• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Some vegetables and forage...
 Condition and prospective yield...
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00021
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Some vegetables and forage crops
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Tomato growing in Florida
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Irish potato growing in Florida
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        The home dairy in Florida
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Japanese cane
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Sorghum for slage and forage
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Dwarf Essex rape for winter forage
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Condition and prospective yield of crops
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Special samples
            Page 69
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Market prices of chemicals and fertilizing materials at Florida sea ports
            Page 74
            Page 75
        New York wholesale prices
            Page 76
            Page 77
        State valuations
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Composition of fertilizer materials
            Page 80
        Average composition of commercial feed stuffs
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Commercial state values of feed stuffs for 1911
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Amendment to Circular no. 2 of July 15, 1911
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Official fertilizer analyses
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
        Special feeding stuff analyses
            Page 105
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
        Special food analyses
            Page 112
            Page 113
Full Text



.l ,tI.


VOLUME 21


NUMBER 4


FLORIDA
QUARTERLY


BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCT. 1, 1911


B. E. MCLIN
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part I--Some Vegetables and Forage Crops.
Part 2--Crop Conditions and Prospective Yields.
Part 3--Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.
Part 4--Circular 3, Foods and Drugs.

Entered January 31,1903, at Tallahassee Florida. as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED fREE TO HOSE REQUESTING THEM


T. J. APPLEYARD. State Printer
Tallahassee, Fla.
-09p-


I I










COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA



















PART

SOME VEGETABLES AND


I.

FORAGE CROPS.

















TOMATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.


The Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the
order Solanaceae or Night-shade family which contains
something over twelve hundred species, among which are
three of our most valuable and important vegetables-the
Irish potato, the tomato and the egg-plant. It also in-
cludes the red pepper, and the narcotics, such as bitter-
sweet, belladonna, Jamestown or "Jimson weed," the to-
bacco and others.
The Tomato was first introduced into Europe from
South America in 1596, but for many years it was planted
only as an ornament to the flower garden. It came into
use very gradually in the preparation of sauces and soups,
and has only attained its popularity as a table vegetable
in comparatively recent years. Its importance as an article
of commerce really dales back little more than twenty
years, and as compared with the present it was then in-
deed of small proportions, though at that time the increas-
ing annual crop was watched in fear and much suspicion
as to the i,robable effect on the markets. At present in
Florida it exceeds in volume and value nearly four times
Ihat of the next most important vegetable crop (Irish po-
tatoes). In 1910 the crates marketed were 2, 36,9 IS, the
net value of which was .-2.':.;.'.20. The Tomato, therefore
is Florida's greatest vegetable crop, standing next in im-
portance and value to the Orange.

SELECTION OF SOIL.

The Tomato will resist drought better than it will too
much rain, in fact it stands drought better than most veg-
etables; the soil therefore best adapted to this crop is a
good well drained sandy loam. The Tomato is not a gross
feeder; it seems to prefer a light soil to one that is too
fertile, or that has been made rich with heavy animal
manures; cow manure in moderate quantities is good, but
chemical manures in proper quantities are best in most
cases.











SEED BEDS.

We do not believe in the extreme views of some growers,
who plant the seeds directly in the field, where the crop is
to be produced. A seed bed is really indispensable; it
makes success more certain and it should be well equipped
to afford speedy and ample protection against cold, and
of ample dimensions to furnish a relay of plants, if the
first setting is destroyed by cold, and even a second relay
is often necessary, for some times even these reserve forces
have to be brought into action.
It is best to have three or even four good, large plants
provided in the seed bed for every one the planter expects
to raise to maturity. This is the true wisdom of the fore-
sighted and provident grower, who, by his strong manage-
ment will force success against obstacles before which
weaker men will go down in defeat. The tomato is a feeble
plant in its infancy and an easy prey to frost and mys-
terious fungus enemies-yet, if we faithfully defend and
feed it, it will yield the dollars at last more generously
than anything else except the prodigal orange.
The seed-beds may be of light, rich, sandy loam, raised
a few inches above the level of the ground. It is consid-
ered best to have them six feet wide, and as long as desired,
running east and west. Have on the north side a tight
board wall, three feet high, on the south side half as high,
with tightly boarded gables. This will give a shed-roof
with light rafters nailed across, on which to roll down
the roof of cloth, tacked to rollers anywhere from Ihirty to
fifty feet long.
Let the rafters have no projection, so that the cloth may
drop down snugly against the south wall. Siuh a cover-
ing of cloth alone will protect the plants against a white
frost; a sheet iron coke burner, such as the pineapple men
and orange growers use, placed every fifty or seventy-five
feet, will protect them against a black frost.
Make drills crossways of the beds, three to four inches
apart, sow the seed in thinly, say about two or three to
the inch. Cover three-fourths of an inch. Firm the soil
with a board or light roller, and water with a light spray,
as may be needed to keep the soil moist, but be sure not to
overdo it as too much moisture will cause the plants to
damp off, and to grow small and slender, specially near the
front and back walls of the frame. It is therefore advis-
able to sow the seed more tlinly near the front and back












than in the middle of the bed. Roll down the cover on
-chilly nights.
When the plants begin to have four leaves, cultivate
lightly at least once a week. Pull out clumps of spindling
plants where the seed chanced to fall in a bunch. Thin to
three inches by cutting across the drills with a narrow hoe.
Where the plantation does not exceed a half-dozen acres,
it pays to take up and reset the plants once or twice to
render them more hardy and stocky. To toughen them
against this removal it is recommended to reduce their
supply of water for about ten days to render them some-
what dormant. This is to be continued up to the hour of
removal. This may be done without fear as the tomato is
very tolerant of a transfer.

TRANSPLANTING TO THE FIELD.

First, make ready the field two weeks beforehand. Sup-
posing it to have been plowed in November and thoroughly
cross-plowed in January, then with a two-horse plow run
out furrows four feet apart and strew in the fertilizer at
the rate of 600 pounds per acre. Work in a little of the
furrow slice and mix it with the fertilizer with a bull-
tongue. Strew in as much more and mix again, thus giv-
ing 1,200 pounds per acre and leaving the surface level.
Set lhe plants two to three feet apart, according to the
strength of lthe land. Some growers prefer to manure the
plants in the hill, which probably saves in the amount of
fertilizer required per acre, but either plan is good, one
about as good as another, and is largely a matter of choice
only.
Reject rigorously all weakling plants. Leave them in
the seed-bed to grow; when relieved of the crowding, they
may come on and furnish a relay, if needed. Wet the
ground soft and pull the plants up carefully, running the
f. ..-rii,:.r under, if necessary. Wet the rows down again
to restore llhe level after the upheaval.
We have very little confidence in plantsetting machines
with tomatoes. They are fine, and great time and labor
savers in the planting of some crops, but not for tomatoes,
they are too tender and easily bruised. The way is to set
by hand with the best-paid class of men and not with chil-
dren at all. Children are only fit to pick cut-worms. Take
hold of a plant and pull; if the leaf comes off, the plant
was properly set; if the plant comes up, the setting was











poorly done. Caution the setters constantly against leav-
ing airholes at the bottom; make them fill in at the bottom
first, then at the top. Firm the carth; have an experienced
man follow along; place one foot on each side of the plant;
rock a little forward and throw his whole weight on his
toes, opposite the plant.
Keep the plants screened from the sun, in a vessel wilh
water enough to cover their roots. Let each setter have
his own vessel of plants; take one out at a time and imme-
diately place it in a hole punched in the ground, not ex-
posing the roots to the air two seconds.

CULTIVATION.

This is as simple as with corn. It may be deep and close
for a few weeks, but keeping further away and more shal-
low as the plant advances, ceasing when the bloom buds
come.
There is little doubt that staking the plant and nipping
out the terminal bud above the first cluster of bloom
hastens the maturity and improves the size of the toma-
toes; but it is questionable if it will pay with the present
prices of labor. In a small field tended by the grower's
family, it would probably be profitable. Do not prune tlhe
plants i' you expect to ship your fruit to market; you will
get fewer but larger fruit, but it will not pay you.
When picking the earliest fruits it should be remem-
bered that the cold weather in the North will permit them
to ripen very little on the road; hence they should not be
gathered until they have begun to redden slightly. A
greener one would remain hard and unea;table and rol be-
fore it would ripen. Later on, as the weather in the Norith
grows warmer, they may he picked when they have fairly
turned white, preparatory to reddening. An immature to-
mato removed from the plants always remains more or
less tough. This objection may be remedied to a consid-
erable extent by proper fertilizing. A tomato grown on a
well-proportioned strongly mineral fertilizer will h1 com-
paratively crisp and melting in the mouth, while one pro-
duced on nitrogenous manures will be tough and wil d.
The tomato, though it is so great a crop, is well worth
being treated as a fancy product. In fact, all the early pro
duce of Florida is deserving of this distinction. Coarse,
brown wrapping paper cheapens the fruit. The buyer is
only too ready to take it at the grower's own estimate.











Valuable packages are not wrapped in hardware paper.
The best printed tissue wraps should be used, and-let the
fruit also be worthy of the wrappings.


VARIETIES.

There are such a large number of equally good varieties
to choose from that one can hardly go amiss, and while at
one time it was thought that only one or two kinds would
bear shipment, continued improvements with new varie-
tiek have so changed these conditions that it is largely a
matter of choice or personal preference as to which is best
in the grower's opinion.


BLIGHT AND INSECT.

With the tomato, as with all other vegetables in this
State, no precaution against insects should be neglected;
prevention is much easier than medication. The one pre-
eminent precaution is to use strong tobacco dust sprinkled
around the plants as soon as they are set out. Blight is
also far easier to overcome in advance. Burn all the old
vines as soon as the harvest is over, thus destroying the
germs of blight or other diseases. II: is best to plant toma-
toes in rotation with crops that are affected with diseases
different from the tomato, such as corn, cabbages, pep-
pers, etc.

FERTILIZER.

A good fertilizer for rather light soil would be composed
of say-
No. 1.
Per Cent.
1,000 lbs. of Blood and Bone (6Q-S)............ 4 Ammonia
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.) .. 8 Availble
500 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).... 10 Potash
400 lbs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.). 10 P

2,000
State value mixed and bagged............ $34.50
Plant Food per ton........................440 pounds











10

For heavier soils, as the best class of sandy or clay
loams:
No. 2.


500 lbs. of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent.)
200 lbs. of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.)...
900 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)
400 lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.).. J

2,000


Per Cent.
4.00 Ammonia
7.70 Available
9.60 Potash


State value mixed and bagged............ $33.76
Plant Food per ton.........................426 pounds















IRISH POTATO GROWING IN FLORIDA.


The potato (Solanum Tuberosum) belongs to the family
Solanacea the same as the tomato, egg-plant, belladona,
etc. Solanin the active principle is found in small propor-
tions and is poison to a small extent. This poison is de-
veloped when the surface turns green from exposure to the
direct rays of the sunlight and is therefore unwholesome
as well as unpalatable when in that condition. For this
reason sprouted or greenish colored potatoes are less val-
uable for food even though in the process of cooking a
change is effected in the composition of the tuber.
The Chief organic ingredient of the potato is starch
which forms about one-tenth of its weight. According to
history it was first introduced into Europe by the Span-
iards from South America. It still grows wild in the moun-
tain regions of Chili. It also has been found indigenous to
Arizona and Mexico. It was introduced into England from
Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh. It is said that "The po-
tato is one of the greatest blessings bestowed upon man-
kind for next to rice, it affords sustenance to more human
beings than am- other gift of God." It is one of the few
food proilucs that can be consumed exclusively as a food
without limit as to time with no injury to the system; it
is a ration in itself that will sustain life and strength for
a great while. It is a wonderful provision of nature, that
the family which embraces the deadly night shade, and
other very poisonous plants, should also have among its
members this most useful vegetable. Of all the crops of
the truck-farmer, the potato is the one which is always
saleable at more or less remunerative prices, its general
use among all classes and nativities of population, makes
it perhaps the most universally planted vegetable known.
The potato tuber is not a root, as it has neither root hairs
itself, nor has the stem which connects it with the stock
either fibrous roots or hairs and, therefore, does not pro-
vide the plant with nourishment; neither is it a seed any
more than a stalk of sugar cane is a seed, both having eyes.
The potato is simply an enlarged underground stem, the
eyes of which are also the buds. As is well known the











larger number of the eyes are on the end of the tuber op-
posite from where the stem connects with the plant. When
the potato has dried out to a considerable extent and the
atmospheric conditions are favorable, the eyes or buds
will swell and begin to grow or sprout out. Until roots
put forth these shoots are dependent on the moisture and
starch in the tuber for their support, the same as seeds;
these eyes, however, are independent of each other, which
enables the cutting of the tuber into numerous parts for
planting. If the tuber and eyes are both sound, the shoots
will grow and make healthy plants, provided conditions
are favorable, whether they be planted whole or in pieces
with single eyes.
In cutting potatoes to single eyes, the cutter should
commence at the stem end, where the eyes are fewer in
number, and slice the pieces to single eyes each, in such a
way as to distribute the greatest amount of the tuber-sub-
stance possible with each piece. A good rule is, cut all
medium to large potatoes to single eyes whether sprouted
or not. Small potatoes may not all mature enough to grow
strong sprouts, but if a small potato is matured enough to
put forth strong sprouts, cut it also to single eyes for very
little substance will supply their support, but if the potato
has not sprouted it may be planted whole without much
danger of it pum ting forth more than one stalk.
A potato delights in a comparatively cool atmosphere
and moist soil and therefore thrives best in cool months of
the early spring and fall. Mulching with leaves to retain
moisture often produces a good crop even if the season is
very dry as the vegetable master serves to conserve the
moisture in the soil. Thle soil best adapted to this crop is
a rich sandy loam or a moderately li.:lht clay loam under-
laid by a s bl-soil of a character to retain moisture. It
should lie plowed deeply and Ihoroughly pulverized. Plow
and narrow until it is put in a thoroughly good condition
and well rotted stable manure may be applied broad-cast,
should there be a lack of humus in the soil, but in the event
the stable manure is applied, it should be done for spring
crops early in the season or very late in the fall months. If
too much green manure is applied it is apt to produce seab.
The land should be broken a month or six weeks before
time for planting. It should be broken with a two-horse
turn plow and subsoiled if possible. Into these furrows
put a complete commercial fertilizer at the rate of 800 to
2,000 pounds per acre depending on the character of lhe












soil. Mix this with the soil and the subsoil by running two
furrows with a long narrow bull tongue plow so as to thor-
oughly mix the fertilizer with the soil then let stand for
ten to twelve days before planting. Cut the tubers as pre-
viously stated and plant when ready covering about four
inches deep.

VARIETIES.
The best varieties for planting in the South and especi-
ally in Florida, are the early and extra early varieties,
such as the Bliss' Red Triumph, Bliss' White Triumph,
Irish Cobbler, Improved Rose Number 4, Dixie and Extra
Early Sun Light. These are the extra early and the best
for growing in Florida for the first crop. Second earlies can
in some sections be grown with profit, but not generally
throughout the State for commercial purposes. Beauty of
Hebron, Early Rose and Carmen No. 3 are favorite second
early varieties. Burbank and Peerless are late standard
varieties for little later growing.
The time of planting potatoes in Florida depends upon
the section of the State. In the far southern portions they
can be planted as early as December growing later up to
March as we go further north, indicating the change neces-
sary to conform to the seasons and location, the difference
being about ten to twelve days for each 100 miles.
The cultivation of potatoes is very similar to that of
corn. Plow deep at first and shallower with each working
until ready to lay by. In this way the roots that feed the
plants will not be troubled and the process of making the
tuber will not be interfered with. When the vines turn
yellow the tubers are ready to dig which can best be done
with an ordinary pronged potato hoe and the man. In
some of the light sandy soils potato diggers are success-
fully used and can be successfully used in most Florida
soils. The digger should not be permitted to pile them
roughly into piles or throw them roughly into the baskets.
The more carefully a vegetable is handled the better it will
strike the public eye and consequently the more money it
will bring the grower. Whatever may be its size, no cut
or bruised potatoes should be put in the first quality, but
may be in the culls. The barrels or baskets should be well
shaken down and so full that the heads have to be pressed
down. It is better that they should be double headed and
well coopered. The potatoes should be classed as first and











second quality and the culls, the small tubers, should be
kept for feed purposes or seed as suggested elsewhere.
Cloudy weather is best for digging the crop, as potatoes
should not be exposed to the hot sun and if packed while
warmed by the sun they are apt to rot before reaching the
market. If dug during the sun shine, they should be
gathered as they are dug and carefully emptied into bask-
ets or barrels and promptly hauled from the field or shaded
from the rays of the sun. The potato is subject to various
insects and diseases, but in this country a Florida potato
grower has a great deal less to combat in this respect than
those further north and west, but it is unsafe to place full
reliance in this fact because there is no certainty as to
when a disease or insects may attack the plant unsus-
pected. The potato scab is the greatest trouble to the po-
tato grower in Florida. This is a fungus disease and can
be prevented in a large measure by treating the pieces of
potato before planting with solution of corrosive sublimate
or formalin and a good plan to prevent this disease is to
burn the vines wherever there is any appearance of the dis-
ease about them. The solution for treating this disease is
corrosive sublimate, 4 ounces to 30 gallons of water. Soak
the seed, after being cut, for one hour to one hour and a
half then drain. The formalin solution is one pint to 30
gallons of water. The potatoes are immersed in this latter
solution for about two hours. A good plan to use in im-
mersing potatoes in these solutions is to put them one-half
bushel or so at a time in a gunny sack then lift them out
and let the water drain back into the vessel. Any other
clean sack will answer the purpose if desired. As soon as
this is done spread them out and let them dry so that they
will dry quickly and thoroughly. Be sure that the solu-
tions are not too strong or the buds or eyes will be dam-
aged.
There is also a disease known as the late blight which
comes about the time the potatoes are beginning to ma-
ture. This disease can be controlled by spraying with
Bordeaux mixture. In a former Bulletin, the July num-
ber, 1911, the formulas for a'l sorts of sprays, the Bor-
deaux included, will be found.
FERTILIZERS.
The following formulas are adapted practically to all
soils and sections in the State. The planter can choose
which ever seems to suit his soil best.












No. 1.

1,000 lbs. of Blood and Bone (6-8) ..........
100 lbs. of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.)....
500 lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)...
400 lbs. of Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.)


Per Cent.
4 Ammonia
8 Available
10 Potash


2,000
State value mixed and bagged............ $34.50
Plant Food per ton........................440 pounds


No. 2.


lbs. of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent.)
lbs. of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.)....
lbs. of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)
lbs. of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.)..


Per Cent.

4.00 Ammonia
7.70 Available
9.60 Potash


State value mixed and bagged............ $33.76
Plant Food per ton ........................ 426 pounds


500
200
900
400

2,000















THE HOME DAIRY IN FLORIDA.


BY C. K. McQUARRIE.
Assistant Superintendent Farmers' Institute.

The livestock industry of our State is in a backward con-
dition. Why this should be so is a question that seems hard
to answer. There is no section of Uncle Sam's wide do-
main where feeds for live-stock can be produced in greater
variety and in larger quantities than right here in our
State. Every farmer who has embarked in this industry in
Florida, either for beef or dairy products, gives the same
report of low cost of production along his special line. The
livestock industry is the rock bottom foundation of agri-
cultural prosperity the world over. Until the farmers of
our Southland embark in it to the fullest extent, our agri-
cultural prosperity as a section will not be of the highest
grade. Corn alone, or any other single specialty in crop
production, such as cotton or tobacco, never has made a
country universally prosperous, and never will. We must
have the live animal on all our farms, and in sufficient
numbers to maintain and increase our soil fertility in a
way that the contents of a "guano" sack never can. The
importance of the live animals on the farm as a means of
increasing agricultural prosperity is clearly indicated by
the history of nations. A comparison of the types of live-
stock farmers found in the British Isles, Denmark, and
Holland, with the peasant wheat growers of Russia, and
the rice farmers of India, is ample to illustrate the close
relation between livestock and agricultural prosperity.

ADVANTAGES OF LIVESTOCK FARMING.

Livestock farming necessitates rotation of crops and
seeding down some of the land for pasture. It requires ac-
tivity and skillful management the year round. It com-
pels the farmer to keep an outlook on market conditions,
at both the buying and selling ends of his business. It
brings him into contact with his felloWs as buyer and as
seller. It enlarges his outlook on the world, and broadens











his sympathies beyond the mere routine of sowing, culti-
vating and reaping. Mere grain raising or special crop
farming, on the other hand, leads to continuous cropping,
in most cases without proper crop rotation. It does even
worse, it eliminates the meadows and pastures. It involves
a strenuous life for a short season of the year, followed by
a long period of inactivity. It tends to create an itinerant
class of agricultural laborers, and encourages tenant farm-
ing, rather than permanent farm ownership. It fosters the
soil-robbing spirit. Corn farmers, wheat farmers, cotton
farmers, rice farmers, and all grain farmers as a class are
strongly led to overdraw on their soil fertility account.
The men engaged in that class of farming, as a rule, show
but a small interest in the permanent prosperity of agricul-
tu!r. The history of agriculture in all countries in the
world shows that the livestock producers have taken a
leadling p;'rt in maintaining and increasing agricultural
prosperity, and as a class they can always be relied upon
to led the van of progress wherever their lot may be cast.

ADVANTAGES OF FLORIDA FOR DAIRYING.

The money sent out of the State every year for dairy
products is away up in the millions of dollars. This money
could well be kept in the different communities, if we had
enough livestock farmers. The protein feeds necessary to
feed dairy stock can be grown here in profusion and in
great variety. Our cowpea hay, analyzing 16 per cent pro-
tein, is equal pound for pound to the best bran on the mar-
ket. Our velvet bean hay, with almost as high a protein
content as the cowpea, and our never failing beggarweed,
are also equal to any other protein feeds. Then we have
the soy bean, the Kudzu, and a few others that go to make
a varied palatable feed, such as a dairy cow wants. We
have also carbohydrate feeds in abundance, such as Jap-
anese cane, sweet potatoes, cassava, and others, that make
our dairymen independent to a certain extent in the mat-
ter of feeds from outside sources.
Anollier advantage we have in the South over any other
section of the country is our climate. We do not have to
supply an extra 25 per cent. of feed for eight months of the
year to keep up the natural heat of the animal as is the
case during the cold weather that prevails in the northern
States. Another advantage that we have is freedom from
flies and insects of all kinds. While it may be difficult to
2-Bul.










believe, it is nevertheless a fact that in Florida the flies do
not become Ihe pest to cattle that they do in the northern
States, and it is a rare occ('urence to see cattle tear-ing
around) in a half crazed condition trying to get away from
their torl'nlnoi's. True we have the tick, which if allowed
to get too numerous becomes a pest, but it is easily con-
trolledl if Ihe proper met!hotds are usei, such as keeping
cattle well salted and well groomed as all stock should be.
We are also in a well watered section of the United States,
which is an imiportianl. corsideralion for livestock.

THE BEST BREED.

Every dairyman has his own favorite breed, but in Flor
ida the 2ers s seems 1o be the most1 popular. There are sev-
eral reasons for this; but the principal one that concerns
Ihe man that makes butter is that the fat globules in the
Jersey cow's milk are larger than in the milk of the other
breeds. The butter made froml the Jersey cow's milk
stands up better in warm weather, and will not turn oily
as soon as that from other breeds, while its texture is good
all the way through. From personal experience I prefer
a highgrade Jersey, about seven-eighths Jersey and one-
eighth native. This grade of cow will give you a hardy
animal that is a good forager when turned to pasture or on
the range. Its milking capacity will, in most cases, equal
that of the pure stock, and as a general rule it will pro-
duce milk at less cost than the pure Jersey. Such animals
do not require the same care and pampering as the thor-
oughbred, and cold and wet spells of weather do not affect
their milk production so much. Anyone wishing to get
good results and build up a herd of good animals can eas-
ily do so by keeping a full blood Jersey bull, and so grad-
ing up his herd. This bull should be changed every four
or five years to prevent inbreeding. Every dairy man
should raise his own cows by selecting the best of his
heifer calves. By doing this he can build up a herd of a
certain type, and can select the best milkers as they de-
velop their milking qualities, while those not coming up
to the mark can be sold'off.

TRAINING THE CALVES.

To get the best results and develop good milkers, the
calves should not be allowed to run with the cows. When











the calf is dropped it should be taken away and put in a
dry dark stall to dry olf a'd get up its strength by resting.
It should not be disturbed for at least 24 hours, and then
some of its dam's milk may be offered it to drink. If slow
to learn, the middle finger dipped in the milk can be given
it to suck. If, however, it refuses to drink or s:uck, let it
alone for another 12 hours, when it will readily take what
you oiler it. This s cenms at ir-st raiert a crnel practice,
but in the end it is the best mnelhod to mrsue. A cow that
is suicked by her (ctlf will never develop into a g(,i;d mlillker.
heea~se she will iaper eown her milk production as far as
p(s';i ,~o' t lhe calf's needs, 0 as the aIllq' never can suck
her dry, her fiow of milk will gradually decrease to the
:moiint which the calf takes. On the other hand, if the
c c!'p:cities in proportion to lthe feed she gets, and will
ilt :~rally look upon her milker as the one she is providing
for. It is right here that tihe good dairynmn that knows
his business seldom fails to developp the cow's full milk ca-
p'ci:'iy by the proper treatment and judicious fl'eeing nec-
essary at this time in her life.

THE KIND OF BARN.
One great consideration in connection with dairying in
this State is that we do not require the costly and elabo
rate barns that are needed in the northern States. A lean-
to on the south side of the regular barn, entirely open on
the south, is all that we want. The stalls should be made
4 feet wide and 41 feet long, with a cement gutler running
belinld the cows to save all the manure made, both liquid
and stolid. The floor on which the cattle stand, however,
sl.ould be made of board, and so should the platform out-
side the gutter.
An airtight locker or cupboard should be provided in
which to keep the milk as each individual cow is being
milked, and then when the milking is done the separating
should be started right away, the cream put where it be-
longs and the skimmed milk fed to calves and pigs. If
the dairy is located near a market where the milk can be
hauled twice daily, the milk trade is the most profitable;
but the dairy a few miles from town has to cater to the
cream or butter market, and to get a high-grade article a
cream separator must be used. Cream produced by the
gravity system is not of as good quality, and the loss in











butter fat is greater, since much of the cream is not ob-
tained from the milk. With.the separator this is avoided.
Separator cream, being of a smooth velvety texture, makes
a high-grade butter, and the butter fat is completely re-
moved from the milk, thus making the industry more prof-
itable. It has never been successfully contradicted that a
mian with five cows or over can pay seventy-five dollars for
a cream separator and be certain of getting his money
back in a year from the increased yield of cream obtained
by the separator method over the old gravity system of
cream collecting.

I UTTER-MAKING.

It is generally supposed by those who have not studied
the matter that we cannot make solid hard butter in Flor-
ida in the summer time without the liberal use of ice. This
is a mistake, for the natural temperature of the well water,
more particularly in our clay lands, is never over 66 de-
grees and of len 62.
This in itself shows us conclusively that we are in a
dairying section of the country. And having wells dug to
cool the cream in and cylindrical cans to hold it, we can
churn the cream into butter under the most favorable
conditions. The required temperature can be had by keep-
ing the cream in a well; and by using as a starter a table-
spoonful of buttermilk from the last churning we can get
the necessary acidity to make high-grade butter.
It is a well known fact that when one uses ice for cool-
ing purposes Ihe supply has to be kept up or the butter
will get oily. Cream cooled with water at the proper
temperaum e gives a firmer grade of butter than when ice is
used, and the butter stands up better, that is to say, it is
not so apt to get oily and seldom does so.
The kind of churn used influences the quality of butter
very much. A barrel churn is best. One does not want a
churn with any devices or, the inside to break the grain of
the butter, as a dasher in the churn will do. These barrel
churns are fitted with small glass disks on the lid so that
on: can tell when the butter has come. Good butter is
often sp!llr'd by churning too long. One of the greatest
mistakes in butter making is to keep churning so long as
to gather all the butter in one lump. This should never be
done, since it can never be washed thoroughly under those
conditions, and in an effort to wash the buttermilk out of











if the graji ('o the butler is spoiled making it salvy and
oily. Churning should al ays be stopped when the grains
of butler nre aboul the size of a sorghum seed. The butter-
milk is then run off, ani a couple of gallons of clear water
added. ThIe chun.i is thc', turned a dozen revolutions or
so and this water run off. It will then be found that the
residual buttermilk runs off with it, not being mixed up
with the butter as it would be if the butter was gathered
up into a lump. The salting of the butler is of importance.
The finest grade of dairy salt is necessary. This is easily
obtained from dairy supply houses. The market calls for
butter salted at lie rate of an ounce of salt to a pound of
butter. As a gallon of cream will produce about three and
a haIlf pounds of butter we will know what amount of
salt to use without having to weigh the butter. The salt-
ing should be done immediately after the butter is washed,
sprinkling the salt over the butter inside the churn and
mixing it with a wooden paddle. Then leave it in the churn
for a couple 'of hours, when it can be taken out and put
on the butter worker to press out the remaining water and
mix the sal -. I is then ready to print. Tfe print should
be wrapped in parchment paper bearing the name of the
dairv and owner.
\ ith lifti'en years of experience in butter-making in
Florida N \ carl sa\ \ wve never have found much trouble in
Ipro1ulcin..l the highest grade of butter all the year round,
and there is always an unlimited demand for it by the best
families in the community. This trade always calls for
print butter pult up in pound prints or less, and when one
uses his ow\n special mold there will always be a sure
market.

CONCLUS ION.

There are, however, a few minor points along the line
of successful dairying that some of our farmers are per-
haps not prepared for. A dairyman's temperament must
be such that lie is universally kind to animals. Rough
treatment and loud talking in the dairy barn do not pay.
The milk cow is a lady in her own particular sphere, is the
highest type of the brute creation, and she must be treated
accordingly. Absolute cleanliness must be observed every-
where, the cows groomed every day, and before beginning
milking their udders must ble washed and wiped with a
clothl. The man that is not prepared to attend to these im-











portant maIters had better let dairying aionr, aid I~I'e ulp
some branch of farming more suitable to his make up. And
every dairyman Imust nt overlook the fact Ill,. strict ::t-
teution io business is the keynote to success. Dairying
means 365 days in the yiea of constant and careful work
twice a day. IBt at the same time it means a better sys-
tema of farming, maintaining and increasing the feriility
of ith soil, and above all it means more dollars per acre
than any other line of farming that can be engaged in.















JAPANESE CANE.


BY JoTIN M. SCOTT
Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director
Expehi inelilt Station.

INTRODUCTION.

For the successful production of live stock it is impor-
tant to have an abundance of feed and forage at all times.
If tihe natural gra1sses do not afford this, we must plan our
'cro.p rota ion -uo as to supply the feed when needed. It may
be tlhat the ;:natural grasses will supply sullicient fee:l for
all live-stock, except I'or a short period during the winter
mo'i-lis or during a severe drought. It is just at such
time- that the ianimals most need our help. If we fail to
supply :., ;cieat foodi to young growing animals, develop-
menir is retarded or growth stops. We get as a result
und'rsiz.eild and poorly developed beasts, and often what
arlle comonlylIi known as grunts. Suell stunted animals
never de'v;io) into as g,'ood live-stock as do those individu-
als that are kepi growing from birth to maturity.
DI)rii.g the past ten years the numbers of cattle in this
Slate have doubled. (n January 1, 1900, we had 412,820(
hea of cattlle. On Janua ry 1, i910, there were 807,I00
head of cattle. If the number of cattle should increase as
rapidly in the next ten years as in the last ten years, we
shall own one million and a half head in 1920. Such a
rapid increase would require that our farmers take steps
to produce enough forage to properly feed the increment.
There will probably be a like increase in hogs and sheep,
and also a considerable increase in the number of horses
and mules. The needed extra supply of forage can easily
be obtained by the growing of Japanese cane. There is no
otler crop that we can grow that will produce such a large
yield of forage at so small a cost.
Florida is more of a live-stock State than many realize.
On January 1, 1910, there were 807,000 head of cattle, 98,-
000 sheep, and 456,000 hogs. These are all forage-eating
animals. To supply the needs of all these animals we must











provide forage of some kind from November to March.
Japanese cane is a crop that supplies a large amount of
roughage at the very time of the year when the natural pas-
turage is limited. The want of an abundant supply of for-
age is one of ite hindrances to the production of good live-
stock in Florida. Stockmen have been negligent in supply-
ing the necessary food to maintain their live-stock during
the winter seasons and during the times of severe drought.
To produce a good grade of live-stock an abundance of
good feed must be supplied. The best forage to grow is one
that will produce lihe best yield per acre, and that will sup-
ply the largest amount of nutrition in the feed. As well
as being nutritious it must, of course, be palatable.

HI STORY.

Japanese cane was introduced into Florida from the
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station some sixteen or eigh-
teen years ago. The Louisiana Station grew it for a num-
ber of years for comparison with other varieties of sugar-
cane as a source cf sugar and syrup. It is rather probable
that the J.apanese cane was imported from Japan into
Louisiana by General LeDuc, U. S. Commissioner of Agri-
culture, 1878. (There is, however, also a possibility that
it came romin Brazil.) However, the question as to where
it came frlmi is of secondary importance. The question of
mo,st importance is howv we can so handle Japanese cane
as to obtain the hbst results in feeding it to our live-stock.

USES.

Its chief value to llie farmers of Florida is as a forage
crop for the feeding of live-stock. It may be used as silage,
winter paslure, or dry forage. When first introduced to
Florida, Japanese cane was grown for the production of
syrup. In most sections of the State and under the usual
conditions, the regular sugar-canes are much more satis-
faLcory as crops for syrup production. This is because lie
Japanese cane is harder, and requires more power in grind-
ing. It is also more difficult to strip, which increases the
cost of stripping. However, as regards the quality of lihe
syrup, there is but little difference between the regular
sugar-cane and .Japanese cane. The yield of syrup per acre
from Japanese cane will vary from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of Japanese











cane will be all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Ala-
bama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana and southern Texas.
Any section in which the velvet bean will mature seed will
be found a good place to grow the Japanese cane. This will
be up to 200 to 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.

PASTURE.

Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle
of November to March. Cattle waste nut little of it when
pastured. They first eat off the green blades, then the ten-
der joints at the top, and continue to eat from the top until
there is nothing left but the short stubble. It should not
be pastored late in the spring. If pastured after growth
starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will eat off the new
growth and soon kill out the plants. It is not advisable
to pastu re later than March 1, or after new growth begins
in the spring.

SILAGE.

Jap1anese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is
relished by cattle, and lhe yield that can be secured makes
it one of the cheapest and most economical crops that the
Florida fIarmer can grow for silage. It has been used in
feeding experiments with the dairy herd at the Experiment
Siatioln wili quite satisfactory results. The cost of silage
from this crop should not exceed .f1.75 or Y2.00 per ion. As
comnppired with sorglnum or corn silage the cost is about
one-third less for Japanese cane silage.

D1)Y FO1iAGE.

Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry win-
ter forage. It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in stor-
age is small. If it is stored in a barn or slihe there will be
hardly any loss. At the Experiment Station we have stored
it in a barn in November and December and kept it until
the following June and July. Six months after harvesting
there was practically no loss; and when run through a feed
cutter it was relished by cattle, horses and mules. If barn
or shed room is not available, it can be stored in the barn-
yard and fed out as wanted. But with this method lhe loss
will bie considerable. It will be found profitable to pul up a
temporary shed under which to store the dry forage. This












need not be an expensive shelter. It may be made of any
material that will shed rain. It will perhaps be advisable
when stacking the forage to set the butts of the canes on
the ground. In this way the canes absorb some of the
moisture from the soil, and will not dry out so much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding ex-
periment in beef production. In this est the flowing
feeds per 1,000 pounds live w-eight were fed: corn. 12.50;
velvet beans in the pod, L8.75.; sweet potatoes, 20..S; and
Japanese cane, 1I2.5I0 pounds. During a period oi sixty
days the steers made a daily average gain per 1,000 pounds
live weight of 6.5 pounds, at a cost of 4 cents per pound of
gain.

SOIL.

Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils.
Good hamlnock land will no doubt produce the heaviest
yields. iut even the high i,ine lands will give good re-
turns when properly fertilized. On swampy muck haid Jap-
anese cane will make a fairly good growth. On si;h land
tile growth will be greatly increased Iby an applicatiion of
lime (ground limestone, or burnt lime). The amount of
this which it is necessary to apply will depend upon the
amount of acid ih the soil, anid will vary from 2,ti!00 to
6,000 poun'!,s o>' ground limestone, or oni-half these
amounts of airi-slhcked line per a re. An appliecnion at
the rate of 2,001) pounds of ground limestone per >acre on
high pine land on the Experimelnt tatlion falrmi increased
the yield to the extent of 10.37 tons per acre during the
season of 1909.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a few avres of
Japanese cane, whether lie lias the class of soil best suited
to it or not. If it is not the best soil, Japanese cane will
produce as heavy a yield as will any other crop that can
be grown on the same soil, or even a heavier yield. HTigh
pine land properly fertilized will give a yield of 15 to 20
tons per acre. Good hannnock land will produce yields
beyond these figures.

SAVING SEEDCANE.

Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last
many years if properly handled. This in itself causes quite
a saving in the expense of growing the crop. In fact, it











reduces the annual cost of production by about 50 per
cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes or
by divisions of the stools. The cheapest and most econom-
ical way of propagating it is by cane cuttings. Therefore
care and attention must be given to the saving of the seed-
canes. Poor seed-canes, like poor seed, result in poor
stands and unsatisf'actory vields. Tihe seed-canes should
be selected and cut before there is danger of frost, so as to
inspire soundness. The buds will only stand a very slight
frost without injury, and it is not safe to risk possible ex-
posure to frost. The canes should be, cut and banked be-
fore tiere is any likelihood of the lirsi fall frost. The date
for this will, of course, vary in different section of the
State.
Almost every farmer has his own method of banking his
seedcane. Perhaps one method is about as good as an-
other. The important facts to keep in mind are: The canes
should be cov 'red sitliciently deep to protect thlem against
frost; thlie ubnk should be situated so as to get perfect
drainage: if there should be standing water or abundant
nioisture, the canes are likely to rot; if the soil a!boat the
beds should become dry the canes may take the dry rot,
and a l:are amount of the seed be lost. It is, therefore, im-
polrant that we get the proper conditions as to moisture
in tlhe bank where we store our seed-cones. It will be found
better to make two or three small beds than one large one.
It would be well to bank more canes ihan you expect to use
for hinting. 'IThere is always some 1,pssibility of los from
various cases. Sometimes the loss lma not exceed 1)
per cent., while at other times it may be as high as .2 to.
50 per cent.

CANE FOR PLANTING.

The number of canes required to plant an acre will de-
pend upon the distance between the rows, the distance at
which the canes are dropped in the row, and the length to
which the canes are cut. Our experience has shown ihat,
put ing the rows 8 feet apart, 3,000 whole canes are sul-i-
cient to plant an acre; and if good seed is used, are enough
to give an excellent stand. Select only healthy canes, and
reject all that are green and unripe. Plant in rows eight
feet apart. Cut the canes in pieces having three to four
eyes to a piece, and drop them in a double line.











Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to
18 inches apart in the row. By this method of planting it
will only require from 1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an acre.
The disadvantage is, however, that a thin stand will be ob-
tained, which will result in a small yield of forage. This
small yield of forage will not only be for tile first year, but
there will be a light yield for several years. It is nearly
impossible to fill in the missing places properly. Where
new canes are planted in the missing hills, it will be found
that they make either no growth or a very unsatisfactory
one. The old established canes have such an extensive root
system and draw so heavily upon the plant food and soil
moisture, that the new canes have little chance to make
any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of canes should be
obtained at the first plan iing. If only a half or two-thirds
of a sland should be secured, it will follow tlat one-third
to one-half of the crop will le weeds. For weeds will grow
up between the canes unless lthe stand is thick enough to
smolher them out, and it costs less to cullivate an acre that
will produce 20 tons of cane Ihan one of half that yield.
lHece we should obiain :at the start the very best possible
stand.

PREPARATION OF SEE)D-11E)D.

ol'eore plantiing!, I h eground should be plowed broadcast
to a depth of six inches. Hlow under all vegetable growth
on the land. As soon as the land is plowed it should be
harrowed with the looth harrow. Harrow it twice if nec-
essary so as to put the surface in good filth. The rows
can be laid off by the use of the marker, which is male of
2 by 6-inch lumber, the runners being set on edge at the
distance apart that the rows are wanted and then braced
sutliciently to keep them in place. A tongue is attached to
lhe cross-brace in front, and a guide marker is attached
at the side, at the proper distance to mark the next row.
For opening up tihe furrow in which to drop the seed-
canes the disk cultivator will be found most satisfactory.
The beginner, however, is likely to have trouble until he
learns how to set the disks. In throwing out the rows,
they should be set close together, so as to leave as nar-
row a ridge as possible in the bottom of the furrow. The
cultivator should be set to run quite deep. If not, when
the canes are covered the ground will be left in ridges, in-











stead of being level. In covering the canes it will be found
necessary to set the disks as far apart as possible, so as to
give room for the canes between the disks. When the disks
are set close they will catch the canes, which, instead of
being covered, will be thrown out on the top of the bed.
The use of the disk cultivator for this work will reduce
the cost of planting by 25 to 40 per cent., which means
much in the lotal cost of production.

PLANTING.

Just when to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends on
the locality. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the time
of selecting the canes. This method reduces the expense by
the omission of the cost of banking. Fall planting is per-
haps not well suited to all parts of the State. In the north-
ern and western portions of the State, where the winters
are more severe than in the southern part, there is likely to
be a greater loss of seed-canes during the winter season.
llence if fall planting should be practiced, the result may
be an unsatisfactory stand. If the seed-canes are banked
and kept till spring, then only first-class cane will be
planted. This will insure a good stand. Fall planting
would be advisable for central and south Florida, and
spring planting for north and west Florida. For fall plant-
ing, November 10 to 20 will perhaps be the best time. For
spring planting, the month of March will be the most sat-
isfactory. All territory north of Gainesville should prac-
tice spring planting. All south of Gainesville may find fall
planting satisfactory under ordinary conditions.

FERTILIZING.

The best formula to use in fertilizing Japanese cane is
yet an unsettled question. We know, however, that Jap-
anese cane has a very large root system and is a gross feed-
er, and so we may use quite a liberal amount of fertilizer.
Any crop that produces such a tonnage of forage must nec-
essarily draw heavily upon the fertility in the soil. The fol-
lowing formula has given good results on the Experiment
Station farm, and perhaps may be taken as a guide until
we get better information:












Ammonia .................. .......... 3 per cent.
Pihos. acid ......... .......... ..... per cent.
Potash ............... ............ 7 per cent.

IApply fertilizer at the rate of 100 to 600 pounds per
acre.)
Ground limestone, 2,01)0 pounds per acre.


It makes little difference whether our source o1' ammonia
is dried blood or sulphate or ammonia. Likcwisi tilhe forcee
of potash makes no material difference.
Since it requires a long growing season (from March 15
to November 15 at Gainesville) for this crop to mature, it
will be found advisable to give the fertilizer in lwo appli-
cations. The lirst application may be made in the latter
part of April, and the second during the early part of Au-
gust. By putting the fertilizer on in two applications,
there is not likely to be so much of it lost by leaching dur-
ing the rainy season.

TABLE X

Japanese Cane, Fertilizer Test, 1909-1910.


Plot Plot Plot Plot
1 2 3 4


D ried blood ...................... 112 ...... 12 .......
Sulphate of ammonia............. .......... ...... 72!
M uriate of potash................. 84 84 ...... S4
Sulphate of potash ................ .. .. ...... ......
Acid phosphate .................. ... .....224 2 2 2 2 1
*Ground limestone ........................... .
Total fert. per acre ................ 196 j30S 336 380
tYield, tons, 1909................... 21.2 17.7 16.1 19.1
tYield, tons, 1910.................. 11.6 12.4 10.0 14.4
Sucrose per cent, 1909............. 11.85 13.501 1 .75 13.65
Sucrose per cent, 1910............. 11.00 10.85 10.50 11.00
Brix, 1909 ........................ 16.7 17.2 17.7 17.4
Brix, 1910 ........................ 15.35 15.40 15.30 15.40

*Ground limestone is not considered as a fertilizer, but as a
soil corrective.
fGreen material.









;1

TABLE X-(Continued.)
Japanese Cane, Fertilizer Test, 1909-1910.
I I '
Plot Plot Plot Plot
5 6 7 8
i ]
D ried flood ................ .... 1112 ...... 112 112
Sul a o an onlia.............. 72
Muriate of potasii ................. 84
Suliphit. of oash................ S St 4
Acid Phos ihale .................. 1224 224 i224 224
aroundnd limestone ................ .. .. . 20l0
Total fert. per acre. ................ 420 So 420 420
fYield, tons, 1909................. 19.5 I 8. 16.6 27.0
tf field, tons, 1910 ................. 11.8 16.7 14.1 16.0
2-cic l s per c',nt, 1909 ............. 13.(;' 1'. i, t1 1: .78
Sucrose per cent, 1910. ........ 11.20 11.10 10.951 10.90
Brix, ] ie ) ............ ........... 17.4 17.5 17.G 17.S
Brix, 110 ....................... 1. o 1 .(; 0 1 .5'.5 17.
:Gr found limestone is not considered as a fertiiz r. bu! as a
:-oil cor ective.
OGreen material.

Since the Japanese cane makes a new root-system each
year, it is not necessary to give the first application of fer-
tilizer so early in the season as many have been doing in
the past. If we examine the roots of the canes when
growth starts in the spring, we will find that the feeding
roots do not start until the tops have made a considerable
growth. In fact the tops may have grown as much as a
foot before 1he roots make a start. This early growth
cones from the stored-up plant food in the old stubs of the
ratoons, and the plants do not draw on the soil fertility
until the roots have begun to grow.
The amount of ground limestone or lime to apply, will
depend on the acidity of the soil. The more acid in the
soil, the heavier should be the application of ground lime-
stone or lime. There should be an amount sufficient to
neutralize about all of the acid in the soil.

CULTIVATION.

The cultivation of Japanese cane is nearly the same as
that of corn or cotton. The important point to remember
is the thorough preparation of the seed-bed before planting
the canes. In the succeeding years the early spring culti-











vation should be somewhat as follows. About the time
growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring the
ground to a depth of three or four inches. This may be
done with the disk harrow going between the rows, or with
the two-horse cultivator. There is no danger of injuring
the roots at this time of the year, as the new roots have not
yet made any growth. The first application of fertilizer
should be applied just before the second cultivation. The
second cultivation should be thorough, but not as deep as
the first. As the crop continues to grow, the depth of cul-
tivation should be less each time. Deep cultivation will be
found to do much root pruning. If one will take time to
examine the root system when the cane is nearly matured,
a mass of fine feeding roots will be found very near the sur-
face, many of them not more than one-half inch deep. Deep
cultivation destroys these roots, reducing the feeding ca-
pacity of the plants and so reducing the growth of the
crop.

I HARVESTING.

There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of
a hurry to harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best
quality of feed all forage crops must reach a certain stage
of maturity. This is especially true of all saccharine for-
age crops. The chief value of this crop as a feed is its high
sugar content. The higher the percentage of sugar, the
higher its feeding value. The formation of the sugar does
not take place while the crop is making a rapid growth.
When growth ceases, and the crop begins to mature, which
occurs in the fall when cool weather comes, is the time the
formation of sugar takes place most rapidly. Harvesting
therefore, should be delayed until near danger of frost. If
it is to be used for silage, the silage will keep better and
will have a higher feeding value if the cane is allowed to
mature before putting it into the silo. If used for dry
forage it will also give better results if not harvested until
well matured. However, there is the danger of allowing it
to stand in the field until injured by frost. If it is used for
feed a short time after being injured by frost the loss will
be but slight. The feeding value after freezing deteriorates
with time.
At the present time we cannot recommend any machine
that will successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes
are too hard and heavy for a mowing machine. After a








couple of years' growth the rows spread out too widely for
a corn harvester to work successfully. A machete corn
knife, or hoe will be found to do satisfactory work. No
doubt as more farmers grow Japanese cane there will be
a demand created for the necessary machinery for harvest-
ing this crop.

JAPANESE CANE AND VELVET BEANS.

The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be in-
creased by planting velvet beans between the rows. If the
rows of Japanese cane are eight feet apart, a row of velvet
beans may be planted between the rows and still leave
room to cultivate both cane and beans. Plant the velvet
beans as soon as the cane starts new growth in the spring.
Drop the beans about two or three feet apart in the row.
Give both cane and beans good cultivation until the beans
throw out long runners. If the beans are not planted
early in the season the Japanese cane will get the start and
will almost completely smother the velvet beans.

ANALYSIS.
ANALYSIS OF AIR-DRIED SAMPLE.

W ater ............................. 6.75 per cent.
Protein ............................ 1.37 per cent.
Fats ............................... 1.89 per cent.
Fiber .............................20.60 per cent.
Ash .............................. 2.04 per cent.
Nitrogen-free extract (sugars, etc.)... 67.35 per cent.

(Analysis from unpublished data of the Chemical
Department of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station.)
Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in pro-
tein.
This should be remembered when feeding it. We should
not expect it to take the place of all the concentrates in the
ration. However, since it is rich in carbohydrates, it is
only necessary to supply feed rich in protein in combina-
tion with Japanese cane to obtain the best results. If this
point be kept in mind we will not be disappointed in the
results we obtain from feeding this to our livestock.


3-Bul.









TABLE XI.
Good Rations.

Percentage Composition.


Protein Carbohydrates Fats


Japanese cane, 10 pounds...... .14 7.30 .19
CownIea hay, 10 pounds........ 1.08 3.86 .11
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds. 1.71 6.19 .46
Total .............. ... 2.93 17.35 .76
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.5)


Japanese cane, 12 pounds...... .16 8.76 .23
velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds. 1.71 6.20 .46
Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds.... .74 .34 .24
Total .................. 2.61 15.30 .93
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.6.)


Japanese cane, 10, pounds..... .14 7.30 .19
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds........ 1.08 3.86 .11
Velvet beans in pod, 8 pounds.. 1.37 4.95 .37
t-----/
Total ..................1 2.50 16.11 .67
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.7.)

Is Japanese cane hard on land?-This is a question
asked quite frequently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard
on land. Any crop that produces such an abundant growth
of forage must necessarily draw very heavily upon the
plant food in the soil. If then the plant food is not sup-
plied by liberal application of fertilizer the soil will soon
become exhausted and the yield obtained from the crop
will be unsatisfactory. The plants produce a new root
system each year. Hence there is some humus added and
a small amount of plant food returned to the soil annually,
but the amount left in the soil does not equal the amount
taken out each season.

IMPORTANT FACTS.

1. The great need of Florida stockmen is an abundance
of nutritious forage.







35

2. Japanese cane is the cheapest forage and silage crop
that we can grow.
3. Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will;
last for many years if properly cared for.
4. .apanese cane will supply an abundance of good pas-
turage during the time of the year when this is most
needed.
5. To obtain the best results in feeding, Japanese cane
should be fed in combination with feeds rich in protein.
C6. Japanese cane produces good yields of forage on a va-
riety of soils.
7. Japanese cane has an immense root system and is a
heavy feeder; hence it should be given a liberal application
of fertilizer.
S. Japanese cane should not be pastured in the spring
after new growth begins.
9. Japanese cane should be well matured before it is har-
T ested.












SORGHUM FOR SLAGE AND FORAGE.


BY JOHN M. ScorT.
Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director Experiment
Station.

The sorghum crop has received too little attention from
our farmers. This is doubtless due to insufficient apprecia-
tion of the qualities of ihe grain produced by this plant,
and to the common cultivation of varieties of sorghum
which are not the best kinds for our climate. With the
present rapid improvement in stock, and with the greater
demand for better beef and for milk and butter, we are
forced to search for more productive and more nutritious
forage crops than sufficed in the past.

CLASSIFICATION.

It is supposed that all the varieties of sorghum now in
cultivation originated from a single species, which was
probably a native of Africa. The botanical differences
which distinguish the various varieties are of almost no
importance.
The sorghums may be divided into three classes: (1)
Saccharine sorghums, (2) non-saccharine sorghums, and
(3) broomcorns. The saccharine varieties are character-
ized by their tall, leafy stems, which are full of sweet juice.
The non-saccharine varieties, as a rule, do not grow tall,
and the stalks do not contain as much sugar. The broom-
corns may be distinguished by their dry, pithy stalks, and
by their long, loose seed-heads. The seed heads of the sac-
charine and non-saccharine varieties differ in size, shape,
and color. The saccharine varieties are grown for syrup-
making and for forage. The non-saccharine varieties are
grown for either forage or grain.

SOIL ADAPTED TO SORGHUM.

The sorghums grow well on almost any good land.













Ground that is well-suited for growing corn, cotton or veg-
etables, will give good yields of sorghum, either forage or
grain. Neither heavy clays nor very light sandy soils are
well-stited for the crop.

SILAGE IN GENERAL.

It is well established fact that some form of snccnlnt
food is a desirable addition to the ordinary winter rations
for live stock, and the question arises as to the best and
cheapest method of producing it. In England the farmer
depends upon root crops, but ii this country the raising of
root crops will not in all probability be extensively prae-
ticed. Some have advocated the steaming of a feeds, but
this method Iai s failed to solve the problem. The silo Ias
been extensively tried, and has been found to be the cheap-
est and also the best method of curing feed and keeping
it in a good, palatable condition. so that it is relished by
all classes of live stock.

SORGHUM RILAGE.

The question which confronts tile farmer is: What crop
can I raise most economically for tie silo? This means:
What crop will produce most tons of good nutritious food
!pr acre? Colwpe Lay is known to be an excel lent rageg,
but the yield is smaall; moreover it does not maklie a good
quality of silage. The same is true with oatn. Pye, or beg-
garweed hay. It comes then to the question of decidi~ig
Letween corn and sorghlu. Analysis shloiios sorghum :i
age to be a little richer in total digeslibil in:t'ientis than
corn silage. S-rghum has also a ;ear ier yid of' green tor-
age per acre thaWn cur. fl' iien, sorghum produces silage
richer in total digestible nutrients, and also gives a larger
yield of green forage per acre, it has tv.-o important points
in its favor. It is not only the best crop fr' the silo, int
also the cheapest.
The cost of cultivating an acre of ground is the same re-
gardless of the yield; that is, the time and labor required
to produce an acre of corn will be the same, whether two
tons or ten tons of forage are produced per acre; b;r the
cost of production per ton will be reduced as the yield per
acre is increased. For example, if it costs $10 to fertilize
and cultivate one acre that produces only four tons of for-
age, the cost per ton will be $2.50; but if for the same ex-












penditure of money we can produce some other crop that
will yield from twelve to fifteen tons per acre, then the cost
per ton will be reduced by nearly 60 to 75 per cent.

SOWING SORGHUM.

Sorghum seed may be sown at any time from April 1 to
July 20. When possible, it is advisable to sow early (from
April 1 to April 15), as then the first cutting can be har-
vested in July, and with favorable conditions, another good
crop may be harvested in October.
The quantity of seed required depends upon the method
of sowing, whether in drills or broadcast. If sown in drills,
20 to 30 pounds of seed will be required per acre. If sown
broadcast, more seed will be needed, varying from one to
two bushels per acre. It is likely that if sown in rows, a
distance of I three or three and a half feet between the rows,
and from two to three inches between the plants in the
drill, will be found the most satisfactory. This distance
will permit of cultivation being carried on, which will in-
aure larger yields, and the cost of harvesting is also re-
duced.
Fig. 1 shows a drill that may be used for planting sor-
ghum, corn, cotton, or velvet beans. The depth of plant-
ing will depend upon the conditions of the seed-bed at the
time. If the seed-bed is well prepared, and there is plenty of
moisture in the ground, then a half inch to one inch is as
deep as the seed should be covered. But if the soil is very
dry and loose the seed may be planted as deep as from one
and a ialf to two and a half inches.

FERTILIZING.

Sorghnm is a gross feeder, hence it requires a large
quantity of fertilizer. The amount, however, will vary
witi the (luali!y of I-he soil. From 100 to 800 pounds of
fertilizer containing:

Ammonia ............................ 4 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid ............... 6 per cent.
Potash .............. ............... 6 per cent.

should be used. The ground should be thoroughly pre-
pared, and the fertilizer should be appliedd a week or ten
days before sowing the seed.












After the crop is harvested, with a small plow throw a
shallow furrow away from the sorghum stubs; apply the
fertilizer in this furrow, and then cover it by throwing the
furrow back again.
If sorghum is planted after a crop of vegetables has been
taken off the ground, fertilizing will not be necessary, as
there will be enough fertilizer left in the soil to produce a
good crop of sorghum.

CULTIVATION.

Too much attention cannot be given to the preparation
of the seed-bed, and to the cultivation of the growing crop.
If the seed-bed is not thoroughly prepared, the result will
be poor germination, which means poor stand, perhaps not
more than half a stand. A poor stand means a small yield
of forage per acre. Where the seed-bed is thoroughly pre-
pared, cultivation can begin much sooner, as the young
plants will not be so easily covered or pulled out during
the first cultivation, while they are quite small. This early
cultivation will not only keep down weeds, but the stirring
of the soil will also tend to hasten the growth of the crop.
Sorghum is a slow-growing crop at first, hence the earlier
its cultivation begins the more will the growth of the crop
be hastened.
The two-horse cultivator should be used for cultivation.
With this implement one man or boy, and two mules, will
cultivate more than twice the area, and the soil will be left
in much better condition, than when the old-fashioned one-
horse plow or sweep is used. This means that the labor of
cultivation will be reduced one-half. In other words, with
the use of improved machinery the farmer will be able to
double the area he is now cultivating; which will mean
that lie will raise double the amount of feed, and so can
keep twice as much live stock as lie is now keeping. Thus
his gross income per year will be largely increased.

SORGHUM HAY.

Aside from being a good crop for silage, well cured sor-
ghum makes an excellent hay crop. As hay, the saccha-
rine varieties perhaps make a better quality of forage;
but even the non-saccharine varieties are almost equal to
crabgrass hay in feeding value, and give a much larger
yield. In fact, from one acre of sorghum hay we get nearly













double the amount of feed that we do from the same area
of crabgrass. Sorghum hay, when fed with bran and cot-
tonseed meal, will be found to give good results in the
dairy. In fattening cattle for the market, sorghum hay
supplied in addition to the grain feed will give good re-
suits.

PASTURING SORGHUM.

Sorghums make a god pasture for all classes of live
stock. Perhaps the saccharine varieties will be found to
give the best results. For pasturing, the seed should be
sown a little thicker than usual, about one and a half bush-
els per acre. The ground should be well prepared before-
hand. Pasturing may begin when the plants are only a
few inches high; but, for the best results, the crop should
not be pastured until the sorghum is about one and a half
or two feet in height. It has been estimated that one acre
of good sorghum will pasture ten head of cattle for ten
days. If not pastured too closely before the cattle are
removed, a second growth can be secured, which will fur-
nish additional pasturage.

GRAIN.

Tests by various Ilxperliment Sta iions have shown that
the grain of the non-saccharine varieties of' sorghum is of
considerable importance as a feed. The seeds of the sor-
ghums are very rich in carbohydrates (fat-producing ma-
terial), but are low in protein. This, however, is not a se-
rious drawback for Florida, as we have an abundance of
feed riclh in protein; such as cottonseed meal, or velvet
beans. Either of these fed in combination with sorghum
seed will give good results for either mi!k or beef produe-
tion.
C'ommparing the feeding' value of Kafir corn (one of the
non-msacclharie varieties of somrglhum) with that of corn, we
find that 100 pounds of Katfir corn are equal to 80 pounds
of corn in feeding value. In other words, when corn is
worth l1.50i per hundred, Kafir corn is worth about S1.20
per hundred for feeding.













YIELDS IN THE SORGHUM VARIETY TEST, 1907.

These figures are the results of only one year's test, and
should therefore be taken only as indicating roughly what
the yields may be.


Yield per acre of
NAME OF VARIETY. green forage
in tons.
Red Kafir Corn........... 3.968
Sirak .................... 10.225
H oney ................... 6.281
Sapling .................. 5.900
Brown Durra............. 5.350
Minnesota Amber......... 8.612
Planter's Friend, No. 36... 13.068
Orange .................. 13.813
Gooseneck, Erect.......... 16.907
Planter's Friend, No. 37.. 16.318
Amber ................... 10.461
Sumac ................... 12.449
Shallu ................... 11.556
White Kafir.............. 8.153
Gooseneck, Pendant....... 19.036
Collier .................. 13.896
Red Amber .............. 12.283
Cigne ................... 12.450
Jerusalem Corn........... 8.204
Yellow Milo .............. 9.487


Yield per acre -if
grain in the head,
in pounds.
1,187.50
1,050.00
562.50
550.00
450.00
975.00
787.00
1,366.50
793.00
887.50
1,033.50
429.50
2,112.50
727.00
856.25
742.50
1,500.00
900.00
458.00
900.00















DWARF ESSEX RAPE FOR WINTER
FORAGE.


BY JOHN M. SCOTT,

Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director Experiment
Station.

INTRODUCTION.

Dwarf Essex rape is a crop well suited to Florida condi-
tions. It is excellent for feeding hogs, dairy cows, and
sheep; as it will produce many tons of good nutritious feed
per acre, at a time of the year when green feeds are scarce.
Throughout a large portion of the State, farmers and
stockmen could, with advantage, grow more of the succu-
lent forage crops for feeding stock during the autumn and
winter months, when the supply of grass and other green
forage is often limited. Such crops may usually be grown
on land that has already produced an early maturing crop.
One of the best of these succulent crops is perhaps dwarf
Essex rape-a plant closely related to the cabbage, turnip,
and mustard.

A WINTER CROP.

Rape is a forage crop that does not flourish in hot, dry
weather; but in most parts of the State, especially in the
center and south, rape grows well throughout the winter,
and suffers very little from the cold. Last winter the rape
grown at the Experiment Station was injured only very
slightly by the lowest temperatures. It is considered that
rape will stand as much as six to eight degrees of frost,
with little or no injury. This, of course, depends upon the
stage of growth; the young tender growth being more
readily harmed than the more mature leaves and stalks.
It is not at all likely that the weather will become cold
enough to kill the roots, even if the tops should be frozen
down. In the latter case, the plants will soon shoot up
again and produce a good crop.












THE SOIL FOR RAPE.

Rape does well on nearly all kinds of soil; but, like many
other crops, the better the soil the larger the yield. An old
vegetable field would be a remarkably good location, and
would require the addition of only a small amount of fer-
tilizer. For the best results, rape should be planted on a
rich, moist, loamy soil. It will usually do well on any
but light sandy soils or stiff clays, such soils being defi-
cient in vegetable matter. Any soils that will produce
good crops of vegetables, will also give good yields of rape.
It is reported by several writers that rape is also well
adapted to newly cleared woodland.

FERTILIZERS.

Practically nothing has been done at this Station to
ascertain what fertilizers, or combinations of fertilizers,
give best returns; but almost any good vegetable fertilizer,
containing about six per cent. of ammonia, seven per cent.
of phosphoric acid, and eight per cent. of potash, applied at
the rate of from 200 to 700 pounds per acre, will be found
to give good results. The larger amount would be applied
on poorer lands, and the lesser amount on the richer soils.

PREPARATION OF SOIL.

Too much attention cannot be given to the preparation
of the field for this crop. Thorough preparation of the
field is the secret of successful farming, whether in Florida
or elsewhere. Such preparation of the field will not only
reduce the after cultivation by half; but it will also con-
serve a large amount of soil water, which would otherwise
be lost by running off or by evaporation. A good four-
teen or sixteen-inch two-horse plow is the best implement
to use in preparing the field for seeding. With the plow,
all trash and litter can be buried; for the more vegetable
matter we can get into the soil, the more fertility we add
to it, and the more its water-holding capacity is increased.
The plowing should be fairly deep-about four to six
inches. If the land is rough after plowing, the disc harrow
is needed. In using the disc harrow, it is best to lap half
the width of the harrow each time. since the surface 'of the
soil will then be kept level, which otherwise would be













ridged. It is well to harrow with a toothed harrow after
using the disc, so as to get the surface in the best tilth.

HOW TO PLANT.

Rape may be planted in drills or sown broadcast. If the
ground is badly infested with seeds of noxious weeds, it
will be better to plant in drills and give some cultivation.
Rape is rather a slow grower at first; but after reaching
the height of three or four inches, it grows rapidly. If
planted in drills, the drills should not be more than two
feet or two and a half feet apart. It is the writer's opinion
that more satisfactory results will be obtained if it is
planted in drills, for the following reasons: First, the-e
is less waste when pastured, as stock naturally walk be-
tween the rows, and so do not trample as many plants or
leaves under foot. Second, less seed is required. Third,
drilling permits cultivation, insuring larger yields. The
amount of seed required per acre will vary from three to
five pounds, according as it is planted in drills or sown
broadcast.
The seed may be sown at any time from the fifteenth of
September to the fifteenth of December. The farmers of
West Florida will find it best to plant during the latter
part of September, while those of Central and South
Florida can plant later in the season. The seed may be
obtained from most seed houses.

HOW TO FEED RAPE.

Stock may be turned into the fiehl a ad illoed to pasture
on the rape, or it may be cut and fed to them. With the
latter method much larger yields will be secured, if care
is taken in cutting. If cut so as to leave the stubs five or
six inches high, a second-and under favorable conditions,
a third-crop may be secured. If pastured, some care
must be exercised at first, until the stock become accus-
tomed to it. When cattle are first allowed to pasture on
rape, there is danger of bloating; but this can be easily
avoided by feeding the animals a little hay or grain, juis
before turning them on the rape. In other words, do tot
turn the stock on the rape to pasture when they are hun-
gry. When first turned on to pasture, let them graze for
only a few minutes the first day-say ten or fifteen nin-








utes; the second day allow them a few minutes more, and
so on, until they become accustomed to rape. Another
difficulty found in pasturing cows on rape is that it may
cause a disagreeable taint in the milk. This may be over-
come by using a little care and judgment in feeding. If
the cows are allowed to pasture on the rape for about an
hour just before and after milking, and at no other time,
very little, if any, difficulty will be found.

YIELD PER ACRE.

The experience of this Station in growing rape has
shown yields of from 27,200 to 33,296 pounds per acre.
These results are based on the crops of two years. Many
of the Northern States report yields of thirty to fifty tons
of green forage per acre. No doubt there is plenty of land
in Florida capable of giving equally good returns.

RAPE TEST, 1907-8.

Three plots of dwarf Essex rape were sown in drills, the
rows being thirty inches apart. Plots 1 and 2 were sown
on September 25, 1907. The ground was thoroughly
plowed, and a good seed-bed prepared, before sowing the
seed. The soil on which the rape was grown was a very
light sandy loam. On December 21, 1907, plot 3 was sown.
The character of the soil was the same as for plots 1 and 2.
The ground had been in sweet potatoes during the previous
season. The potatoes were taken up in November, at which
time the ground was well plowed, and then harrowed.
Nothing more was done to the ground until just before
planting, when it was again harrowed. Each plot was
given one cultivation for each cutting made.
On better soil the yield could be increased from 25 to
50 per cent. without additional cost. Even with the yield
of 16.59 tons from plot 2, the cost per ton was less than
$1.50; and if we increase the yield, we will at the same
time reduce the cost per ton.
The tables which follow give the date of planting, the
date of harvesting, and the yield of green forage per acre
for each cutting, and also the kind and amount of fer-
tilizer used.












Ar




2 3
: a)
'a

1 15C
2 30i
151
3 20


counts


TABLE I.

of Fertilizer Used in Pounds Per Acre.


5oc Date Whe
.S q -\ u zer Was
0 0

0 64 175 389 Septembe
0 128 350 778 Septembe
0 64 175 389 February
0 115 300 615 IDecember

TABLE II.
Yields of Green Forage in Tons per Acre.


n Fertili-
Applied.


r
r1


25, 1907
25, 1907
10, 1908
21, 190?


S Date of Planting. Date of Harvesting
0-


1 September 25, 1907 December 6, 1907 3. 9 ... 3. 9
2 September 25, 1907 December 6, 1907 8. 9 ...... 16.59
... ..... ............ March 27, 1908 ...... 7.69 .......
3 December 21, 1907 IMarch 28, 1908 3.24 ...... 3.24

The following is the composition of rape:

Dry Matter. | Protein. I Carbohydrates. IEther Extract.
14 per cent. 1.5 per cent per c 8.1 per cent. 0.2 per cent.

It is practically the same composition as cabbage.

















PART II.

CONDITION AND PROSPECTIVE YIELD
OF CROPS.


















DIVISION Of THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
J etlerson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla.-ll.

Western Division.

Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington.-7.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns.-9

Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Sumter,
Volusia.-9.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee,
Manatee,


Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Polk,
St. Lucie.-11.


4-Bul.


















V















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

B. E. McLIN, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk



CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NOIRTHERN DIVISION.-Since last report of June 30th,
the changes which have taken place in the condition of
the cotton crop in this section have been a complete re-
versal of position. At that time the prospects for a full
and if anything a larger crop of cotton than had ever been
made before were all that could be expected. At the
present the condition indicates that very little more than
half a crop will be obtained. These conditions are owing,
of course, to the heavy and continuous rains which felL
throughout July and August. Never in the history of
cotton growing in this State have the climatic conditions
been more disastrous to the cotton crop than in the two
months named. The prospective yield based on the pres-
ent conditions can hardly exceed two-thirds of the normal'
crop, either in sea island or the upland cotton. One
farmer states: "I have been farming over forty years
and up to the first of July, I never saw the prospects for
a cotton crop better. But the excessive rains since above,
date, together with sharp-shooter flies and some boll wee-
vils, have cut the cotton crop at least 33 1-3 per cent.
In the case of corn, a better crop with higher yield has
seldom been seen in this country; in fact, all of the stand-
ard crops have done well except in the few localities
where the heavy rains are reported to have practically
drowned out the sweet potato and field pea crops, but
in the majority of cases, these crops are equal to the aver-
age crops.
The fruit crops, such as pears, peaches, etc., while not
very large, brought the best prices that have been ob-
tained for these crops for many years, so that what was
lost in volume was more than made up in quality and











profitableness. The climatic conditions through Septem-
ber have been favorable to all crops and the harvesting
of the crops maturing, as well as the hay, has been going
on successfully throughout the month.

WESTERN DIVISION.-The crops in this division are very
similar in condition to those in the previous one. Cotton
has suffered more than any other crop and in some of the
counties corn has suffered also to a considerable extent.
We quote from some of the best farmers in that section:
"The condition of crops, except cotton and corn, is very
good. There was a heavy falling off in cotton throughout
August from shedding; rust, blight and caterpillars, have
stripped the foliage from the cotton plants." We quote
again from a farmer in another county: "Cotton in this
county will barely make half a crop because of too much
rain, and plants are eaten up in nearly every section of the
coun1ly by caterpillars. The early planted cotton came
to poor stands because of lack of moisture. The middle
planting was greatly injured because of excessive rains
and worms together, and all plantings considered, it is
generally believed that 75 per cent. of a normal crop will
be a big yield of cotton in this county. Corn is not as
good as last year, but the acreage is larger and more corn
will be made this year than last. Small patches of sugar-
cane grown on cow-pen land will make good yield, but
larger fields are not as good as last year. Sweet potatoes
are good. Grasses are fine for pasturage, but much hay
cut has been lost because of excessive and continued
rains."
The above expresses fairly well the conditions existing
"throughout all the counties of this division, except that
in a majority of cases corn is reported better than in the
two counties quoted in the above division.
On the basis of these reports relating to cotton, the
crops in this division cannot exceed 72 per cent. of the
normal crop, and we believe that these figures express
the situation correctly.

NORTHEASTERNN DIVISION.-Regarding the condition of
the cotton crop there is very little difference as between
the situation in this division and in the two former ones.
All of the standard field crops except cotton have done
very well, but the condition of that plant can best be ex-












pressed in a quotation from one of the best cotton-growing
counties in this division. We quote as follows: "Cotton
in this county is in a very poor and unsatisfactory condi-
tion. With the exception of a few places, the crop will
be short not less than 35 per cent. Many fields in some
parts of the county are almost bare of foliage from the
worms and the fruit is hardly worth picking, being so
scattered." In another county where large quantities of
sea island cotton are grown conditions are described prac-
tically in the same way and from all portions of this
division the same reports are received. The condition of
sea island cotton in this division is reported as 71 per
cent. of a possible 100, while the prospective yield, it is
stated, cannot exceed 72 per cent of the normal yield.
It is stated generally from all portions of this division
that sugarcane, corn and sweet potatoes have yielded
well.

CENTRAL DIVISION.-In this division there are only a
few counties that grow cotton and the condition of crops
is better, the rainy season not having been quite so disas-
trous to the crops grown in the various portions of this
division. In the counties in this division, however, grow-
ing cotton, there seems to have been a greater degree of
injury caused by the heavy rains and caterpillars, as the
condition and prospective yield of sea island cotton in
this division is lower than in any of the previous ones,
the average condition as well as prospective yield being
only 67 per cent in condition and 67 per cent of the nor-
mal yield. .The other crops, corn, sugarcane, potatoes,
etc., seem to have an advantage over the sections of the
State previously discussed, as there has been* a consider-
able improvement in all of the crops except those men-
tioned. One thing in connection with this, however, is
noticeable, that is the ravages of the white fly on the
citrus fruit trees. It is complained of by every one of
our correspondents who state universally that they are
doing more damage than ever before; still some sections
are not affected by them. On account of these conditions
the crop of fruit will necessarily be short and the proba-
bility is that the crop will range somewhere between
66 2-3 per cent. and 75 per cent, of the normal crop.

SOUTHERN DIVISION.-In this division the conditions
are practically the same as in the others, except that no











cotton and generally small areas of corn are grown. Few
of the crops grown in the northern section of the State are
grown in this division, its principal industries being so
far as soil products are concerned, the growing of vegeta-
bles and semi-tropical fruits. Generally speaking, how-
ever, the crops of this section are better considerably than
last year or for several years. Of course in some locali-
ties crops are inferior to others. The vegetable and fruit
crops have been good, and except for white flies and some
other minor troubles of citrus fruit trees, the trees are in
good condition, but the yield will likely fall some where in
the neighborhood of 65 to 75 per cent. of a normal crop.
In this division the prospective yield is reported at about
75 per cent., while for the State at large, the percentage
of yield falls to 70, which we believe, will be found to be
about correct.
In connection with the discussions of the various sub-
jects in these notes, we suggest that a reading of the
tables will be interesting as well as instructive, but refer-
ring back to conditions and the prospective yield of cot-
ton, we cannot understand how intelligent people can
assert so positively as is being done by cotton buyers,
speculators and manufacturers of cotton goods that the
growing crop of cotton will be a very large one. As far
as this State is concerned, it it impossible, and if this
crop in any way passes the crop of 1910, it is more than
can be reasonably expected from the present conditions,
and our information from other States gives little better
hopes for better crops than reported from our own, which
we have quoted. A combination of domestic and foreign
buyers and ianuf;cturers looks ,prob:ible.











Report of the Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops, Fruit
Trees and Fruit for Quarter Ending September 30, 1911, as
Compared with Same Period Last Year.

Upland Cotton. Sea Island Cotton.

COUNTIES. d d .
o "


Northern Division-- c U C
Franklin .............. ....
HamilLon .............. ... ... 40 50
Jefferson .............. 65 70 70 75
Lafayette .............. ... ... 50 75
Liberty ................ 80 75 ...
Leon .................. 60 60
Madison ............... 48 49 53 54
Suwannee ............ ... ... 62 62
Taylor ............... ... ... 75 75
W akulla ............... ... ... 75 70
Div. Average per cent..I 63 64 61 66
Western Division-
Calhoun ............... 75 75 70 70
Escambia ............. 60 66 ...
Holmes ............... 75 65 ...
Jackson ............... 75 75 ... ...
Santa Rosa............. 70 70 ...
W alton ................ 70 75
Washington ........... 80 80 78 80
Div. Average per cent.. 72 I 72 74 75
Northeastern Division--
Baker ........... 65 65
Bradford .............. ... 75 75
Clay .................. ... ... 70 75
Columbia .............. ... ... 75 75
Putnam ............... 70 75 70 70
Div. Average per cent.. 70 75 71 72
Central Division--
Hernando .................
Levy .................. 70 60 50 50
M arion ................ .. .. 70 70
Orange ................ ... .
Sumter ............ .. .. .. Sj SO
Volusia ................ I _________ I ..
Div. Average per cent.. 60 67 66
Southern Division--
Brevard ............ ... ... ..
Dade ..................... ..
DeSoto ................
H illsborough ........... ... ... ...
L ee ................... ... ...
Osceola ................ ...
Palm Beach ...........
St. Lucie .............. ... .
Div. Average per cent.. ... ... --
State Average per cent.. 69 68 68











56

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Corn. Sugar Cane

COUNTIES. .

0 y 1

Northern Division-- U & $
Franklin .............. 70 70 100 100
Hamilton ............... 70 75 90 90
Jefferson .............. 80 80 80 80
Lafayette .............. 100 100 90 90
Liberty ................ 100 100 95 95
Leon .................. 100 125 100 100
Madison ............... 80 80 80 85
Suwannee ............. 100 100 95 95
Taylor ................ 100 100 90 90
W akulla ............... 85 90 85 90
Div. Average per cent.. 89 92 91 92
Western Division-
Calhoun .............. 85 90 65 75
Escambia ............. 90 90 50 50
Holmes ................ 80 70 75 85
Jackson ............... 80 70 100 100
Santa Rosa ............ 60 65 87 87
W alton ................ 100 105 100 100
Washington ........... 100 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 85 84 83 8
Northeastern Division-
Baker ................. 90 95 50 55
Bradford ............... 100 100 60 65
Clay .................. 100 100 b0 80
Columbia .............. 90 95 95 100
Putnam ............... 100 100 80 80
Div. Average per cent.. 96 98 75
Central Division--
Hernando ............ 100 100 100 100
Levy ................. 80 75 50 50
Marion ................ 100 95 90 90
Orange ................ 100 75 ...
Sumter ................ 90 90 90 95
Volusia ................ 90 90 90 90
Div. Average per cent.. 93 83 84 85
Southern Division--
Brevard .............. ... ... 90 95
Dade ................ ... 80 100
DeSoto ................ 100 100 75 75
Hillsborough ........... 100 100 100 100
Lee ................... 100 100 50 50
Osceola ............... 50 50 90 90
Palm Beach ........... 90 90 85 85
SSt. Lucie ................ ... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 88 88 84 87
State Average per cent.. 90 89 83 | 85










57

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Field Peas. Rice.

COUNTIES. .
0 '0


Northern Division-- u
Franklin .............. 60 6 .
Hamilton .............. 50 50
Jefferson .............. 90 90
Lafayette ............. 95 95 ... ...
Liberty ............... 80 80 ...
Leon .................. 95 100
Madison ............... 62 63
Suwannee ............. 80 85 ...
Taylor ................ 90 90 ...
W akulla ............... 85 85
Div. Average per cent.. 79 80 ... .
Western Division-
Calhoun .............. 100 100 110 120
Escambia ............. 75 75 ... ..
Holmes ............... 50 40 ... ..
Jackson ............... 90 100
Santa Rosa ............ 87 87 85 85
Walton ...................
Washington ........... 100 110 50 50
Div. Average per cent.. 85 85 82 85
Northeastern Division-
Baker ................. 45 45
Bradford .............. 50 50 100 100
Clay .................. 100 100 ...
Columbia .............. 75 75
Putnam ............... 90 90 85 85
Div. Average per cent.. 72 72 92 92
Central Division-
Hernando ............. .. ... 100 120
Levy .................. 90 95 ...
Marion ................ 100 100
Orange ................. 100 100 ...
Sumter ................ 85 90 ...
Volusia ................ 90 100
Div. Average per cent.. 93 97 100 120
Southern Division--
Brevard ............... 80 85
Dade .................. 100 100 100 125
DeSoto ................ .. ... 75 75
Hillsborough .......... 100 100
Lee ................... 100 150 100 50
Osceola ............... 110 125 ... .
Palm Beach ........... 60 65 ...
St. Lucie .............. 100 110 ... .
Div. Average per cent.. 93 105 92 83
State Average per cent.. 85 88 91 95










58

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Sweet Potatoes.


COUNTIES.


Northern Division-


Cassava.

u- a
fr
S0'

s5*
a


Franklin .............. 80 80 .
Hamilton .............. 50 50
Jefferson .............. 90 95
Lafayette ............. 100 95
Liberty ................ 90 90
Leon .................. 90 100
Madison ............... 75 75
Suwannee ............. 85 90
Taylor ................. 80 80
W akulla ............... 85 90
Div. Average per cent.. 83 85 ..
Western Division-
Calhoun ............... T 100 100 ....
Escambia .............. 10) 100
Holmes ................ 75 90 .
Jackson ............... 100 100
Santa Rosa ........... 90 92
W alton ................ 100 105 .
Washington ........... 100 100 101) 50
Div. Average per cent.. 95 98 | 100 55
Northeastern Division-
Baker ................. 50 50 ..
Bradford .............. 75 75 .
Clay ................... 100 90
Columbia .............. 80 85
Putnam ............... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 81 80 ...
Central Division-
Hernando ............. 90 30u ...
Levy .................. 90 85
Marion ................ 100 110 .
Orange ................ 100 100
Sumter ................ 95 100
Volusia ............... 100 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 96- 32 100)
Southern Division-
Brevard ......... ....... 0 80 .
Dade .................. 100 100 ..
DeSoto ................ 50 50 .
Hillsborough .......... 100 100 100 100
Lee ................... 100 200 ...
Osceola ............ .. 70 60 100 100
Palm Beach ... ......... 90 90
St. Lucie .............. 100 100
Div. Average per cent..f 86 98- 100 T10
State Average per cent.. 88 99 100 | 83









59

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Peanuts. Broom Corn.

COUNTIES. i


Northern Division-
Franklin .............. ... ...
Hamilton ............. 75 75
Jefferson .............. 100 100 ...
Lafayette .............. 100 100
Liberty ................ 100 90 ...
Leon ..................1 100 100 ...
Madison .............. 75 75 ...
Suwannee ............. 100 100 ...
Taylor ................ 80 80 ...
W akulla ................ 90 90 ....
Div. Average per cent.. 91 101 .
Western Division-
Calhoun ................ 100 100 ... .
Escambia ............. 100 100 ...
Holmes ................ 70 85 ...
Jackson ............... 75 85 ...
Santa Rosa ............ 95 95 .
Walton ................ 100 105 ..
Washington ........... 100 100 ...t
Div. Average per cent.. 91 97___ ._ ..
Northeastern Division--
Baker ............... 75 50 ...
Bradford .............. 100 I 100 .
Clay .................. 100 100 ....
Columbia .............. 100 100 .. .
Putnam ...............| 90 .90 ....
Div. Average per cent.. 92 I S
Central Division--
Hernando ............. 100o 100 ... .
Levy .................. 90 85
M arion ............*.... 100 105 ... I
Orange ............... .. .. ...
Sumter ................ 85 10 ...
Volusia ................ 100 100 .
Div. Average per cent..1 95 i 98 | .
Southern Division--
Brevard ... .......... ... .
D ade .................. ...
DeSoto ................ ..
Hillsborough ............
Lee ................... 100 100
Osceola ............... ....
Palm Beach .......... ... ...
St. Lucie ............. ..
Div. Average per cent.. 100 100 .
State Average per cent.. 94 97 .










60

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Native Hay Grasses Alfalfa.

COUNTIES.






Jefferson .............. 100 100 ...
Lafayette .............. ..
Liberty ............... 75 75
Leon ................. 100 100 ...
Madison ............... 105 105..
Suwannee ............. 100 100
Taylor ................ ... ..
W akulla ............... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 96 96
Western Division--
Calhoun ............... 110 125 ... .
Escambia .............. 100 100 ...
Holmes ............... 80 90..
Jackson ............... 85 100 ...
Santa Rosa ............ 95 95 ...
W alton ................ 80 85 ...
Washington ........... 110 125 ..
Div. Average per cent.. 94 103 .
Northeastern Division--
Baker .................. 75 0
Bradford .............. 65 75 ...
Clay .................. 110 110
Columbia .............. 100 100 ...
Putnam ............... 100 100
Div. Average per cent.. 90 91 .
Central Division-
Hernando ............. 100 100 ...
Levy .................. 80 80
Marion ................ 100 100 ..
Orange ................ 100 100 ..
Sumter ............... 90 100
Volusia ................ 100 100 ...
Div. Average per cent.. 95 97
Southern Division--
Brevard ............... 9 ...
Dade ........... ........ 100 100
DeSoto ................ 100 125 ...
Hillsborough ........... 100 100
Lee ................... 100 200
Osceola ............... 90 90
Palm Beach .......... 100 100 ... ...
St. Lucie .............. 105 110 .
Div. Average per cent.. 9 118
State Average per cent.. 95 101 ...








61

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Velvet Beans. Pastures

COUNTIES. .


o 0
Northern Division-- U 0
Franklin ........................ 60 60 50
Hamilton ....................... 75 80 70
Jefferson ........................ 100 100 100
Lafayette ......................
Liberty ......................... 80 80
Leon ............................ 100 100 100
M adison ........................ 75 75 110
Suwannee ....................... 85 85 110
Taylor .......................... ... ... 100
Vakulla ............. ....... ... ... 100
Div. Average per cent.......... 82 I 83 93
Western Division-
Calhoun ......................... 85 85 100
Escambia ....................... 100 100 100
Holmes ......................... 65 80 25
Jackson ......................... 75 85 90
Santa Rosa ..................... 100 100 100
W alton .......................... 80 85 90
W ashington ..................... 110 110 100
Div. Average per cent............ 88 92
Northeastern Division--
Baker .......................... 75 85 100
Bradford ........................ ..
Clay ............................ 100 100 100
Columbia ........................ 100 100 100
Putnam ......................... 80 80 100
Div. Average per cent........... 89 91 10
Central Division--
Hernando ....................... 00 100 100
Levy ............................ 90 85 80
M arion .......................... 105 110 100
Orange .......................... 50 50 100
Sum ter .......................... 75 90 100
Volusia ......................... 90 100 90
Div. Average per cent............ 85 9 95
Southern Division-
Brevard ........... .......... ... .. 100
Dade ............................ 100 100 100
DeSoto ......................... 100 100 ...
Hillsborough .................... 100 110 100
Lee ............................. 100 100 100
Osceola ......................... 100 100 80
Palm Beach ..................... 100 100 70
St. Lucie ........................ 100 100 95
Div. Average per cent............ 100 10 92
State Average per cent......... 89 91 93









62

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Bananas. Mangoes.

COUNTIES. .0
o 0


Northern Division- U
Franklin ................. ... ... .
Hamilton ............. .. ... ..
Jefferson .............. ... ... .
Lafayette ............. .
Liberty ................
L eon ..................
Suwannee ............
Taylor ................ .
W akulla ............... ... .. .
Div. Average per cent..
Western Division-
Calh ouT ..... ...... ... ... ...
Escam bia ............. ..
H olm es ...................
Jackson ................ ..
Santa Rosa ............
W alton ................ ....
W ashington ........... ...
Div. Average per cent.. ... .. T
Northeastern Division--
Baker ................. .... .
Bradford ......... .. .. ... .
C lay ................... ..
Columbia .............. ..
Putnam ............... ... ..
Div. Average per cent.. ..
Central Division-
Hernando ............. ... .
Levy .................. ...
M arion ................ ...
Orange ................
Sumter ................
V olusia .................. ...
Div. Average per cent.. ... I .
Southern Division--
Brevard ............... 90 10 '..
Dade .................. 100 100 100 80
DeSoto ............... ... ... ......
Hillsborough ........... ... ... ..
Lee ................... 100 100 100 140
Osceola ............... 50 30 ...
Palm Beach ......... ... ... 100 100
St. Lucie .............. ... ..
Div. Average per cent.. 85 82 I 100 i 107
State Average per cent.. 5 85 82 100 1'07








63

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Guavas. Orange Trees.





rank i ............... ... ... 30 3
ffersCOUNTIES ... ... .



Lafayette .............. ... .. ...
L iberty ................ .. ...
Northern Division- .


lTMadison ............... ... ... 50 50
Jeffersn .............. ....
Lafayette................ . |
Liberty................ ... ... .
Leon ............... .. ...

Suwannee..... ........... .... .. ... .
Taylor ................ ...
W alulla ............... ... ....
Div. Average per cent. T.. ... 40 940
Western Division-
CaT oicun .....~.~ ~. .. .. 123 150
Escambia .......... ... .
Holmes ............... ... ...40
Jackson .. .......... ..
Santa Rosa ........... ... ... ...
W alton ................ ... .
W ashington ........... ... .
Div. Average per cent.. ... 7... 7 95
Northeastern Division-
Baker ................ ... ... 75 75
Bradford ............... ... ...
Clay ................ ... ... 100 SO
Column bia .............. ... ... 0
Putnam ............... 60 60 7 65
Div. Average per cent.. 60 60 2 7
Central Division-
Hernando ............. ... .. 90 60
Levy .................. ... ... 75 50
Marion ............... .. 105 105
Orange ................ 100 25 100 35
Sumter .............. .. ... 90 100
Volusia ................ ... .. 80 50
Div. Avevage per cent.. 10 25 90
Southern Division--
Brevard ............... 60 65 s0 75
Dade .................. 100 100 85 95
DeSoto ................ 90 90 75 75
Hillsborough ........... 100 100 100 80
Lee ................... 50 50 90 75
Osceola ................ 100 25 95 40
Palm Beach ........... 90 90 85 70
St. Lucie .............. 90 60 100 90
Div. Average per cent.. 85 73 89 75
State Overage per cent.. 82 53 6 70








64


Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Lemon Trees. Lime Trees.

COUNTIES. a

S a0

Northern Division-- U
Franklin .............. 30 3 ...
Ham ilton .............. ...
Jefferson .............. ... .
Lafayette ............. .
Liberty ................. .
Leon .................. ... .
M adison ............... ... ..
Suwannee ............ .. .
Taylor ................ ...
W akulla ............... .. ..
Div. Average per cent.. 30 30 ..
Western Division--
Calhoun .............. 120 140
Escam bia .............. ... ....
Holmes ................ .. .
Jackson ............... *** *. **
Santa Rosa ............. ..
W alton ................ .. ...
Washington ............______ ____ _
Div. Average per cent..| 120 | 140 .
Northeastern Division--
Baker ..... ...........
Bradford .............. ... ... ..
C lay .................. ... ....
Columbia .................
Putnam ............... 70 65 ..
Div. Average per cent.. 70 65
Central Division--
i.ernando .............. ... ... ..
Levy .................. ... ...
Marion ................ 100 95 100 100
Orange ................... ...
Sumter ................ 75 90 75 90
Volusia ................ ..
Div. Average per cent.. 87 92 8 95
Southern Division--
Brevard ............... ... .
Dade ................. ... ... 90 90
DeSoto ................ 100 100 100 100
Hillsborough .......... 100 75 100 85
Lee ................... 90 90 90 90
Osceola ............... 90 50 100 60
Palm Beach ........... 80 80 85 80
St. Lucie .............. .. ... ...
Div. Average per cent.. 92 79 94 84
Sta-e'Average per cent.. 80 81 90 90








65

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Grapefruit Trees.

COUNTIES.

0s

Northern Division- U
Franklin ............... .................. 3 30
H am ilton ................................. ..
Jeff person ................................
Lafayette ...................
L ib erty ..................................
L eon ..................................... ... .
Madison .................................. ..
Suwannee .................................. ...
Taylor ................................... ...
W akulla .................................. .......
Div. Average per cent ..................... 30 30
Western Division-
Calhoun ......................... .......... 1. 5 120
E scam bia ................................. ... I .
H olm es ................................. .
Jackson .................................... ..
Santa R osa ............................... ...
W alton ................................... ....
W ashington ............................... .
Div. Average per cent.................... 115 120
Northeastern Division-
Baker ...................................... 75 80
B radford ..................................
C lay ...................................... 100 75
Colum bia ................................. ....
Putnam ................................... b65 65
Div. Average per cent ...................... 80 73
Central Division--
Hernando ............................... 90 90
L evy ................................... ...
Marion .................................... 105 98
Orange ................................... 100 10
Sumter .................................... 90 100
Volusia ................................... 80 25
Div. Average per cent ...................... 93 73
southern Division--
Brevard ..................... .... ......... 90 70
D ade ...................................... 105 75
D eSoto .................................... 65 50
H illsborough .............................. 100 70
L ee ....................................... 75 25
O sceola ................................... 95 30
Palm Beach .............................. 75 60
St. Lucie ................................. 95 60
Div. Average per cent ....................... 88 55
State Average per cent .................... .81 70
5-Bul.























PART 111.

Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and
Foods and Drugs.
















SPECIAL SAMPLES.


Florida is the only State in the Union that provides for
the "special sample," drawn by the consumer or purchaser,
under proper rules and regulations fixed by law-to be
sent to the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost.
Any citizen in the State who has purchased fertilizers or
feeds for his own use may draw a sample of the same,
according to law, and have the same analysed by the State
Chemist free of cost. And in case of adulteration or de-
ficiency he can, on establishing the fact, receive double
the cost of price demanded for the goods.
The law requires the "special samples" to be drawn in a
manner to prevent the submission of spurious samples;
rules and regulations are published in every Bulletin for
drawing and transmitting "special samples."
This special sample has been a most potenr actor in
enforcing the law and discouraging the sale of adulter-
ated or misbranded goods.
Special samples of foods and drugs may also be sent to
the State Laboratory for analysis free of cost, when the
sample is properly drawn according to law. The neces-
sary instructions and blanks required to properly draw
and transmit samples of "food and drugs" will be sent to
any citizen requesting the same.
"THE SPECIAL SAMPLE FURNISHES THE CON-
SUMER WITH THE SAME PROTECTION DEMAND-
ED BY THE MANUFACTURER, WHO BUYS HIS MA-
TERIALS ONLY UPON GUARANTEE AND PAYS
FOR THEM ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS, AND IS
PAID FOR BY THE CONSUMER OUT OF THE
FUNDS DERIVED FROM THE INSPECTION FEE
OF TWENTY FIVE CENTS PER TON PAID ON FER-
TILIZERS AND FEEDS SOLD IN THE STATE."











REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND
FORWARDING OF FERTILIZER OR COMMER
ClAL FEEDING STUFF SAMPLES TO THE COM-
MISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.



SECTION 15 OF THE LAWS.

Special samples of Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding
Btuffs sent in by purchasers, under Section 9 of the laws,
shall be drawn in the presence of two disinterested wit-
nesses, from one or more packages, thoroughly mixed, and
A FAIR SAMPLE OF THE SAME OF NOT LESS THAN EIGHT
OUNCES (ONE-HALF POUND) SHALL BE PLACED IN A CAN OR
BOTTLE, SEALED AND SENT BY A DISINTERESTED PARTY TO THI
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AT TALLAHASSEE. NOT
LESS THAN EIGHT OUNCES, IN A TIN CAN OR BOTTLE, WILL BB
ACCEP'TED FOR ANALYSIS. This rule is adopted to secure
fair i'lmp!es of sufficient size to make the necessary de-
terminati(ns and to allow the preservation of a dupli-
cate ~aluple in case of protest or appeal. This duplicate
sample will be preserved for two months from the date
of certificate of analysis.
The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
special samples from the purchaser. The propriety of
the method of drawing and sending the samples as fixed
by law is obvious.
The drawing and sending of special samples in rare
cases is in compliance with law. Samples are frequently
etnt in paper packages or paper boxes, badly packed, and
frcAquently in very small quantity (less than ounce) ; fre-
quently there are no marks, numbers or other means of
identification; the postmark in some instances being
absent.
I would call the attention of those who desire to avail
themselves of this privilege to Sections 9 and 10 of the
law, which are clear and explicit.
Hereafter, strict compliance with above regulations
will be required. The sample must not be less than one-
half pound, in a can or bottle, sealed and addressed to the
Commissioner of Agriculture. The sender's name and ad-
dress must also be on the package, this rule applying to
special samples of fertilizers or commercial feeding stuff.










A one-pound baking powder can, properly cleaned,
filled with a fairly drawn, well mixed sample taken from
several sacks, is a proper sample. It should be sealed and
addressed to the Commissioner of Agriculture at Talla-
hassee. The sender's name and address should also be
placed on the package. If more than one sample is sent,
the samples should be numbered so as to identify them,
All this should be done in the presence of the witnesses
and the package mailed or expressed by one of tkh
witnesses.
The tags off the sacks should be retained by the sender
to compare with the certificate of analysis when received,
and not sent to this office. The date of the drawing and
sending of the sample, and names of the witnesses, should
also be retained by the sender; not sent to this office.

INSTRUCTIONS TO PURCHASERS.

Purchasers are cautioned to purchase no Commercial
Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuff that does not
bear on each package an analysis tag with the guarantee
required by law, and the stamp showing the payment of
the inspector's fee. Goods not having the guarantee tag
and stamp are irregular and fraudulent; the absence of
the guarantee and stamp being evidence that the manu-
facturer or dealer has not complied with the law. With-
out the guarantee tag and stamp showing what the goods
are guaranteed to contain, the purchaser has no recourse
against the manufacturer or dealer. Such goods are sold
legally and fraudulently, and are generally of little
value. All reputable manufacturers and dealers now
comply strictly with the law and regulations by placing
the guarantee tag and stamp on each package.

INSTRUCTIONS TO SHERIFFS.

The attention of Sheriffs of the various counties is
called to Section 3 of both laws, defining their d.uties.
This department expects each Sheriff to assist in main-
taining the law and protecting the citizens of the State
from the imposition of fraudulent, inferior or deficient
Commercial Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuffs.









INSTRUCTIONS TO MANUFACTURERS AND
DEALERS.

Each package of Commercial Fertilizer, and each pack-
age of Commercial Feeding Stuff, must have, securely
attached thereto, a tag with the guaranteed analysis re-
quired by law and the stamp showing the payment of the
inspector's fee. This provision of the law, Section 3 of
both laws-will be rigidly enforced.
Manufacturers and dealers will be required to properly
tag and stamp each package of Commercial Fertilizer or
Commercial Feeding Stuff under penalty as fixed in Sec-
tion 6 of both laws. Tags shall be attached to the top
end of each bag, or head of each barrel.

COPIES OF THE FERTILIZER AND STOCK FEED
LAWS.

Citizens interested in the fertilizer and stock feed laws
of the State, and desiring to avail themselves of their pro-
tection, can obtain copies free of charge by sending for
same to the Commissioner of Agriculture.

COPIES OF THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG LAW.

Copies of the Pure Food and Drug Law, rules and regu-
lations, standards, blanks, etc., can be obtained from the
Commissioner of Agriculture.

FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by ........... 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by ............ 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by ........... 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by ...... 0.1647
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by ............ 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by.... 0.139








73

Carbonate of potash into actual potash,multiply by 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash,multiply by 1.466
Chlorine, in "kainit," multiply potash (K20) by.. 2.33
For instance, you buy 95 per cent. nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it, multiply 95
per cent. by 0.1647, you will get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent, by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (KO), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (K20).










MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTILIZ-
ING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEA
PORTS, JANUARY 1, 1911.

AMMONIATES.
Less than
ten tons.
Nitrate of Soda, 17 to 19% Ammonia ........ $ 52.00
Sulphate of Ammonia, 25 to 26% Ammonia .... 70.00
Dried Blood, 16 to 19% Ammonia ............ 67.00
Cynanamid, 124 to 13-% Ammonia ........... 46.00
Dry Fish Scrap, 11% Ammonia .............. 57.00
POTASHES.

High Grade Sulphate of Potash, 90 to 95% Sul-
phate, 48 to 50% K0, ...................... 56.00
Low Grade Sulphate of Potash, 48 to 53% Sul-
phate, 26 to 28% K20 ..................... 32.00
Muriate of Potash, 80 to 85% Muriate, 48 to 50%
KO ..................................... 50.00
Nitrate of Potash, imported, 15% Ammonia,
44% potash K,0 .......................... 91.00
Nitrate of Potash, American, 13% Ammonia,
4-2',. potash K2O .......................... 84.00
Kainit, 12 to 13 % Potash, K.,0............... 15.00
Canada Hardwood Ashes, in bags, 4 to 6% K2C
Potash .................................... 19.00
AMMONIA AND PHosPonRIc ACID.

High Grade Tankage, 10% Ammonia, 51 to 7%
Phosphoric Acid .........................$ 44.00
Tankage 8 to 9% Ammonia, 10 to 11% Phos-
phoric Acid ............................... 40.00
Low Grade Tankage, 64 to 8% Ammonia, 12 to
14% Phosphoric Acid ..................... 37.00
Hotel Tankage, 6 to 7% Ammonia, 7 to 8% Phos-
phoric Acid .............................. 25.00
Sheep Manure, ground, 3 to 4% Ammonia...... 24.00
Imported Fish Guano, 10% Ammonia, 10% Phos-
phoric Acid ............ ..... ........ 45.00
Pure Fine Steamed Ground Bone, 3 to 4% Am-
monia, 22 to 25% Phosphoric Acid ........ 29.00










Raw Bone, 4 to 5% Ammonia, 22 to 25% Phos-
phoric Acid ............ ............ ... 34.00
Ground Castor Pomace, 51% Ammonia, 2 to 6%
Phosphoric Acid .......................... 25.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 7j to 8% Ammonia.. 31.00
Dark Cotton Seed Meal, 5 to 7% Ammonia .... 27.00

PHOSPHORIC ACID.

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 16% Available
Phosphoric Acid ..........................$ 15.00
Acid Phosphate, 14% Available Phosphoric Acid 14.00
Bone Black, 17 to 18% Available Phosphoric
Acid ..................................... 25.00

MISCELLANEOUS.

High Grade Ground Tobacco Stems, 2 to 21%
Ammonia, 8 to 10% Potash ................$ 22.00
High Grade Ground Kentucky Tobacco Stems, 2
to 3% Ammonia, 10 to 11% Potash .......... 25.00
Tobacco Dust No. 1, 2 to 3% Ammonia, 2 to 3%
Potash ............................ ... 25.00
nut Tobacco Stems, in sacks, 2 to 2;% Ammonia,
4 to 5% Potash ............................ 20.00
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled, 2 to 21% Ammonia,
4 to 5% Potash ........... ............. 19.00
Land Plaster, in sacks ....................... 12.00

The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and
bagging any special or regular formula are $1.50 per ton
in excess of above prices.











NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT JULY
1, 1911-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.

AMMONIATES.

Ammonia, sulphate, foreign, prompt... .3.00 @$3.024
futures ....................... 3.02/@ 3.05
Ammonia, sulphate, domestic, spot.... 3.00 @ 3.05
futures ....................... 3.00 @ 3.05
Fish scrap, dried, 11% ammonia and
14% bone phosphate, f.o.b. fish works,
per unit .......................... 3.10 & 10
wet, acidulated, 6% ammonia,
3% phosphoric acid, delivered.. @ -
Ground fish guano, imported, 10 and
11% ammonia and 15-17% bone phos-
phate, c. i. f. N. Y., Balto. or Phila... 3.55 @3.65&10
Tankage, 11 and 15%, f.o.b Chicago.... 2.75 & 10
Tankage, 10 and 20%, f.o.b. Chicago
ground .......................... 2.75 & 10
Tankage, 9 and 20%, f.o.b. Chicago
ground ............................ 2.70 & 10
Tankage, concentrated, f. o. b. Chicago,
14 to 15% ......................... 2.70 @ -
Garbage, tankage, f.o.b Chicago....... 9.00 @ -
Sheep manure, concentrated, f.o.b. Chi-
cago, per ton.....................10.00 @ -
Hoofmeal, f.o.b. Chicago, per unit.... 2.60 @ 2.70
Dried Blood, 12-13% ammonia, f.o.b.
New York ........................ 3.00 @ 3.05
Chicago ....................... 2.90 @ 2.95
Nitrate of Soda, 95%, spot, per 100 lbs. 2.121/2@ -
futures, 95% ................. 2.121/2@ -

PHOSPHATES.
Acid phosphate, per unit............ 60 @ 62
Bones, rough, hard, per ton.......... 22.50 @23.00
soft, steamed, unground ........ 21.50 @22.00
ground, steamed, 1% ammonia,
and 60% bone phosphate.... 20.50 @21.50
ditto, 3 and 50% ............ 23.50 @24.00
raw ground, 4% ammonia and
50% bone phosphate........ 28.00 @29.00










South Carolina phosphate rock, kiln
dried, f.o.b. Ashley River..........
Florida land pebble phosphate rock,
68%, f.o.b. Port Tampa, Fla ........
Florida high grade phosphate hard
rock, 77%, f.o.b. Florida ports......
Tennesse phosphate rock, f.o.b. Mt.
Pleasant, domestic, 78 to 80%, per
ton .............................
75% guaranteed .............
68 to 72% ...................

POTASHES.


3.50 @ 3.75

3.75 @ 4.00

5.75 @ 6.25


5.00
4.75
4.25


@ 5.50
@ 5.00
@ 4.50


Muriate of potash, 80-85%, basis 80%,
in bags .......................... 38.05
Muriate of potash, min. 95%, basis
80%, in bags .................... 39.65
Muriate of potash, min. 98%, basis
80%, in bags..................... 40.50
Sulphate of potash, 90-95%, basis 90%,
in bags .......................... 46.50
Double manure salt, 48-53%, basis
48%, in bags.................... 24.45
Manure salt, min. 20%, K20, in bulk.. 13.30
Hardsalt, min. 16%, KO, in bulk.... 10.65
Kainit, min. 12.4%, K,O, in bulk.... 8.25











STATE VALUATIONS.

For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash, for the Season of 1911.

Available Phosphoric Acid ............ 5 c. a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ............ 1 c. a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrog-en). 171/,e. a pound
Potash (as actual potash, K20) ........ 51,c. a pound

If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid .............. $1.00 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ............. .20 per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). 3.50 per unit
Potash ................................ 1.10 per unit

With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent., in a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, take
for example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:

Available Phosphoric Acid.6.22 per cent.x$1.00-$ 6.22
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid.1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia ................3.42 per cent.x 3.50- 11.97
Potash .................. 7.23 per cent.x 1.10- 7.95
Mixing and Bagging .........................- 1.50

Commercial value at sea ports ................ $27.94

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid....8 per cent.x$1.00-$ 8.00
Ammonia ..................2 per cent.x 3.50- 7.00
Potash ....................2 per cent.x 1.10- 2.20
Mixing and Bagging .........................- 1.50

Commercial value at sea ports ............... $18.70

The above valuations are for cash for materials deliv-
ered at Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one-
ton lots at these prices at the date of issuing this Bulle-
tin. Where fertilizers are bought at interior points, the
additional freight to that point must be added.










If purchased in carload lots for cash, a reduction of
ten per cent. can be made in above valuations, i. e.:

Available Phosphoric Acid ...........90 cents per unit
Potash (K20) ..................... 99 cents per unit
Ammonia (or equivalent in nitrogen)..$3.15 per unit

The valuations and market prices in preceding illustra-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.

STATE VALUES.

It is not intended by the "State valuation" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufactur-
ing commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at
the date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the
"season." They may, but seldom do, vary from the market
prices, and are made liberal to meet any slight advance
or decline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial re-
ports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's
Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid and potash may be determined,
and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
material to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's
Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but accepted and
well known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer, or feed, can be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida seaports.
These price lists are published in this report, with the
"State values" for 1911 deducted therefrom.










80


COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED

Phosphoric
Amnonia Aid Potash

Nitrate of Soda........... 17 to 19 ....................
Sulphate of Ammonia..... 21 to 24....................
Dried Blood .............. 12 to 17 .......... ...........
Concentrated Tankage.... 12 to 15 1 to 2 ............
Bone Tankage .......... 6 to 9 10 to 15 ............
Bried Fish Scrap......... 8 to 11 6 to 8 ............
Cotton Seed Meal........ 7 to 10 2 to 3 li to 2
Hoof Meal .............. 13 to 17 11 to 2 ............
PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED


Available Insoluble
.Availe PhonQhnrln


Srnos. cla Ai
S Phos. Aci Acid

Florida Pebble Phosphate. ..................... 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate............. ............ 33 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate.. ............ 14 to 45 1 to 36
Ground Bone ............ 3 to 6 5 to 8 15 to 11
Steamed Bone ........... 3 to 4 6 to 9 10 to ?0
Dissolved Bone .......... 2 to 4 13 to 15 2 to 8
POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED

Actual Phosphoric
Potash Ammonia Acid Lime

Muriate of Potash .... 50 ......... .... ........
Sulphate of Potash...... 48 to 52................ ....
Carbonate of Potash.... 55 to 60 ......... .......
Nitrate of Potash....... 40to44 12 to16 ...........
Double Sul.of Pot.&Mag. 26to80 ......... ......... ......
Kainit ................. 12tol2 ......... ......... ..
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 ... ... ... .. ..
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes. 15 to 30 ......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleached. 2 to 8 ......... 1to 2 ........
Wood Ashes, leached... 1to 2 ......... to 1I 35 to 4S
Tobacco Stems ........ 5to 8 2to 4 .........
Cow Manure (fresh)... 0.40 0 to0.41 0.16 0.31
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.53 0 to 0.60 0.28 0.31
Sheep Manure (fresh).. 0.67 1.00 0.2 0.33
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.60 0.55 0.19 0.08
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.85 2.07 1.54 0.24
Mixed Stable Manure... 0.63 0.76 0.26 0.70






81
AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS.



NAME OF FEED.
4C_ O .1 f


Bright Cot'n Seed Meal

Dark Cotton Seed Meal
Linseed Meal, old pro-
cess ...............
Linseed Meal, new pro-
cess ...............

Wheat Bran ........

Wheat Middlings .....

Mixed Feed (Wheat)..

Ship Stuff (Wheat) ..

Corn (grain) ........

Corn Meal ...........

Corn Cobs ...........

Corn and Cob Meal ....

Hominy Feed ........
Corn and Oats, equal
parts ..............

Corn and Oats Feeds..

Bnrley (grain) .......

Barley Sprouts ......
Barley and Oats, equal
parts ..............


9.35

20.00

7.50

8.40

9.00

5.40

7.80

5.60

2.10

1.90

30.10

6.60

4.05


39.70

22.90

35.70

36.10

15.40

15.40

16.90

14.60

10.50

9.70

2.40

8.50

10.50


28.60

37.10

36.00

36.70

53.90

59.40

54.40

59.80

69.60

68.70

54.90

64.80

65.30


5.70 10.501 64.20


12.10

2.70

10.90

6.10


8.70

12.40

27.20

12.10


61.70

69.80

42.70

64.75


7.80

5.50

7.20

3.60

4.00

4.10

4.80

5.00

5.40

3.80

0.50

3.50

7.85

4.40

3.70

1.80

1.60

3.401


6-Bul.


5.80

5.00

5.30

5.20

5.80

3.20

5.30

3.70

1.50

1.40

1.40

1.50

2.55

2.20

3.20

2.40

6.30

2.70







82

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEED STUFFS.- (Continued.)



NAME OF FEED.



Oats (grain) ......... .9.50 11.801 59.70 5.00 3.00

Oat Feed ............ 6.101 16.001 54.900 7.10 3.70

Rice (grain) ......... 0.20 7.40 79.20 0.40 0.40

Rice Bran ........... 9.50 12.10 49.90 8.80 10.00

Rice Hulls ........... 35.70 3.60 38.60 0.70 13.20

Rye (grain) ......... 1.70 10.60 72.50 1.70 1.90

Rye Bran ............ 3.50 14.70 63.80 2.80 3.60

Wheat (grain) ....... 1.80 11.90 71.90 2.10 1.80

Cow Pea ............. 4.10 20.80 55.70 1.40 3.20

Cow Pea Hay ........ 20.10 16.60 42.20 2.20 7.50

Velvet Beans and Hulls 9.20 19.70 51.30 4.50 3.30

Velvet Bean Hay .... 29.70 14.70 41.00 1.70 5.70

Beggarweed Hay ..... 24.70 21.70 30.20 2.30 10.9(

Japanese Kudzu Hay.. 32.14 17.43 30.20 1.67 6.87

Cotton Seed (whole).. 23.20 18.40 24.70 19.90 3.50

Cotton Seed Hulls .... 44.40 4.00 36.60 2.00 2.60

Gluten Feed ......... 5.30 24.00 51.20 10.60 1.10

Beef Scrap .......... ...... 44.70 3.28 14.75 29.20











COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEED STUFFS
FOR 1911.

For the season of 1911 the following "State values" are
fixed as a guide to purchasers.
These values are based on the current prices of corn.
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values; the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

COMMERCIAL VALUES OF FEED STUFFS FOR 1911.

Protein, 31c. per pound .................. 621c. per unit
Starch and Sugar, 11c. per pound........25 c. per unit
Fats, 34c. per pound.................... 62c per unit

A unit being 20 pounds (1%) of a ton.
Indian corn being the standard @ $27.50 per ton.
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.

EXAMPLE No 1.

HOMINY FEED-
Protein ..................... 10.50 x 62.5c, $ 6.56
Starch and Sugar............ 65.30 x 25.0c, 16.43
Fat ......................... 7.85 x 62.5c, 4.91

State value per ton...................... $27.90

EXAMPLE No. 2.
CORN-
Protein .................... 10.50 x 62.5c, $ 6.56
Starch and Sugar ............69.60 x 25.0c, 17.40
Fat ......................... 5.40 x 62.5c, 3.38

State value per ton...................... 827.34











FORM U LAS.

There are frequent inquiries for formulas for various
crops, and there are hundreds of such formulas published;
and, while there are hundreds of "brands," the variations
in these grades are surprisingly little. Dozens of "brands"
put up by the same manufacturer are identical goods,
the only difference being in the name printed on the tag or
sack. A good general formula for field or garden might
be called a "vegetable formula," and would have the fol-
lowing: Ammonia, %; available phosphoric acid, 61%;
and potash, 71 %o. The following formulas will furnish the
necessary plant food in about the above proportion. I have
purposely avoided the use of any fraction of 100 pounds
in these formulas to simplify them. Values are taken
from price lists furnished by the trade, which we pub-
lished in our Report of January 1, 1911.
For cotton, corn, sweet potatoes and vegetables: Am-
monia :U%; available phosphoric acid, '4;V ; potash,
71%.

(A VEGETABLELE"

No. 1.
Per Cent.
900 pounds of Cotton seed Meal (7-21-11) ...... 3.25 Ammonia
800 pounds of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent).... 6.40 Available
300 pounds of Muriate(or Sulphate) (50 per cent) 7.50 Potash

2,000
State value mixed and bagged..............$27.52
Plant Food per ton ..................... ... ': pounds

No. 2.
Pnr Cent.
1,000 lbs of Blood and Bone (6V-8) ...........) .25 Amm'nia
400 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent).... 7.00 Avai!abl.
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot.(26 per cent).. ,7.80 Potash

2.000
State value mixed and bagged............. .$28.45
Plant Food per ton ........................ 360 pounds














No. 3.
Per Cent.
300 lbs of Dried Blood (16 per cent)........... .25 Ammoni
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent) ....... I 83.2 Avamnia
1,000 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent)....... i 7.80 Potash
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 per cent.).. .

2,000
State value mixed and bagged........... .$29.45
Plant Food per ton....................... 381 pounds

(B) "FRUIT AND VINE."

No. 1.
Fruits, Melons, Strawberries. Irish Potatoes, Ammonia 4 per
cent., Available Phosphoric Acid 7 per cent., Potash 10 per cent.

Per Cent.


1,000 lbs of Blood and Bone (61-8).............
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent)........
500 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).......
400 lbs Muriate of Potash (50 per cent.).......

2,000


4 Ammonia
8 Available
10 Potash


State value mixed and bagged........... .$34.50
Plant Food per ton....................... 440 pounds

No. 2.

Per Cent.
500 Ibs of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent.) ....... 4.0
200 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.)......... 7.70 Available
900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.) ....... 9.60 Potash
400 lbs of Sulp. of Pot. (48 per cent.).......... i

2,000
State value mixed and bagged............. $33.76
Plant Food per ton....................... 426 pounds

No. 3.

Per Cent.
500 lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (78-2i-1) ........
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.)....... 3.97 Ammonia
100 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.).......... 8.30 Available
900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)....... 8.97 Potash
400 lbs of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.).......

2,000
State value mixed and bagged............. $33.57
Plant Food per ton....................... 425 pounds


















CIRCULAR NO. 3.
AMENDMENT TO
CIRCULAR NO. 2, OF JULY 15, 1911,

PURE FOOD AND DRUGS LAW, 1911.

Tallahassee, Fla., Sept. 21, 1911.
Notice to Manufacturers, Dealers, Brokers and Consumers
of Foods and Drugs in the State of Florida.
The Provisions of the Pure Food and Drugs Law, Chapter 6122,
Approved June 5, 1911, Became Effective August 3, 1911.
Numerous letters of inquiry have been received from
manufacturers, jobbers and dealers in package goods, in
the State of Florida, and also from other states, asking a
ruling as to the time that would be allowed to make the
necessary changes in labels on goods now on hand, and
disposition of such goods now legally in the State, or con-
tracted for for future delivery to the wholesaler, jobber or
retailer prior to Aug. 3, 1911, that do not comply with the
amended Pure Food and Drugs Law.
A conference was held July 11, 1911, at the office of the
Commissioner of Agriculture in Tallahassee, Florida;
also on Sept. 19, 1911, at which time the various commer-
cial organizations, National and State--wholesalers, re-
tailers, brokers, manufacturers and representative whole-
sale and retail merchants from Tampa, Jacksonville, Pen-
sacola and other points in the State, were present.
After due consideration, discussion, and statement of
facts, the consensus of opinion was that the law was both
reasonable and just-fair to the manufacturer, dealer and
consumer; and necessary for the protection of the legiti-
mate manufacturer and dealer in honest goods, and the
consumer from the unfair competition of "light weight,
short measure," or diluted and adulterated foods and
drugs.
That its provisions should be enforced at the earliest
possible time consistent with the protection of the legiti-
mate business of the State, and the protection of those
manufacturers, dealers, brokers, wholesale and retail mer-













chants, who have now on hand, legally, under the State
and National Laws, stocks of package goods, and con-
tracts for fall delivery of canned goods-the pack of 1911.
After due consideration of all the facts, and the interests
of all parties concerned-the manufacturer, the dealer,
and the consumer, the following ruling has been adopted:

NET WEIGHT AND MEASURE.

1st-The net weight or measure shall be "conspicuously,
legibly and correctly" stated on the outside of all packages
of grain, flour, meal, butter, lard, cottolene (or similar
compound), cooking oils, syrups, and similar staple gro-
ceries, on and after September 1, 1911; that printed
"stickers" will be allowed on such goods then on hand, to
which they are applicable, which will protect the same till
sold. See Regulation 29.
2nd-That stocks o' canned goods, vegetables, pickles,
baking powders, jellies, preserves, etc., in cans, bottles or
cartons, on hand August 3, 1911, or contracted for fall de-
livery, if in full compliance with the State and Federal
Laws, and regulations, prior to August 3, 1911, may be
disposed of till August 1, 1912. That printed "stickers,"
showing the "net weight or measure" of such goods ap-
plied before August 1, 1912, ,hall protect such goods ac-
tually delivered in the State, or bona-fidely contracted for,
for future delivery, prior to August 3, 1912.
This ruling shall apply only to such goods as were
legally on hand Aug. 3, 1911 (at which time the law went
into effect) and to those contracts as were entered into
prior to Aug. 3, 1911, for future delivery to wholesaler,
jobber and retail merchant-and shall not apply to any
goods purchased or contracted for subsequently to the date
the law went into effect, Aug. 3, 1911. All goods pur-
chased subsequent to Aug. 3, 1911, or contracted for, shall
fully comply with the Pure Food and Drugs Law of 1911,
in every respect.

NOTE---et weight shall be stated in pounds or ounces
avoirdupois or fractions thereof. The unit being the
pound-all packages containing one or more pounds shall
state the weight in pounds. Weights less than a pound
shall be stated in ounces-i. e. "1 lb. net," "2 lbs. net," "50
lbs. net," or, "3 lbs. 2 oz. net," "S lbs. 4 oz. net," "47 lbs.
6 oz. net," "4-1-2 oz. net."












Net measure shall be stated in U. S. standard gallons,
or in quarts, or fluid ounces, (a fluid ounce being one
thirty-second of a quart by measure)-i. e. "One gal. net,"
"Onc qt. net," "30 fl. oz. net," "7 fl. oz. net," or "3 qts. 8 fl.
oz. nct," "1 qt. 6 fl. oz. net."

To express one pound or more in ounces, or one quart,
or more in fluid ounces, will not be permissable.

BENZOATE OF SODA.

3rd-That goods actually on hand Aug. 3, 1911, con-
taining not more than 1-10 of 1 per cent. benzoate of soda,
and otherwise complying with the State and Federal
Laws, prior to Aug. 3, 1)1.1, may be disposed of till Aug.
1, 112. That bona fide contracts for such goods existing
before Aug. 3, 1911, will be respected, and the material
allowed to be sold till Aug. 1, 1912, after which date no
gootis containing benzoate of soda can be legally sold in
the State.

SACCHARIN.

4th-Goods actually on hand in the possessoin of the
trade, within the State Aug. 3, 1!11, may be disposed of,
Provided, the same are plainly labeled "sweetened with
saccharin," as now provided by law. The manufacture or
importation of any food containing saccharin after Aug.
3, 191, is not permissible legally, in the State.

DILUTE STANDARD DRUGS.

5th--No "drug sold under or by a name recognized in
the United States Pharmacop(eia or National Formulary,
that differs from the standard of strength, quality, or pur-
ity as determined by the test laid down in the United
States Plharmacopa'ia, or National Formulary," can be
legally manufactured or imported into the State after
Aug. 3, 1911. Such stocks of dilute standard drugs, that
may be actually on hand, in the State, Aug. 3, 1911, in
the hands of dealers, may be sold till Jan. 1, 1912, Pro-
vided, They comply fully with the State and Federal Laws
and Regulations in force prior to Aug. 3, 1911. After
Jan. 1, 1912, dilute standard drugs cannot be legally sold
in Florida.









90
6th-All manufacturers and dealers complying with the
letter and spirit of the foregoing rules, will be exempt
from prosecution for misbranding or adulteration. Eva-
sion of this regulation will be considered a breach of faith,
and the goods subject to seizure, sale or destruction, as
provided by Law and Regulations.
7th-It is recommended that the labels of all packages
of food received after Aug. 3, 1911, have the necessary
"stickers" applied to show "net weight or measure," that
they may be in shape to protect such goods till sold. The
application of "stickers" after Aug. 1, 1912, will not be
legally permissible.
Approved Sept. 21, 1911.
R. E. ROSE,
State Chemist.
B. E. McLIN,
commissionerr of Agriculture.














COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE B. E. McLIN AND STATO
CI1EMIST R. E. ROSE PRESENT SOME FACTS IN CONNEC-
TION WITH THE PURE FOOD LAW AND THEIR RULINGS.

In connection with Circular No. 3, relative to the
Pure Food and Drugs Law of Florida, we think it proper
to state some facts for the advice and benefit of the gen-
eral public who consume and use the goods covered by
the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1911.
Section 15 of the law provides-
"That the Commissioner of Agriculture, with the advice
of the State Chemist, shall have authority to establish
such rules and regulations as shall not be inconsistent
with the provisions of this Act, in conformity with the
rules and regulations promulgated by the United States
Department of Agriculture."
We realize that there devolves upon us much responsi-
bility, to administer this very important law so as to do
justice to the consumers and, at the same time, treat fairly
the many thousands of retail, wholesale and jobbing busi-
ness enterprises in the State.
To require immediate compliance would mean to close
up the food, feed, drug and liquor departments of every
such business man in the State, or to have the Commis-
sioner and Chemist plastered with injunctions from both
State and Federal Courts. We have had to labor over
legal controversies from able attorneys both in and out of
the State, that the public knows nothing of.
Should the matter have gone into the Courts, the public
would be deprived of the benefits accruing under the law
at least during the period of long drawn out litigation.
We recognize the fact that goods purchased in good
faith, that fully complied with the State and United
States laws prior to the passage of the Act of 1911, could











not be confiscated without reasonable time to dispose of
same, especially when of such a character that the original
packer only could know the net contents, or would be
the only one who could LEGALLY guarantee the con-
tents. Nor could we enforce the statute that would have
the elect of nullifying existing contracts prior to the pas-
sage of the Act. The Constitutions of the State and the
United Slates would not permit such action.
We felt it our duty to adopt such rules and regulations
as would give the most certain and speedy compliance
with the law, that the people could most promptly reap
the benefits under the Statute. The Department of Jus-
tice advised the Commissioner of Agriculture, when the
United States Pure Food law was passed in 1906, that
reasonable time nmust be given to dispose of stocks on
hand and under existing contracts at the time of the pas
sage of the Act, except where they were definitely known
to be poisonous or deleterious to the health.
We have given no extension or qualification to any
goods not complying with the National or State Pure
Food laws existing prior to 1911.
The classes (of goods lhat have worked the greatest hard
ships on the consuming public, as to short weights and
measures, are included in hle first section of Circular
No. 3. Such as corn, oats, flour, meal, butter, lard, cotto-
lene, oleomargarine, syrup, etc. On this class of goods
there is no extension of time given, as net weights can be
properly ascertained and labeled.
The extension of twelve months is given to comply with
the law on case goods that are canned and bottled, with
strict limitations, as Ci-iular No. : explains. These
goods are known as standard goods and the extension of
time on these goods will not harm the consumer, for to
afix the label at once, if it were possible to do so, would
not change the net contents a particle, nor the price one
cent. They are sold by the package or piece and not by









the pound. They were in the State or contracted for
when the law was passed and could not be confiscated or
forced out of the State if we attempted it. Should we
require (if we had the legal authority to do so) the retail
and wholesale merchants of the entire State to shut down
business, in order to place the net weight on all goods in
the Slate, it is most likely Ihai the cost would be added to
thl' pi ice paid by the consumer.
i;y pursuing the course e we have adopted, we feel that
the entire mercantile interests of the State will be hearty
cooperators in our efforts to give the people, not only a
knowledge of the net weigh and measure, but full weight
and measure as well.
The wholesale, jobbers, brokers and merchants are filing
with ihe Department written guarantees of their accept-
ance of the regulations, assuring their cooperation and
compliance with the regulations, and guaranteeing us that
they will not receive and ship out into the channels of
trade through the State, any gods not in compliance with
the law that may have been purchased or contracted for
after the law went into effect August 3, 1911.
While the dealers feel that they should have until De-
cember 31st. 1912, to adjust their business to meet the de-
mands of the law, we feel after the most careful consider-
ation, that our action will mete out justice and bring
about the best results for all affected by the Act, the con-
sumers and the dealers of all classes.
Copies of the law and Circular No. :3 an be obtained
by anyone making the request of the Commissioner of
Agriculture or the State Chemist at Tallahassee, Fla.
B. E. McLIN,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
R. E. ROSE,
State Chemist.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1911. L. HEIMBURGER, Assistant Chemist.
Samples taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 22, 1901.


Phosi

i

g^I |
z | ^

.0 0


Fertilizer "H" .............. 2610 13.82
Fertilizer "M" ............ 12611 14.53
Fertilizer "P" .............. 2612 10.64
Fertilizer ................... 2613 ....
Fertilizer ................... 614 3.69
Fertilizer ................... 2615 6.87
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2616 6.76
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 617 6.81
Fertilizer No. 3.............. 2618 6.89
n"id Phosphate No. 2........ 619 .....
Fertilizer 1.................. 620 18.41
Fertilizer ................... 2621 19.35
Fertilizer 1 ................. 622 6.32
Fertilizer 2 ................. 2623 ......
Fertilizer 1 ................ 2624 14.88
Fertilizer 2.................. 26251 13.94


10.43
7.72
10.53
6.04
9.62
5.99
9.31
6.94
8.22
17.18'
8.03
7.95
4.59
3.08
10.87
11.87


)horic Acid.


0.34
0.45
0.87
0.25
0.80
0.95
0.131
0.17
0.20
0.13
0.71
0.55
10.98
7.85
1.27
0.69j


0


10.77
8.17
11.40
6.29
10.42
6.94
9.44
7.11
8.42
17.31
8.74
8.50
15.57
10.931
12.14
12.56


BY WHOM SENT.


2.17. E. Boyette, Otahite.
1.71 J. E. Boyette, Otahite.
2.07 J. E. Boyette, Otahite.
2.07 J. E. Boyette, Otahite.
11.06 J. W. Allen, Ozona.
6.07 F. F. Thomas, Narajo.
6.32 J. R. Johnson, Hawthorn.
6.461W. R. Altman, Bridges.
6.34 W. R. Altman, Bridges.
6.46 W. R. Altman, Bridges.
.... W. Cooley, Berrydale.
1.451J. W. Cooley, Berrydale.
1.371E. B. Beck, Berrydale.
7.85 W. C. Edminston, Auburndale.
6.191W. C. Edminston, Auburndale.
3.10 F. M. Senterfitt, Holt.
1.61 F. M. Senterfitt, Holt.


NAME, OR BRAND.


,


I


I














NAME, OR BRAND.


Acid Phosphate No. 3.......1262626 ......
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2627 ......
Fertilizer No. 2............. 2628 ......
Fertilizer ................... 26291 14.86
Slag (S. S. Iris) ............. 26300 .....
Fertilizer ................... 2631 4.62
Fertilizer ................... 2632 10.99
Nitrate of Soda.............. 2633 .. ..
Fertilizer No. 1........... .2634 8.80
Fertilizer No. 2............ 2635 6.65
Muriate Potash No. 1........ 2636 ...
Nitrate Soda No. 2.......... 12637 ......
Fertilizer No. 3(Mobile S-and-12638 10.67
ard)
Acid Phosphate No. 4........ 2639 ......
Fertilizer ................... 26401......
Tobacco Stems ............. 2611 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2642 6.71
Tankage ................... 2643 .....
Cotton Seed Meal........... [2644 ......


16.92 0.92 17.84
9.13 1.51 10.64
9.90 0.67 10.57
11.62Z 0.43| 12.091
8.94 9.60 18.541
9.19 0.15 9.34
10.35| 0.85, 11.20|

12.85 0.54 13.39
11.97 0.37 12.34


9.72 2.85 12.57

17.19 1.88 19.07
12.49 2.28 14.77

.-..... ...... ......
4.981 2.961 7.94
... ... .. .. 15.87|
... ... ......]......


BY WHOM SENT.


. ..... M. Senterfitt, Holt.
4.13 4.34' N. Jones, Ouircy.
2.09! 3.80- N. Jones. Quincy.
2.251 2.25KCalvin Jines, Dady.
.......... -. 0. Painter Fertz. Co., Jackson il'f.
3.10 9.581G. P. Walker, Belleair.
1.93 1.97[J. E. Blake, Red Rock.
S17 59 ... .. A.Morrs, Floyd.
1.58 3.63 Jeff W. Jones, Jay.
2.691 2.31 Jeff W. .ones, Jay.
... 50.24iH. W. Padpett, Red Rock.
18.93 ....... W. Padgett, Red Rock.
1.99 1.43 H. W. Padgett, Red Rock.

...... ...... H. W. Padgett, Red Rock.
7.19 2.521W. M. Carruth, Tampa.
2.77 5.99[Ed M. Gross, Orlando.
6.77 5.251Independent Fertz. Co., Jacksonville.
7.181...... J. M. Coarsey, Tampa.
6.951...... IA. N. Hoofnagle, Ft. Pierce.


SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1911-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.


0 0

9 .. a" 3a
0 0 C
^ > ^ *S S -


*^







Hard Wood Ashes........... 2645 ......
.-zFertilizer No. 1.............. 2646 ......
I Fertilizer No. 2 ............. 2647....
., fertilizer ................... 2648 .....
!Dried Blood ................2649 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2650 .
Acid Phosphate "A"........ 265......
Fertilizer "B" ....... .. 2652 ......
Fertilizer "C" .......... 2653 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2654 6.22
Fertilizer ................. 2655 6.83
bish Guano ................ 2656 10.98
Cotton Grower Guano....... 2657 11.o9
Fish Guano ...............2658 10.58
Cotton Grower Guano...... 2659 11.11,
Fertilizer ................... 2660 ... .
Fertilizer No. 1............... 2661 11.25
Wood Ashes No. 2........... 2662 ......
Fertilizer .................. 2663 6.23
A shes ...................... 664 ....
'iankage ................ 2665 ..
Hardwood Ashes ........... 2666 ......
x fertilizer ................. 2667 ..
Fertilizer No. 1199.......... 2668 14.60
Guano No. 1200.............. 2669 ......
Nitrate Potash ............. 2670 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2671 11.65
Fertilizer .......... ...... .. 2672 9.89


...... ...... 2.91 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tampa.
4.73 10.14 14.87 3.56 7.74 D. L. Austin, Tampa.
2.81 8.34 11.15 3.57 5.14 D. L. Austin, Tampa.
10.56 1.36 11.92 4.08 10.68 E. J. Ricon. Stuart.
... ...... ...... 16.83 ....... C. A. Van Duzer, Viking.
12.2 0.69 12.92 1.841 1.22 A. C. Kelly, Vernon.
17.69] 0.431 18.12 ..... I...... J. I. Langley, DeFuniak Springs.
9.621 0.64 10.261 1.06 2.331J. I. Langley, DeFuniak Springs.
9.981 1.68 11.661 2.051 2.27 J. I. Langley, DeFuniak Springs.
5.97 0.12 6.09 5.22 6.48 W. B. Coggins, Wiersdaie.
.. 8.51 6.97 4.65J. G. May, Ft. Pierce.
4.19| 0.59| 4.78 0.71 0.62 Tobe Kennedy, Milligan.
5.211 0.47 5.68 0.91 0.83 Tobe Kennedy, Milligan.
4.26 0.54 4.80 0.73 0.62 Charlie Bracker, Milligan.
5.17 0.41 5.55 0.85 0.78 Charlie Bracker, Milligan.
8.88 0.52 9.40 0.79 0.56 Charlie Bracker, Milligan.
7.89 0.33 8.22 3.36 8.80 Ed M. Gross, Orlando.
.. .. ..... ..... ...... 2.97 Ed M. Gross, Orlando.
... ......... 7.77 6.96 5.37 John W. Davis, St. Lucie.
.. .. ... ..... ...... 2.89 E. B. Brown, Sanford.
... ... ..... 18.65 4.94 ..... Dr. F. Philips, Orlando.
...... ...... 4.75 Manatee Co. Supply Co., Manatee.
3.98 0.75 4.73 1.19 4.46 A. B. Sanders, Miami.
6.51 1.29 7.80 4.09 7.77 C. M. Mallett, Tampa.
10.77 8.93 19.70 3.15 0.22 C.. Mallett, Tampa.
.. ......... ...... 12.49 45.081E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co., Jacksonville.
5.01 0.40 5.41 3.98 7.50 .. T. Swalley, Winter Haven.
7.32 2.04 9.36 4.96 8.20 E. L. Vanderipe, Manatee.









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1911. L. HEIMBURGER, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist Under Sections 1 and 2, Act Approved May 22, 1905.

Phosphoric Acid.

o5 6 M BY WHOM AND WHERE
NAME, OR BRAND. | MANUFACTURED..
T m t a .. i 5


Tomato Special..........1644 Guarant'dAnalysis 10.001 6.00 100I...... 5.00 8.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
Official Analysis... 7.70 6.28 1.43 7.71 4.89 8.41 Jacksonville, Fla. co
Bradley Florida Vegetable. 1645 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 6.00 1.00 ...... 4.00 5.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
OfficialAnalysis.. 9.79 6.SO 1.10 7.90 3.89 4.73 Jacksonville, Fla.
Bradley Florida Fruit and 16461Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 5.50 1.00...... 4.25 10.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
Vine .................. Official Analysis... 7.23 6.48 1.071 7.55 4.35 10.55 Jacksonville, Fla.

High Grade Orange Fruiter 1647 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 10.00 1.00 .... 00 13.00Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
Official Analysis... 4.50 10.75 0.62 11.37 3.851 13.131 Jacksonville, Fla.
American Standard Guano. 1648 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 8.00 2. 0...... 2.00 2.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
Official Analysis... 11.30 8.73 1.50 10.23 1.76 2.33 Jacksonville, Fla.

Williams & Clark Vegetable 1649 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 6.00 .00...... 4.001 5.00|Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
S Official Analysis... 10.571 6.101 1.75 7.85] 3.94! 5.451 Jacksonville, Fla.







Bradley Orange Tree......1650 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00
Official Analysis.. 5,70

Williams & Clar, Fruit and 1651 Guarant'd Analysis 10.0
Vine ................... Official Analysis.. 6.67

-azaretto Early Trucker. .1652 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00
Official Analysis... 14.81

Cotton Seed Meal......... lt13 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis... .....

No. 2 Orange Tree Mixture 1654 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis... 6.46

Lettuce and Cuke Special.. 1655 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis.. 10.20

Cotton Special ............ 1656 Guarant'd Analysis| 12.00
Official Analysis... 10.15

No. 1 Peruvian and Fish 1657 Guarant'd Analysis' 12.00
Guano ................. Official Analysis... 1 8.241

Fish and Potash.......... 1658 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis... 8.14

Our Golden Fruiter....... 1659uarant'd Analysis 12.001
Official Analysis... 3.251

Benn and Pea Special,,,, 1660|Guarant'd Analysis 1.20
|0Qflihtl Analysis... .6S


6.00 1 .0o ......
7.06 1.50 8.56

5.511 3 00 ......
6.7:3 1.41 8.14

7.00 2.00 ......
7.77 1.26 9.03

.. .50



6.00 2.00 ......


6.25 1.15 7.40

6.00 1.00 ....
6.71 1.1S 7.891

5.00 1.00o .....
7.401 1.47' S.87

2.50 2.50 ......
2.70 1.391 4.091

6.00 1. .0 .. .
7.41" 0.23: 7.72!

6.00 1.00 .. .
8.67| 0.49 .16


3.501 5.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
3.871 4.69 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.251 10.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
2.131 10.24 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 5.00 Am. Agricul. Chem. Co.,
4.781 4.79 Jacksonville, Fla.

7.50 1.50 The Southern Cotton Oil
8.28 ...... Pensacola, Fla.

3.00 5.001Florida Fertilizer Co.,
2.28 9.50! Gainesville, Fla.

6.50 4.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
6.18 2.311 Gainesville, Fla. .

2.001 2.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
2.211 2.56] Gainesville, Fla.

4.00I 5.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
4.061 3.321 Gainesville, Fla.

6.50 5.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
6.03 5.601 Gainesville, Fla.

3.00 13.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
3.35j 14.08S Gainesville, Fla.

2.50 8.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
2.63 7.15| Gainesville, Fla.









OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1911.-rContinued.


I Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. o 0 .
,l .s S



No. 3 Blood, Bone & Potash 1661 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00 5.00 2.00 ...... 4.00
OfficialAnalysis... 6.83 6.37 1.58 7.951 4.73

Cotton Food .............. 1662 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00 6.00 1.00 ...... 3.00
Official Analysis... 9.02 8.40 1.42 9.82 3.10

Standard Vegetable No. 1.. 1663 Guarant'dAnalysis 8.00 5.00 1.00 6.00 4.00
Official Analysis... 16.81 5.25 0.89 6.14 3.23

German Kainit ........... 1664 Guarant'd Analysis .... ....... ...... I............
Official Analysis... ..... ...... ...... ...... ......

Marianna Special ......... 1665 Guarant'dAnalysis 10.00 10.00 2.00 ...... 2.001
OfficialAnalysis... 11.69 10.01 0.56 10.57 2.30

Plantation Special ........ 166 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 10.00 1.00 ...... 4.00
Official Analysis... 13.94 10.2S 0.49 10.77 3.851

Field Crop Special......... 1667 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00o 8.00 1.00 ...... o00
S Official Analysis... 12.281 8.95 O.91 9.64 3.28.


0
" BY WHOMAND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.




4.00 Florida Fertilizer Co.,
4.67 Gainesville, Fla.

4.00 Florida Fertilizer Co,.
3.68 Gainesville, Fla.

6.00 Stanldard Fertilizer Co.,
8.j6 Gainesville, Fla.

12.00 Standard Fertilizer Co.,
13.59| Gainesville, Fla.

2.00 Gulf Chemical Co., Mari-
2.36 anna, Fla.

4.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
3.74 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 A our Fortz. Works,
5.56 Jacksonville, Fla.




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