soil averaging, per-
haps, eight feet, and extent of nearly a half mil-
lion acres, with a surface almost level, it af-
fords promise of development which reaches be-
yond the limits of prophecy."
Dr. Wiley's conception of steam plows in the Glades
in 1891-twenty years ago-was based upon the success-
ful use of steam apparatus in cane culture at that date.
The gasoline motor was then practically unknown. To-
day the gasoline excavator and "tractor" are successfully
used on these lands, while the "cane loader," operated
by the gas motor, has reduced the cost of harvest more
than half. Mechanical loaders are now the rule in Louis-
iana. The cost of cane production under efficient and
economical conditions has been reduced to $1.50 per ton,
or less, on all fields large enough to economically employ
the -tractor" and "loader." Should Dr. Wiley now visit
the Glades he would see his prediction of 1891 practically
In the meantime the small farmer will continue to pro-
duce crops of superior sugar cane in the other parts of the
State, particularly the northern counties, where the condi-
tions are such as to make the manufacture of choice table
syrup more profitable than sugar-making.
When central neighborhood factories are established
similar to the central creameries of the West, where ex-
pert syrup makers, with improved apparatus, will handle
the crops of the neighborhood-thus producing 50 per cent
more syrup, or sugar, from each ton of cane of a superior,
uniform quality-the business will become one of the most
profitable and reliable in the State.
Any soil in Florida that will produce a fair crop of
corn will produce a corresponding crop of sugar cane.
A white frost does not injure sugar cane. On the con-
trary it checks its growth and hastens maturity. A freeze
kills the "buds," or eyes, and destroys the germinating
qualily-hence frozen cane is unfit for "seed" (cuttings).
Frosted cane will make good syrup or sugar if it be "made
up" before the cane ferments.
In the northern counties ofl Florida seed cane is pre-
served b)y "bedding," "lmat-laying" or "windrowing."
When properly wilndrowed cane is readily kept in good
condition for planting, or Ihe factory, for months. Thou-
sands of acres are thus preserved in perfect condition for
the factolrV in Louisiana, South Georgia and Alabama.
The report (o' l he Commlissioner of Agriculture for 1910
shows Iliat cane culture is well distributed over the State.
with by far the largest acreage in the northern counties
in the following order:
JacksI.,n .... .
Hamilton .. ..
P olk ............
DeSoto ....... .
Liberty ..... .
Holmes ...... .
Santa Rosa .......
Calhoun .... ...
L evy ...........
W alton ..........
W akull:l ...... .
Sum ter ..........
Escambia .... ...
St. Johns .
Paker .. .. .....
C la y ............
M arinn ...........
Lake ....... .
Lafay Htle .........
St. Lucie ......
Palm Beach ........
(iadsden 'Counly,t though along the largest producers,
. 71 Acres.
. 167 "
. 9? "
. 74 "
. 6 "
-~ ~? I '
Japanese Sugar Cane, on Farm of C. E. Pleas, Chipley, Florida.
Courtesy of Southern Ruralist, Atlanta, Ga.
with a number of steam factories, makes no report. No
reports are made for Citrus, Dade, Gadsden, Lee. Monroe,
Nassau, Osceola. Pasco and Putnam, in all of which there
are considerable acreages planted in cane.
Southern counties have generally neglected to report
their cane crops. The t()tal acreage for the State reported
in 1!10 was 7,522- acres-valued at .-7' 1,172.00, or $105 per
acre. It will be noted that more than half this acreage
was produced in the northern tier of counties. It is safe
to say that, using better machinery, mills and evaporators,
this value could readily have been increased 50 per cent, or
to $150.00 per acre.
With a modern central sugar, or syrup, factory, simi-
lar to the beet factories of the West, the value of the
product would have been at least double, or $200.00 per
There is no agricultural product more staple than
sugar-no crop more certain to produce a fair return. A
total failure of a cane crop has never been recorded. The
price fluctuates less than that of any other staple. Sugar,
formerly a luxury, is now recognized as a necessity.
Varieties: The principal varieties are the Burbon
(l.ed or Purple) ; the Red and Yellow Ribbon; the Green,
or Simpson. and the Crystaline-probably the parent of
all the above except the Simpson. A number of new seed-
ling varieties have been recently propagated by the Louis-
iana Experiment Station. Among them 1) 74 and D 95
are a vast improvement on the older kinds. Parties in-
terested in the subject should write the Louisiana Sugar
Experiment Station for bulletins and other information.
A distinct variety, the Japanese Cane, introduced
from Louisiana by the U. S. Experiment Station in 1885-9,
is a first-class syrup cane and a wonderful forage plant.
It is practically a perennial in Florida. Once established
it will re-produce itself from the roots annually. It will
withstand ten degrees more frost than ordinary cane, and
reproduce itself the following season. Bulletin No. 105, of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, in Gaines-
ville, Florida, on "Japanese Cane for Forage," by Prof.
John W. Scott, gives much valuable information regard-
ing this variety.
Persons desiring more information on the subject of
cane culture, sugar and syrup imtnufacture should write
the United States Department of Agriculture for its vari-
ous publications on the subject, particularly Bulletins of
the Chemical Division-Nos. 70 and 75-on the "Manu-
facture of Syrup From Cane." Also for Farmers' Bulle-
tin No. 1.1-Sorghunn Syrup Manufacture. The rules
and processes therein are equally applicable to cane syrup.
Also obtain the various bulletins of the Louisiana Sugar
Experiment Station at Audubon Park, Louisiana, on cane
culture and sugar manufacture, and particularly Bulle-
tin No. 129 of the Louisiana Station on "Syrup Making,"
by Prof. H. P. Agee.
The "Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer,"
published in New Orleans, is recognized as the leading ex-
ponent of cane culture and sugar manufacture in Amer-
ica. In its columns will be found the advertisements of
the leading manufacturers of sugar machinery and planta-
THE POSSIBILITIES OF SUGAR PRODUC-
TION IN FLORIDA.
Before entering upon the subject, "The Possibilities of
Sugar Growing and Manufacture in Florida," it is well
to examine the business from a national standpoint, that
we may appreciate the demand for the article and the
amount annually imported to meet this demand. The
American people are the greatest consumers of sugar in
Ihe world. Our market for foreign sugar is acknowledged
to be the best known. We import annually practically
live thousand million pounds, or 2,500,000 tons. The act-
nal figures for 1897 were 4,918,005,733 pounds imported,
the per capita consumption for the same year being 64..i
Sugar is the only agricultural product which the
I'nited States imports. Of all other crops we export enor-
mous quantities. We have an enormous surplus of wheat,
corn, animal product, tobacco and cotton. Few realize
how large a part of our exports is required to pay for lhe
sugar we import. No two articles exported-except cot-
ton-exceed in value the sugar imported. Our enormous
exports of wheat-,$59,920,000-pay but little more than
half our sugar bill; our tobacco exported--$24,711,000-
less than one,fourth, while all the animals-cattle, hogs.
mules, sheep and poultry-exported pay less than hall' the
amount paid for sugar imported.
Recently the production of American sugar lhs been
nearly doubled by l ch establishment of tie beet-sugar
industry in ihe West and North. Vast sums have been
expended in ;.ii igan, New York, Kansas, California,
Washington a1nd o hier localities. Still, with all these re-
somrces., lie l1nited States4 produces less tiinn 16 per cent
of the ;mio,,un1 c.onsumled within her borders.
The average pric''e (f "Standard A" sugar for the ten
years ending in IS'1! has been 5.04 cents per pound; the
highest in 1-'S. 7.59 cenils: the lowest in 1894, 4 cenis per
pound. No article o' general consumption fluctuates less
in pricoi' lihn does sugar. It will be noted also that dur-
ing 1he ye; as 18S;. 1 88S. and 1890, when raw sugar was
"free" with ia "iboonty" o -American producers" and a
tarifff o rf elicl(d goods," Ihe price was from ti to 7.5') cents
per poInd. A condition to be expected with "free raw
material" a;d a; "Iproleleive lariff" on the "finished ar-
ticle," be it sugar, iron. leather or cloth. Sugar is now.
and has been for sonle time, 5 cents per pound for "Stand-
ard A." With the assistance of the "American sugar re-
fineries," 1 have no doubt that price will be maintained
and most likely increased.
'The recent (tslimony olf Hfenry 0. Havemeyer, presi-
dent of the American Su gair TRefining Company, of J. N.
Jarvie, of Airb'ck!es & I:ro., and of John 1I. Post, of the
Mullenhauer, and the National Sugar Company, before
the Industrial Commission, throws considerable light on
the quest ion of sugar growing and sugar refining in the
Mr. Post's declaration that "free sugar from Cuba
would wipe ,out American raw sugar, both beet and cane,'
is certainly ltue. However, lie did not say what effect
it would have on the refined article.
ii 1.sSS and 18!), under the "bounty law" with free
sugar. Ihe price of "Standard A" sugar averaged 6.69
and 7.511 cenis per pound, though raw sugar was imported
free, and none IMt highl1-grade domestic sugar received a
That the price of refined sugar to tlie American public
would he at all reduced by the importation of raw sugar
I''ee of' duty is not io be expected. judging from past
experience. I!' ni:' refined her sugar (which she ldo(s
1,:), liand it was imported free of iuty, sugar would cer-
tainly he cheapendl. This. however, is not ihe policy (or
Iusitnes of the Atoeriann refiners. 'ie lhey in the Trust or
iih -iipe ldent.
Tlwir business is to buy raw s;u: cliheap and sell it
elilwn for iall h.I ]iIn get for it. There is now a duly
o 0!' i (l..i lits on i;i\\ sr and i 1.!" rents oln refined goods.
"vith a differen(i'i" o' f 'ent a 1ded lo refined sugar and
:a rnthlr addition of a t"cointervailing' duly equal to the
aloulntl oil county paid by :any cou!itry exporting sugar to
tile 'United States.
To read the testimnmi y one would imagine that but j
cent duty was collected, when in fact practically 2 cents
per pound are collected, affording a revenue for nearly
Free raw sugar I'roni Cuba will benefit no one but the
reliners. It will destroy the American raw-sugar indus-
iry, an industry now of little importance, as raw sugar
is not valuable in America, except to refiners, who don't
wish 1,t encollrage tlie growing of sugar in thle United
States knowing that the grower will soon discover (as
lie has done in Louisiana) that by using modern methods,
late improvements in manipulation, with economical and
labor-s:aving devices, ihe can for less cost make more relined
sugar from his cane ihan lie could formerly make of raw
sugar, and sell it direct to the consumer at prices 25 to 50
pIte ce' Imore t(han lie can now get i'or his raw product
delivered at a refinery.
There is a considerable amount of humbug and mys-
tery mixed up wilh this reining business. Chemists and
experts look wise and talk about -., l.. .,", sucrose," "in-
\vrt suga,"' "coefficients," "polariscope teslis." "Beaumle"
and "brix" simply to confuse the public. The faets are
that a modern central mill can take the cane direct from
the farmer, and, by a no means expensive or difficult
process, thoroughly purify the juice, and make a stand-
ard article of granulated sugar, ready for the table, equal
to any, at a less cost than can the farmer make a brown
sugar with his crude and wasteful apparatus and methods.
At the same time this modern central mill will double
the output of granulated sugar from each ton of cane, as
compared to output of the open-kettle or steam train.
The beet-sugar manufacturer has recognized that fact,
and uses none but the latest-improved apparatus, and
makes none but refined sugar. He is independent of the
refiner and sells direct to the trade.
Louisiana is rapidly learning this lesson, and is now
building numerous central mills or refineries to make re-
fined sugar only.
When Florida, with her superior climate and soil,
builds central mills or refineries, she can make sugar at
a profit in spite of free raw sugar from Cuba. as she will
have the assistance of the Sugar Trust and the beet-sugar
grower in maintaining the price of refined sugar.
In other words, there is a large profit in manufact-
ing a finished article(ride the Sugar Trust), while a raw
product finds slow sale at reduced prices.
Florida can make more refined sugar direct from the
cane, for less cost per pound, than she at present makes
raw sugar; she can increase the yield fully 50 per cent
per ton of cane over present conditions, and increase the
value per pound fully 30 per cent. This is but a matter
of education-when our farmers begin to think and then
combine their practical knowledge and labor with capital
and skill now seeking profitable employment, the ques-
tion of the American supply of sugar will be solved by the
cane belt of the United States making the necessary
amount to supply the demand.
The beet grower will soon discover that he cannot
compete with cane, and will naturally gravitate into the
cane belt, where his profits will be greater and his crops
I have recently been asked for a comparison of the cost
of making raw and refined cane sugar, and the advisability
of erecting small plants to make brown or raw sugar or
Local circumstances must, of course, govern all cases,
hence a reply must be general in its nature. I will state
that a modern, up-to-date factory, with all the latest labor-
saving and economical devices, similar to those used by
the best and most prominent cane and beet sugar grow-
ers, double or triple mills, bagasse burners, modern clari-
fiers, filters, multiple effects, centrifugals and granulators,
will turn out a dry granulated sugar for 25 per cent less
than in oplen-kettle or open steam-train factory can turn
out b-lown sugar, and at the same time will increase the
yield of sugar over the old open apparatus not less than
25 per cent from the same quantity and quality of cane,
while Ihe product will readily sell at any part of the
United States for 50 per cent greater price than raw
A factory to turn out 50,000 pounds of granulated
sugar per day can be erected in Florida for .M' 2iIIi.111n Al-
iowi-il i he raw material (cane or syrup) to cost 50 per
cent (o t he selling price of sugar, 50,000 pounds will pay
the grower 1,4l.:3: cost of manufacture (75 cents per 100
poundss, .';75; net profits of factory per day, 8869; gross
daily proceeds, .-2. "17.
These figures are based on present prices of sugar-
i. e.. 5 :-S cents for standard granulated. The factory
should run 100 days. showing a net profit of $86.900 per
season. Such a factory will require 300 tons of cane (or
its equivalent in syrup) per day, and will consume the
product of some 1,500 acres of average Florida cane.
There is not a town or village in the State, from Pensa-
cola to Jacksonville, or from Jacksonville to Tampa or
Miami, that cannot furnish within a short distance twice
the required acreage for such a mill. A thousand such
mills would be required to produce the .-,IoI1i,i:;i1111
pounds imported annually (in 18,i 7 we imported 4.901S.
An open steam-train factory, to make brown sugar
and syrup, handling say 100 tons (or five acres) per day,
can be erected complete for -'-'2o i1) to -.--.Onl. the yield
per tone of uiig:ar cane will not exceed 140 pounds of
sugar. while the cost of manufacture will not 1e less than
1 cent per pound of sugar. )DeIdu cing the grower's half
at 41, cents, .':f.15 for raw sugar (obtainable only in New
York, Philadelphia, New ()Orieans or oth er cities where
refineries are located), and tle cost of mnanui'actire, .*140,
a net profit o' Q170. a day is shown. A season of sixty
days is all such a ato!ory can depend upon. or ,.,-MI1) nei
for tlie season.
The modern faclory will make 170 pounds ganuulated
sugar per ton o' cane, pay the f'ar'mer &564.5' per 111 and
net the factory 83.29 per Ion of cane. The "open Iholus,"
wvili pay Ihe l r(, 'ier S:3.15 per ton and et I the factory
$1.75 per ton of cane. The product of tl!e modern house
will find a ready sale wherever olTfred. The opnl-house
sugar ca(ln only he sold to a refinery. as: the American
public will use none but lthe best granulated supar.
The following letters from .Paul )upuy, a practical
Louisiana sugar planter and manufactured, of 1lirly-five
years' successful experience in that Siate, and from Prof.
William C. Stubbs, Ph.D., director of the Louisiana Sugar
Experiment Station, fully sustain the position held by
myself for years as to the adaptability of the soil and
climate of Florida for profitable sugar growing and manu-
facture. Doctor Stubbs is probably correct as to having
analyzed the first Georggia canes. T, however, published
in 1890 the first series of analyses of Florida canes, and
have at divers times since. I am particularly gratified
to have Mr. Dupuy, a practical planter, and Doctor
Stubbs, Ihe most eminent authority on sugar growing and
No. 3-Sugar Mill at St. Cloud. Florida, 1888-9.
granulated sugar per day.
Capacity 400 tons cane or 70,000 lbs.
Photo by Havens.
manufacture in the United States, so positively and un-
equivocably endorse the position I have maintained al-
most single handed for years. It now remains for our
farmers and capitalists to unite (co-operate), and de-
Velop an industry which has no superior in stability and
regularity of crops, that is immensely profitable to grower
and manufacturer, and for the product of which there
is an enormous demand at home. Twenty-five per cent
of the sum invested in our palatial hotels would pay larger
profits directly, and indirectly add large sums to the an-
nual profits of our transportation lines, at the same time
increasing the wealth of the people in the State, adding
enormously to our population, enhancing the value of our
farms, and making Florida the wealthiest agricultural
Stale in the Union:
"SAN ANTONIO, FLA., l)ecember :1. 1899.
"DEAR Sin: 1 enclose you a letter from Professor
Stubbs. which please return. Coming from such an un-
questionable authority, it seems that there should no
longer be any doubt on the subject.
"It is certainly a foolhardy undertaking to continue
tying to grow oranges, vegetables and other tender stuff
in Florida. Sugar, will the facts set forth in this letter,
,1, i abo iihe only agricultural product that Florida
an turn t(o. I am surprised at Mr. Stubbs' statement in
regard(l to iie productiveness of these lands, but the state-
imen cannot be (lcontrverted, and must be accepted. The
leading question is not so much a:s to how much can be
made per acre. but how much per land. The fact that
large amounts were realized on oranges has proved ruin-
ous to Florida.
"It does seem that prosperity can only be attained by
growing; a staple. The attempts with fires and tents and
houses over orange groves can only lead to further dis-
--My own observations are that pine-land cane is richer
in juice or sucrose than that grown on other lands.
"I have come to the conclusion that St. Cloud was
no test. Bad management was perhaps more the cause
of results at St. Cloud than otherwise.
"If Florida does not engage in a staple industry the
agricultural classes will go deeper into the mirc. While
heretofore I have doubled the capacity of Florida to pro-
duce sugar, this letter of Mr. Stubbs, coming as it does
from one entire y disinterested, is conclusive. There
should no longer be any hesitancy about promoting cane
"Therefore, I will be glad to render what service 1
can to assist in promoting it. Orange culture has ruined
all of us. PAUL D)UPUY.
"I. S. With a sucrose of 15 per cent and 73 per cent
extraction, with ;n average of twenty tons per acre, with
labor at $[15 a nmouth, and .$1.50 per eighteen hours in
grinding, cane can be grown and converted into sugar at
less than -.:i labor cost. P. I)."
(Wili above conditions, twenty tons per acre, 15 per
cent sucrose and 75 per cent extraction, a yield of 180
pounds per ton, or :,600 pounds per acre, should be had, or
a toll labor cost of less than 1 cent per pound.)
"Mr. Pau'l Dupuy, San Antonio, Fla.
MY D)EA SIR: Your letter received and contents noted.
During the later part of October it was my privilege
to visit southern Georgia and northern Florida, from
Savannah around to Montgomery, Ala., and I was amazed
to find the extent to which sugar cane was grown, and
the quantity of syrup annually made for the market. What
struck me most was the inefficient work of the small horse-
mills and evaporators which they were using in that sec-
tion, and yet I was told by everybody that it paid them
better to make syrup at 171 cents a gallon-extracting
not one-half the juice from the cane, and evaporating
that to syrup without a;ny chemicals whatever, and only
by the crude process of skimming and heat-and that
there was more motne in it than in raising cotton or any
olher crop in ha;i section. 1 found crops varying in extent
from one acre up ( 150) acres. I spent several days in
the field and weighed quite a number of areas growing
in cane, and to my astonishimnt found that the yields
were from sixteen to thirty-five ltns of cane. I also found
out that. by ighltening the horse-mills that they had. the
extr:rction could easily be mniad as high as 61) per cent.
Armed with this information I addressed large bodies of
farmers and pla ii'rs and small growers of cane all
lthrui'h that section, ;and got them interested in their
losses, with lie recs;l hnat week lbfore last eleven of
the planters and farmers visited tbis station, and I intro
duced then around lt our various slnar houses and ]n-
dueled them into the improved methods of today. Tins
stiired them Iup v'er'y cionsid.-raliy. and they now realize
that if under their present management t tlhey can make
a limit, there is a I)i, profit for them should they adopt
imlpoved melhods. Their lands are poor. lint, by proper
fertilization and Irialion of crops, they can lie made pro-
ductive of good results. I may say. further, that their
cane is unusually rich. I have just finished analyzing an-
other batch of nineteen varieties, grown all through that
section, and all show a large superiority in sugar content
to those grown upon alluvial soils. I have no hesitancy
whatever in saying'--with tlie present t price of labor, of
land, thle abundant supply v f fnuc all 1thiough the coun
try, the absence tof levees, the absence of drainage, as long
as the present price of sugar is maintained-that sugar
growing and manufacturing upon a large scale in that
section can be made profitable beyond a doubt. I have
not seen the articles to which yon refer, hut it is difficult
to misrepresent the conditions of affairs there existing.
And the curious thing, as you assert in your letter, is
that they have never known that they were subjecting
themselves to such severe loss, and that they had such a
superior cane, until my visit last October. I suppose that
I analyzed, a few weeks ago, the very first canes analyzed
in Georgia, and it was a revelation to them as well as
"I shall be glad to give you any further information
in my power. Very truly yours,
"WM. CSTUBBs, Director."
The report of Prof. Wnm. C. Stubbs, director of the
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, on the analyses of
some thirty-seven samples of Florida cane, certainly
shows most conclusively the superiority of Florida's
product. Taking the average of the thirty-seven samples,
we find the following result:
Sucrose.................. 15.04 per cent.
Glucose.................. 1.78 "
Coefficient of purity. ..... 81.68
This is certainly a good average for the State. It
means, with modern apparatus, a yield of 187.53 pounds
of granulated or pure sugar per ton of cane. A fair aver-
age in Louisiana is 100 pounds.
This analysis also shows that the purple (red) and
striped (ribbon) cane is far superior to the green in sugar
content, and has much less glucose in it; hence, is by all
means to be preferred for sugar making-a facu long since
discovered by Louisiana and South Georgia.
The thirteen samples of purple and striped cane show
(lie following average:
Sucrose .................. 17.12 per cent.
Glucose .................. 1.08 "
(', Ii,, i,.lt of purity ...... 88.02 "
or an available sugar content (with modern apparatus) of
204 pounds of pure sugar per ton of cane.
It is not necessary to go into figures to show the
superiority of the red over the green varieties.
In an open-system kettle or evaporator just one-half of
the above results can be expected in raw or brown sugars.
It is needless to say ihlat the modern apparatus is to be
preferred, making refined goods direct from the cane.
Louisiana has discovered this, and is rapidly discarding
ihe open systemN for he close system. There are numbers
of factories (of hle old style thrown out and now offered
at very low ligIres. They aire dear at any price.
The sugar cane that will make 100 pounds of raw or
brown sugar and 100 pounds of molasses by the old system
will jumake 200 pounds of lpue while or granulated sugar
in an l11 p-to-dale vac(Iumn or close system with imoderni
separators, i llers, evaporators, etc.
At tlie sam ie hilelim. wl t lie old system will require
not less than Three cord'! off wood for each arCle of ;lIcan
or tolln of raw slsgalr lie modern apparatus wili repluire
nlo ful] but tlie pulp or hagasse.
It ac(1luallly costs more per pound to make an inferior
brown sulgar tlan a refined white sugar. One yields one
half the number of pounds of an inferior article of little
value and hard to dispose of; 1he other an article always
in demand al most profitable prices.
With a cane averaging as the purple canes in Prof.
Stubb's report averaged, sugar can be manufactured for
40 cents per 100 pounds. At twenty tons to the acre the
cane (lan 1e grown, harvested and delivered for $'2 per ton.
making lhe actual cost of sugar (200. pounds per ton of
cane) $1.40 per hundred pounds, or less than 1- cents per
pound. I have maintained that, under proper economical
methods, witll modern apparatus, first-class "Standard
A" sugar could he grown and manufactured in Florida at
a profit, when selling at 2 cents per pound. In addition
to the foregoing testimony in sustaiining my position, I
also (iqote Mr..1. J. .Murray, a mios1t pralctical and success
ful sugar grower and manufacturer:
"Estinmte prepared by Mr. J. S. Murray, former Gen-
eral Manager Soledad Sugar Estate, Cuba.
"From reliable data, taken from actual work at the St.
Cloud Sugar Factory, near Kissimmee, Fla., we have the
following result on 100 acres of land. thirty ions of cane
Preparnlion of soil at $2.50 per ncre. ........ 250.00
Seed cane. four ions per acTre. 4 per ton 1 ...... 1.C00.00
Planting ............... ................... 2-0.00
Two weedilngs .............................. 200.00
Three plowings .......... ....... ........... 0.. 00.0
Clenaiing ditches ............................. 50.00
ITarvesting 3.000 tons ine at $1 ......... .000.00
Profit first yean. ............................... 2.-0.00
Price of sugnr W.'(. per II,. =$2.sO per ton of -:me $.400.00
S* "There is reason to believe that sonl Ih o the
frost line as many crops can be mnnde from mn" planting
as in C(nb. and that cane will rattoon for froni nine to
ten years: that :00 n.cres of cane. properly care for and
eviltivated, will produce $8,000 net profit per year" : *
It will be noted lhe above figures are only from Ihe
grower's standpoint, the cost of the cane delivered al
the mill being $1.96 per ton. The cost of seed cane and
all charges are fixed at maximum prices, with sugar 'ar
below present quotations. These figures were made some
years ago and based on ninety-six test sugar, similar to
that made in Cuba. The same quantity of standard gran-
ulated goods (less 4 per cent water) can be made from the
same cane. On the basis fixed "one-half the product"
this cane would pay the grower $-1.54 per ton (170 lbs.(f
03. 5 cents-.'- I.llI per ton of cane).
The same authority says:
'In Cuba, sugar can be, and has been, manufactured
ready for shipment at a cost of less than 30 cents per 100
pounds. Labor and other conditions being nearly the
same in Florida, there are no reasons why sugar cannot
be manufactured for 40 cents per 100 pounds in Florida.
"In late years cane has been paid for delivered on the
cars or alongside of cane carrier at prices based on the
weight of juice in degrees B., increasing or decreasing .
cents per degree for each half cent per pound selling' price
',From the preceding data we have:
Niiin tliousaind tons of e:nie (juice, 9.4 i.).
at $3.15 per ton ........................ .2S.
Ma:nuifacturing 1,530.000 11;s. of sufinr at 40s.
per 100 .................. ..... .... 0,1210.00
Irolit .................................. il,..so0.00
O e million live lhuinilred and thirty Ihliu-
wtand poliilds of su ar at 3'. lr l ......... 7,:3,0.o0
()n the basis of 8:00 acres, wilh iihirlv (tnsi of cane per
acre, yielding 170 pounds of sugar per ton--li nio means
an unusual yield-at preCsent prices (5.:15 c'nts) 1 esti-
mna e lih result as follows:
9n.(r tons of anole delivered at iiill. $1.54 per Ion ...... $40,8;0.00
('osr to crow and deliver, $1.90( per ton ............... 17,140.00
(;rower's profit on 300 acres......................23.220.00
Profit per acre to grower. $77.00.
The factory account would stand thus:
9,00( tons of cane@$4.54 .................. .-$40.S(.00
Manufacturing 1,530.00 lbs. sugar(@40c. per
100 Ils. ................................ .0,120.00
Factories' profits .......................... :34.S75.00
1,530.000 l;s. of sugar at 5.35 cents ....... $S1,S55.00
While Mr. Murray's estimate based co raw sugar
shows a most profitable result to both grower and manu-
facturer, the product of refined goods for the American
market is by far the most profitable to the American pro-
ducer. On the rich alluvia! soils alluded to by Mr. Mur-
ray the yield of thirty tons per acre is not unusual: yields
of far greater tonnage have been frequently made. On
good pine or sandy lalns yields of tliirtl tons are by no
means uncommon. As stated by )Dr. Stubbs, sixteen to
thirty tons were found in divers localities last year, one of
the shortest years had in many. My general estimate
of twenty tons per acre, with an average yield of 175
pounds per ton, with a manufacturing cost of not to ex-
ceed 75 cents per 100 lbs., I consider well within reason-
able bounds. The area of lands suitable for cane culture
is practically unlimited. There are few townships in the
State not capable of furnishing a mill with a capacity of
5,000,000 to 10,000,000 pounds of sugar per season. While
vast areas of hamnmock and marl lands hre found from the
St. Marys to Key West, from Pensacola to Jacksonville,
cminenily suitable for the crop. The lands of north and
middle Florida are conceded to produce a superior cane to
those heavy muck or alluvial lands of the lower penin-
sula. Their season is shorter and the crop has to be re-
planted ofl ener, though the lonnage is less.
Inl all of the counties of this State and in Southern
(ieorgia, Alabanma, Mississippi and Louisiana good crops
of sugar cane are raised. Barring the great freeze of
188(, 18!)5 and 1899 no frost to materially damage cane
has occurred in this State.
A white frost does not injure sugar cane. On the con-
trary, it causes it to ripen its juices and make better
sugar. A killing frost destroys the "bud" and injures
the cane for seed only. If properly windrowed imme-
diately after freezing and before fermenting, such cane
will make good sugar for some sixty days after wind-
rowing. The freezes of 1886, 1895 and 1899 did not kill
slubble or raltoons on well-drained lands in Florida.
In the northern counties, if seed is desired for spring
planting, the cane should be "banked" or "matlaid" in
November. In South Florida windrowing will answer
the purpose. The best portion of the cane for seed is the
immature top, with the leading eye or "bud." Fall plant-
ing is preferable in Florida, adding three months to grow-
ing season of the crop.
In cutting the cane it should be cut low, at or below
Slie surface of the soil. Stubble projecting above the soil
No. 4.-Sugarcane in Tassel. Marl Prairie Lands, Fellsmere, Florida.
Courtesy of East Coast Homeseeker.
is apt to be injured by frost. Allow the trash or cane
fodder to remain on the rows until spring opens. Well-
cared-for stubble will rattoon for three years in most parts
of this State: longer in the southern portion. Much de-
pends upon the quality of the soil and the method of cnl-
There are several popular kinds of cane. The "Ota-
iite," or large green, is a favorite for use in small mills.
It is easily crushed and yields well, and is the best for
chewing. It is tender, and requires a long season. "!ed
ribbon" is a favorite all-around cane for small mills. It
rattoons well, and makes a fine yield of syrup. "Blor-
bon" or red cane is hardy, grows quickly, matures early.
and lor the northern sections is the favorite. It is very
hard and requires a powerful mill to extract its jrices.
For South Florida the "Crystalline" is probably the best.
It is a rank grower, fairly early, a first-class stubble cane,
and makes a good stand year after year.
Any soil in Florida that will produce a fair crop of
corn will make good sugar cane; the richer the better.
Clay and marl suburbs are preferable, if well drained.
Flat pine land, with a clay subsoil, well drained and fer-
tilized, makes fine crops.
Nothing is better than "cow penning." On fair pine
land, and medium hammock thirl y Ions per acre are fre-
quently made the first and second years after "cow pen-
ning." Cotton-seed meal. 500O to 1,(0(i pounds per acre, is
a firs.l-class fertilizer, containing all of the necessary ele-
ments in about the correct proportions. It should be ap-
plied one-half before planting and the balance during the
All low and flat lands must be thoroughly drained.
Cane will grow in moist, but not in wet lands. Low
Note-A better formula would be-
1200 pounds Cotton Seed Meal.
600 pounds 16% Acid Phosphate.
200 pounds 50%Sulphate of Potash.
Making a ton. Apply 500 to 1000 pounds per acre.
hammocks, swamps and saw-grass marshes, thoroughly
drained, make the best of cane. If not drained perfectly
a failure will result. The permanent -\u.,itr table"
should not be less than three feet below the surface of
That portion of the cane that has shed its blades is
mature; in November one-half to two-thirds of the stalk,
in December, four-fifths or more. For sugar making none
but mature cane should be used (the tops can be used
for seed). For syrup a part of the immature tops can be
used, the glucose adding to the volume and preventing
crystallization. Early ground cane makes the best syrup;
late or mature cane the most sugar.
Small mills are wasteful and are not advised; better
sell the cane to a custom mill. A well-built, horizontal.
three-roll mill, powerfully constructed, driven by steam,
to extract from 50 to 60 per cent of the total weight of
the cane in juice, with boiler and engine, to grind forty
tons of cane per day, with fire-heated evaporators, can
be erected complete for about 2.i-:l'-. This outfit is only
suitable for making syrup and dripped sugar. While a
vast improvement on horse-mills and kettles, it is waste-
ful and comparatively expensive.
A double mill (six rollers), with steam train (evapora
tors), begasse furnace and centrifugals, to make a light-
yellow, clarified sugar, with a capacity of sixty tons of
cane per day (7,500 pounds sugar), will cost, approxi-
mately, $ 15,000. These mills, while a vast improvement
on present crude methods, and capable of yielding from
20 to 30 per cent greater product, with less labor and fuel,
are still very wasteful in labor, fuel and cost of at end-
ance. However, they will pay large profits, as compared
to other agricultural pursuits. Such mills will care for
100 to 200 acres.
A mill handling from 400 to 800 tons of cane per day
requires no greater number of skilled employes, engineers,
sugar makers, etc., uses little fuel, the waste of house
is reduced to a minimum, the extraction is practically
perfect (SO to 82 per cent), practically no labor is required
after the cane is placed on the carrier, the product is
ready for immediate consumption. Such a house should
make none but granulated sugars, at a cost not to exceed
that of crude sugar or syrup, with a much greater yield.
The plant is peculiarly robust and easily cared for,
subject to few disasters. It will withstand degrees of
drought or flood fatal to all other crop. No peculiar skill
is required to cultivate it, as is the case with beets. After
years of personal observation and having consulted large
numbers iof practical growers, I am justified in saying a
total failure of a cane crop has never been known. Any
one who can raise Indian corn can make sugar cane.
One nimi can easily attend twenty acres. While beets are
a good crop for Kansas and Nebraska, there can be no com-
parison between the results of sugar cane and beets in the
profitable growing and manufacture of sugar.
The cost of the manufacturing plant and the cost of
manipulation are in favor of cane. T'he item of fuel (fur-
nished by the "bagasse" from the cane) will alone pay a
fair interest on the cost of the plant.
The risk in growing cane is reduced to a minimum.
No one has ever heard of a total failure of a cane crop.
Corn. wheat, oats, rice, cotton, and beets sometimes totally
fail from drought, heat, rust, blight, or insect pests. Ex-
cepting from an overflow caused by a break in a levee, a
cane crop was never lost entirely.
As to climate, Florida's climate is certainly superior
to that of any other State for sugar growing. Our "rainy
season" is during the growing months, when required.
A wet fall or winter is the exception. A dry fall and
winter insures the ripeness of the cane and a quick har-
vest; a wet fall or winter (frequent in Louisiana) retards
the ripening, and entails heavy expense for harvest. A
"killing" frost seldom occurs in Florida before January.
Grinding begins October 15 in Louisiana, and seldom
before December 1 in Florida, insuring forty-five addi-
tional days for maturing the crop. In South Florida kill-
ing frosts are of rare occurrence, and grinding continues
from December 15 to February. In tropical Florida.
south of the 27th parallel, frost to kill oranges, lemons,
limes or tropical cane is unknown. The climate of West,
North and Middle Florida has full thirty days longer
growing season than Louisiana, while South Florida has
forty-five to sixty.
In tropical Florida the element of frost does not come
into the calculation. Grinding may begin when the crop
is ready and extend into the next growing season. As
to quality of cane, little has been done in Florida to se-
lect or improve the plant; in fact, the poorest, short-joint-
ed, stunted stubble is generally used for "seed," while the
best and finest cane is worked up. The same varieties
introduced by the Jesuits are still grown. This neglect
of selecting seed cane, however, is not peculiar to Florida.
The same careless methods prevail to a large extent in
Louisiana and Cuba. Had the same care and scientific
experimenting been practiced with cane as with be ts dur-
ing the last twenty years, the amount of suiar in the
plant could have been largely increased ( though average
tropical calIn nIow contains much more sugar and less im-
purities iliha the best varieties of beess.
The wonderful recuperative and reproductive Ipowers
of the plant are phenomenal. With good soil and culture,
wonderfully fine cane, rich in sugar, vigorous a111 thrifty,
is frequently grown from seed canes of the most worth-
less quality. Small, knotty, short-jointed stubble, the re-
sult of years of neglect, when replanted in good soil and
well cared for. have made crops of immense weight and
large sugar content, with little impurities in the juice.
No plant more quickly responds to generous treatment,
and none will suffer greater neglect and still return a fair
harvest than will tropical cane.
Much interest is now had in beet culture and sugar
No. 2-Harvesting Cane at St. Cloud, Florida, 1888-0. Yield 60 tons per acre. Reclaimed
Muck Land. Photo by Havens.
making in the West. Were it generally known that larger
amounts of sugar can be made in Florida, at a much less
cost per acre, with less labor, with but little skill required
in growing, with far less capital required for machinery,
and manufacturing, than in beet-sugar making, vast sums
would be invested in the business. The location of cen-
tral mills, at various parts of the State-near Quincy,
Tallahassee, Madison, Lake City, Gainesville, Ocala,
Leesburg, Brooksville, Lakeland, Plant City, Bartow,
Fort Mead, Punta Gorda and Braidentown-could each
afford a supply of cane for mills making each 5,000,000 or
more pounds per annum. On the St. Johns River and
East Coast, St. Augustine, Histings, De Leon Springs,
Tomoka, Daytona, Port Orange, New Smyrna and Titus-
ville afford equally as fine opportunities for the establish-
ment of central mills.
These mills or factories, purchasing their supplies
from the farmer, can afford to pay for the cane delivered,
a price, equal to the sum now obtained for his crude
syrup, now made in a crude and wasteful manner, saving
the farmer the annoyance and cost of manufacture, and
packages, and at the same time make large profits on the
Further south in Dade and Lee Counties, below the
twenty-seventh parallel, where vast areas of rich land
in large bodies can be had, the plantation or "gang-sys-
tem" will prove most satisfactory, where the planter
owns the factory and cultivates the cane also. This sys-
tem is applicable only where here is no probability of
killing frost, where large fields can be safely allowed to
stand till wanted by the mill. North of the twenty-
seventh parallel the central-factory system, similar to the
beet-factory system of Germany, Austria and the West,
will be found most satisfactory. Where the acreage is
made up by numerous small fields of ten to forty acres
each, each farmer, in case of threatened freezing weather.
can properly care for his crop by windrowing or mat
laying, as is now practiced in Georgia, Mississippi and
frequently in Louisiana.
The crop can then be delivered as the factory requires
it. This process of securing the crop adds but little to the
cost and keeps the cane perfectly for months. No silos
or bins are required for cane as with beets. The delay
caused by a cold snap seldom retards the work of sugar
making to exceed three days.
I advocate the central-mill plan, purchasing cane from
the farmers, that the best results may be had both in the
field and in the factory, the farmer devoting his time,
skill and labor to producing tle largest possible crop of
ligh-grade cane, the miller to the most economical
methlods of making the best sugar, each receiving the
greatest reward possible for his skill in his particular line.
For technical dala, analyses and value of cane. I am
indebted to Dr. Stubbs; Professors Stockbridge, Kirchoff,
Sutton d W and aile nd Mr. J. P. Murray as to the quality
of the cane. I have the facts as to cost of cane from L.
M. and :. J. White, James S. Murray, Paul Dupuy and
numbers of others, together with Imy own experience.
The cost of manufacture cannot be disputed, as this factor
is a fixed one.
Given tie cane of quality as stated. with the price of
sugar as now prevailing, and no agricultural and nmanu-
facturer's business will compare to the growing of cane
and manufacture of sugar in Florida.
R. E. ROSE.
KISS M 1 EE, FLA., May 1. 19000.
The Disston Sugar Plantation
Its Success and Its Failure.
It is frequently asked why the Disston Sugar venture
on reclaimed lands in Florida failed and was abandoned.
This query has been answered frequently in the press by
citizens of Osceola County, who were familiar will all
A short history of the St. Cloud sugar plantation on
the muck or swamp lands reclaimed by Ihe "Dlisston
Drainage Company" (The A. & G. C. & O. Land Coin
pany), in Osceola County, should be properly inserted
here to correct the many erroneous and misleading re-
ports as to the cause of the failure and abandonment of
this enterprise afler several years of phenomenal success-
cess, both agriculturally and financially.
The lands on which the plantation was located were
prior to the cutting of the drainage canals in 18;--a
vast saw grass marsh, interspersed with cypress, gum,
bay and willow swamps, with a muck or peat soil from
four to ten feet deep. Before the drainage canals were
cut the territory was constantly covered with water
from one to three feet deep, in which grew the saw grass.
flags, rushes, bonnets and other acqualic plants--
territory identical in every respect, chemically and physi
cally, to the Everglades. The canals draining this ter
ritory were finished in 1884-5. The general level of the
lakes (Tohopekaliga and East Lake) was lowered eight
feet by these canals. During 1885, the Writer, then in
charge of the "Disston Drainage Company's works, pur-
chased the original St. Cloud Plantation, some 420 acres.
In January, 1886, the first agricultural development
was begun by cutting the necessary lateral and sub-lat-
eral ditches to drain the fields adjacent to the canal.
Though the waters of the lakes and canals were six to
eight feet below the surface of the adjacent lands, the
lands were still saturated with water, which could only
be removed by field ditches, the lands having very little
In the spring of 1886 a small field of cane, some twenty
acres, was planted; also seventy-five acres of rice and
fifty acres of corn. All these crops were unusually pro-
ductive, an average of fifty bushels of both rice and corn
being harvested per acre.
In the fall of 188G and spring of 1887 the cane fields
was increased to ninety acres.
In 1887 Mr. Hamilton Disston purchased one-half in-
lerest in the farm and furnished means to increase the
acreage to 1,800 acres, all first-class muck, or reclaimed.
land, and to erect the first sugar factory, as illustrated
by c'ut No. 3. A small area of cane was harvested in
1887-8, yielding some 5,000 pounds of granulated sugar
per acre. Most of the cane, however, was used for seed,
there being 420 acres of cane on the farm in 1888-9, 100
acres Ratton and 320 acres Plant cane. The illustrations
No. I and 2 show this cane on the best drained (highest)
land on the plantation taken where the muck is six to
eight feet deep, this cane averaging sixty tons per acre,
with 14 per cent Sucrose.
These photos were taken by O. Pierre Havens, of Jack-
sonville, in the winter of 1888-9.
A sugar mill with a capacity of 200 tons of cane per
day (24 hours) was built. Some 90 acres were harvest-
ed the tirst year; the second year some 400 acres. None
but first-class sugar was made. The yield averaged 35
tons of cane per acre (the maximum yield being 60 tons
off the oldest, best drained cuts); the average sucrose
content was 14 per cent; the average available sugar was
8 per cent, or 160 pounds of granulated sugar per ton of
cane, showing rather a poor result from the factory stand-
point, the factory not having all the necessary modern
economical devices. The yield, ihor(crcr. somic 5,000
pounds of s qtar per acre, was superior to any A.mcrican
record tup to that time. During this lime sugar sold at
3.25c to 3.75c per pound, at no time reaching 4 cents.
Results were so satisfactory that Mr. Disston proposed
largely to increase the capital stock, and the area of the
cane fields (then 60( acres').
He was largely influenced by the immense speculative
interest in sugar production, aroused by the "bounty
law" passed by Congress, paying 2c per pound to Ameri-
can sugars. Millions of dollars were invested in Louis-
iana cane sugar and Western beet sugar production. An
era of extravagance was inaugurated in Louisiana and
in the beet-producing regions of the West. The St. Cloud
Plantation was reorganized as the "Florida Sugar Manu-
facturing Company" and capitalized at $1,000,000, an ex-
pensive factory erected at a cost of s:'.:.IIII1i, and a large
area of lands purchased-some 36,000 acres. While the
cane fields were not increased materially-at no time
was there to exceed 1,000 acres in cane while the factory
had a capacity of not less than 3,500 acres per season.
When this reorganization occurred the Writer declined
to join it, but sold his stock, believing, and as subsequent
events proved, that the "bounty law" would be repealed
by the next Congress and the extravagant investments
in cane and beet sugar would result in bankruptcy to the
investors. This did occur, as anticipated. In the mean-
time, a bond issue of $1,000,000 was made to pay for the
A capitalization of $2,000,000 to be taken care of by
a cane field of some 800 to 1,000 acres, extravagantly
managed by inexperienced men, ignorant to a large extent
of agriculture, and particularly of drainage and mod-
ern methods of cane culture and sugar manufacture. St.
Cloud, however, was by no means an exception. Hun-
dreds of similar wrecks occurred in Louisiana and in the
West. Wrecks of immense cane and beet sugar ventures
were common throughout the country. During the
bounty period granulated sugar sold for from 6.50 to 7.40
cents per pound, with an added 2 cents bounty (see the
U. S. Agricultural Reports for these years.) The ex-
travagance of management, however, absorbed not only
the market price, but the bounty also, and left a large
deficit in addition. While economically managed, large
dividends were made, with sugar selling at 3.75c per
pound, with a factory by no means most modern and
economical; with an up-to-date factory, provided with
all modern economic devices, with the same quality of
cane, with sugar selling at 6.50 and 7.10 cents per pound,
and an additional bounty of 2c per pound paid by the
Government, a disastrous failure resulted.
This was not peculiar to Florida nor St. Cloud, as ihe
same condition prevailed in Louisiana and in the West,
where wrecks of similar ventures were numerous. The
failure at St. Cloud was not caused by climate, soil, or
quality of cane, as no richer cane, nor larger tonnage is
made in Cuba than was made at St. Cloud and South
Port-in the same county---on reclaimed muck land, and
is still being made on the same and similar lands in the
same locality. The failure was caused:
Second-By ignorance of proper methods of culture
and manufacture and neglect of drainage.
Third-By want of proper business methods on the
part of the company and its managers.
R. E. ROSE,
Tallahassee, April 1912.
STATE NURSERY INSPECTION LAW OF
E. \. BERGEnR, lPh. I). Previously Entonologist Fla. Agr.
INSPECTOR OF NURSERY STOCK
Chapter 61.56, Laws of Florida, 1911.
An Act to Provide for lie Appointment of an Inspector
of Nursery Stock, Prescribe His Term of Office and Salary,
and lhe Employnent of His Deputies and Assistants; to
Make it the Duty of the Board of Control to Make Rules
and Regulations for the Inspection, Certification, Sale,
Exchange, Transportation and Introduction of Nursery
Stock Infested with Injuries Insects, Pests, or Diseases to
Prevent the Introduction, Increase or Dissemination of
Said Insects, Pests, or Diseases; to Provide that Said
Rules and Regulations shall Prescribe Costs and Charges
for Said Inspection and Certification; to Make it Unlaw-
ful to Knowingly Sell, Exchange, Give Away, or Trans-
port, or Offer or Attempt Thereto, in the State of Florida,
any Nursery Stock, Trees, Shrubs, Plants, Vines, Cuttings,
Scions, Grafts, Buds, Seeds, Pits, Bulbs, Roots, or Parts
Thereof, Infested or Infected with Injurious Insects,
Pests, or Diseases; to Provide Penalties for the Violation
of This Act and and R s and Regulations Thereof: to Make
an Appropriation to Carry Out the Provisions of This
Act; and to Repeal All Laws or Parts Thereof Incon-
Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. That the Governor shall appoint some per-
son qualified by training and experience as Inspector of
Nursery Stock to carry into effect the purpose of this
Act. He shall hold office for a term of four years, and
until his successor is appointed and qualified, and shall
receive a salary of two thousand dollars per annum. He
shall employ, subject to the approval of the Board of Con-
trol, such deputies and assistants as he may deem neces-
sary. His ollice shall be in the State Experiment Stalion
Building at Gainesville, Florida.
Section 2. That it shall be the duty of the Board of
Control to make such just and reasonable rules and regu-
lations for the government of the inspection, certification,
sale, exchange, transportation, and introduction of nur-
sery stock, trees, shrubs, plants, vines, cuttings, scions,
grafts, buds, seeds, pits, bulbs, roots, or parts thereof,
infested, or infected, or suspected of being infested or
infected, with injurious insects or other plants pests, or
injurious fungus, bacterial, or other plant diseases, as
they may deem necessary to prevent the introduction,
increase or dissemination of said insects, pests and dis-
Section 3. That said rules and regulations shall pre-
scribe just and reasonable costs and charges to be borne
by the owners of the properties inspected or certified,
under the provisions of this Act and the rules and regula-
Section 4. That it shall be unlawful for any person,
firm or corporation to knowingly sell, exchange, give
away, or transport, or offer or attempt thereto, within
the State of Florida, any nursery stock, trees, shrubs,
plants, vines, cuttings, scions, grafts, buds, pits, bulbs,
roots, or parts thereof, infested or infected with injurious
insects or other pests, or injurious fungus, bacterial or
other plant diseases.
Section 5. That any person, firm or corporation, who
shall violate any provision of this Act, or any rule or
regulation made in pursuance thereof, or who shall inter-
fere with said inspection of Nursery Stock, his deputies
or assistants, in the execution thereof, shall be guilty of
a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be
punislhd Iby a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or
by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, in
thle iscretion of the court.
Section 6. That in older to carry out the purposes of
ihis Act, the sum of three thousand dollars per annum,
or :is much Ihereof as is actually necessary, is hereby
appropriated out of any funds in the Treasury not other-
wise appropriated, which sum shall be placed to lhe credit
of the State Board of Education in Ihe hands of the
Slate Treasurer, to be expended by the Board of Control;
Provided, that all costs and charges collected by said
Inspector of Nursery Stock, and all fines from prosecu-
tion under this Act, shall be paid to the State Treasurer
and by him placed to the credit of said sum.
Section 7. That all laws or parts of laws inconsistent
herewith are hereby repealed.
Section 8. That this Act shall go into effect imne-
diately upon its becoming a law.
Approved May 23, 1911.
RESOLUTION OF BOARD OF CONTROL.
Jacksonville, Fla., August 1, 1911.
Under the provisions of Chapter 6156, Laws of Florida,
111, the Board of Control considered the Rules and
Regulations for Nursery Stock hereinafter set forth. The
said Rules and Regulations were read section by section
and as a whole. On motion of Mr. Fleming, seconded by
Mr. Wartnmann and unanimously carried, the Board of
Control hereby makes, adopts and promulgates the fol-
lowing just and reasonable Rules and Regulations for the
government of the inspection, certification, sale, exchange,
transportation and introduction of nursery stock, trees,
shrubs, plants, vines, cuttings, scions, grafts, buds, seeds,
pits, bulbs, roots, or parts thereof, infested or infected, or
suspected of being infested or infected with injurious
insects or other plant pests, of injurious fungus, bacterial
or other plant diseases; and the Board of Control hereby
declares the said Rules and Regulations necessary to pre-
vent the introduction, increase or dissemination of said
insects, pests and diseases.
IULES AND REGULATIONS.
At a meeting of the Board of Control held at Jackson
ville, Fla., on the first day of August, 1911, the said Board
in pursuance of their duties and powers under Act
approved May 23, 1911, Chapter 6156, Acts 1911, for the
Inspection of Nursery Stock, considered and declared tlint
the following insects, pests and diseases are especially
injurious. It being expressly understood that the list is
not final, and that the Board of Control shall exercise its
judgment as to what other insects, pests or diseases shall
be placed on the especially injurious lirt.
White-winged Whitefly (Aleirodcs Citri).. Citrus.
Cloudy-winged Whitelly (A ciwrodes nubifcra). Citrus.
Wooly Whitelly (Alcurodcs hocardii). Citrus.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosis). Peach, plum,
Cottony Cushion Scale (Iccrya purchasi). Citrus,
Citrus Mealy-bug (Psenudococcis citri). Citrus, croton.
Mexican Orange Maggot, Morelos Fruit Worm (Anas-
trcpha (Trypcta) ludens). Citrus fruits.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata). Citrus
Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthronoamouts grandis). Cotton.
.Mango Seed Weevil (Cryptorhynchuts mangifera).
Hoot-knot (Ilcterodcra radicicolua. Peach, fig, grape,
Blight (Bacillus aimylovorts). Apple, pear, loquat.
Crown Gall (Isc~edomonus tuimcfaciecns). Apple, grape,
oleander, peach, pear, plum, rose.
The Inspector of Nursery Stock, appointed by the ;ov-
ernor, is Dr. E. \W. Berger, and his office, as prescribed
by law, is at ile Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, Gainesville. All communications regarding nursery
inspieclion should be addressed to him.
It was further considered and ordered that a Nurserv
Inspection Circular be printed containing a copy of the
law, these proceedings and Ilie Rules and Regulations
adopted, and hat the same be furnished to the nursery-
men of Florida, the transportation companies, the State
I'ress and others interested. Any additions or amend-
ments to these Rules and Regulations are to be similarly
printed and distributed.
The Inspector of Nursery Stock is authorized to have
printed Nursery Inspection Circulars in sufficient num
bers to reach the nurserymen and Press of Florida and
others interested, for the purpose of giving information
pertinent to the operation of the Law and Rules and
Regulations, as contingencies may arise. The first circu-
lar of information shall be distributed not later thin
October 1, 1911.
The Inspector of Nursery Stock is also autllori.er to
make investigations pertaniing to insects, pests and dis
eases, and remedial measures thereof, as will enable him
to extend e the knowledge thereof and to give ile lwst pos-
The accounting shall be done by the Auditor, using tile
same method as in the Departments of the University.
In pursuance of Section 2 of the Act the Board of
Control deem it necessary in order to prevent the intro-
duction, increase and dissemination of injurious insects,
or other plant pests, and injurious fungus, bacterial or
other plant diseases, to make and prescribe the following:
RULES AND REGULATIONS
1. No article or thing specified in the Act, grown
within the State of Florida, shall be sold, exchanged, or
given away, unless the same has been inspected and certi-
fled as apparently free from injurious insects, pests and
diseases by the Inspector of Nursery Stock, and anything
so sold, exchanged or given away shall be accompanied by
a prescribed copy of said certificate. A nursery, or any
of the articles or things specified in the Act, may be in-
spected at any time, but all certificates issued shall expire
on July 1, next thereafter.
3. All shipments of articles or things specified in
said Act, and every package thereof, transported within,
into or out of the S ate of Florida, shall be completely and
securely boxed or covered to effectually prevent infesta-
tion or infection by injurious insects, pests or diseases.
Carload shipments in bulk shall be in box cars with open-
ings effectually screened or closed.
3. All articles or things specified in said Act, except
those plants that will not stand defoliation, shall be com-
plelely defoliated, including leaf-stalks; and all articles
or things specified in said Act shall be handled in such
manner that none of the leaves and clippings shall become
mixed with any packing material.
4. All apple, pear, plum and peach stock shall be
fumigated with hydrocyanic acid gas immediately before
being delivered for transportation.
5. All nurserymen shall have their fumigating box or
house completed and in order, with necessary chemicals
at hand, ready to demonstrate their ability to effectually
fumigate nursery stock, at the time of inspection. No
certificate shall be issued until the fumigating facilities
have been approved by the Inspector of Nursery Stock.
6. All shipments of articles or things specified in said
Act, into the State of Florida, shall be defoliated and
fumigated as provided in Rules 3 and 4 hereof and shall
have securely and conspicuously attached to each and
every package a certificate stating that the articles or
things are apparently free from injurious insects, pests
and diseases, and have been defoliated and fumigated.
Said certificate shall have been issued by the proper Gov-
ernment or State Official at point of shipment. Said
certificates shall be prima facie evidence only of the facts
therein stated and shall be disregarded by the Inspector
of Nursery Stock whenever he deems it advisable. Any
such shipment not having a certificate attached may be
transported within the State of Florida for purposes of
inspection by written order of the Inspector of Nursery
7. No person, firm or corporation shall transport
within the State of Florida any article or thing specified
in said Act unless the same be boxed or covered as pro-
vided in Rule 2 hereof and has attached the prescribed
copy of certificate hereinafter provided.
S. Every shipment of articles or things specified in
said Act, not having attached the certificate as provided
in Rule 6 and Rule 7, and every shipment from foreign
countries, including possessions of the United States,
whether the same have attached a certificate or not,
brought into the State of Florida, shall be held by the per-
son, firm or corporation transporting the same, and shall
be delivered to no one save by order of the Inspector of
Nursery Stock, who shall be notified within 24 hours after
its corning into Florida.
Any person, firm or corporation importing any article
,or thing specified in this Act from any foreign country.
including possessions of the United States, shall give
notice in writing to the Inspector of Nursery Stock at the
time of making the order. This notice shall enumerate
tlhe articles or things to be imported and state the route
over which the shipment is directed.
I. All persons, firms or corporations selling articles
or things specified in this Act, which are grown without
the State, shall pay a fee of five dollars per annum and
shall register with the Inspector of Nursery Stock, file a
certificate of inspection and receive a permit from the
Inspector of Nursery Stock to sell the articles or things
specified in this Act.
10. All persons growing articles or things specified in
this Act, within the State, for sale or exchange, shall
register their names with full description and location of
their nurseries and stock with the Inspector of Nursery
Stock on or before the first day of July in each and every
year, and apply to him for inspection and certification.
Any failure to so register and make application after 1911
shall render such grower liable to delay in having the
stock inspected during that year, and also render him
liable to the penalties prescribed by law.
11. Any and all articles or things specified in this
Act, whether in transit, or in hands of purchaser, shall be
liable to inspection and stoppage in transit, regardless of
whether they are certified or not, and if found infested or
infected shall be treated, deported or destroyed, upon the
order of the Inspector of Nursery Stock, his deputies or
assistants, at the expense of owner, consignor or con-
signee, or the person, firm or corporation transporting
12. No certificate shall be issued until the articles or
things specified in the Act have been inspected and found
to be apparently free from injurious insects, pests and dis-
eases, and all requirements of law and these Rules and
Regulations are complied with. Should any injurious
insects, pests or diseases be found, no certificate shall be
given until the insects, pests or diseases have been
effectually eradicated from the premises to the satisfac-
tion of the Inspector of Nursery Stock. Neither shall
any certificate be given when the nursery stock is exposed
to infestation nor infection from injurious insects, pests
and diseases that occur within one-fourth of a mile from
where the nursery stock is growing; provided, however,
that a nurservman may remove such stock under the
immediate direction of the Inspector of Nursery Stock,
his deputies or assistants, or after the insects, pests or dis-
eases have been effectually eradicated from the infested
or infected territory.
13. Any certificate may be revoked for any violation
of the provisions of the Act or these Rules and Regula-
14. An inspection fee of five dollars for each nursery
shall be charged, and a further fee of twenty-five cents
shall be charged for each acre of nursery stock inspected.
Each nurseryman shall reimburse the Inspector of Nur-
sery Stock, his deputies or assistants, for his necessary
traveling and maintenance expenses in making the inspec-
tions. No certificate shall be issued until these charges
have been paid.
15. The Inspector of Nursery Stock shall on the last
day of the month transmit to the Auditor all fees collected
during the month.
16. The certificate shall be in the following general
The undersigned hereby certifies that he has this day
personally inspected the............nursery stock in the
nurseries of................. located at...............
Florida. The stock and premises have been found to be
apparently free from injurious insects, pests and diseases.
Proper fumigation apparatus is possessed and correct
practices are followed. The owner has agreed to com-
pletely defoliate and to properly fumigate with hydro-
cyanic acid gas all stock shipped under this certificate, as
provided in the Rules and Regulations.
This certificate applies only to stock inspected and
expires on July 1, 191..
Inspector of Nursery Stock,
As many officially signed certificates as may be needed
to file wilh State and Government Officials will be fur
nished each nurseryman certified. But each nurseryman
must furnish the copies required to be attached to each
shipment of stock.
THE SWEET POTATO CROP.
C. K. M'QUARRIE, A.ssistant Superintendent, Farmers'
Institute. University of Florida.
The sweet potato crop holds an important place among
the general farm crops of this State, being third in point
of value (running a close race with cotton, which is sec-
ond in the list). Its position is more important than cot-
ton, as it is a maintenance crop and for the most part
consumed at home and not subject to market fluctuations.
Because of its adaptibility to all sections of the State,
the possibilities of this crop, from a money-making stand-
point, are great. The present yield could be largely in
creased by adopting improved methods of production.
And if there is one crop more than any other that can be
depended upon year in and year out with a large degree
of certainty it is the sweet potato crop.
But to get maximum results and put this crop where
it belongs as one of the best farm crops of the State, cer-
tain factors in crop production must be studied and acted
upon. lThese are: Its place in crop rotation, soil prepara-
lion, the kind of fertilizer to be used, the quality of same,
methods of application, planting, care of the crop when
growing, the varieties best suited to the soil and to cli-
matic and local conditions and methods of harvesting
and care of the crop afterwards.
PLACE IN CR01 ROTATION.
The sweet potato crop in the general rotation should
follow a crop that puts humus and fertility in the soil.
Humus enables the soil to store moisture, increases its
temperature, furnishes a certain amount of plant food,
retards the loss of fertility by leaching, stimulates chemi-
cal action, and fosters the bacterial life so essential to a
large crop yield. Crops such as velvet beans, cowpeas,
soy beans and beggarweed are ideal for this purpose, for
they not only increases the fertility of the soil by their
ability to collect the free nitrogen of the air and store
it on their roots in the form of nodules, but the plowing
under of the aftermath of these crops puts humus in the
soil to keep the crop supplied with the needed moisture
while it is growing.
Where any of these crops have been plowed under in
the Tall and a winter cover crop, such as rye or oats,
grown on the land (which is an excellent plant for con-
servation of moisture and fertility during the winter
months), and these crops again plowed under in the
green state early in spring, there will be ideal soil con-
ditions for a large crop of sweet potatoes. Some prefer
lo let Ihe oat crop get to the dough stage and cut and
cure it for hay and plow under the stubble. This is
also an excellent nmethod, unless in localities where it
will be too late in the season before the oats are ready
for cutting to be in time to plant the sweet potato crop.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
Plowing or breaking the land in the late fall for all
spring-planted crops is the best method to pursue, for if
we wait till spring the soil is apt to be too wet after the
winter rains to do good work, and the vegetation and ma-
terials plowed under in the spring will not have time to
rot and assimilate with the soil to form humus, and the
soil will not have time to pack back and get into the me-
chanical condition necessary for success in crop produc-
tion. Thereforee we want to do this breaking in the fall.
For this purpose a tool should be used capable of doing
good work and plowing completely under all the vegetable
material on the top of the land. A disk or heavy turning
plow should be used for this purpose, aiming each time
to go a couple of inches or so deeper than the last break-
ing was done. An old land that has been some years
in cultivation subsoiling can be profitably adopted. This
subsoiling can be done with an ordinary scooter stock
wilh a six-inch shovel for a plow, running right behind
the breaking plow and going as deep as it is possible to
go. This subsoiling opens and aerates the lower soil that
is not advisable to turn on top or mix with the already-
made soil. It also helps to retain the moisture received
from the rainfall, prevents, to a certain degree, surface
washing during heavy rains, and enables the crop to draw
on the lower moisture strala in the growing period when
moisture is the main factor to a large yield. 11 also
serves the purpose of soil aeration to a lower depth than
ihe breaking plow can do, thus tending to promole the
bacterial life of the soil on which crop production so much
In cases where no winter cover crop is grown on fall!
broken land, after every heavy rain a tool such as a
weeder or harrow should be used, running lightly over
the land and forming a dust mulch to prevent the rapid
evaporation of moisture that occurs if a crust is allowed
to remain long on the lan:l. No( deep running tool is
wanted for this work.
FERTILIZER FOR TIIE CROI'.
An important point connected with this crop is the
kind of fertilizer used, and it is advisable to cosnider tiis
from the plant-food standpoint and know the formula
that is likely to give us best results. Some of the Experi
nent Stations of the South have given us definite infor
nation along this line, which, coupled with results ob-
hAined by a number of farmers in growing the crop, en-
ables us to suggest a formula that this crop will generally
do well with. A favorite formula contains 3 per cent
of ammonia, 7 per cent phosphoric acid and about S per
cent potash. And in this connection we want to know
the raw materials that enter into the make-up of this
formula. For instance, we know that cottonseed meal
or caster pomace is not the best for the source of am-
monia, because the use of these lends to give ile crop
soft rot and a poor keeping quality, and we also know
that for the potash source we should not use any raw
material with chlorine in it, such as muriate of potash or
kainit, as the chlorine in them tends to give an inferior
quality to the crop.
The raw material recolmmende1 for an ammioniate
source are either tankage, sulphate of ammonia, or blood
and bone; and for potash, sulphate or potash, or double
sulphate of potash and magnesia.
The farmer who plants a large acreage of the crop can
get the fertilizer manufacturers to compound for him any
formula he wants and of any preferred materials, hut
the small grower has either to take what he can get on
the local market or do his own mixing, which is quite
easily done. To mix a ton of the formula given above
and of the materials recommended, he would have to use
about 900 pounds of blood and bone, or bone tankage, 800
pounds of phosphoric acid and 300 pounds of sulphale of
HOW MUCII FERTILIZER P'ER ACRE.
Land that is in good mechanical condition with con
siderable humus in the soil will take care of more fer
tilizer to advantage than poor thin soil devoid of humus.
The depth of plowing cuts quite a figure also along this
line. A good rule to adopt and one that has been found
satisfactory in practice is to use one hundred pounds per
acre for the right kind of plant food or the formula al-
ready mentioned, for every inch of depth that the land
has been plowed. It is true economy to use enough fer-
lilizer of the right kind to get the maximum yield with
Slhe least cost of production per bushel.
METHODS OF APPLICATION.
It is a well-known fact that the root system is he
fdouindation oil which a crop) is nade, and the methods
l' alpplicalion of the fertilizer determine lo a; great exlent
lie vigor and number of thil feeding r)oilets of a crop.
Fertilizer applied in furrows, drills or hills tends to make
the soil streaked or spotted in its fertility, consequently
curtailing the root system because the roots of the crop
are not apt to spread through all the soil as they would
do if the fertility was uniformly distributed. There
fore it is recommended that, on all well-prepared soils
plowed to a depth of six inches or more, the fertilizer be
broadcasted on freshly prepared land and worked into
the soil by means of harrow, weeder or cultivator, a few
days previous to planting the crop. On soils deficient in
humus, and plowed a few inches in depth, the applica-
tion of the fertilizer had best be in furrows; but in such
a case the quantity used must be small and the crop will
be of a corresponding degree, thus making the cost more
per bushel, for the labor required is the same in both
PLANTING TIE CROP.
Whenever the "draws in the seed-bed are ready for sel
ling out in the field, enough land should be prepared for
the purpose by making it into beds about four feet from
center to center. The height of these beds should be
determined by the nature of the land. On rolling lanl.
where there is ample drainage, these beds should not be
more than twelve to fifteen inches above the level of Ihe
ground and made with a well-rounded top, not sharp. On
flat woods where drainage is deficient the beds should be
made very high, say two to three, so as to take care of
excessive rainfall in rainy weather, because the roots of
the crop should not be in stagnant water at any time.
'The best tool for making the beds is a disk cultivator.
The disks can be arranged at different angles and depths
to make a far better bed and at considerably less cost
than those made by a turning plow and afterwards
smoothed off with a hoe, as is the general practice. It
is not advisable to make more beds than are required
at any one time, because a better stand is secured when
draws or vines are planted on fresh-made beds, on ac-
count of the settling of the soil about them, than when
plants are put on beds a few days or a week after they
If draws are set out in April, the vines that we want
for the main planting will be ready to be cut for this pur-
pose in May. For it has been found that the cuttings
of the vines make a larger yield for table and market
than where draws are used, and it is the usual practice
.just to plant sufficient draws to give plenty of vines for
the main planting.
In the planting operation the vines should be cut to
lengths of twelve or fifteen inches (we don't want them
too long), and laid on top of the bed aboul fifteen inches
aplrt vwilh butts all one way. IBy using a forked stick for
the purpose, we can insert them into the soil to a depth
of four to six inches, always taking care to have the butt
ends down. The practice of some growers of pushing
the vines in the soil at the middle and leaving both ends
sticking, out cannot be generally recommended, as in that
case the vine is ruptured and more than one joint will
root, which tends to a lower yield than where only one
jhint roots, which is the case when the butt end is in
If dry weather prevails at planting time and the soil
is deficient in moisture, watering the plants immediate-
ly after setting them out is recommended. For this pur-
pose some vessel with a spout on it (such as an old cop-
per kettle) is best, pouring about half a pint of water
in the hole where the plant is set out, taking care to run
the wetted soil to the root of the plant. This should be
done in the evening, and next morning a little dry soil
should be thrown over these wet places to prevent the
evaporation of that watering.
More than one hundred so-called varieties of sweet po-
tatoes make up the list of what we have in the State.
Many of these are really the same, but under different
names in different localities.
In selecting a suitable variety two things should be
kept in mind, and the most important in this respect is
the market one is catering to, and another is the late-
ness or earliness of the variety. As a general proposition,
an early variety does not give us the largest yield, and
is not such a good keeper when stored as a later variety
which matures thoroughly before harvesting. A variety
in great demand for early summer shipping to Northern
markets is the "Big Stem Jersey," but this variety is
mostly confined to the central and south-central part
of the State, where it is grown largely as a catch crop
succeeding a winter truck crop. It is not in much de-
mand in the Southern market because of its dry, mealy
nature, the Southern markets calling for a soft sweet
potato of the yam type. Among the favorites for do-
mestic use and of medium earliness are the "Dooly Yam,"
the "Nancy Hall," and Triumph." The "White Spanish"
sometimes called the "Tar Heel" is the earliest we have,
but the quality is inferior and is not in much demand
after other varieties come on the market. "Southern
Queen" and early "Pumpkin Yam" are medium early
varieties and are of excellent quality. "Dewey;" "Yel-
low Bunch Yam," "Vineland" and "Hall's Golden" are
also desirable types and are the latest ripening varieties
for domestic use. These are good keepers when allowed
to ripen and stored properly.
Sweet potatoes are also much used for stock feed and
can be profitably grown for that purpose especially for
hogs and dairy stock. They can also be used to advan-
tage for horse and mule feed along with grain feeds. The
stock-feeding varieties grow to a larger size and are
much inferior in quality to those used for domestic pur
poses. Among the best known in this class are the
-"white and the -j-iii p.'-" West Indian Yam, "Hraziliati
Yarn," "Nigger Killer," "Hayti," "Spanish," "S;an Do-
mingo," "Davis Enormnous" and a number of others.
Some of these do better in some sections than others, so
lthat one has to consider and find out, if possible, the
variety best suited to his soil, location and climatic con
ditons. This applies both to the domestic and to the
CARE OF THE GROWING CROP.
Many of our native farmers think that the sweet potato
crop does not require any cultivation. If it is planted on
new land, little cultivation will be required, as grass and
weeds are not apt to be much in evidence. Nevertheless,
an occasional stirring of the soil, particularly in dry
weather, is useful for the conservation of moisture and
the aeration needed to produce a good crop.
On old land that has been several years in cultivation,
grass and weeds will get quite rampant shortly after
planting, particularly if a heavy application of fertilizer
has been put on the crop. To keep such in check, the
cultivator must be used quite frequently until the vines
completely cover the ground, when cultivation may cease,
as by that time the young potatoes will be forming in the
soil, and their growth would be interfered with if cultiva
tion was continued any longer.
TOOLS TO USE.
The best tool for cultivating this crop that we know of
is a two-horse disk cultivator with the disks set at a suit-
able angle at different depths, so as to run along the sides
of the bed, scraping weeds and some soil into the water
furrow in the operation. After the ground has been gone
over in this way, the angles of the disks are reversed and
rebedding is done, leaving the beds in their previous form.
This work not only cleans up the weeds and grass, but
aerates the soil and tends to a larger yield.
To protect the young plants from being either torn or
covered in the operation, the fenders, with which all such
tools are provided, have to be attached to the frame of the
cultivator. These fenders have to be properly adjusted as
to width and depth to give the best results. Later on
when the vines begin running and interfere with the disks
in their work, a home-made attachment with fingers on it
to lift vines out of the way can be fastened to the culti-
-;vtor and used to good advantage; for cultivation can be
carried on much later than if this was not used.
DISK CULTIVATOR BETTER THAN PLOW.
On those farms where cultivators are not used, the gen
eral method practiced for keeping the weeds under con-
trol is to ,us, a turning plow for barring off the beds, clear-
ing the top by hoeing, and then bedding back again. This
takes more time, and is more expensive, because the plow
will not cover more than a couple of acres in a day,
whereas the disk cultivator will clear at least 8 to 10 acres
a day. Fenders to protect the young plants cannot be
used on a plow, and in the rebedding operation a number
of plants will be covered by soil, requiring an extra hand
to uncover them. When the vines begin running, an
extra hand is also required to rake the vines out of the
way of the plow, thus adding fifteen to twenty per cent
to the cost of producing the crop. The work will not be
as well done as by the cultivator, for the raking of the
vines out of the way of the plow and back again damages
them and curtails the crop.
Care should always be exercised not to work the soil
when it is too wet, or when the vines are wet with either
dew or rain, for that tends to "scald" the leaves, and is
detriment to a good crop yield.
HARVESTING THE CROP.
The bulk of this crop is not generally harvested until
the frost occurs. The field should then be gone over, and
the vines cut from the crown of the hills by means of a
sharp hoe or sickle. This operation prevents the decay
in the frosted vines from being communicated to the pota-
toes, and so causing the soft rot which shows itself soon
after the potatoes are dug. If we follow this method the
potatoes can ripen in the ground before we dig them, and
their keeping qualities will be improved.
In the digging operation, care should be exercised to
prevent injury to the tubers by cuts, scratches, or bruises,
which are another source of soft rot. Where a consider-
able acreage is to be harvested, it will be a point of econ-
omy to use a regular potato-digger. This works better
and quicker, avoids injury, and ensures the getting of all
the crop from the ground.
After the digging, the crop should be allowed to lie on
the ground in rows for three or four days, so as to get
thoroughly dried and cured by the sun. It is as neces-
sary to cure potatoes, both Irish and sweet, as it is to
cure hay or forage.
STORING TIE CROP.
lHow to store the sweet potato crop in such a manner
as to ensure against loss by decay, is a matter that seri-
ously concerns the farmers of the State. A considerable
loss occurs in this crop every winter from preventable
causes. The method of harvesting the crop are responsi-
ble for a large amount of this loss, and the methods of
storing for most of the balance.
\e have seldom, if ever, seen a successful sweet-pota-
to house made by digging a hole in the ground and roofing
in, or by imitating a smoke house; because both of these
lack ventilation. A common practice is to make small
conical piles about ten bushels each, and to cover them
with soil and bark. As far as my observations goes, this
method is frequently a failure, because the contents of
these piles are not properly secured against rain, and
are not properly ventilated. In my own practice I have
found it best to store sweet potatoes in banks on the top
of ground conveniently near to the barn or dwelling-
bouse. A piece of ground running north and south, of
the desired length, and about four feet wide, is levelled
by means of a hoe or rake, and the potatoes are piled
on this, about five feet deep, tapering to a sharp ridge.
This makes a long V-shaped bank, and care is taken to
have the sides with a smooth and uniform slope. After
all the potatoes are piled in the bank, a good plan is to
allow them to have a few days' exposure to the sun so as
to become thoroughly dry, covering at night with sacks
or hay to keep off the dew. Then the whole bank is
covered two or three inches deep with some kind of hay,
and over the hay a couple of inches of soil are thrown.
The hay absorbs the moisture that is given off by the
potatoes during the sweating that occurs soon after the
bank is entirely covered. The soil keeps the hay in place
and protects against cold. The bank should be made
water-tight by means of boards laid lengthwise, with
lepped edges to shed rain; or a temporary frame of scant
lings can be made over the bank, and shingles or tar-paper
used to keep the potatoes dry.
If the crop is stored in this way, it is less likely to
rot than with ordinary methods, and it can be held until
late in spring, when prices run high.
A. P. SPENCEH, Assistant in Erielsion, UnLversity of
There are about 6,000,000 farms producing poultry in
the United States, but comparatively few of these raise
poultry otherwise than as a side issue. Several large
poultry plants are operated, but their output is but a
drop in the bucket in comparison with the whole amount
of poultry products produced and consumed.
The average housekeeper on the farm looks to supply
her table with eggs from her own poultry yard. At times
she has abundance to spare; at other times her supply
of fresh eggs is limited or cut off, and she depends on
stored eggs or must purchase from a neighbor or grocer,
ihe shortage usually occurring when prices are above the
This shortage may be overcome if there is a better un-
derstanding of the details of poultry raising ind sufficient
time given to carrying them out. Successful poultry rais-
ing requires some skill and experience backed up by eco-
noincal management, constant attention and constant
The average hen lays about sixty eggs in a year. Only
about half the eggs placed under hens or in incubators
hatch, and many chicks that hatch do not live to a mar-
ketable age. These figures are only approximate, but
those who have given attention to such matters will not
doubt their approximate correctness.
This is not the best that can be done after allowing for
natural environments, and considering what has been
learnt from experimental work and using the artificial
methods devised expressly for making poultry raising
more profitable and less subject to failure.
Poultry production for profit up to recently was
viewed from three principal standpoints. First, produc-
tion of eggs; second, production of meat; third, produc-
tion of breeding stock. A new phase of the business has
recently come to our attention in the production of day-
old chicks for a special trade.
It matters little which phase of the business is under-
taken, some vital principles must be adhered to more or
less constantly or there will be little satisfaction and
In all cases it is well to start on a moderate scale. The
inexperienced poultrymian must get practical experience,
some of which may be more or less costly. If the start
is made on a small scale and well within the capacity
and finances, if the methods are economical and business
principles are applied, it is reasonable to expect a fair
profit in return.
Qn the average Florida farm, poultry can be made
profitable, and to do this it is important:
(1) To secure good specimens of well-bred fowls from
(2) To feed regularly with a variety of feeds.
(3) To house comfortably and keep free from lice and
(4) To furnish a constant supply of green feeds and
(5) To see that they get exercise daily.
(6) To keep a careful supervision over them.
THE BREED TO SELECT.
Three types of poultry breeds lend themselves to the
various methods of marketing.
EGG OR IMEDITERRANEAN BREEDS.
Of these the White Leghorn undoubtedly have the pref-
erence in Florida. The Brown Leghorn, Black Spanish
and White Minorca have many admirers, and from the
standpoint of eggs these breeds are unexcelled. They are
poor sitters and nervous and require high fences to con-
MEAT OR ASIATIC BREEDS.
(ochins, Langhans and Brahmas are distinctly meat
breeds. They grow rapidly and make a satisfactory table
fowl, and are usually inferior layers but good brooders.
GENERAL PURPOSE BREEDS.
The American or intermediate types, such as Rhode
Island Reds, Barred, White and Buff Rocks, Orpington
and Wyandottes are best suited to the average farmer
or market poultryman. They are quite generally used
and are well suited to Florida conditions. These breeds
are well established and breed true to color, with the ex-
ception of the Rhode Island Reds, which have a more re-
cent origin, and it is often difficult to secure uniformity
of color with them, but as a general utility fowl the
Rhode Island Red is considered one of the best. Color
markings are usually of secondary importance, although
there is a preference for white or yellow-skinned fowls
in the best markets.
It cannot be truthfully stated that any one or two
breeds are better than all others under all conditions, but
in selecting for general utility it is usually good policy
to adopt one that is known to be productive under fair
Perhaps more attention has been given this phase of
poultry raising than any other. Laying hens should be
fed for two purposes only. First, to sustain the body,
and, second, to produce eggs. When the body has been
thoroughly nourished and additional food eaten there is
a daily waste from some one or more causes if they fail to
lay. It' they are taking on an excessive amount of fat,
some of the food is being assimilated for this purpose.
If there is no increase in body weight, the food may be
deficient in the necessary elements for egg production,
or the fowls may not lay because of indigestion or old
age. For these reasons it is almost impossible to pre-
scribe for a non-laying flock unless all the particulars
about that flock are known.
The daily ration should be fairly well balanced. If
the flock is not yarded and their feed is obtained from
the refuse of the stable lots, insects and worms, besides
some table scraps, the ration will be fairly well balanced.
Poultry confined will not get this variety of feed unless
it is supplied from some other source.
A mixture of equal parts of corn, wheat, and oats is
a good mixture, as a morning feed; four quarts is about
sufficient for fifty hens. It is best to scatter the grain
among litter to induce exercise. In the afternoon a mash
feed (either dry or moist) is given. A good mash feed
would be, equal parts of ground corn, oats, and bran, and
some animal food (fed from an open hopper). Meat,
meat-meal, and ground bone are good animal foods to
use. For fowls not accustomed to meat meal; one-half
pound per day is sufficient for twelve hens, since it has a
laxative effect on the bowels and must be fed sparingly
at first. Later when the fowls become accustomed to it,
the amount may be increased to one pound per day.
Linseed meal may be substituted in part, and is to be
recommended because of its lower cost and adding variety
to the ration.
Hens should have a supply of protein (muscle and bone
producing) as part of their daily ration with animal food
forming a part of it. Fresh meat is best, the hens relish
it better when cooked, and of course it can be kept sweet
longer. Green cut bone is good although some claim it
unsafe on account of the possibility of introducing tuber-
culosis to which poultry are subject. For summer use,
meat meal and meat scraps are suitable and readily
accessible. In making up the mixture, let the animal food
constitute from eight to ten per cent of the ration, the
actual amount depending on the particular material used,
Skimmed milk is a good source and it may be both added
to the mash and placed where the fowls can during it.
Iegetablc or grcen foods. The value of green feed for
poultry lies in its ability to aid the digestive system, while
it also provides with some nourishment. It promotes
good health and naturally more eggs. Green feeds should
be supplied liberally, even poultry having the picking of
the grass and weeds that grow during the winter in
Florida are benefited by an additional supply of such
vegetables as cabbage, kale, and dwarf essex rape.
Sprouted grains are generally used ly northern poultry
men with young chicks. They are also valuable because
of a ferment called ',1l;,i ..l.:" they contain that aids
digestion of starch. This substance is in sprouting oats,
rye, barley, and potatoes.
Fowls must have a constant Ii'id., of grit. Grit is used
by hens for masticating their food. The supply must be
constant and frequently renewed and unless it is sharp
digestion will be imperfect. Very often it is advisable to
supply some grit even when the fowls have access to a
sandy yards, for if the sand is very fine, it is useless.
Ground oyster shells or coarse sand are among the best
Fowls must have a dust bath. A dust bath is more
essential than is often considered. Hens must dust them-
selves to rid the body of vermin and to cleanse it and re-
move the scurf that is constantly exuding from the skin.
The dust bath should be frequently renewed and might
contain a small quantity of lime, or preferably wood ashes.
WATER A CONSTANT NECESSITY.
Water constitutes 65 per cent of the egg and about 55
per cent of the lien's body, and unless the supply is suf-
ficient the hens will suffer for want of it. The water sup
plied in green feed is not nearly sufficient. Fifty laying
hens will drink 6 to 10 quarts daily, and even more in hot
weather if they are producing a good number of eggs each
Some simple automatic drinking fountains sold by
dealers of poultry supplies are convenient for supplying
clean water, as there is a probability of the water becom-
ing polluted if it is supplied to a large flock from open
Materials for feeding must be fresh and free from mold;
musty corn, buckwheat, and bran are inducive of digestive
disorders. Kaffir corn is an exceptionally good poultry
feed when clean, but unless special care is taken, it is
subject to mould during the summer rains in Florida
and should be examined before being fed.
It is important to keep the appetite good. A light grain
feed or "scratch" in the morning, a mash feed at noon
(either dry or wet) and a liberal grain feed at night is
recommended by good poultrymen. The crops should be
full when the hens go to roost. This is especially empha-
sized in northern states to induce warmth during ihe
night and is less true perhaps in Florida.
Some breeds have a greater tendency to broodiness than
others. The lighter egg breeds are less broody than the
heavier meat breeds. Broodiness is a natural condition
coming at the end of a continuous laying period. All
liens have periods for laying and periods for resting.
Whatever may be the cause, broodiness can be most
effectively overcome by good care and regular feeding, to
build up bodily tissue and to get the hen in a good con-
dition for laying again. To starve broody hens is to
increase this tendency. Ducking in cold water or other
abuses most commonly practiced do well to break up the
A high dry location for the buildings is always pre
ferable to a poorly drained one and as yards running oun
from the poultry houses that can be cultivated and sown
to green crops are convenient, this consideration should
not be overlooked. Excessive moisture brings trouble
every time. Good drainage and good sanitary conditions
!nean much to a flock of poultry, yet there is hardly a
location however flat, but what local conditions can be
greatly improved by raising the level of the ground on
which the house is to be constructed, twelve to fifteen
inches with a few loads of light soil, thereby making it on
a good location.
The open house is always to be recommended in Florida.
There is no necessity for expensive structures, but only
for comfort, sanitation and convenience. Small flocks
usually lay best; 60 to 70 birds in a flock will give a
higher average than when greater numbers are kept to-
gether, although under certain conditions several hundred
may be kept together profitably. In the first case a
greater number of eggs per hen are produced, while the
larger flocks can be handled with less labor per hen.
Four to six square feet of floor space is sufficient fo'.
each bird. Overcrowding is injurious. With one or two
sides open, or in our coldest weather covered with canvas,
a free circulation of air surrounds the hens and prevents
an excessive accumulation of moisture or foul air. Any
structure so built as to permit drafts on the birds is
faulty. The air should be cool and fresh, but drafts
are responsible for much trouble. Poultry often prefer
a tree for roosting, as they object to being housed in
drafty quarters. A tree gives better protection than :a
drafty house, but not nearly as good protection as a
properly ventilated house. A concrete floor in Florida is
to be recommended though not absolutely necessary. The
house can be more thoroughly cleaned and the birds bct-
ler protected from weasels, skunks and rats, when there
is a solid floor and wire netting to cover the open slides,
with doors made to fit.
The roosts should be so arranged that they can be
quickly moved, and all on the same level. About thir-
teen inches below the roosts should be boards to collect
the droppings. These boards .should be tongued and
grooved, and closely litter leaving no cracks or holes to
collect dirt. Clean the dropping board every day and
pour a little kerosene oil over the roosts once a week.
Sprinkle lime around the roosts each day and there will
be little trouble with bad odors and vermin.
Darken the laying boxes, as a hen prefers a concealed
corner for the nest. Clean the next boxes frequently,
dirty nests are breeding places for fleas,.mites, and lie:,.
Eggs absorb disagreeable odors, rapidly, and the quality
of the egg will be injured by lying from twelve to thirty-
six hours in a dirty nest. Remember always that sanita-
tion and a free circulation of fresh air are indispensable
to successful poultry raising.
Never permit sickly or weak birds to remain in the
flock. If unthrifty ones are found, remove them at once,
and if the sickness seems to linger, it is usually best to
destroy them and burn the carcasses. Select the breeding
stock from the thriftiest and most active birds of the
yards. Without constitutional vigor and good health we
cannot expect good returns.
Pullets are usually the best layers, but their eggs
should not be used for hatching. One and two-year old
hens are best to select when eggs for incubation are
wanted. Keep the entire flock under three years old and
weed out the non-producers immediately they are found
in the flock.
Under average farm conditions most of the chicks will
be hatched and mothered by hens, although incubators
are rapidly coming into general use.
Hens that steal away to nest usually, but not always,
succeed in raising a good brood, although often too late
in the season, so we cannot count on that method for
raising our best chicks. The liens that lay early are
the ones that halch the early chicks. Furthermore, the
early hatched pullets do the laying during November,
December, and January, so that in order to have early
layers one must prepare at least twelve months in advance.
Early broilers bring the fancy prices, so that the success
in both production and getting the best market is to be
two months in advance of those who furnish the bulk and
general supply of eggs and meat.
The egg supply is irregular and is always greatest d(r-
ing March, April, May and June, so that the price per
dozen naturally declines during these months. During
the remaining eight months the retail market depends
more or less on the eggs stored during the laying season
and cannot always supply strictly fresh eggs.
The poultry man who by proper methods has been able
to get his greatest supply of eggs during the months of
shortage or October, November, December, and January,
gets the cream of the prices and when the market Is
declining these hens are raising chicks for the early mar-
ket or for his laying stock the coining year. There is a
special trade to be developed in every city in the South
for strictly fresh eggs and well fattened nicely marketed,
dressed poultry. The product must be uniform and
strictly fresh and placed on the market in attractive pack-
ages. There is only a small profit in poultry raising if
the product is to go into the ordinary channel of trade,
the grocery and country store, when the market is fairly
well supplied. But there is a liberal profit if the special
trade is catered to.
The Doan Carton Company of St. Louis, Missouri, man-
ufactures egg cartons that will meet the demand of such
a trade. Each carton will hold one dozen eggs, and the
cartons are so shaped that thirty of these will exactly fill
an ordinary 30-dozen _- crate. Inunediately the eggs
are gathered sorted and wiped, they are placed in the
carton, the lid is sealed and tlie date stamped on the
package. The carton is made of a good quality card-
board, each egg separated from the other, so that there is
little danger of breakage. The eggs are not handled again
until they are finally taken out by the consumer. Such a
package, convenient in size, sealed and guaranteed finds a
ready sale at a higher price than the regular market
offers. The carton bears the iame of the producer with
signature over guarantee, and the consumer finding the
eggs according to guarantee wants the particular product
again. The price of the cartons is i'; :.0 per thousand if
ordered in 1000 lots or less than three-quarters of a cent
Another phase of the poultry business that has only
recently attracted attention is the selling of day-old
chicks. In some instances the business has grown to
large proportions. One firm offers day-old chicks at 10
cents each, also offers a paper brooder that is packed and
sent in the same shipment at 4 '1II. Ience with an
expenditure of $12 the purchaser may start in the poultry
business and under favorable conditions this would be a
fairly satisfactory way to begin. The development of
such chicks will of course depend largely on how they
are cared for and the vigor of the stock. A public
hatchery in connection with an established poultry plant
would undoubtedly find some business. In these hatch-
eries the eggs are incubated at a stated price per hundred,
or eggs may be exchanged for chicks.
INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS.
A. P. SPENCER, Assistant in Extension University of
Indian Runner Ducks have received attention from
many people during the past five years. Their hardiness
and their egglaying capability recommend them. From
200 to 250 eggs a bird is not an uncommon yearly aver-
age, when the flock is properly handled. The eggs are
readily accepted in our markets in place of hen eggs.
Bakeries find a ready use for the eggs, and the claim is
made that two of these duck eggs are equal in food value
and for cooking purposes to three hen eggs.
Unlike hens, the egg production of the Indian Runners
does not diminish immediately after the second year.
Even up to seven or eight years they retain their normal
egg-laying powers. They are only slightly subject to
diseases, and parasites are seldom, if ever, found to
trouble them. These ducks are wild-natured, and have
little regard for a nest, dropping their eggs in any con-
venient place, frequently in the water or mud. It is best
to keep them in yards. Then the eggs can all be gath-
ered, and with the better attention they receive. Ihey lay
better, the ducklings grow faster, and being less fre-
quently disturbed by strangers they are tamer. A pond
is much enjoyed by them, but is not a necessity. In fact,
some people claim that the egg-production is greater
without any water for swimming. Nevertheless, the
ducks must have an abundance of fresh water for drink-
ing purposes, and this especially must never be neglected.
Indian Runners, like all other live stock, require regu-
lar feeding. A meal three times a day is advocated during
the laying season, and twice a day when moulting. The
feed may not materially differ from a suitable ration for
hens, but as the duck utilizes less grit, it is better when
moistened or made into a mash.
Indian Runner ducks are very poor sitters, so that the
hatching must be done by hens or in incubators. One
of the greatest hindrances to good hatches in incubators
is the want of moisture during incubation, as these ma-
chines are built for hatching hens eggs and duck eggs
require more moisture. Additional moisture must be
supplied for a successful hatch. Even when hatched by
hens, it is advisable to moisten the eggs once a week, and
twice during the last week of hatching.
The eggs are usually fertile if the flocks are properly
managed. Thirty or forty in a flock is large enough, with
one drake to every six ducks. An SO to 85 per cent. hatch
may be expected under good conditions. If the eggs are
io be bought better hatches are usually secured from
flocks of sufficient size to give quantities of fresh eggs for
shipment each day. While they ship fairly well, their
hatching qualities (as in the case with hen eggs) are
likely to be injured by long shipment or too much jolting
around. So it is preferable to secure the eggs from near
home when possible.
At present, we have two varieties o' Indian Runners
although not particularly distinct-the dark fawn and
the light fawn. The American standard describes the
perfect female specimen as light fawn.
There seems no claim to any superior egg production
in the light fawn variety. On the other hand, the dark
fawn is said to produce a whiter egg without the greenish
tinge that more closely resembles a hen egg, and is more
acceptable for table use.
Ducklings up to three weeks old are sensitive to cold
and wet. Getting their feet into very cold water or ex-
posure to a cold rain is almost sure to kill many. Up to
five or six weeks of age, they need a good shelter with a
dry floor. After that they will require little or no shelter
in Florida, and if well fed will begin laying when four
and a half to six months of age.
Indian Runner ducks have many things to recommend
them. They are not bothered with lice or vermin, no roup,
no scaly legs, very little housing, and hawks do not molest
them; but if they have access to a Florida pond, there is a
danger from loss by the large turtles that are quite nu-
merous in most sink holes, streams and ponds.
In addition to the demand for eggs, there is a growing
demand for the meat, and while these ducks are not as
heavy and plump as some other breeds, if they have been
well cared for and kept growing, they make nice roasters,
fryers and broilers at an early age.
DUCKS AND CHICKS MUST BE KEPT SEPARATE.
It is not a good plan to yard ducks and chickens to-
gether. Ducks are naturally good feeders and greedy
and will get the most of the feed, and as they enjoy get-
ting into tie drinking water, will keep the drinking ves-
sels in a dirty condition. Separate yards are best.
Indian Runner Ducks, like chickens, can be made profit-
able if they are properly managed. There is sufficient
wasle on the average form to supply a good portion of the
necessary feed, and while the ducks can be handled as a
side issue on the farm, they will not give profitable re-
turns if neglected.
IMPROVING ACID SOILS.
A. W. BLAIR, Chemist Agricultural Experiment Station.
The soils in many sections of Florida are acid (sour),
which is unfavorable for the best development of many
crops. Soils that are low and wet, especially muck soils,
are likely to be acid. It is generally safe to assume that
our pine-land soils are more or less acid if there is no
indication of phosphate rock, limestone, or marl, at or
near the surface. Hammock soils may also be acid, though
in some cases the hammocks have a layer of marl a little
below the surface.
CAUSES OF ACIDITY.
1. Alkaline materials, such as potash, soda, lime, and
magnesia, which can neutralize or counteract acids, have,
to a large extent, been washed out of our soils by the
action of drainage waters. (The State Geologist, in
Bulletin No. 1, of the Geological Survey, stated that
dissolved material is being carried into the sea through
the Silver Springs at the rate of about 600 tons per day.)
In this dissolved matter, carbonate of lime greatly pre-
2. Organic matter, such as grass, weeds, or stalks,
decays in the soil with the formation of organic acids,
which on account of their slow solubility tend to accumu-
late in soils not well supplied with alkaline materials like
3. Certain fertilizing materials, sulphate of ammonia
in particular, tend to increase the acidity of sols that are
naturally deficent in alkaline materials, owing to the
plants using the ammonia to a greater extent than they
do the sulphuric acid.
Alkaline materials generally, will counteract or neu-
tralize any acid. In improving an acid soil, the aim
should be to get an alkaline material that is cheap and
that can be easily handled. To a large extent, lime in its
different forms fulfills these requirements.
Carbonate of lime is the form that occurs naturally.
It is found as crystallized limestone or marble, as massive
limestone rock, as marl, and as shells. It also occurs in
certain soils in a newly divided state as the result of the
decomposition of some of the above nam ed materials.
Examples of such soils are found in the Bluegrass regions
of Kentucky, and Southwest Virginia. Carbonate of lime,
in any form, if ground fine and worked into an acid soil in
sutlicient quantities, will correct the sourness. It will
not take effect as rapidly as quick-lime, nor is It as con-
centrated. It should, however, be much cheaper. One
hundred pounds of pure quick-lime are equivalent to 17!
pounds of pure limestone; but, because of impurities, it
would perhaps be best to take 200 pounds of carbonate of
lime, in the form of ground limestone or ground shells, as
the equivalent of 100 pounds of pure quick-lime.
Slaked Lime (hydrated lime) is made by slaking quick-
lime with just enough water to convert It into a fine
powder. One hundred and thirty-two pounds of slaked
lime prepared in this way are equivalent to 100 pounds of
pure quick lime.
Unbleached hardwood ashes contain about 25 to 30 per
cent. of lime in addition to 4 to 6 per cent. of potash, and
when they can he had at a reasonable price they may be
used with profit on acid soils.
Basic, or Thomas, Slag contains about 40 per cent. of
lime in addition to 17 or 18 per cent. of phosphoric acid,
and if a moderate application of lime is needed along with
a heavy application of phosphoric acid, this may be used.
In our experiments with pineapples, basic slag has given
If ground limestone or shells are used, and the soil is
found to be highly acid (by testing with litmus paper),
two tons per acre once in two or three years will not be
excessive. If the soil is only slightly acid, one ton per
acre may suffice. Only half the amount need be applied
if quick-lime is used. Old, thoroughly air-slaked, lime
may be used in about the same amount as ground lime-
Lime may be applied at almost any time, though it
would perhaps be better to apply it during the late winter
or early i w-, so that it may be thoroughly worked into
the soil before the rainy season sets in. If fertilizers con-
taining sulphate of ammonia are used, it would be better
to apply the lime one month before or one month after the
ClOI'S BENEFITED BY LIME.
Most vegetable and fruit crops are benefitted by the use
of the lime where there is a tendency to acidity of the
soil. It has, however, been shown that watermelons do
best on an acid soil. It has also been shown that lime
makes the conditions more favorable for the development
of scab on the Irish potato.
With celery, lettuce, cabbage, citrus fruits, hay, and
forage crops, it may be used liberally.
COWPEAS FOR HAY AND FOR SOIL
C. K. McQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent Farmers'
Institutes, Gainesville, 'la., March 27, 1912.
Our system of agriculture in this state (and in the
South generally) has paid too little attention to growing
legume crops as soil improvers. The farmer has thus
been compelled to make large outlays for commercial
fertilizers, which really never build the soil to the point
of increased crop yields annually. We have been neglect-
ing one of the most important methods of soil building
known to agriculture. One of the best of the legume
family for this purpose is the cowpea, and it is safe to
say that no one crop known can add more to our agricul-
tural wealth. Hay of the best quality can be made from
it, and nearly four times as high in digestible protein as
timothy hay. Its power to collect the free nit-rogen of
the air and store it in the form of nodules on fhe roots,
thus increasing soil fertility, enables the farmer to grow
succeeding crops without expensive nitrogenous fertilizers.
To make the best of the cowpea crop there are two
distinct periods in which it should be planted to enable
the farmer to get hay of good quality. The first planting
should be done as early in spring as possible so as to have
the crop cut and cured for hay before the rainy season
occurs. The other planting should be done in July, (or
early in August) so as to have the crop come off in the
fall when dry weather prevails.
VARIETIES 'O PLANT.
On land where a winter crop that depletes the soil has
been grown, such as cabbage, rape, or any of the small
grains, a good plan for soil recuperation is to grow a
legume crop immediately thereafter. The cowpea fits in
there just right, and by making the crop into hay, the
land will be in good condition to bear a profitable fail
crop of some kind suitable to the soil and system of farm
management. The variety of seed to be used should be
carefully considered, for while there are upwards of fifty
distinct types o'f lhe cowpea, there are very few that are
suitable for early planting. Another point for considera-
tion is the immunity of the variety we use to ro t-knot
and wilt. On land where the root-knot is known to pre-
vail, cowpeas of any variety are subject to it, and in that
case we had better use the velvet or Lyon beans for a
legume crop. There are two varieties of cowpeas that are
known to be more resistant to root-knot than others, the
Iron and Brabhanm, and they are desirable types for hay-
PREPARING FOR COWPEAS.
The land for cowpeas should be well prepared by
thorough plowing and pulverization of the soil. The suc-
cess of any crop depends a good deal on the seed-bed pre-
pared for it. An application of about 400 pounds per
acre of acid phosphate should be broadcasted and har-
rowed in before planting the seed. On soil that is in a
good mechanical condition it will be advisable to sow the
seed "broadcast," using about seven pecks to the acre and
using a drill for the purpose. If no drill is available, the
seed can be sown by hand and worked into the soil with a
cultivator, smoothing the surface with a harrow or weeder.
On thin soil it is advisable to sow in drills about thirty
inches apart and cultivate the growing crops several
times. In that case about five pecks of seed per acre will
Some of our farmers get excellent results from cowpea
mixtures; that is, sowing other seeds with the cowpeas.
This practice is generally recommended for the purpose
of easier curing of the hay, as the mixture being of differ-
ent texture cures more readily than if of one kind. A mix-
ture thai is very popular is sorghum and cowpeas. The
Early Amber sorghum is the best, as its growing period
comes near that of the cowpesis. If both are sown at the
same time, five pecks of cowpeas and two pecks of sorg-
hum broadcasted or drilled in is sufficient for an acre.
Cowpeas and (lerman millet are another good combina-
tion, for the period of growth of the millet and the earlier
varieties of cowpeas correspond s:lliciently to make the
product desirable, and Ile millet aids considerably in
curing the hay. C owpeas and soy beans are also a good
combination, using the larger varieties of the soy bean,
such as the Mammoth Yellow, and the slower growing
varieties of cowpeas, such as the (lay and the Whippoor-
On some of the older fields of 11;e state in the northern
and western portion, Johnson grass has become more or
less a pest. In fiiells where it abounds, cowpeas can be
disked on the land at The rate of six to seven pecks per
acre. The disking of the .Tohnson grass roots tends to a
better stand of grass, and the peas mixed with it makes
excellent hay. If the seed is planted in early April, the
hay can be cut in about sixty to seventy days, and will be
one of the best hays it is possible to get. This method of
treating Johnson grass lands solves a difficult problem, as
you cannot grow a cultivated crop successfully where it
CURING THE CROP.
To get the best quality of hay the cowpea crop must
not be allowed to get too ripe. At the blooming stage all
tle nutriment is in the plant, when it starts to make the
seed to perpetuate its kind. The best time to cut cow-
peas for hay is when the first pods are in the snap stage.
As this hay requires careful handling it should not be cut
when wet with either rain or dew. Cut in the forenoon,
and as soon as wilted rake it into windows and put it in
small cocks the same afternoon. Hay-cock covers are use-
ful if unfavorable weather prevails, and they will 1hen
repay their cost several times over. They can be made
from seventy-two-inch muslin, cut into squares, soaked in
raw linseed oil, and wrung dry. They should have string
loops on the corners, so as to fasten them to the cocks by
wooden pins. Very thin muslin is best, for if 1hick
muslin is used it causes the hay to sweat, and is no more
effective in shedding rain.
Next day open up these cocks in a loose manner, expos-
ing the hay to the sun as little as possible, or lhe shed-
ding of the leaves is apt to occur. Test the hay by twist-
ing a bunch in the hand. If no moisture shows haul it to
the barn. It will undergo a sweating process there, but
.that will only make it the more palatable, andl better
cured. It will overcome the sweat all right, if left alone,
and when it cools off will make a superior grade of hay.
The feeding value of cowpea hi;y and of its mixtures
has long been recognized as of a highl order, the hay being
equal in protein content to the best bran, and high in
carbohydrates. In dairy feeding, w uell-cured cowpea hay,
cut at the right stage, is equal pound for pound to the
ordinary bran used for feeding.
E. W. BERGER, PH.D., Entomioloflist Agriciultural Ex-
It is important that the citrus grower whose trees are
infested or threatened with infestation by whitefly; should
have at hand the necessary information which will enable
him to initiate and conduct repressive measures to the
best advantage. ]This bulletin is an endeavor to bring
together the essential facds of whitefly control in a brief
form. The whitefly may be controlled, though it is almost
impossible to eradicate it. To control this pest is to keep
it in check sufficiently for the trees to continue to Dear
HOW THE WHITEFLY INJURES TREES.
Badly infested citrus trees usually bear but a small
amount of fruit, and what is borne is insipid and covered
with sooty mold. The direct injury done to the trees con-
sists in the loss of the sap which the insects suck at the
rate of more than 15 pounds per month for each million
of whitefly larvae. Indirectly the trees are injured by the
sooty mold which covers the leaves and fruit. This sooty
mold is a black fungus which develops in the honeydew,
a sugary excretion ejected by all stages of the whitefly.
This mold is itself injurious to the trees, because by shut-
ting off some of the sunlight it interferes with the elabo-
ration of food materials in the leaves and also ret rads the
ripening of the fruit. Tests with iodine solution show
that the parts of leaves covered with sooty mold produce
less starch than the parts not covered.
SUMMARY OF LIFE HISTORY.
The young of the citrus whitefly (sometimes incorrectly
called eggs) are scale-like, and live on the under surfaces
of the leaves. They pass through five stages of develop
ment, increasing from about one-eightieth of an inch to
about one-eighteenth of an inch in length. The sixth
stage, or final one, is the adult winged whitefly. The
first four stages are spoken of as the first, second, third
and fourth larval stages; and the fifth stage, the transfor-
mation stage from which the winged whitefly emerges, is
called the pupa.
The best time to spread the whitefly-destroying fungi or
to spray with contact insecticides is when these insects
are mostly in the first three larval stages, or while they
are still in the thin, flat condition of the fourth stage.
(For a detailed discussion, read what is said under the
heading of "Experiments in Spraying" on a later page.)
Those in the thickened condition of the four h or in the
pupal stage, are less easily killed, requiring a stronger
insecticide. The eggs of the whitefly cannot be destroyed
by ordinary insecticides, and it is useless to spray the
winged adults. The whitefly begins its larval develop-
ment about 10 days or two weeks after the swarming
periods in -[i IuI_. summer, and fall. In other words, the
eggs hatch in 10 to 14 days, and there are three broods of
larvae. The spring brood of adults is definitely separated
in time from the summer brood, the intervening period
being occupied by the spring brood of larvae, which may
be expected in March, April or May, according to season
and locality. The summer brood and tlhe late to early
fall brood are not so definitely separated as the spring
and summer broods of adults, because during the warm
weather the adults are emerging nearly all the time; but
large numbers of larvae are present during parts of July
and August. The late summer to early fall brood is again
separated from the next spring brood by nearly the whole
of the fall, the whole of the winter, and sometimes a part
of the spring.
METHODS OF CONTROL.
There are three methods of control-the fungus dis-
eases, spraying with insecticides, and fumigation.
THE FUNGUS DISEASES.
It is a well-established fact, but not a widely known
one, that insects are subject to diseases as well as other
animals and man. Among the principal agents responsi-
ble for ihe diseases of insects are certain parasitic fungi,
and the whitefly, fortunately for us, is subject to attack
by at least six of them. These are ihe red fungus (Astch-
ersonia y,,,,, ;..*) yellow fungus (Aschersonia flavo-
c ,'ril a brown fungus (l (f/lcrila rcWbbri Fawcett), c(ina-
mon fungus (Vrcticilli] in iclcrocladmim), white-fringe
Sporotrichun related 1o lhe chinchbug fungus. These are
all parasites of Ihe larvae of whitefly, except the last one,
which has occasionally been found infesiing dead adult
whiteflies, and presumably had caused their death.
As it is not within the scope of this paper to fully dis-
cuss each of these fungi, the red Aschersonia will alone
be treated in some detail as a typical fungus, while brief
statements with regard to the others will follow.
THE RED FUNGUS.
This important fungus, the red Aschersonia, has given
satisfactory results in localities where the summer rains
were normal, or where the trees were in good condition
generally, the fungus could not always be depended upon
to check the whitefly or to bring the trees back into good
HELPING THE FUNGUs.-By diligent effort at spreading
the fungus, especially during periods of rain, some relief
can be obtained even under otherwise adverse conditions,
if these be not extreme. In the grove of Mr. W. E. Heath-
cote, of St. Petersburg, Florida, inio which this fungus
had been introduced the previous year, and in which it
was not thriving especially well and was giving only in-
adequate relief, a single spraying of the fungus spores
was made in August, 190S, into (i trees, and the entomolo-
gist counted, as a result, something like 10 times the
amount of fungus in these trees that was found in those
on each side. Ten times as much fungus, of course, im-
)lies len times as many n Iiii.-ly larvae killed, and indi-
cates 1hlit, in many instances, diligent application of the
fungus spores would give results more than repaying the
time and money spent. Introductions of fungus should
be thoroughly made, and if necessary repeated several
times during the period of summer rains. We must not
expect the fungus to do all the work unaided, but must
help it destroy the whitefly by spreading it at the best
EXPERIMENTS IN SPREADING FUNGUS.
In this connection the writer desires to refer to the
results produced by fungus in several groves into which it
was introduced artificially. The first of these is the R. S.
Sheldon grove at New Smyrna. The first introduction of
the red fungus (red Aschersonia) in this grove was made
by spraying spores under the writer's directions in Octo-
ber, 1006. A very small amount of fungus developed that
fall, but it spread well during the next summer and no
more was introduced before 1908. During the spring of
the latter year some fungus was distributed by pinning
leaves. On August 22, 1908, the writer sprayed spores of
the red fungus into a few isolated trees near the Sheldon
house. But little, if any, fungus had developed in these
trees previously and none had been introduced. BIy Sep-
tember 1V, 66 per cent. of the larvae counted upon seven
leaves, selected from some collected by Mr. Sheldon from
The trees sprayed August 22, were infected by the fungus
and dead. This happened in less than one month. The
empty pupa cases were counted as live larvae in making
the calculations. Following these excellent results, Mr.
Sheldon continued to spread fungus by spraying the
spores during ihe rest of September. Notes tlpon the grove
were again taken on April 21, 190!), as follows:
Grove has been practically cleaned of whitefly. There has
been fungus by the bushel, and other people have been collect-
ing it for their use. Fungus is now becoming much weathered
and is peeling off, but there is still plenty. Grove has a fine
new growth and many trees have set a good crop. Perhaps one-
tenth as '!:iny adults oil new growth as in other groves in lown
where no fungus wa>'a a applied. North third of grove has more
adult whiteliics because it is opposite a badly infested grove that
w;s not treated.
Considering the fact that this grove was not isolated
but was exposed to reinfestation, the results mostl be con-i
sidered very satisfactory. The whitefly was brought under
control in just about two years. On tie other hand, the
writer now believes lhat the same results might have been
all ined in less lhan one year if the first spreading of fun-
gus hal been made during the period of sunimner rains.
In fact, it appears lhat the work might have been accom-
plished in something like a month if we had spread fungus
through the whole grove in August, 1908, as was done on
the few trees referred to above.
The lirst part of the work was an experiment designed
to give us accurate data as to the rapidly with which the
fungus spreads under those circumstances, and lhe con-
trol of the whitefly in the grove as a whole was a secon-
On July 9, 1910, Mr. Sheldon kindly furnished the fol-
lowing data. The crop of fruit for 1909 was abundant, of
good quality, and clean. There were but few whiteflies
in 109 and very little sooty mold. Whitelly considerable
in 1910 but so far very little sooty mold. Red fungus was
spread in 1909, but so far none in 1910, because fungus
is scarce. No other repressive measures have been taken.
On December 22, 1909, the writer visited the 6-acre
orange and pomelo grove of Mrs. A. P. Gunther, at Pier-
son, and made the following notes:
The larvae were in the flat condition of fourth stage and older.
Perhaps average of one alive per leaf. The first trees to become
covered with sooty mold were observed in summer of 1907. Con-
siderable numbers of larvae dead from unknown cause ':x i-
nation lasted one hour. Sir. E. Gunther says fall brood of ,;iulbs
not nearly so large as spring brood. Very good spread o' red
fungus (Aschersonia). Dozens to hundreds of ptiutulps pi leaf.
The fun-Lus was first introduced by Mr. Frank Sirirlin, of De-
Lnnd, early in the season; several introductions were nuiil later.
Trees look very healthy, thrifty and good color. Good crop last
year. Tangerines and pomelos bearing a small crop this year.
Oranges about one-half crop; some fruit covered with socly 1mold
and required washing.
The irsulis in this grove appeared oi 1,e satis!facht,;y in
so far as the whitelly was concerned, nind but li!le. if
any, better results could have been obtained by anyv other
method under the same conditions of exposure to riinfes-
tation. This grove appears to be an instance in which
diligent spreading of (le fungus, aided by the "unknown
cause" referred to in the notes, reduced the whitefly to a
condition of comparatively little importance in one sea-
Other illustrations of the effectiveness of introducing
and spreading the fungi artificially under favorable con-
ditions could be given. It is not the writer's wish, how-
ever, to make the fungi appear as a panacea for the white-
fly, since their usefulness may be greatly limited in dry
localities and during periods of drought. It appears
desirable, however, to briefly report upon the fungus work
of Mr. Frank Stirling, of DeLand.
During 1908 Mr. Frank Stirling, of DeLand, began to
spray fungus spores on an extensive scale. That year he
treated between eight and nine thousand trees, in and
near DeLaud. IDuring the spring and summer of 1909,
wiih one or Iwo helpers, he sprayed fungus spores into
127,501 trees. That is, he made 127,50(0 spraying, many
trees being sprayed many tim:.s. This spraying was main-
ly of the red lungus, but some yellow and some brown
fungi were also used. The best results were had with the
red fungus, but the brown did well later in the season.
The yellow fungus (Asehersoni'a), \r. Stirling says, is a
"hustler" for the cloudy-Nwiiged species of whitefly. Groves
belonging to 58 owners were sprayed at a contract price
of 2 cents per ree. This spring and summer (19101 Mr.
Stirling is continuiilg to spray fung'us spores. It will
thus be seen that the method of spreading fungus as di-
rected by the Experiment Station is receiving a most
The entomologist has had occassion to examine person-
ally only two of the groves treated by Mr. Stirling during
1!~i!. These are the (uniter grove at Pierson, referred
to o1, a former page, and the Temple groves at Winter
Park. The results in Mr. Temple's groves appear to be
about equal lo two good sprayings with insecticides, but
at less cost. Two spraying in 1!)!t, with linugus, one in
May and one in July, cost 4 cents per tree; to have
sprayed with insecticides would have cost 25 to 30 cents
per tree. Mr. Stirling is again treating Mr. Temple's
trees this season. On April 21, 1910, Mr. Stirling said
that in the Stelson groves at DeLand, some of which were
sprayed five times with fungus during the season of 1909,
the whitefly was held in check and kept from spreading;
and had not fungus been spread, one-third of the fruit
would have been covered with sooty mold.
KImE'ING TmIES Tnlli'rTY.--It should be added here that
proper fertilizing and cultivation of the trees is impor-
tant, since a thrifty tree full of healthy foliage presents
conditions favorable for the growth of 1he Iprasitic fungi
of the whitefly, iand, of course, can belter witl.stand lhe
attacks of insects, Irrigation would also frequently bene-
fit the trees and favor the fungus parasites of whiilly
and of scales.
INTRODUCING THE RED) FUNGUS.
In order to start a growth of the red Aschersonim, it is
only necessary to spray a mixture of tie fungus spores
in water ont lo the whiteily larvae in the infisled trees.
The spores of the fuing.s are produced in enormous 1num
hers in the red elevii ions or p1suiles covering ile dead
larvae. rThey vary i considerably in size, and l:3,i)i00i,(l) to as
many as 52,000,000 could be arranged, one layer tMhick,
upon the surface of a square inch. About 40 pustules to
a pint of water have given good results. More can lie
used, or less, if fungus is scarce. :It is not necessary to
allow the leaves with fungus to soak longer than 5 to 10
minutes, but a longer time does no harm, and the mixture
of spores and water may even be allowed to stand for
12 to 14 hours without injury. The mixture of spores and
water should be strained through coarse cheescloit or a
fine wire sieve in order to remove all particles liable to
clog the pump. Mixtures of fungus spores and water
should not lIe allowed to stand in copper or brass pumps
or vessels. It is best to avoid copper and brIass vess" l
altogether, since Ihe copper may injure the spores.
Growths of fungus can generally be observed wilt tle
unaided eye in about three weeks after spraying the
spores. The most successful introductions of the red
Aschersonia have been made during periods of rain at a
time when the whitefly larvae were young. Thus one of
the most luxuriant grow ths of lie lRed As(hersonia that
the writer succeeded in getting was at DeLand during a
period of rain in April, 19S, at which time also the larvae
of the spring bro(d were in hfe early stage of develop-
ment and very susceptible to infection by fungus. (en-
erally speaking, the period of summer rains is the most
certain time to spread fungus and lo introduce it into
new places. Seed fungus can generally be obtained from
whitefy-infested groves into whlicl the fungi have been
previously introduced or in which they occur naturally.
Since the fungi do not spread .luring the winter, but are
nearly dormant, seed fungus is sometimes scarce during
the spring months, but soiec can generally be obtained.
By miidsunmmer a crop of fungus will have matured upon
the spring brood of whitefly larvae so that fiung'us is then
abundant. One should not attempt to introduce fungus
after the period of summer riiins is over, unless it is de-
sired to spray the spores when seed fungus; is m os1 plenti-
ful, preparnaory to having all early start when spring
opens as late as October, Noveimbler add December. and
while but a meager infection resulted, this spread rapidly
duinig lhe following spring and suminer, as soon as sufli-
cicnl moisture and waimth were present. The dala and
complete details of experiments will not be needed here
since they were published in Bulletin 97, page 4,; in the
Annual Rleport for 1907, page xxxii; in the Annual Report
for 1O0S, page liv; and in the Annual Iepori for 1!0!),
page xl. On a small place the mixture of spores and
water may be applied by a whisk broom when no pump
The methods for introducing any of the other fungus
parasites previously mentioned are in general the same
as the method just described for the red Aschersonia. Of
these fungi the red and the yellow Aschersonia can be
introduced with the greatest certainty, and on the whole
are generally the most efficient, excepting the brown fun-
gus when conditions for it are right.
One important point in regard to the yellow Ascherso-
nia must not be omitted. This fungus will thrive only
upon the cloudy-winged whitefly. This fact, which is
fully discussed in Bulletin 97, page 52, and in the Annual
Report for 1909, page xxxvi, is important, since it would
be useless to introduce the yellow fungus on the while-
Pinning leaves having whilelly larvae infected with a
fungus upon them has been extensively practiced in the
past, but spore-spraying has now almost entirely displaced
this method. If leaves are used, each leaf should be
pinned with its fungus side down to the lower surface of
a leaf of the whitetly-infested tree, since the fungus will
be more readily distributed by natural agencies when in
its natural position.
ARTIFICIAL CULTURE OF FUNGUS.
All the fungus parasites of the whitefly can be readily
grown artificially upon sterilized sweet potato and other
media employed for such purposes. This was proven over
two years ago by the Plant Pathologist, Prof. H. S. Faw-
cett, and the methods were described in his paper on
"Fungi Parasitic Upon Aleyrodes Citri," Special Studies
No. 1, University of the State of Florida, June, 1908. The
brown fungus (Aegerita webbri, Fawcett) is the only one
which has so far failed to produce spores in artificial cul-
tures. Artificial cultures of this fungus can not at pres-
ent be used for spraying, as can those of the other fungi
The red fungus has been grown extensively in the wri-
ter's laboratory on sterilized sweet potato, either in the
form of plugs or finely ground. The best results were
obtained when the plugs or ground sweet potatoes were
placed in one-fourth pint and one-half pint wide-mouthed
bottles, which were carefully stoppered with plugs of cot-
ton batten. The potato was placed in the bottles which
were then stoppered with the cotton batten, and sterilized
by steam. Sterilizing destroys all the germ life in the
bottle and on the potato. This is necessary, for otherwise
the development of bacteria and other fungi would choke
out the slow-growing red fungus. The plug of cotton bat-
ten keeps out all undesirable grems, but allows air to
pass. The spores of the fungus are introduced into the
bottles either by spraying them in sterilized water with
a small atomizer, or by streaking them on with a sterilized
platinum needle. The work must be done in a properly
prepared dust-proof room.
The last culture of red fungus consisted of about 50
bottles. Fungus grown as just described can be employed
for introducing into whitefly-infested groves as success-
fully as that occurring naturally. This has been repeat-
edly proven in infested trees near Gainesville and at other
places. Since the natural supply of red fungus has been
generally sufficient, it is not probable that it will become
necessary to grow it artificially; but should it become nec-
essary to supply the artificially-grown fungus, this can be
done in ton lots or larger with proper equipment.
While the spores of this fungus germinate in 24 to 48
hours, fungus growth does not become visible on sweet
potatoes for about 7 days. This time is about the same
as upon whitefly larvae. Some spores are formed in 20
to 30 days; and this again corresponds with the develop-
ment upon whitefly larvae. Spore formation appears to
be completed in about 30 to 60 days. The fungus mass
will then be of a light brick-red; in fact, the appearance
of this color may be taken as evidence that spores are
forming. The fungus should be used at that time, but it
will keep for a month, and longer during the winter and
early spring. This fungus does not readily become weak-
ened, or lose its virulence, by successive growths upon
sweet potato as a culture medium, since successful
growths of fungus have been started upon whitefly larvae
from each of the first five generations.
What has just been stated in regard to the red fungus
holds generally true for the yellow fungus, except that
no extensive cultures of this fungus upon sweet potato
have been made.
TiITATMIIENT WITII INSECTICIDES.
In dry ties, and in groves out of condition, the fungi
nmy not thrive sufficiently, and it may become necessary
to spray w\ilh insecticides, or to fumigate.
-Sp saying with insecteides has fallen more or less into
disfavor. Operations and experiments of the Florida
Ixperimiient Stalion during the past year indicate clearly
that elteclive spraying can be done. The difficulties in the
past have risen from spraying being done at tlie wrong
time, or were due to a lack of thoroughness, or to rein fes-
tation from surrounding groves. The diticulty of doing
the work so thoroughly that the under surfaces of all the
leaves become wet wilh the spraying solution can be over-
come in part by taking special care, and by spraying at a
pressure of 100 pounds or over.
Spraying for whitefly can be carried on successfully
during that portion of any season when most of the in-
sects are in the larval or pupal stages. During the fall
(beginning with October) and the greater part of the
winter we find the whilelly in the larval stages, and later
in winter in the pupal stages. Ihuring a part of April or
May, soon after the disappearance of the spring brood of
adults, there is another period of about a month when but
few adult whitellies are present and the eggs have
hatched. After May until the end of September all stages
of the whitefly, including Ihe adults, are generally pres-
ent. During this period rains occur frequently, while
the adults fly away from the spray, and the (..- are not
generally destroyed by it. Spraying should tlen be done
only when necessary to save the trees.
EXPIERI.IENTS IN Sl'RAYlIN(.
In some orange Iree.- (Mr1. I F. llamipton's grove near
Gainesville) which v ere sprayed on Miay 7, 190;), with
"Golddust" at a strei gtlh olf 1 pound io 4 gallons of water,
91 per cent. of all larvae of the firsi to the third stages
were dead after 10 days. The percentages of foirtlh-stage
larvae killed was only :0.
These are the results of coniiiiig lhe dead andl live lar-
vae on 10 leaves, selected as representative of good spray-
ing. On 36 leaves an average of !2 per cent. oI' all stages
were killed. (An. Rept. 190, )! xliii Allowance was
made lor natural mortality, (he percentage of which was
computed upon leaves from mnlspray,,d irees. The follow-
ing telnperature conditions existed on Ihe day tlie spray-
ing was made and during 6 days IlHereafter: