• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Crop conditions
 Classification of soils
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...
 The citrus grove, its location...














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00015
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Crop conditions
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Report of acreage and condition per cent
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
    Classification of soils
        Page 25
        Page 26
        General classification of Florida soils
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 39
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
        Market prices of chemicals and fertilizing materials at Florida sea ports
            Page 46
            Page 47
        New York wholesale prices
            Page 48
            Page 49
        State valuations
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Composition of fertilizer materials
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Average composition of commercial feedstuffs
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Commercial state values of feedstuffs
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Special fertilizer analyses
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
        Official fertilizer analyses
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Special feeding stuff analyses
            Page 72
        Official feeding stuff analyses
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Official food analyses
            Page 78a
            Page 78b
    The citrus grove, its location and cultivation
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text







NUMBE9-2


VOLUME 20


FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


APRIL 1, 1910


B. E. MCLIN
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part I--Crops. Part 2--Classification of Soils.
Part 3--Fertilizers, Feed Stuffs and Foods and Drugs.l
Part 4--The Citrus Grove, Its:location and Cultivation.

Entered January 31,1903, at Tallahassee Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

T. J. APPEYA ARD. Stato Printer
Talla haisse, Fla.
& *
-^


II











COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA


















PART I.

CROP CONDITIONS.














DIVISION Of THE STATE BY COUNTIES.

Following are the divisions of the State, and the coun-
ties contained in each:


Northern Division.
Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Lafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla.-11

Western Division.

Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington.-7.


Northeastern Division.
Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns.-9.

Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Sumter,
Volusia.-9.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillshorough,
Lee,


Manatee,
Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Polk,
St. Lucie.-11.

















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

B. E. McLIN, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.




CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DivisioNs.

NORTHIERN DIVISION.-The planting of upland cotton
began in a few localities about March 24th, but the bulk
of the planting will not be done before about 4th to the
15th or probably the 201h of April, owing to the dry
weather, which is keeping such operations back; much
of the crop will be delayed in planting till in May, for
the reason above stated. While it is to be expected that
many farmers will increase their acreage owing to the
high price obtained for the last crop, it is to be hoped
that they will not overdo it, as a greatly increased acre-
age throughout the cotton belt would result in such a
large crop lhat prices would be forced down to an un-
profitable limit. The corn crop just planted is also con-
siderably increased over last year, which is undoubtedly
a wise move on the part of farmers, as too much corn
or other forage crops cannot be produced, for with a sur-
plus of such crops a demand lor live slock is created, and
the more live stock raised and properly cared for on the
farms, and the manure nlilized, the better and more pro-
ductive will be the lands and, consequently, greater
prosperity will be enjoyed by the farmers. There is also
a considerable increase shown in the acreage planted to
most field crops, but the weather has not been so favor-
able for general farming operations as last year, the
rainfall to date being very short of the normal. The
fruit crops adapted to this section are doing well, and
the prospect is for a fair yield.
With the exception of Gadsden County, tobacco grow-
ing on any scale has been practically suspended, till the
market for the product improves.











WESTERN )IVISION.-The planting of crops began
somewhat earlier in this district also than last year, but
owing, also, to backward weather conditions crops have
not advanced as they should, nor has planting progressed
as rapidly as desired. This section has had slightly more
rainfall than the Northern, but not enough to supply the
crops abundantly. In this section, as in the preceding
one, the acreage to cotton is being quite largely increased.
There is also a notable increase in all the principal farm
crops, and in spite of the shortness of labor. The in-
creased use of improved farm implements has very much
reduced the necessity for as many farm hands as for-
merly and it has also had the effect of producing better
crops wiii less labor, because of the better cultivation
made possible with more modern implemenils. The fruit
crops of this section are doing well and promise good
returns. There is greater need of rain just now than any-
thing else to make the first plantings grow off well and
to put the soil in belter condition for further and late
plantings. It is noted that in both of the foregoing dis-
tricts the use of Commiercial Fertilizers in general crop
production has very largely increased, and it is prob-
ably within reasonable bounds to say that the quantity
of these manures consumed on these crops is more than
double that of any previous year.



NORTHIEASTERN DIVISION.--I this district there is also
an increase in the acreage of all crops, and especially in
long-staple cotton. Planting in this district is some-
what earlier than the foregoing district, and tie climatic
conditions being more favorable, and the soils in good
shape for planting, the crops are more advanced propor-
tionalely. Some of the tender vegetable crops were re-
tarded in growth in the early part of the sera:on, but
latterly have been making a tine growth and are doing
well. In this district the small fruits and other fruit
crops have been planted to increased acreages, and are
also reported to be in an unusually promising condition.
The use of Commercial Fertilizers is practically uni-
versal with all standard crop and truck and fruit grow-
ers in this section, and the quantity consumed increases











each year, as the intensive system of cultivation grows in
favor with farmers and truckers.



CENTRAL DIVISION.-In this district our reports indi-
cate a continuance of the increase in acreage planted to
crops of all kinds so noticeable in other sections. The
growing conditions appear to be favorable and crops are
doing well, the loss by the frosts of early winter in a few
localities, of a portion of the fruit crop, was compara-
tively light. Slight damage was also reported in scat-
tered localities to tender vegetables, but these are now
reported to have been replaced and all are doing well.
The fruit crops are promising, and all crops now coming
on are making a remarkably fine showing.



SoUTIEIRN DIvisioN.-The same improved conditions
are readily noted in this district as in the previous ones,
in the increased acreage and thrifty condition of crops of
all kinds and also fruits. Most of the standard crops
are grown here to some extent, except cotton, but which
it is quite probable would succeed well on some lands.
There is hardly a doubt that Sea Island cotton could be
grown profitably in this section with proper manage-
ment; it thrives well on similar soils and similar cli-
mate in the Island of Jamaica and other portions of the
West Indies. Both the citrus fruits and vegetable crops
are in fine condition and are, of course, much ahead of
the more northerly districts in maturity of crops. Sea-
sons appear to have been more favorable than further
north.


NOTE.

We desire to direct special attention to the article on
another page entitled "The Citrus Grove: Its Location
and Cultivation," by Prof. P. II. Rolfe, Director of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at Gaines-
ville, prepared specially by him for the Quarterly Bulle-
tin. A careful reading will prove it to be the most com-









10

pie e and logical production ever published on the sub-
ject ; in fact, no article has ever been given to the public
covering the subject as Ihis does, within our knowledge.
It is plain, direct in statement and so easily understood
that persons of ordinary intelligence will have no diffi-
culty in following its directions. Professor Roll's de-
serves and will receive the thanks of lhousand(s of people
who have long been wishing for just the information this
article contains.











11

Report of Acreage and Condition Per Cent
of Crops Planted for Quarter Ending March 31, 1910,
as Compared With the Previous Year.

COUNTIES. UPLAND SEA ILANDI) COi
fCOTTON o01i1 '

NoI n'iiiRN DIVISION. Acrrage. Acreage. Ar age.
Gadsden .............. 120 100
Hamiilton ............... 100 110
Jeffer-on ............... 80 80 90
Lafayette .............. ... 105 105
Leon ................... 115 ... 115
Liberty ................ 100 100
Madison ............... 120 S 100
Suwannee .............. ... 95 112
Wakulla ............... .. 125 125 100
Div. Average per cent... 110 9 106
VESTERIN DIVISION.
Calhoun ................. 75 125 150
Escambia .............. 100 25
Jackson ............... 110 100 100
Santa Rosa ............. 105 110
Walton ......... ...... 120 125
Washington ........... 125 100 150
Div. Average per cent.. 106 10 127
NoinTIIEASTEIiN DivisION.
Alachua ............... ... 150 100-
Bradford ............... .. 102 108
Clay ................... ... 110 1 10
Column bia .............. ... 105 110
D ural .................. 11
Putnam ................ 100 100 105
Div. Average per cent... 10)0 11 107
Cla'ini DIVISION.
IHernando .............. .. i ... 100
Lake ........... .... ... ...
Levy .................. .. .90 100
M arion ............... ... 100 95
Orange ................. ... 120
P asr o .................. . i o
Sumiter ................. 90 1 Oi
Volusia ................., .. ... 100
Div. Average per cent.._ ... 93 102
So;n i; ir;ii DIVISION.
B e a ................ ... "100
D ade ..................I
Hillsborough ........... ... .
L ee ................... ... 150
M anatee ............... ... .. 100
M onroe ................ ...
Osceola ................. .. 11.
P olk ................... ... ... 90
SI. L uIcie .............. ... .
Div. Average per cent.. ..108
S ate Average Ter cent.. 105 103 110











12
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.


OATS I SUGAR CANE PEANUT


NORTHERN DIVISION. Acreage. Acreage. Acreage.
Gadsden ............... 85 125 125
Hamilton .............. 80 50 110
Jefferson ................. 60 60 90
Lafayette .............. 95 45 110
Leon .................. 115 100 100
Liberty ............... .. 90 100 100
Madison ............... 100 90 25
Suwannee .............. 105 90 100
Wakulla ............... 75 80 110
Div. Average per cent... 89 82 97
WViEhTRN DIVISION.


Calhoun ................ 10. Lzo 12 a
Escambia ............... 110 1'10 100
Jackson ................ 100 100 100
Santa Rosa ......... 10 100 100
W alton ................ 100 100
Washington ............ I 100 17n0 100
Div. Average per cent..! 102 f104 105
NO1' I':EASTIERN DI\ IsION.
Al7;auTa ........... ..... 1OO 1 1
Bradford ............... 90 100 12
Clay ................... .. 100 110
Columbia ............... 100 100 100
Duval .................. 100 100 100
Putnam ................ 100 100
Div. Average per cent...T 98 102 106
CErN I .ir, DIVIsION.
Hernando ............... 100 100 125
Lake ................... 100 100 100
Levy ................... 70 100 100
M arion .................. 105 100 100
Orange ................. 100
Pasco .................. 80 100 100
Sum er ................ 100 100 100
Volusia ................. 60 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 89 100 7 104
Sou IIiEIIN DIVISION.
Brevard ................i ... 90 100--
D ade ................... ...
Hillsborough ........... 100 125 100
Lee .................... 100 125 100
Manatee ................ 100 100 100
M onroe ................ ... 100 ...
Osceola ................. 100 100
Polk ................... 90 100 100
St. Lucie .............. ... 100...
Div. Average per cent... 98 105 100
State Average per cent.. 95 99 102











13
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.


NORTIIERN DIVISION.


TOBACCO
(Opun Field)

Acreage.


To A CCO
(Under Shade)

Acr,.age.


VYE

Acroage.


Gadsden ................ 80 100.
Hamilton .......... .... ..
Jefferson ............. ... ... 75
Lafayette ......... ...... ... ... 100
Leon ................... 75 12 100
Liberty ................ ...
Madison ................ ... 50 100
Suwannee ............. ... 70 75
W akulla ....................
Div. Average per cent... 78 8 9
WESTERN DIVISION.
Calhoun .............. ... 100
Escambia ............... 100 100 100
Jackson ................ ......
Santa Rosa ............ ...
W alton ................. ... ... 100
Washington .......... ... 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 100 100
NOIRT EASTERN DIVISION.
A lacnua ................ ..
B radford ............... ....
C lay ....................
Columbia ............... ....
D uval ..................
Putnam ................ ... ...
Div. Average per cent... ..
CI:\'I'R.I, DIVISION.
Hernando .............. ... 25
L ake ................... ....
L evy ..................... ..
M arion ................. ... ... 90
Orange ................ .
Pasco ................ .. ... 25 90
Sum ter ................ ... ... ...
V olusia ................I .. .....
Div. Average per cent... ... 25 90
SOUTHERN DIVISION.
B revard ............... ...
D ade ...................
H illsborough ........... .. ...
Lee ................... .
M anatee ...............
M onroe ................ . ....
Osceola ................ ......
Polk ................... ... ... 100
St. Lucie ................ ... .
Div. Average per cent... ... ... 100
Ftate Average per cent.. 89 I 61 95











14
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.
SWEET FIELD
COUNTIES. RICE POTATOES PEAS

NORTHERN DIVISION. rage. Acrege age. Acreage.
Gadsden ............... ..
Hamilton ......... 100 90
Jefferson .......... 75 90 80
Lafayette ............. 100 80
Leon ................... 100 110 115
Liberty ..................... ... 100
M adi on ................ ... 100
Suwannee .............. 105 150 100
W akulla ............... ... 110 110
Div. Average per cent... 93 107 90
WESTERN DIVISION.


Calhoun .............. 100 1U0 luu
Escambia .............. 100 150 150
Jackson .............. ... 0 85
Santa Rosa ........... .. 110 110
W alton ................. 1.00 l I 100
Washington ............ 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 90 91


NORTH EASTERN DIVISION.
Alachua ................ 100 120
Bradford ............. 100 110 100
Clay ................... .. 100 100
Columbia ............... ... 100 100
Duval .................. ... 110 110
Putnam ............... ... 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 | 103 105
CEN'IRAL DivISioN.
Hernando ............... 100 125 100
Lake .................. ... 100 100
Levy ................... .. 100 100
Marion ................. 90 100 100
Orange ................ 100 100 100
Pasco .................. 100 100 100
Sumter ............... I 100 100
Volusia ............... 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 97 i 103 100
SO()UTliERN DIVISION.
Brevard ............. ... .. 100 100
D ade ................ ... 100
Hillsborough ........... 100 125 110
Lee ....................I 100 150 125
Manatee ................. 100 100 120
M onroe .................. ... 100
Osceola ................I ... 100 100
Polk ................... 100 100
St. Lucie .............. .. 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 109 1108
State Average per cent..] 98 102 100












15
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.


NORTnERN DIVISION.


VELVET
CASSAVA VELVET

Acreage. Acreage.


aas en ............................
H am ilton ........................... ... 90
Jefferson ........................... ... 60
Lafayette ........................... ... 105
L eon ......................... ..... ... 110
Liberty ............................. ... 95
M adison ............................
Suw annee ........................... ... 112
W akulla ............................. ... 110
Div. Average per cent ............... 97
WVETERN DIVISION.
Calhoun ............................ 100 100
Es-am bia ........................... 100 150
Jackson ............................ ... 100
Santa Rosa ......................... ... 110
Walton .............................. .. | 110
W ashington ......................... 125 150
Div. Average per cent ................ 108 120
NORl'TlHEASTEK. DIVISION.
Alachua .......................... ... 125
Bradford ........................... ... 120
C lay ................................ ... 100
Colum bia ............................ ... 100
Duval ............................... ..
Putnam .............................. 105
Div. Average per cent ................ ... 110
CEN TR.AL DIVISION.
H ernando ........................... .. 00
Lake ................................. ... 110
Levy ............... ................. .. 105
MIaiio n .............................. 100 115
Orange ............................... 100 100
Pasco ............................... 80 110
Su iter ..................... .... 50 100
Volusia ............................. 50 100
Div. Average per cent............... 76 105
Sol I'llElN DIVISION.
Brevard ............................ ... 90
D a le ................................ ... 100
H ill borough ........................ ... 110
L ee .............................. .. ... 150
M anatee ............................ ... 120
M on 'oe ............................. .
Osceola .............................I 0 140
Polk .............................. 100 100
St. Lucie ............................ ... 90
Div. Average per cent............... 80 111
State Average per cent..............I 88 109


_I











16
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. CABBAGE IRISH POTATOES

NouitiiEIN DIVISION Acreage. editionon. Acreage. Condition.
Gadsden ........... ... .. 100
Hamilton ... ... .. .
Jefferson .......... 60 50 75 75
Lafayette ........ ... ... 100 50
Leon .............. 150 75 110 85
Liberty ............ 80 90 80 90
Madison ........... 50 80 75 75
Suwannee ......... 90 90 90 90
Wakulla ........ ... ... 110 85
Div. Av. per cent.. 6 77 93 79
WESTERN DIVISION.
Calhoun ......... ... ... 100 10O
Escambia .......... 150 100 200 90
Jackson ........... 85 75 100 80
Santa Rosa ........ lu0 75 100 100
Walton ............ 1.00 90 110 100
Washington ....... 125 100 150 125
Div. Av. per cent.. 112 88 126
NOiTIIEASTEN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... 80 100 100 80
Bradford .......... 120 100 80 100
Clay ............... ... ... 100 90
Columbia .......... 85 95 75 90
Duval ............. 120 100 120 100
Putnam ........... 115 95 100 95
Div. Av. per cent.. 84 98 96 7
CENTRAL DIVISION.
Hernando .......... 125 100 75 100
Lake .............. 90 100 100 95
Levy .............. 100 90 100 80
Marion ............ 95 98 100 100
Orange ............ 100 100 200 100
Pasco ............. 85 90 100 100
Sumter ............ 100 80 100 90
Volusia ........... 70 80 110 100
Div. Av. per cent.. 9 92 111 96
SOUTIIERN DIVISION.
Brevard .......... ... .. 10 75.
Dade .............. 100 100 100 100
Hillsborough ...... 125 100 110 100
Lee ............... 150 1,00 175 100
Manatee ........... 110 100 110 100
Monroe ............ 100 100 ..
Osceola .......... ... ... 140 120
Polk .............. 120 90 100 90
St. Lucie .......... ... .. 100 100
Div. Av. per cent.. 101 98 104 98
State Av. per cent.. 96 91 10 90










REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. TOMATOES CUCUMBERS

NORTHERN DIvisION Acreage. 'Condition Acreage. Condition.
Gadsden ........... ..
Hamilton ......
Jefferson .......... 75 75 65 60
Lafayette ..........
Loon .............. 100 80 115 80
Liberty ............. ....
Madison ........... G0 80 50 80
Suwannee ......... 90 95 90 85
W akulla ........... ...
Div. Av. per cent... 81 I 3 76
\ I.STERN DIVISION.
Cainoun ........... .. ..
Eh 'ambia ......... 150 100 100 100
Jackson ........... 100 75
Santa Rosa ........ 100 100 75 75
-Walton ........... 100 80 ...
Washington ........ 100 80 100 85
Div. Av. per cent.. 110 7 92 8
NORTIIEASTERN DIVISION.
Al!chua ........... 100 100 125 75
lIradford ........ 110 100 100 100
Cl y .............. 100 90 100 80
Columbia ......... 100 90
Dival ............. 115 95 100 85
Putnam ........... 110 100 100 80
Div. Av. per cent.. 106 96 105 84
(lI YTRAL DIVISION.
HT rnando ......... 150 100 I 120 100
Lake .............. 75 100 75 90
Levy .............. 100 90 110 90
Marion ............ 105 100 105 105
Orange ............ 120 100 130 100
I'asco ............. 100 100 90 80
Suinter ............ 100 100 100 90
Volusia ............ 100 70 100 100
Div. Av. per cent... 106 95 104 94
ST'iIIERN DIVISION.
Brovard ............ 100 100 100 100
D): le .............. 105 110 100 100
Hillsborough ...... 110 100 100 90
Lee ............... 100 125
Manatee ........... 110 100 100 100
Monroe ............. .
Os Po1 k .............. 100 80 100 75
St. Lucie ........... 50 75 100 100
D)i,. Av. per cent... 97 94 100 96
,I'lte Av. per cent. T10 I 91 96 87
Hul.








18
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. ENGLISH PEAS BEANS

NORTHEIBN DIVISION Acreage. Condition. Acreage. Condition.
lGadsden ........... .. .
Hamilton ..........
Jefferson .......... 75 75 75 75
Lafayette .......... ... ... 100 80
Leon .............. 100 100 100 100
Liberty ............
Madison ........... 50 75 50 60
Suwannee ......... ... ... 90 90
Wakulla ........... 100 95 110 100
Div. Av. per cent..f. 81 86 87 86W
WESTERN DIVISION.
Calhoun ........... ...
Escambia .......... 125 100 100 80
Jackson ...........
Santa Rosa ........ 75 75 100 100
W alton ............ ...
Washington ........ 100 90 100 80
Div. Av. per cent...| 100 88 100 | 87
NORTIIEASTERN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... 100 50 12T5 U0
Bradford .......... 100 100 100 80
Clay ............... .. ... 1 100 80
Columbia .......... ... ... 100 80
Duval ............. 100 95 100 95
Putnam ........... 100 90 100 90
Div. Av. per cent... fI0 8O 104- -88"
CEiN TRAL DIVISION.
Heirnan o ......... ... 1.
Lake .............. 100 100 100 95
Levy .............. 100 70 100 100
Marion ............ 90 100 125 95
Orange ............ 120 100 110 100
Pasco ............. 90 90 100 85
Summer ............ 100 90 100 90
Volusia ............ 1 100 100 100 50
'Div. Av. per cent... 100 r93 1-05 88--s
SoUrlERNl DT IV IO.
Brevard ........... 75 100 756 100--
Dade .............. ... 00 100
Hillsborough ....... 100 100 120 95
Lee ............ .. 125 100
Manatee ........... 100 100 100 100
M onroe ............ ... .. .
Osceola .......... .. 100 100
Polk ............ .... ... 110 120
St. Lucie .......... ... ... 100 85
Div. Av. per cent... 92 100 t 104 100
State Av. per cent.. 95 90 [ 90










19
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. LETTUCE EGG PLANT

NORTIERN DIVISION Acreage. Condition. Acreage. ICondition.


Gadsden ...........
Hamilton ..........
Jefferson ..........
Lafayette ..........
Leon ..............
Liberty ............
Madison ...........
Suwannee .........
W akulla ...........
Div. Av. ner cent...


110 90 80

50 85 25
100 85


87 87 52 '


Vxl;;'ril ;S DIVISION.
(Caloun. ........... ..
Escanibia ......... 100 100 ...
Jackson .......... ....
Santa Rosa ........ 50 90 100 90
W alton ............ 100 85 ...
Washington ....... 100 100 .. ..
Div. Av. per cent... 88 94 10 -90
N'InI'El sIii N DIVISION.
Alaciua ........... 1 100 100 100 10
Bradford ............ ... .
Clay ..............
Columbia .........
Duval ............. 125 100 100 80
lutnan ............ 110 100
Div. Av. per cent... 112 T 100" 1~ 10 9
CENTI \L, DIVisION.
Hernando ........ .. ... ...
Lake .............. 80 100 .
Levy .............. 100 100
uar;m ............ 98 95 95 100
Orang_ ............ 10 100 100 100
Pasco ............. 85 90
Sulioer ............ 100 100 100 75
Volusia ............ 100 110 100 100
Div. Av. per cent... n 99 9 94
I:~!I aIrr: IxIT ti~lON.

r ......... 100 75 100 75
Da e ... .......... ... ... 100 100
Hil!sborough ....... ... .
Lee ................ ... 100 100
anale .. 110 100 100 100
M o on ............ .
Oc i .a ............ 100 110 100 120
Polk ............... 110 110 .
St. Ler, ie .......... .....
Div. Av. per cent... T1 "99 1050 | P9
State Nv. per cent.. 9 96 90 )










20
ItElI'OIT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.

NowriTERNI DIVISION


CELERY


.',-.reage. (Condition


BEETS

.cerea e. Condition


Gadsden ........... ......
Hlam ilton .......... ......
Jefferson .......... ... ... 75 75
Lafayette ............
Leon .............. 100 100 100 100
L liberty ............ .........
,M adison .. . ...
Suwa-nnee ......... ... ... 80 90
WV akulla ..........
Diiv. Av. ler cent... 100 100 ~ 85 88
S\'SI TlI I)I\ SION.
Ca:ilhoun ............ .. .... .
UEcanibia .......... ... ... 100 100
.i.ickson ........ ... .. ... ..
I'anta Rosa .... .... .....
NV.alton ............ ... ...
Washington ...... .. ...
Iniv. Av. per cent ... ... .. 10-6 O- 0
I.:NoritZiASTE?.v DIvriSox.
Alachua ........... ... ... 100 10T
Bradford ..... .........
(C lay ............... ............
Columbia ........ ...
Iuval ............. 125 100
P'utnam ........... 110 100 .. .
Div. Av. per cent... 117 t 0 1 00 T- w
( NTrAI. DTvI SI(ON.
Hernando ...........
Lake ...... ........I
L evy .............. ......
Marion ............ 100 105 ...
Orange ............ 100 100 ...
Pnsco .............. ... ...
Smter ............ ... ... 90 90
Volusia ............ 10 11 .
Div. Av. per cent... 100 105 90 "9
SoUTrinri DIVisioX.
Lrevard ...........1 75 100
ade ............... ... 100 100
lillsborough ....... 115 100 100 100
Lee ............... 100 100 125 100
Manatee ...........1 300 100 100 100
M.onroe ............ .
Oseceola ............I "On 100 I 200 150
'oll .............. 1 00 100 .
;Si. Lucie ..........I ... ...
iv. Av. per cent...F 1-7 10 0 125 110
ate A-v. per rent... 20 10 1 100 98











21
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.

COUNTIES. WATER MELON CANTALOUPES

NORTIIERN DIVISION Acreage. Condition. Acreage. Condition.
Gadsden ........ .
Hamilton .......... 90 90 .. .
Jefferson .......... 75 75 100 100
Lafayette .......... s80 80
Leon .............. 110 85 110 85
Liberty ........... 100 75
Madison ........... 75 80 50 75
Suwannee .......... 100 90 100 90
W akulla ........... 125 90
Div. Av. rer cent... 94 83 90 87
WEST I I-N DIVISION.
Calhoun ........... 125 125 100 100
Escambia .......... 75 80 i 100 85
Jackson ........... 75 85 100 100
Santa Rosa ........ 100 90
W alton ............ 100 [ 85 .
Washington ....... 100 90 100 85
Div. Av. per cent...i 96 93 1001 93
NORrH EAST: EN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... 125 95 150 75
Bradford .......... 105 80 .
Clay .............. 100 100
Columbia .......... 100 100
Duval ............. 100 100 100 1100
Putnam ........... 100 90 100 90
Div. Av. per cent... 104 94 i 117
CENVIiRA DIVISION.
Hernando .......... 200 100 207) 10-
Lake .............. 80 100 80 100
Levy .............. 100 90 10) 90
Marion ............ 110 100 100 9S
Orange ............ 100 100 .
Pasco ............. 100 85 r 90 S5
Sumter ............ 90 90 75 75
Volusia ............ 100 40 100 40
D;v. Av. per cent...1 110 88 106 84
SOUTIERLItN DIVISION.
Brevard ........... 1. 0 100 73 75
D ade .............. ..
Hillsborough ....... 100 100 0 100
Lee ................ 150 100 .
Manatee ........... 150 100 100 100

Osceola ............ 150 90 100 9'
Polk .............. 110 100 100 10(0
St. Lucie .......... 108 100 ..
Div. Av. per cent... 123 99 95


91 1 102 89


State Av. per cent..] 105












22
REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES

NORTHERN DIVISION


ORANGE | LEMON
STRAWBERRIES TREES TIEES

Acreage. I Condition. Condition. Condition.


Gadsden ...........
Hamilton .........
Jefferson .......... 90 90 70
Lafayette .........
Leon .............. 60 60 90
Liberty ...........
Madison ..........
Suwannee ......... 100 90
W akulla ...............
Div. Av. per cent... 83 I 80o I .80.
WESTERN DIVISION.
Calhoun ........ ... ... 125 10
Escambia .......... 100 100 ... ..
Jackson ........... .........
Santa Rosa ........ .. ..
Walton ............. .. .
Washington ....... 100 85 ... .
Div. Av. per cent... 100 93 125 I 100
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... 100 100 100 .
Bradford .......... 105 90
Clay ....... ........... ... 90
Columbia ... ..
Duval ............. 100 100 100
Putnam ........... ... ...
Div. Av. per cent... 102 97 97 .
CENTRAL DIVISION.
Hernando ......... ... ... 90
Lake .............. ... ... 100 100
Levy .............. .
Marion ............ 95 100 85 60
Orange ............ ... ... 100
Pasco ............. 10i0 100 100
Sumter ............ ... 100 75
Volusia ............ 100 100 50 bO
Div. Av. per cent... 98 100 89 71
SOUTHERN DIVrSION.
Brevard ........... 100 100 100
Dade .............. 100 100 100 90
Hillsborough ....... 125 100 95 90
Lee ................ 125 100 85
Manatee ........... 200 100 100 100
M onroe ............ ..
Osceola ............ 300 80 110 100
Polk .............. 120 100 90 80
St. Lucie .......... 100 80 105
Div. Av. per cent... 7 146 95 98 92
State Av. per cent.. 106 93 98 88















REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.


COUNTIES.


LIME
TREES

( onidit-ioin.


(GRAIPE'
FRUIT BANANAS
TREES
(C condition. Condition.


PINE-
APPLES -

Condition.


Gadsden .......... ..
Hamilton ......... ....
Jefferson ......... .....
Lafayette ......... ...
Leon .............. ... 85
Liberty ............ .... .
Madison ..........
Suwannee ........
Wakulla ........... ____ ..
Div. Av. per cent... [ 85 ...
WESTERN DIIVISION.
Calhoun ........... ... 125 100
Escambia ..........
Jackson ...........
Santa Rosa ........
W alton ............
Washington ...... ... ... ...
Div. Av. per cent... .. 125 100
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... ... 100..
Bradford ..........
Clay ............... ... 90 .
Columbia ......... ..
Duval ............. ... 100..
Putnam ......... .....
Div. Av. per cent... ... 97..
CENTRAL DIVISION.
Hernando .......... ... 90 ...
Lake .............. 100 100 25
Levy .............. ..
Marion ............ 60 80 .
Orange ............ ... 100
Pasco ............. ... 100 75
Sumter ........... ... 100 .
Volusia ........... ... 50 .
Div. Av. per cent... T 80 89 50 .
SOUTHERN DIVISION.
Brevard ........... 75 100 50 75
Dade .............. 100 100 100 100
Hillsborough ...... ... 100
Lee ............... 100 85 95 95
Manatee .......... 100 100 50 50
Monroe .............. .. .. 100 100
Osceola ........... SO 100 50 30
Polk .............. 80 90
St. Lucie .......... ... 105 50 65
Div. Av. per cent... 89 97 71 7
State Av. per cent..| b5 99 74 74














REPORT OF ACREAGE AND CONDITION-Continued.
AVACAI)DO
COUNTIES. GUAVAS PEACHES PEARS PEARS.

NORTHERN DIVISION Condition. Condition. Condition. Condition.
Gadsden ........... ... ..
Hamilton .........
Jefferson .......... ... 5.0 75
Lafayette ......... 75 100
Leon .............. 110 85
Liberty .............
Madison ......... ... 50 G0
Suwannee ......... .. .. ..
W akulla .......... ... 75 70
Div. Av. per cent... ... 72 78
WESTERN DIVISION.
Calhoun ......... ... 125 125
Escambia ......... ... 100 100
Jackson ......... ... 100 ...1..
Santa Rosa ....... ... 80 75
W alton ............ ... 90 80
Washington ...... ... 100 100
Div. Av. per cent... ... 1,00 G9
NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.
Alachua ........... ... 150 i 150
Bradford .......... ... 100 100
Clay .............. ... 125
Columbia ......... ... 100 100
Duval ............. ... 100 ..
Putnam ............ ... 100
Div. Av. per cent... ... I 113 117
CENTRAL DIVISION.
Hernando ......... ... 125 125
Lake .............. 80 80 80
Levy .............. ... 110 110
M arion ............ ... 105 105
Orange .............
Pasco ............. 40 95 75
Sumter ............ ... 100 100
Volusia ............ ... 80 90
Div. Av. :er cent... G0 99 98 T T .
SouTI ERN DIVISION.
Brevard ........... 25 100 75
Dade .............. 100 ... ... 100
Hillsborough ...... 35 100 ...
Lee ............... 75 ... 90
Manatee ........... 50 100
Monroe ............ ... ... ... 100
Osceola ............ 30 125 200
Polk .............. 40 120 100
St. Lucie .......... i 85
Div. Av. per cent... 55 109 125 97
State Av. per cent.. 57 99 103 97



















PART II.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS.


















GENERAL CLASSIflCATION OF FLORIDA

SOILS.


This article is necessarily general in scope and is in-
tended to supply information on this important subject
in a brief way to those seeking such information before
coming to this State to make new homes. With no funds
for immigration purposes, we are limited to small space
in the Bulletin to supply that which every proposed im-
migrant wants and should have, and which we cannot
give in any other way.
The average soil of Florida is sandy, mixed with more
or less clay, lime and organic matter. The greater por-
tion of the lands may be designated as pine lands, be-
cause of the pine timber which predominates. There are
lands on which the timber is a mixture of pine, white
oak, red oak, water oak, live oak, gum, bay, hickory, mag-
nolia, cabbage palmetto, etc.; these lands are termed
mixed hammock lands.
The general classification of soils is in the following
order: First, second and third rate pine lands, and high
hammock, low hammock and swampy lands.
The pine lands cover much the larger portion of the
State, and the soil is apparently all sand, but such is not
the case; over a greater portion of the State this sand is
thoroughly mixed with small particles of shells, which
contain carbonate of lime, other minerals and decoln-
posed, finely granulated vegetable matter. It is true that
Florida has her proportion of poor lands, just as have
all other States and countries, but compared with some
other Slates the ratio is very small. With the exception
of a very small area of supposedly irreclaimable swamp
lands, there is scarcely an acre in the entire State which
cannot he made, under the wonderful influence of her
tropical climate, to pay tribute to man's energy. Lands
which, in a more northerly climate, would be utterly
worthless, will, in Florida, for the reasons above stated,
yield valuable productions.












FIRST CLASS PINE LANDS.

First-class pine land in Florida is wholly unlike any-
thing found in any other State. Its surface is usually
covered for several inches deep with a dark vegetable
mould, beneath which to the depth of several feet is a
chocolate-colored sandy loam, mixed for the most part
with limestone pebbles and resting upon a substratum of
marl, clay or limestone rock. The fertility and dura-
bility of this character of land may be estimated from
the well-known fact that in the older settled districts
this kind of soil has been cultivated for as many as
twenty years successfully in corn or cotton without a
pound of any sort of fertilizer, and are still as prodic-
tive as ever; practically, then, these lands are inde-
structible. It is on this class of lands that both truck
and fruit growing is most successful, and which produces
the finest quality of Sea Island cotton. It is also line
farming land and yields good crops under ordinary meth-
ods of cultivation. By the growing of leguminous plants
these soils and all other pine lands can be continually
kept in a high state of fertility .



SECOND CLASS PINE LANDS.

The second-class pine lands, which make up the largest
portion of lands, are practically all productive. They are
not hilly, but for the most part undulating in their sur-
face. In some places, however, these elevations amount
to hills. Some of these hills in Hernando County are
regarded among the highest points in the State. Under-
lying the surface is clay, marl, lime rock and sand. These
lands, from their accessibility and productiveness, the
facility of fertilizing with cattle penning and the in-
pression of their greater healthfulness than hammock
lands, have induced their enclosure and tillage. when
the richer hammock lands were near by, but more diffi-
cult to prepare for cultivation.
Some of these lands have no regular compact clay under
them, or, at least, not in reach of plant roots. This fact
is taken frequently as an evidence against ihem, since the
popular prejudice is decidedly in favor of a clay subsoil.
This objection, if it really be one, is taken for more than








29

it is worth, for clay proper, or aluminum, as the chem-
isis call it, is not food for plants. Its uses to the plant
aie purely mechanical. It serves as a reservoir for the
storage of moisture in times of drought, as well as to
hold firmly the roots of the growing trunk, but not to
feed the hungry or thirsty plant. Sometimes it has been
found in small quantities in the ash of woods, but this
is because the rootlets take up more or less of whatever
salts are in solution about them, and clay has been taken
up in this way, just as poisons may be taken up; for
itees are sometimes killed by pouring poisonous liquids
a!;out their roots, but clay never makes any part of the
organism of plants, nor is it numbered among the ele-
iments which contribute to their growth.
Also a well-established fact as to the value of a clay
subsoil is, that without its presence the applied fertiliz-
ers will leach through and be lost. The fertilizers used
are generally lighter than the soils to which they are
applied, or than the water coming down from the clouds.
As the rains fall some of these fertilizers are carried
down, after a time of drought; as the soil fills they are
btrne upward again by the waters to the surface, and
both as they go down and come up, whether they be liquid
or gaseous, the humus of soils has a strong absorbing
atfinity for them and readily applropriates and retains
them for the uses of the plant when the superabundance
of water has passed away. But if the soil is not filled to
the surface, so as to bring back directly any fertilizer in
solution that was carried down, it is safer there in the
subsoil than on the steep hillsides of clay, where what is
applied is frequently carried away by the floods, together
with the soil, to the vales below. Whereas, what has
gone down in the porous soil is brought back by the
capillary attraction of the surface soil in time of
drought to the reach of the growing crop. One of the
ecs of droughllt is that it lhus brings up from the subsoil,
with the assistance of shallow cultivation, any mineral
food that may be there to where it will be in reach of the
L.'rowing crop.
But light, sandy soils, though they may produce freely
:! first, soon give way, and this fact, for frequently it is
a fact, is regarded as conclusive as against loose and
iorous subsoils, whereas it only proves that these lighi
s'.ils were not sufficiently supplied wilh humms and ihe
limited supply soon exhausted. Such lands can easily be










restored to their original fertility by the use of legu-
minous plants, rotation of crops and careful cultivation;
in fact, by such means they can be vastly improved over
their original condition.



THIRD CLASS PINE LANDS.

Even the lands of the "third rate," or most inferior
class, are by no means worthless under the climate of
Florida. This class of lands may be divided into two
orders; the one comprising high, rolling, sandy districts,
which are sparsely covered with a stunted growth of
"black jack" and pine, and, near the lower east coast,
scrub hickory and gualberry shrubs. It is also on much,
similar soils along the cast coast that the finest pine-
apples are produced; the other embracing low, flat
swampy11 regions, which are frequently studded witli "bay
gauls," and are occasionally inundated, but which are
covered with luxuriant vegetation, and very generally
with considerable quantities of valuable timber. The for-
mer of these, it is now ascertained, is also well adapted
to the growth of Sisal Hemp, which is a valuable tropical
production. This plant (the Agave Sisalana), and the
Agave Mexicana, also known as Magney, the Pulque
Plant, the Century Plant. etc., have both been intro-
duced into Florida, and they have both grown in great
perfection on the poorest lands of the country. As
these plants derive their chief support from the atmos-
phere, they will. like the common air plant, preserve
their vitality for many months -when left out of the
ground.
Thie second order of the third-rate pine lands are not
entirely worthless. as these lands afford fine cattle ranges
and in some localities large tracts of timber adapted to
the manufacture of naval stores and milling purposes.
Just here we feel lthat it is .not t out f place to say a few
words concerning the topography and influence of these
lands on the health of the inhabitants thereon. A general
feature in the topography of Florida. which no other
country in the United States possesses, and which affords
great security to the health of its inhabitants, is that the
pine lands which form the basis of the country, and which
are almost universally healthy, are nearly everywhere









studded, at intervals of a few miles, with hammock lands
of the richest quality. These hammocks are not, as is
generally supposed, low, wet lands; they never require
ditching or draining, they vary in extent from a few acres
to many thousand acres; hence, the inhabitants have it
everywhere in their power, when desired, to select resi-
dences in the pine lands, at such convenient distances
from the hammocks as will enable them to cultivate the
latter without endangering their health, if it should so
happen that the hammock lands appeared to be less
healthy than the pine lands.
Experience in Florida has satisfactorily shown that
residences only half a mile distant from cultivated ham-
mocks are entirely exempt from malarial disease, and
those who cultivate these hammocks and retire at night
to pine land residences maintain perfect health. Indeed,
it is found that residences in the hammocks themselves
are generally perfectly healthy after they have been one
or two years cleared. Newly cleared lands are sometimes
attended with the development of more or less malaria,
a fact that, under similar conditions, is no more peculiar
to Florida than any other State. In Florida the diseases
which result from these clearings are generally of the
mildest type of bilious fever.
The topographical feature here noted, namely, a general
interspersion of rich hammocks, surrounded by high, dry,
rolling, healthy pine woods, is an advantage which no
other State in the Union enjoys; and Florida forms, in
this respect, a striking contrast with some other South-
ern Stales whose sugar and cotton lands are generally
surrounded by vast alluvial regions, subject to frequent
inundations, so that it is impossible to obtain, within
many miles of them, a healthy residence.
At first thought it would seem improbable to many
people that the malarial diseases of Florida (abounding
in these rich hammock lands and exposed to a tropical
sun), should so generally be of a much milder form than
those which prevail in more northern latitudes. But
such, however, is the fact. It is suggested, in explana-
tion of this fact, that the luxuriant vegetation which, in
the Southern and Middle States, passes through all the
stages of decomposition, is, in Florida, generally dried up
before it reaches the stage of decomposition, and that,
consequently, the quantity of malaria generated is much
less than in climates more favorable to decomposition.










This view is strengthened by the fact that the soil of
Florida is, almost everywhere, of so porous and absorbent
a character that moisture is seldom long retained on its
surface, that its atmosphere is in constant motion, and
that there is more clear sunshine than in the more north-
ern States. It is further suggested that the uniform
prevalence of sea breezes, and the constant motion of the
atmosphere in the Peninsula, tends so much to diffuse and
attenuate whatever malaria is generated that it will
generally produce only the mildest form of malarial dis-
eases, such as intermittent fever.
The lands which in Florida are universally denomi-
nated "rich lands" are, first, the "swamp lands";
se ond, the "low hammock lands"; third, the "high
hammocks," and fourth, the "first rate pine, oak and
hickory lands."


SWAMP LANDS.

The swamp lands are, unquestionably, the most dura-
ble rich lands in the State. They are the most recently
formed lands, and are still annually receiving additions
to their surface. They are intrinsically the most valu-
abfle lands, because they are as fertile as the hammocks
and more durable. They are alluvial in character and
occupy natural depressions, or basins, which have gradu-
ally filled up by deposits of vegetable debris, etc., washed
in from the adjacent and higher lands. Drainage is in-
dispensable to all of them in their preparation for suc-
cessful cultivation. Properly prepared, however, their
inexhaustible fertility sustains a succession of the most
exhausting crops with astonishing vigor. These lands
have been known to produce as much as 600 gallons of
syrup, or about 5,000 pounds of sugar, per acre, without
fertilizer. We mention sugar cane in this connection as
showing the fertility of the soil, because it is known to
be one of the most exhausting crops. It is not, however,
quite fair to make this the measure of fertility of similar
la;ds situated in different climates and countries, for
we find on the richest lands in the State of Louisiana the
product of sugar is little more than about half what it is
in Florida.
!Hut this great disparity in the product of these coun-
t: is is accounted for, not by any inferiority in the lands











of Louisiana or Texas, but by the fact that the early
visitations of frosts in both these States render it neces-
sary to cut the cane in October, which is long before it
has reached maturity, while in Florida it is permitted to
stand, without fear of frost, till the last of November or
December, or till such time as it is fully matured. It is
well known that it "tassels" in South Florida, and it
never does so in either Louisiana or Texas. When cane
"tassels," it is evidence of its having reached full ma-
turity. In consequence of the considerable outlay of
capital required in the preparation of this description of
land for cultivation, and from the facility formerly ex-
isting for obtaining hammock land, which requires no
ditching nor draiining, swamp land has been but little
sought after by persons engaged in planting in Florida
until in recent years; now, however, there is a great and
ever-increasing demand for these lands by individuals
and incorporated companies, thus suddenly recognizing
their immense productive value.
The greater part of what are known as swamp lands
proper are mostly located in East and South Florida,
although there are numerous and quite extensive bodies
in North, Middle and West Florida.



THE EVERGLADES.

While the soils of this region differ little in their gen-
eral characteristics from the swamp lands above consid-
ered, still, owing to their prominence as such and as the
greatest reclamation undertaking in recent times, also
their unique geographical position, we submit a brief de-
scription under their own heading. These lands are being
rapidly and successfully drained by the State, as well as
by private and corporate owners.
"The Everglades of Florida cover an area of about
4,000 square miles, embracing more than half of the
portion of the State south of Lake Okeechobee. The
subsoil of This vast region is a coraline limestone. *
Upon this surface lies an immense accumulation of sand,
alluvial deposits and decayed vegetable matter, forming
a m;!s of sand and mud from two feet to ten feet or
more in deptIi, that overs]' reada all lbut a few points of
;Ihe first strata."
3-Bul.











"Upon the mud rests a sheet of water, the depth vary-
ing with the conformation of the bottom, but seldom at
dry seasons greater than three feet. The whole is tilled
with rank growth of coarse grass, eight or ten feet high,
having a serrated edge like a saw, from which it obtains
its name of 'Saw Grass.' "
In many portions of the Everglades the saw grass is so
thick as to be almost impenetrable, but it is intersected
by numerous and tortuous channels that form a kind of
labyrinth, where outlets present themselves in every
direction, however, terminating at long or short dis-
tances in apparently impenetrable barriers of grass. The'
surface of water is quickly affected by rain, the alternate
rising and falling during the wet seasons being rapid.
The .lil.i i.-!.... of level between highest and lowest stages
of water is from two to three feet. The general surface
of the Everglades was thus subject to great changes prior
to the inauguration of the system of drainage now so
successfully under way. Small keys, or, in re!iliyt. ham-
mocks, are here and there met with, which are dry at all
seasons; upon them the soil is very rich. There e re.many
such. Undoubtedly they were often made the site of
Indian gardens.
Large areas, covering many square miles, which but a
few years ago were nlarshes covered with saw grass ;lnd
rushes, are now open meadows. dry all seasons, excepting
the rainy m1on11 s, 11,1li.., ii pasture for many thousand
heads of ealllie. The fall or rapids at the heads of all
streams running .' from the Glades have receded towards
the center of Ihe Glades and Lake Okeechobce several
miles.
The Florida Everglades at present may be described as
a wet prairie. being a strip of land about one hundred
and til'ty miles long by fifty-five miles wide, and lying
between the pine and swamp lands which 1ave grown
over two reefs of rock running parallel with each other,:
from north to south. No rivers penetrate into the Glades
beyond these rock reefs on either side and the land is very
level, only about twenty-one and one-half feet above sea
level, being composed chiefly of muck and sand lying in a
basin with a rock bottom. The annual rainfall over this
territory averages nearly sixty inches. It has for this
reason, and because this rainfall has no other outlet over
these reefs, been and is too wet for cultivation. The
muck which overlies the sand and rock varies from about











two feet on the edge of the Glades to a depth of twenty
feet in the middle, and would average over the whole
territory a depth of between six and eight feet. The land
is free from trees and stumps, and almost free from
bushes; the item of clearing being of no consideration
whatever, simply requiring mowing down the grass and
burning it, when the soil is ready to be tilled, as soon
as the excess water is run off by the drainage canals.
The soil, as compared with other portions of the coun-
try, taking into consideration ils natural richness, loca-
tion and climate, is more valuable for agricultural pur-
poses than any that is known, being particularly adapted
to the growth of cane, cotton, Irish potatoes, celery, toma-
toes, cabbage, turnips, beets, onions and, in fact, any crop
will grow well on these lands except such as require a
colder climate.
The composition of the soil being almost entirely de-
composed vegetable matter, is rich in nitrogen, but lack-
ing to a great extent in the mineral constituents neces-
sary to make a perfect soil; consequently, phosphoric
acid and potash will have to be supplied in varying quan-
tities for a majority of crops, in some of these muck soils,
especially where rock or clay is absent or too far below
the surfl'a to exert any appreciable influence. With
these additions, when necessary, however, these soils will,
without doubt, be the most productive in this country,
and the equal of any in the world. Without the addition
of thlie clhmical fertilizers mentioned, these soils will not
equal in productiveness the first grade of swamp lands.



LOW HAMMOCKS.

Low hammnocks, which are practically swamp lands, are
not inferior to swIampl lands proper, in fertility, but are
considered notu qnile so desirable. Theyv are mostly level,
or nearIl so, and have a soil o' greater tenacity Ihan that
of the hihiiJ hanmmocks. Sioe ditching is necessary in
many o' tliem. Thie soil in 11hem is always deep. These
lands are also extremely well adapted to the growth of
cane, corn and, in fact, all vegetable crops, nor are these
soils as subject to the .i--- i, of prolonged drought as
higher lands. There is not nearly so large a proportion
of low hammock as there is of swamp lands.











HIGH HAMMOCKS.



High hammocks are lhe lands in greatest favor in
Florida. These differ from low hammocks in occupying
higher ground and in generally presenting an undulating
surface. They are formed of a fine vegetable mould,
mixed with a sandy loam, in many places several feet
deep, and resting in most cases on a substratum of clay,
marl or limestone. It will be readily understood by any-
one at all acquainted with agriculture that such a soil,
in such a climate as Florida, must be extremely pro-
ductive. The soil scarcely ever suffers from too much
wet. nor does drought affect it in the same degree as
other lands, owing to its clay subsoil. High hammock
lands produce with but little labor of cultivation all the
crops of the country in an eminent degree. Such lands
have no tendency to break up in heavy masses, nor are
they infested with weeds.
To sum up its advantages, it requires no other prepara-
tion than clearing and plowing to fit it at once for the'
greatest possible production of any kind of crop adapted
to the climate. In unfavorable seasons it is much more
certain lo produce a good crop than any other kind of
land, from the fact that it is less affected by exclusively
dry or wet weather. It can be cultivated with much less
labor than any other lands, being remarkably mellow,
and its vicinity is generally high and healthy. These
reasons are sufficient to entitle it to the estimation in
which it is held over all other lands.
Some of the counties in Middle Florida, Gadsden, Leon,
Madison and Jefferson, and Jackson, Holmes and Wash-
ington Counties, in West Florida, have large areas of fine
high hammock land, underlaid with a stiff clay. These.
are the best lands of the State for the growth of short-
staple cotton and are, indeed, the cream of the State for
general farming purposes. They are of the earliest form-
ation of the Florida lands. As before stated, areas of
these lands in varying extent are found in every section
of the Slate, in almost every county.
Some of the largest bodies of rich hammock land in
East Florida are 1 he found in Levy, Alachna, Columbia,
Marion, IIernando, Citrus, I'asco and Sumter Counties.
There are in Levy County alone not less than one hun-











dred thousand acres of the very best description of lands
adapted to sugar cane culture, and there is but a small
proportion of any of the counties, here mentioned, that
will not produce remunerative crops of short-staple and
Sea Island cotton without the aid of manure.
The first rate pine, oak and hickory lands are found
in pretty extensive bodies in many parts of the State.
From the fact that these lands can be cleared at much
less expense than the swamp and hammock lands, they
have generally been preferred by the small farmers and
have proved remarkably productive.



PRAIRIE LANDS.

There are. besides the lands already noticed, extensive
tracts of prairie lands, which approximate in character,
texture of the soil, and period and mode of formation, to
the swamp lands, differing only in being practically desti-
tute of timber. Some of-these lands are, however, ex-
tremely poor and non-produceive, owing mostly to a sub-
strata of hardpan, clay, which is impervious to moisture
and impenetrable alike to 1he roots of fruit trees or
plants. When the hardpan comes as near to the surface
as, say, seven or eight feet. Ile growing of citrus fruit
trees is not advisable. When it comes no nearer than,
say, four feet, and surface drainage is good, vegetable
growing can be made successful with proper cultivation
and fertilization. The most of these lands allord excellent
pastures during the greater part of the year. In fact,
it is this class of lands thai make up the great cattle
ranges of the State, on which hundreds of thousands of
cattle thrive tlle year around. These lands are found in
tracts of varying extent in every section of the State, but
in Southern Florida, in southern Hillsborough County,
in Manatee, in the great Myaka River prairie region, in
southern Polk County, and in DeSoto, Osceola, Brevard
and Lee Counties, which include the Alifia, Kissimmee
and Caloosahatchee River valleys, is found the greatest
grazing region each of the Mississippi River. The cli-
mate is perfect, never cold enough to kill the grasses,
which grow as green in January as in June, and where
water is in bountiful supply at all seasons of the year.










38

EASE OF CULTIVATION.

Perhaps the most attractive feature peculiar to the
soils of Florida is the ease with which they can be culti-
vated as compared with still', heavy soils of other States,
while quite as fertile. Another is that the greater part
of the farm labor and tillage can be, and much of it is,
performed during those months of the year when the
ground further north is frozen. Still another peculiarity
is, that fertilizers can he applied to greater advantage,
because the fertilizing material will remain in the soil
until the stimulating chemical ingredients are assimi-
lated and absorbed into lie earth and are not carried
away by washing rains, as they are in broken or moun-
tainous countries, and also because lle porosity of the
soil enables the atmosphere, thronuh oxidization, more
readily to aid lihe fertilizers in lhe work of decomposing
the minerals of the soil. thus seltcing free the food ele--
ments they contain for Hie use of the growing crops.




















PART III.


Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and
Foods and Drugs











REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND
FORWARDING OF FERTILIZER OR COMMER-
CIAL FEEDING STUFF SAMPLES TO THE COM-
MISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.



SECTION 15 OF THE LAWS.

Special samples of Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding
Stuffs sent in by purchasers, under Section 9 of the laws,-
shall be drawn in the presence of two disinterested wit-
nesses, from one or more packages, thoroughly mixed, and
A FAIR SAMPLE OF TIE SAME OF NOT LESS TITAN EIGHT
OUNCES (ONE-HALF POUND) SHALL BE PLACED IN A CAN OR
BOTTLE, SEALED AND SENT BY A DISINTERESTED PARTY TO THI
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AT TALLAHASSEE. NOT
LESS THAN EIGHT OUNCES, IN A TIN CAN OR BOTTLE, WILL BH
ACCEPTED FOR ANALYSIS. This rule is adopted to secure
fair samples of sufficient size to make the necessary de-
terminations and to allow the preservation of a dupli-
cate sample in case of protest or appeal. This duplicate
sample will be preserved for two months from the date
of certificate of analysis.
The State Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
special samples from the purchaser. The propriety of
the method of drawing and sending the samples as fixed
by law is obvious.
The drawing and sending of special samples in rare
cases is in compliance with law. Samples are frequently
sent in paper packages or paper boxes, badly packed, and
frequently in very small quantity (less than ounce) ; fre-
quently there are no marks, numbers or other means of
identification; the postmark in some instances being
absent.
I would call the attention of those who desire to avail
themselves of this privilege to Sections 9 and 10 of the
law, which are clear and explicit.
Hereafter, strict compliance with above regulations
will be required. The sample must not be less than one-
half pound, in a can or bottle, sealed and addressed to the
Commissioner of Agriculture. The sender's name and ad-
dress must also be on the package, this rule applying to
special samples of fertilizers or commercial feeding stuff.











A one-pound baking powder can, properly cleaned,
filled with a fairly drawn, well mixed sample taken from
several sacks, is a proper sample. It should be sealed and
addressed to the Commissioner of Agriculture at Talla-
hassee. The sender's name and address should also be
placed on the package. If more than one sample is sent,
the samples should be numbered so as to identify them.
All this should be done in the presence of the witnesses
and the package mailed or expressed by one of the wi'-
nesses.
The tags off the sacks should be retained by the sender
to compare with the certificate of analysis when received,
and not sent to this office. The date of i'he drawing and
sending of the sample, and names of the witnesses, should
also be retained by the sender; not sent to this office.

WATER ANALYSIS.

We frequently analyze water for public use, city, town
and neighborhood supplies; springs and artesian wells
in which the public is interested; and for individuals
when some economic question, boiler, laundry or other
industrial use is to be decided. WE DO NOT ANALYZE
WATER FOR INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT WHEREIN THE PUBLIC IS
NOT INTERESTED. SUCH SAMPLES SHOULD BE SENT TO A
COMMERCIAL LABORATORY. TiHE STATE LABORATORY DOES
NOT COMPETE WITH COMMERCIAL LABORATORIES. Also, we
do not make bacteriological examinations nor examina-
tions for disease germs. Such examinations and analy-
ses are made by the State Board of Health at Jackson-
ville.
We do not make a sanitary analysis, nor a complete
quantitative determination, separating each mineral and
stating the quantity thereof. Such an analysis would
be costly in time and labor, and of no real value to the
inquirer. We determine the total dissolved solids in the
sample and report them as parts per 1,000,000, naming
the principal ingredients in the order of their predomi-
nance. We find Calcium Carbonate (lime), Sodium
Chloride (salt), Magnesium Sulphate (epsom salts),
Silica (sand), and Iron, is the general order of their pre-
dominance, though on the coast, where the total dissolved
solids amounts to 5,000 or more parts per 1,000,000, So-
dium Chloride (salt) is the predominant substance.
From a knowledge of the chemical analysis of a water,












unaccompanied by any further information, no conclu-
sion as to the potability and healthfulness of the water
can be deduced.
Therefore, we require the following information to be
given in regard to the source of the water:
(1). The source of the water: spring, lake, river, driven
well, dug well, bored well, artesian well, or flowing well;
and also the depth of the water surface below the top of
the soil, and in case wells the depth of the casing.
(2). The locality of the source of the waler: town,
city or village; or the section, township and range.
(3). The proposed use of the water: city supply, do-
mestic use, laundry, boiler, irrigation or other industrial
use.
(4). No sample of water will Ibe analyzed unless ie
name and address of the sender is on lthe package for
identifical ion.
WIt rcq/iire' ico g/llonls ojf c'(/. stamp of iratr'r, in a
nwc jui, dfopped witih Ia uIcI corkL, a( n sent b Pr paidd
caxprss. We will not accept any s:aple of water for
analysis not in a new jug. Vessels previously used for
other lpurposes are never properly cleaned I, sending
samples of waler for analysis. works once used I'(i o hler
substances (molasses, vinegar, whiskey, kerosene. etc.)
ari never properly cleaned. In sampling a well water,
the stagnant water in lie pumnp nmst first le lmIIped off.
The jug must first lhe rinsed with lie water to he sam-
pled, emplied, and then filled. A sample of spring. river
or lake water is best taken (afl er rinsing the jug) by
allowing the jug to fill afler immersion some distance
under the surface near the center of the body of water.
NoTE.-We find the waters of the Stale-springs, wells,
driven wells and artesian wells-generally very pure and
wholesome, with but little mineral impurity and that
such as is not harmful. Except in cases of gross care-
lessness, in allowing surface water to contaminate the
well or spring, the waters of the State are pure and
wholesome. The deep wells of the State are noted for
their purity and healthfulness.

ANALYSTS OF FOODS AND DRUGS.

Samples of Foods and Drugs are drawn under special
regulations. Application should be made to the Com-
missioner of Agriculture or State Chemist for the neces-












sary blanks, instructions, etc., for drawing and trans-
mitting samples of foods and drugs, including drinks of
all kinds.

COPIES OF LAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS,
AND STANDARDS.

Citizens of the State interested in fertilizers, foods and
drugs, and stock feed, can obtain, free of charge, the re-
spective Laws, including Rules and Regulations and
Standards, by applying to the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture or State Chemist. Applications for the Quarterly
Bulletin of the State Department of Agriculture should
also be made to Ithe Commissioner of Agriculture or State
Chemist. The Bulletins of' the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station can be had by application to the Direc-
tor at Gainesville.

SOIL ANALYSIS.

VWe frequently have samples of soil sent in for analysis
and a request to advise as to the best methods of fertiliz-
ing. Excepting in extreme cases, such as Heavy Clays,
Pure Sand and Muck Lands, there is but little informa-
tion to be derived from a soil analysis that would be of
benefit to farmers. So much depends on tilth, drainage,
culture and other physical conditions that an analysis
made under laboratory conditions is of little value.
A chemical analysis of a soil may indicate a very fertile
soil, rich in plant food, while the facts are the soils are
not productive. This is instanced by the rich Sawgrass,
muck lands and river bottoms of the State, that are fer-
tile chemically, but not productive until properly
drained; also, by the arid lands of the west, rich in the
elements of plant food, but not productive until irrigated.
Other soils, with less plant food, but on account of proper
physical conditions, culture and tilth, are exceedingly
productive.
The average of thousands of analyses of Florida soils
made by the Agricultural Experiment Station and the
Stale Laboratory is as follows:
Nitrogen (per cent.) ......................... 0.0413
Potash (per cent.) ........................... 0.0091
Phosphoric Acid (per cent.) .................. 0.1635











This is a fair average of all of the Norfolk and Ports-
mouth soil series of the State, which comprise by far the
greater portion of the State.
In this connection we quote from the report of the
Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue Uni-
versity, Lafayette, Ind., as follows:
"SOIL ANALYSIS OF LITTLE VALUE IN SHOWING FER-
TILIZER ]ZEQUIREME NTS.-The Chemical Department is
called upon to answer hundreds of letters of inquiry in
relation to agricultural chemical problems from people
all over the State. In this connection it might be well
to say that there is a widespread idea that the chemist
can analyze a sample of soil and, without further knowl-
edge of the conditions, write out a prescription of a fer-
tilizer which will fill the needs of that particular soil.
"The Experiment Station does not analyze samples of
soil to determine the fertilizer requirements. There is
no chemical method known that will show reliably the
availability of the plant food elements present in the soil,
as this is a variable factor, influenced by the kind of
crop, the type of soil, the climate and biological condi-
tions; hence, we do not recommend this method of test-
ing soil.
"The method recommended by the Indiana Station is
the field fertilizer test or plot system, in which long,
narrow strips of the field to be tested are measured off
side by side. The crop is planted uniformly over each.
Different fertilizers are applied to the different plots,
every third or fourth one being left n fertilized. The
produce from these plots is harvested .separately and
weighed. In this manner the farmer can tell what fer-
tilizer is best suited for his needs. As climatic conditions
may influence the yield with different fertilizers, it is best
to carry on such tests for more than one year before
drawing definite conclusions. There is positively no
easier or shorter method of testing the soil that we feet
safe in recommending.
"Soil can be greatly improved by an intelligent rota-
tion of crops, the conservation of stable manure, and the
use of some kind of commercial fertilizer. Farmers need
have no fear that the proper application of commercial
fertilizer will injure the land."











INSTITUTIONS TO MANUFACTURERS AND
DEALERS.

Each package of Commercial Fertilizer, and each
package of Commercial Feeding Slufl, must have, securely
attached thereto, a tag with the guaranteed analysis re-
quired by law and the stamp showing the payment of the
inspector's fee. This provision of the law, Section 3 of
both laws-will be rigidly enforced.
Manufacturers and dealers will be required to properly
tag and stamp each package of Commercial Fertilizer or
Commercial Feeding Stuff under penalty as fixed in Sec-
tion 6 of both laws. Tags shall be attached to the top
end of each bag, or head of each barrel.

INSTRUCTIONS TO PURCHASERS.

Purchasers are cautioned to purchase no Commercial
Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuff that does not
bear on each package an analysis tag with the guarantee
required by law, and the stamp showing the payment of
the inspector's fee. Goods not having the guarantee tag
and slamp are irregular and fraudulent; the absence of
the guarantee and stamp being evidence that the manu-
facturer or dealer has not complied with the law. With-
out the guarantee tag and stamp showing what the goods
are guaranteed to contain, the purchaser has no recourse
against the manufacturer or dealer. Such goods are sold
illegally and fraudulently, and are generally of little
value. All reputable manufacturers and dealers now
comply sricily with the law and regulations by placing
the guarantee tag and stamp on each package.

INSTRUCTIONS TO SHERIFFS.

The atienlion of Sheriffs of the various counties is
called to Section 3 of both laws, defining their duties.
This Department expects each Sheriff to assist in main-
taiining tle law and protecting the citizens of the State
from the imposition of fralndulent, inferior or deficient
Commercial Fertilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuffs.











MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTIL-
IZING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEA
PORTS, JANUARY 1, 1910.
AMMONIATES.
Less than Ten tons
ten tons. and over.
Nitrate of Soda, 17 per cent Ammonia. .$52.00 $51.00
Sulphate of Ammonia, 25 per cent Am-
m onia ............................ 70.00 69.00
Dried Blood, 16 per cent Ammonia.... 59.00 58.00
POTASH.

High Grade Sulphate of Potash, 48 per
cent. Potash (K20)............... $50.00 $49.00
Low Grade Sulphate of Potash, 26 per
cent Potash (KO) ................ 30.00 29.00
Muriate of Potash, 50 per cent. Pot-
ash (K 0O) ....................... 46.00 45.00
Carbonate of Potash, 60 per cent. Pot-
ash (K,0) ...................... 110.00 .....
Nitrate of Potash, 15 per cent. Am-
monia, 44 per cent. Potash (K,0) .... 90.00 89.00
Kainit, 12 per cent. Potash (KO,) ..... 13.00 12.00
Canada Hardwood Ashes. 4 per cent.
Potash (K,O) ..................... 1 .00 17.00
AMrMONIA AND PIOSPHORIC ACID.

High Grade Blood and Bone, 10 per
cent. Ammonia, 5.50 per cent. Phos-
phoric Acid ...................... $40.00 $39.00
Blood and Bone, S per cent. Ammonia,
10 per cent. Phosphoric Acid ........ 36.00 35.00
Low Grade Blood and Bone, 0.50 per
cent. Ammonia, 8 per cent. Phosphoric
Acid ............................. 32.00 31.00
Raw Bone, I per cent. Ammonia, 22
per cent. Phosphoric Acid ......... 34.00 33.00
Ground Castor Pomnace, 5.50 per cent.
Ammonia, 2 per cent Phosphoric Acid 26.00 25.00
Bright Cotton Seed Meal, 7.50 per cent.
Ammonia ......................... 34.00 33.00
Dark Cotton Seed Meal, 4.50 per cent.
Ammonia ......................... 30.00 29.00











PHOSPHORIC AcmD.

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 16 per
cent. Available Phosphoric Acid..... $15.00 $14.00
Acid Phosphate, 14 per cent. Available
Phosphoric Acid .................. 14.00 13.00
Bone Black, 17 per cent. Available
Phosphoric Acid .................. 25.00 24.00
Odorless Phosphate, 14 per cent. Avail-
able Phosphoric Acid.............. 25.00 24.00

MISCELLANEOUS.

High Grade Ground Tobacco Stems,
2 per cent. Ammonia, 8 per cent.
Potash (KO) .................... 22.00 21.00
High Grade Kentucky Tobacco Stems,
2.50 per cent. Ammonia, 10 per cent.
Potash (K,0)..................... 25.00 24.00
Tobacco Dust, No. 1, 2 per cent. Am-
monia, 2 per cent. Potash (K2O).... 25.00 24.00
Cut Tobacco Stems, 2 per cent. Am-
monia, 4 per cent. Potash (K2O) .... 20.00 19.00
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled, 2 per cent.
Ammonia, 4 per cent. Potash (K20).. 19.00 18.00
Land Plaster ........................ 12.00 11.00

The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and
bagging any special or regular formula are $1.50 per ton
in excess of above prices.











NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES, CURRENT JAN.
1, 1910-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.

AM MONIATES.


Ammonia, sulphate, foreign, prompt,
per 100 pounds ....................$2.65
futures ..................... 2.65
Ammonia, sulp., domestic, spot........ 2.671


futures ..................... 2.651/2@
Fish scrap, dried, 11 per cent. ammonia
and 14 per cent. bone phosphate, f. o.
b. fish works, per unit.............. 2.85 &
wet, acidulated, 6 per cent.
ammonia, 3 per cent. phos-
phoric acid, f. o. b. fish works 2.35 &
Ground fish guano, imported, 10 and
11 per cent. ammonia and 15-17 per
cent. bone phosphate, c. i. f. N. Y.,
Balto. or Phila.................... 3.00 &
Tankage, 11 per cent. and 15 per cent.
f. o. b. Chicago ................... 2.75 @
Tankage, concentrated, f. o. b. Chicago,
14 to 15 per cent., b. Chicago....... 2.75 @
Garbage, tankage, f. o. b. Chicago..... 8.00 @
Sheep manure, concentrated, f. o. b.
Chicago, per ton .................. 9.50 @
Hoofmeal, f. o. b. Chicago, per unit... 2.55 @
Dried blood, 12-13 per cent. ammonia,
f. o. b. New York.................. 2.95 @
Chicago .......................... 2.90 @
Nitrate of soda, 95 per cent spot, per
100 pounds ...................... -
futures, 95 per cent.......... @


10


35



10

2.80&10










2.10
2.10


PHOSPHATES.


Acid phosphate, per unit ............. .55 @
Bones, rough, hard, per ton........ 20.50 @
soft steamed unground ..... 18.50 @
ground, steamed, 1 1-4 per
cent. ammonia and 60 per
cent. bone phosphate...... 19.00 @
ditto, 3 and 50 per cent..... 22.50 @


.60
21.50
21.00


19.50
22.50


@
@
/@










raw ground, 4 per cent. ammo-
nia and 50 per cent. bone
phosphate ....... ...... 26.00
South Carolina Phosphate rock, un-
dried, per 2,400 lbs., f. o. b. Ashley
River ........................... 5.50
South Carolina Phosphate rock,
hot air dried, f. o. b. Ashley River.. 7.00
Florida land pebble phosphate rock,
68 per cent., f. o. b. Port Tampa,... 3.75
Florida high grade phosphate hard
rock, 77 per cent., f. o. b. Florida
or Georgia ports................. 7
Tennessee phosphate rock, f. o. b., Mt.
Pleasant, domestic, per ton, 78@80
per cent. ........................ 5.00
75 per cent. guaranteed......... 4.75
68@72 per cent. ............... 4.25


@ 27.00


(T


@ 7.50


5.50
5.00
4.50


POTASHES.


Muriate potash, basis 80 per cent, per
100 pounds......................$ 1.90 @i
Manure salt, 20 per cent. actual potash 14.75 @
double manure salt, 48 per cent. ... 1.161/2@
Sulphate potash (basis 90 per cent).. 2.181/2@
Kainit, in bulk, 2,240 pounds........ 8.50 @


4--Bul.


5.75

7.25

4.00










STATE VALUATIONS.

For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash for the Season of 1910.

Available Phosphoric Acid............. 5 cents a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid............. 1 cent a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .16 cents a pound
Potash (as actual potash, K,0)........5 cents a pound
If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid............... $1.00 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid................20 c. per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen)..$3.20 per unit
Potash ................................. 1.10 per unit

With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent, in a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this, take for
example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid...6.22 per cent.x$1.00-$ 6.22
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid...1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia .................. 3.42 per cent.x 3.20- 10.94
Potash ............ ........... 7.23 per cent.x 1.10- 7.95
Mixing and Bagging .........................- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports.......... ...... $26.91

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:

Available Phosphoric Acid....8 per cent.x$1.00-$ 8.00
Ammnonia ...................2 per cent.x 3.20- 6.40
Potash ......................2 per cent.x 1.10- 2.20
Mixing and Bagging ........................ 1.50

Commercial value at seaports ..................$18.10

The above valuations are for cash for materials deliv-
ered at Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one-
ton lots at these prices at the date of issuing this Bulle-
tin. Where fertilizers are bought at interior points, the
additional freight to that point must be added.









If purchased in carload lots for cash, a reduction of
ten per cent. can be made in above valuations, i. e.:

Available Phosphoric Acid...........90 cents per unit
Potash (K2O) ......................99 cents per unit
Ammonia (or equivalent in nitrogen). .$2.88 per unit

The valuations and market prices in preceding illustra-
tions are based on market prices for one-ton lots.

STATE VALUES.

It is not intended by the "State valuation" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufacturing
commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at the
date of issuing a Bulletin, or the opening of the seasonn."
They may, but seldom do, vary from the market prices,
and are made liberal to meet any slight advance or
decline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial re-
ports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's
Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid and potash may be determined,
and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
material to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's
Fruit and Vine" would be, using none but accepted and
well known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which.
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer, or feed, can be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida seaports.
These price lists in one and ten-ton lots are published
in this report, with the "State values" for 1910 deducted
therefrom.










COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.

POUNDS PER HUNDRED

Phosphoric
Ammonia PhoAcid Potsh

Nitrate of Soda.......... 17 to 191............ ...........
Sulphate of Ammonia ... 21 to 24 ........................
Dried Blood.............. 12 to 17............ ............
Concentiated Tankage.... 12 to 151 1 to 21............
Bone Tankage ........... 6 to 9 10 to 151..........
Dried Fish Scrap........] 8 to 11 6 to 81 ..........
Cotton Seed Meal......... 7 to 10 2 to 3i 1I to 2
Hoof Meal ............. 13 to 171 1i to 2 ............

PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED

Available Insoluble
Ammonia lhos. Acid Phosphoric
Acid
Florida Pebble Phosphate. .......... .............. 26 to 32
Florida Rock Phosphate.. ........................ 33 to 35
Florida Super Phosphate.. ............ 14 to 191 1 to 35
Ground Bone ............ 3 to 6 5 to 8 15 to 17
Steamed Bone .......... 3 to 4 6 to 9, 10 to 20
Dissolved Bone ......... 2 to 4| 13 to 151 2 to a

POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.

POUNDS PER HUNDRED

Actual A Phosphoric
Potash Ammonia Acid Lime
Acid Lime

Muriate of Potash.......I 50 ...........[................
Sulphate of Potash...... 48 to 52 .................. .........
Carbonate of Potash .... 55 to 30 ......... ......... .........
Nitrate of Potash...... 40 to 44 12 to 16 ......... .........
Double Sul. of Pot. & Mag 26 to 30 ...........................
Kainit ................. 112. to 12 ......... ......... .........
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 ......... ......... .........
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.. 15 to 30 ......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleached... 2 to 8 ......... 1 to 2 .........
Wood Ashes. leached .... 1 to 2 ......... 1 to I1 35 to 40
Tobahrc Stems... ..... 5 to 8 2 to 4 ......... 3)
Cow Manure (fresh).... 0.40 0to0.41 0.16 0.31
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.53 Oto 0.60 0.28 0.31
Sheep Manure (fresh)..] 0.67 1.00 0.23 0.33
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.60 0.55 0.19 0.08
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.85 2.07 1.54 0.24
Mixed Stable Manure.... 0.63 0.76 0.26 0.70












FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To convert-
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by ............ 0.824
Ammonia into protein, multiply by............. 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by............. 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by........ 16.47
Nitrogen into protein, multiply by............... 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by 2.184
Muriate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual potash into muriate of potash, multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into notrogen, multiply by..... 0.139
Carbonate of potash into actual potash,multiply by 0.681
Actual potash into carbonate of potash,multiply by 1.466
Chlorine. in "kainit," multiply potash (KO) by.. 2.33
For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it. multiply 95
per cent by 16.47, you will get 15.65 per cent. nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and
you gel 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or, to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K20), multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 61.29
per cent. actual potash (K0O).


COPIES OF THE FERTILIZER AND STOCK FEED
LAWS.

Citizens interested in the fertilizer and stock feed laws
of the State, and desiring to avail themselves of their pro-
tection, can obtain copies free of charge by sending for
same to the Commissioner of Agriculture.

COPIES OF THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG LAW.

Copies of the Pure Food and Drug Law, rules and regu-
lations, standards, blanks, etc., can be obtained from the
Commissioner of Agriculture.












SPECIAL SAMPLES.

It is shown by the number of "Special Samples" (those
sent in direct by the purchaser of fertilizers or feeds) that
the law is becoming more generally understood by the
farmer, fruit and vegetable grower. Purchasers who have
any reason to doubt the correctness of the guarantee on
the goods furnished them, should not hesitate to send in
samples for an analysis.
This right to have a sample of the goods purchased
analyzed by the State Chemist, under Section 9 of the
law-without charge-the inspection fees covering the
cost of analysis, as well as inspection-has doubtless had
a direct influence upon the increased quality of the goods
sold in the State. When properly drawn, sealed, wit-
nessed and transmitted, the "Special Sample" has proved
a safeguard to the consumer, legitimate dealer and manu-
facturer, and a check upon the careless, ignorant, or
fraudulent vendor or manufacturer.
It furnishes the consumer with the same protection
demanded by the manufacturer, who buys his materials
only upon the guarantee, and pays for itcm according to
analysis.
By far the largest amount of commercial fertilizers used
in Florida are manufactured or mixed by factories in
the State. Large amounts of fertilizing materials are
imported direct by factories and dealers located at our
seaport cities; cargoes of potash salts direct from Ger-
many are now frequently received by Florida importers,
while large amounts of acid phosphate are manufactured
at and exported from the various Gulf and Atlantic ports.
Florida consumers may now purchase their fertilizers
and chemicals at Florida seaports as cheaply as at any of
the seaports of the country.
Tables of the average composition of feeds and fer-
tilizer materials will be found in this Bulletin. The con-
sumer should consult them, compare the guarantee tag
therewith, and if doubtful of the truthfulness of the
"guarantee," send a "Special Sample" in a tin can to the
Commissioner of Agriculture for analysis, as directed in
regulations governing the taking and sending of special
samples-on another page.










55

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEEDSTUFFS.


NAME OF FEED



Bright Cott'n Seed Meal

Dark Cotton Seed Meal

Linseed Meal, old
process ...........
Linseed Meal, new pro-
cess ...............
Wheat Bran .........

Wheat Middlings .....

Mixed Feed (Wheat)..

Ship Stuff (Wheat)..

Corn (grain) ........

Corn Meal ...........

Corn Cobs ...........

Corn and Cob Meal...

Hominy Feed ........

Corn and Oats, equal
parts. ..........
Corn and Oat Feeds..

Barley (grain) .......

Barley Sprouts ......

Barley and Oats, equal
parts ........ ..


9.35

20.00


7.50

8.40
9.00

5.40

7.80

5.60

2.10

1.90

30.10

6.60

4.05


5.70
12.10

2.70

10.90


6.10


39.70

22.90


35.70

36.10
15.40

15.40

16.90

14.60

10.50

9.70

2.40

8.50

10.50


10.50
8.70

12.40

27.20


4-:
fl
ca

-g .d
ci c w
2
Fi fa ^


28.60

37.10


36.00

36.70
53.90

59.40

54.40

59.80

69.60

68.70

54.90

64.80

65.30


64.20
61.70

69.80

42.70


12.101 64.75


5.80

5.00


5.30

5.20
5.80

3.20

5.30

3.70

1.50

1.40

1.40

1.50

2.55


2.20
3.20

2.40

6.30


2.70










56

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL FEED-
STUFFS- ( Continued.)



NAME OF FEED. o "
k2 t., 4 P r -1

Oats (grain) ........ 9.50 11.80 59.70 5.00 3.00

Oat Feed ............ 6.10 16.00 59.40 7.10 3.70

Rice (grain) ........ 0.20 7.40 79.20 0.40 0.40

Rice Bran ........... 9.50 12.10 49.90 8.80 10.00

Rice Hulls ........... 35.70 3.60 38.60 0.70 13.20

Rye (grain) .......... 1.70 10.60 72.50 1.70 1.90

Rye Bran ............ 3.50 14.70 63.80 2.80 3.60

Wheat (grain) ....... 1.80 11.90 71.90 2.10 1.80

Cow Pea ............ 4.10 20.80 55.70 1.40 3.20

Cow Pea Hay ........ 20.10 16.60 42.20 2.20 7.50

Velvet Beans and Hulls 9.20 19.70 51.30 4.50 3.30

Velvet Bean Hay .... 29.70 14.70 41.00 1.70 5.70

Beggarweed Hay ..... 24.70 21.70 30.20 2.30 10.90

Wire Grass Hay ...... 31.80 5.50 48.60 1.50 3.80

Cotton Seed (whole).. 23.20 18.40 24.70 19.90 3.50

Cotton Seed Hulls .... 44.40 4.00 36.60 2.00 2.60

Gluten Feed ....... 5.30 24.00 51.20 10.60 1.10

Beef Scrap ...... ... 44.70 3.28 14.75 29.20












COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEEDSTUFFS
FOR 1910.

For the season of 1910 the following "State values"
are fixed as a guide to purchasers.
These values are based on the current price of corn,
which has been chosen as a standard in fixing the com-
mercial values; the price of corn, to a large extent, gov-
erning the price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

COMMERCIAL VALUES OF FEEDSTUFFS FOR 1910.

Protein, 34 cents per pound...........65 cents per unit
Starch and Sugar, 1 cents per pound. .30 cents per unit
Fats, 31 cents per pound...............65 cents per unit
A unit being 20 pounds (1 per cent) of a ton.
Indian corn being the standard @ $31.00 per ton.
To find the commercial State value, multiply the per-
centages by the price per unit.

EXAMPLE No. 1.

HOMINY FEED-

Protein ..................... 10.50 x 65c, $ 6.83
Starch and Sugar ..............65.30 x 30c, 19.59
Fat .......................... 7.85 x 65c, 5.10

State value per ton ..................... $31.52

EXAMPLE No. 2.

CORN-

Protein ..................... 10.50 x 65c, $ 6.83
Starch and Sugar .............. 69.60 x 30c, 20.88
Fat ........................... 5.40 x 65c, 3.51

State value per ton......................$31.22













FORMULAS.

There are frequent inquiries for formulas for various
crops; there are hundreds of such formulas published;
and while there are hundreds of "Brands" the varia-
tions in these grades are surprisingly little. Dozens of
"Brands" put up by the same manufacturer are identical
goods, the only difference being in the name printed on
the tag or sack. A good general Formula for field or
garden might be called a "Vegetable Formula," and would
have the following: Ammonia 31 per cent, available phos-
phoric acid 61 per cent, and potash 7j per cent. The fol-
lowing formulas will furnish the necessary plant food in
about the above proportion. I have purposely avoided the
use of any fraction of 100 pounds in these formulas to
simplify them. Values are taken from price lists fur-
nished by the trade, which we published in our Report
of January 1, 1910.
For Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes, and Vegetables:
Ammonia 3j per cent, available phosphoric acid 6 per
cent, potash 7j per cent.

(A) "VEGETABLE."


No. 1.
Per Cent.
900 pounds of Cotton Seed Meal (7j-2-11) ...... 3.25 Ammonia
800 pounds of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).... 6.40 Available
300 i, unds of Muriate (or Sulphate) (50 per cent) 7.50 Potash
2000
State value mixed and bagged............ $26.55
Plant Food per ton........................ 343 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
1000 lbs of Blood and Bone (61-8)........ 3.25 Ammonia
400 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 7.00 Avail Phos.
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot.(26 per ct.) 7.80 Potash
2000
State value mixed and bagged............ $27.48
Plant Food per ton........................ 360 pounds











59

No. 3.
Per Cent.
300 lbs of Dried Blood (16 per cent.)..... 3.25 Ammonia
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).. 800 Available
1000 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)... 7.80 potash
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 perct.) 7.80

2000
State value mixed and bagged.............$28.48
Plant Food per ton ...................... 381 pounds

(B) "FRUIT AND VINE."

No. 1.

Fruits, Melons, Strawberries, Irish Potatoes: Ammonia 4 per
cent., Available Phosphoric Acid 7 per cent., Potash 10 per cent.


1000
100
600
400

2000





500
200
900
400

2000


E00
100
100
900
400

2000


Per Cent.
lbs of Blood and Bone (61-8)........
lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per ecnt.).. Ammoia
lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 8 Available
lbs of Muriate of Potash (50 per ct.)..

State value mixed and bagged.............$33.30
Plant Food per ton....................... 440 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
lbs of Castor Pomace (6-2 per cent.) .. Ammonia
lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.)... 7.0 Available
lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 9.0 Povalash
lbs of Sulp. of Pot. (48 per cent.)... 9.6 os

State value mixed and bagged............. $32.56
Plant Food per ton....................... 426 pounds

No. 3.

Per Cent.
lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (71-21-11)....*
lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).. 3.97 Ammonia
lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.).... 8.30 Available
Ibs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 8.97 Potash
lbs of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.)..

State value mixed and bagged .............. $32.18
Plant Food per ton....................... 425 pounds












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.

FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1910. L. HEIMBURGER, Assistant Chemist.
Samples taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, Act Approved May 22, 1901.


NAME, OR BRAND. 0

on


Fertilizer ................... 12012 4.71
Fertilizer ................... 2013 .....
Fertilizer ....... ......... 2014 11.12
Fertilizer ................... 2015 7.52
Palmetto Ashes.............. 12016 ......
Blood and Bone ............. 2017 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2018 8.32
Fertilizer ................... 2019 ......
Fertilizer ................. 20 ..
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2021 ......

Nitrate of Soda (?) (Pot. Salt) 12022 ......
Fertilizer ................... 2023 ......


Phosphoric Acid.


) c

.5 0
CC 2


BY \HOM SENT.


1 I
7.781 3.38 11.161 1.731 16.46 A. B. Bryan, Bowling Green, Fla.
5.48 1.19 6.67i 4.20 6.76 J. E. Wilson, Ft. Meade, Fla.
7.52 1.89 9.41! 4.80 6.24 James Campbell, Longwood, Fla.
7.18 0.32 7.50 3.83 11.80 A. S. Alfred, St. Petersburg, Fla.
S... ...... ...... ...... 2.38: D. E. Haywood, West Palm Beach, Fla.
.. ... ...... 5.59 11.15 ...... John H. Blake, Tampa, Fla.
8.03 0.10 8.13 4.36 10.43' H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
3.23 10.40 13.63 4.981 4.391 H. W. Smith, Zolfo, Fla.
6.60 1.48 8.08 4.021 5.251 R. L. Coward, Ona, Fla.
2.97 10.49 13.46 4.65' 8.57 Lewis, Baldwin & Co., Bowling Green,
| Fla.
.. ....... ....... Trace. ..... H. C. Hadley, Ft. Myers, Fla.
5.82 1.13 6.95 4.27| 8.49 W. C. McCall, Miami, Fla.





Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2024 ...... 11.601 0.091 11.69

1>-rtilizer ................... 2025 12.54 10.58 0.80| 11.38
Dried Blood ................ 202G ....... .. ...... ......
Fertilizer No. 1............. 2027 7.53 9.21 2.061 11.27
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2028 8.98 5.11 0.92 6.03
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2029 7.63 5.48 1.42 6.90
Fertilizer ................... 2030 8.46 6.94 0.49 7.43
A shes "A .................. 2031 ...... .. ...... ......
A shes "B ................. 2032 ...... . .... ......
Fertilizer ................... 2033 9.75 6.00 1.88 8.48
Fertilizer .................. 2034 6.95 6.52 3.62 10.14
Fertilizer ................... 2035 10.75 6.45 0.82 7.27
,cid Phosphate No. 1........ 2036 ...... 14.28 0.27 14.55
Acid Phosphate No. 2........ 2037 ...... 16.04 0.30 16.34
Cotton Seed Meal............ 2038 ...... .... ............
Fertilizer ................... 2039 6.46 6.95 1.19 8.14
Fertilizer, "Oats" ........... 2040 6.13 9.96 0.07 10.03
Fertilizer, "Vegetable"....... 2041 8.55 6.091 1.09 7.18
Ashes, "X" .................. 2042 ..... .. .. .........
Fertilizer No. 1............. 2043 6.01 6.72 0.40 7.12
Fertilizer "B. S. F. C."...... 2044 8.91 11.31 1.22 12.53
Fertilizer ................... 2045 5.58 4.61 5.20 9.81
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2046 8.34 15.30 0.07 15.37
Dried Blood ............... 2047 ...... ... ............
Muriate of Potash........... 2048 ...... .... ......
H. G. Sulphate of Potash.... 2049 ........... ............
L. G. Sulphate of Potash...... 2050 ...... .
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2051 ..... 7.18 0.35 7.5
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2052 ...... 9.00 0.12 9.12
Fertilizer No. 2............. 2053 3.61 2.56 9.69 12.25'
Fertilizer ................... 2054 7.41 7.37 1.70 9.07


2.98! 7.06 Lewis, Baldwin & Co., Bowling Green,
SFla.
5.26i 7.62 V. I. Carrier, Crescent City, Fla.
15.80 ...... Joe Cameron, Sanford, Fla.
5.09 5.58 C. S Bushnell, Arcadia, Fla.
5.47 10.88 F. A. Buclles, Llant City, Fla.
5.62 10.90 F. A. Buckles, Plant City, Fla.
3.47 8.80 G. Douet, Astatula, Fla.
...... 4.79 Geo. L. Maris, Sanford, Fla.
...... 0.87 Geo. L. Maris, Sanford, Fla.
4.84 5.95 James McKay, Boynton, Fla.
2.44 13.13 Lewis & Co., Kathleen, Fla.
2.98 9.13 C. B. Gwynn, Tallahassee, Fla.
.... ...... L. Heimburger, Tallahassee, Fla.
...... ...... L. Heimburger, Tallahassee, Fla.
8.00 ...... Geneva Lumber Co., Eleanor, Fla
4.30 7.S9 I. N. Cochran, Ona, Fla.
2.60 4.29 C. B. Gwynn, Tallahassee, Fla.
4.08 8.361 C. B. Gwynn, Tallahassee, Fla.
...... 6.42 F. F. Dutton, Sanford, Fla.
5.98 7.93 Spencer Smith, Arcadia, Fla.
4.60 6.63 J. P. Coward, Crescent City, Fla.
6.50 6.61 Geo. A. Butler, Tavares, Fla.
1.00 2.04 Spencer Smith, Arcadia, Fla.
16.35 ...... Ocala Fertz. Co., Ocala, Fla.
...... 50.64 Ocala Fertz. Co., Ocala, Fla.
...... 50.64 Ocala Fertz. Co., Ocala, Fla.
...... 26.44 Ocala Fertz. Co., Ocala, Fla.
4.42 7.89 Ocala Fertz. Co., Ocala, Fla.
5.13 8.43 Ocala Fertz Co., Ocala, Fla.
4.18 10.69 C. S. Bushnell, Arcadia, Fla.
3.83 3.23 E. Patrick, Turkey Creek, Fla.


i
|


















NAME, OR BRAND.


Fertilizer. "Wilson's Special". 2055
Acid Phosphate No. 1........ 20561
Acid Phosphate No. 2........ 2057
Acid Phosphate ............ 2058
K ainit ...................... 2059
Fertilizer ................... 2060
Fertilizer ................... 2061
Kainit No. 1............... 2062
Kainit No. 2............... 2063
Fertilizer No. 3.............. 2064
Palmetto Ashes ............ 2065
Fertilizer ................... 2066
Fertilizer No. 1.............. 2067
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2068
Acid Phosphate No. 3........ 2069
Fertilizer, "Tomato No. 1"... 2070
Fertilizer, "Tomato No. 2".. 2071
Fertilizer, "Deli Tabakimert" 2072
K sinit ................ .. 2073
Fertilizer ................... 2074


SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES,


...... .......
...... 6.42

9.88 6'.91.
...... 10.34
10.25
14.21
3.53
.. I 5.47
7.711 5.88

...... 9.17


0.13 10.22
0.41 17.30
0.08 17.50
0.21 16.13

0.99 13.06
0.04 9.93


0.05 6.47

2.46 9.37
0.94 11.28
0.90 11.15
1.80 16.01
0.49 4.02
4.02 9.49
0.00, 5.94
...... ......
0.56 9.73


2.84




1.53
1.40


4.04

5.23
2.45
2.24

8.28
5.95
6.45

2.09


BY WHOM SENT.


3.3 A. L. Wlson & Co., Quncy, Fla.
3.53 A. L. Wilson & Co., Quincy, Fla.
...... A. L. Wilson & Co., Quincy, Fla.
...... H. McCinton & Co., Quincy, Fla.
13.42. J. H. McClinton, Ft. White, Fla.
13.421 J. H. McClinton, Ft. White, Fla.
1.76 W. R. Booth, Campbellton, Fla.
14.89 R. F. Kleisen, Yalaha, Fla.
13.88 A. L. Beck, Orlando, Fla.
13.67 A. L. Beck, Orlando, Fla.
12.10 A. L. Beck, Orlando, Fla.
3.35 L. B. Thompson, Pensacola, Fla.
8.241 C. B. Morrow, Crescent City, Fla.
1.57 Milton Cash Store, Milton, Fla.
1.71 Milton Cash Store, Milton, Fla.
...... Milton Cash Store, Milton, Fla.
10.04 Walter Waldin, Miami, Fla.
6.32 Walter Waldin, Miami, Fla.
10.01 C. G. A. Griek, Tallahassee, Fla.
14.33 Jas. X. Towles, Athena, Fla.
3.24 T. J. Ruff, Ft. White, Fla.


1910-Continued.







Ka'nit ...................... 2075
Fertilizer No. 1............. 2076

Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2077

Fertilizer No. 3.... ...... 2078

Fertilizer No. 4.............. 2079

Fertilizer No. 5.............. 2080

Dried Blood ................ 2081
Fertilizer, "Potato Special".. 2082
Cotton Seed Meal........... 2083
Fertilizer No. 1............ 2084
Fertilizer No. 2.............. 2085
Fertilizer No. 3.............. 2086
Fertilizer, "Celery Special"... 2087
Fertilizer .................. 2088
Fertilizer, "C. B. & Q. 92530". 2089
Fertilizer, "Grand Trunk 2090
10980" .............. ....
Fertilizer, "A.T. & S. F. 28910" 2091
Dried Blood ................ 2092
Tr rtilizer ................... 2093
Fertilizer No. 1 ........... 2094
Fertilizer No. 2............. 2095
Fertilizer No. 3.............. 2096
Fertilizer No. 4.............. 2097
Cotton Seed Meal, "C. M. & S. 2098
P. No. 18110"..............


............ ...... 13.881 T. J. Ruff, Ft. White, Fla.
5.51 6.09 1.07 7.16 5.45 8.721 The Armour Fertz. Co., Jacksonville,
I Fla.
6.03 8.36 0.24 8.60 4.32 12.822 The Armour Fertz. Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
8.471 6.62 0.68 7.30 3.01 10.71 The Armour Fertz. Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
5.82 6.21 0.58 6.79 3.24 8.49 The Armour Fertz. Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
6.44, 5.46 1.10 6.56 5.19 5.62 The Armour Fertz. Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
.... .... ...... 15.53 ...... A. L. Beck, Orlando, Fla.
...... 7.32 2.73 10.05 4.01 12.22 J. W. Teasley, Tampa, Fla.
. .. .. ............... 7.28 ...... John J. Evans, Evans, Fla.
11.73 8.80 0.15 8.95 2.50 2.15 C. A. Green, Milton, Fla.
13.40 9.40 0.55 9.95 1.83 2.97 C. A. Green, Milton, Fla.
12.191 9.77 1.46 11.23 3.58 2.19 C. A. Green, Milton, Fla.
...... 6.20 3.95 10.15 6.53 5.88 J. W. Teasley, Tampa, Fla.
...... 8.12 1.06 9.18 2.97 2.37 R. F. Howard, Tallahassee, Fla.
7.12 8.72 1.02 9.74 4.89 8.50 Munroe & Chambliss, Ocala, Fla.
7.54 7.70 1.45 9.15 4.95 8.61 Munroe & Chambliss, Ocala, Fla.

6.79 9.42 1.50 10.92 4.701 7.89 Munroe & Chambliss, Ocala, Fla.
..... .. 16.26 ..... IA. L. Beck, Orlando, Fla.
8.67 5.78 1.73 7.51 4.971 9.19 W. A. Varn, Bartow, Fla.
7.92 8.30 0.02 8.32 4.47 11.77 J. J. Stephens, Castalia, Fla.
5.98 8.11 0.12 8.23 4.25 12.33 J. J. Stephens, Castalia, Fla.
16.08 6.72 1.09 7.81 3.60 6.17 J. J. Stephens, Castalia, Fla.
19.03 6.35 1.15 7.50 3.14 7.05 J. J. Stephens, Castalia, Fla.
.. .. .... ...... ... 7.3d ...... Am. Sumatra Tobacco Co., Quincy,
I I| Fla.










SPECIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1910-Continued.


Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND.





Cotton Seed Meal, "L. & N. 2099
10328" ...................
Cotton Seed Meal, "S. A. L. 2100
24772" .................
Cotton Seed Meal, "A. C. L. 2101
23157" ...................
Fertilizer .................. 2102
Fertilizer No. 1 .............. 2103
Fertilizer No. 2.......... ... 2104
Fertilizer ................... 2105
Cotton Seed Meal No. 1...... 2106

Cotton Seed Meal No. 2...... 2107

Thomas Slag Phosphate, "Sou. 2108
11475." ...................
Cotton Seed Meal, "L. & N. 2109
12218"....................
Cotton Seed Meal, "I. C. 2110
14534" ....................


C


a .c
Si z


BY WHOM SENT.


7 32...... Am. Sumatra Tobacco Co., Quincy,
Fla.
8.01 ...... Am. Sumatra Tobacco Co., Quincy,
Fla.
7.15 ..... Am. Sumatra Tobacco Co., Quincy,
SFla.
2.18 11.21 Names McVicker, Cobb, Fla.
2.15 1.641 J. F. Lannous, Galloway, Fla.
1.871 1.59 J. F. Lannous, Galloway, Fla.
o.38 13.63 A. J. Mixson, Williston, Fla.
7.491...... Gadsden Shade Tobacco Co., Quincy,
Fla.
7.48 ..... Gadsden Shade Tobacco Co., Quincy,
Fla.
..... ...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.

6.92;...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.

7.011...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.
I





Cotton Seed Meal, "Sou.12111
13983" ...................
Cotton Seed Meal, "A. C. L. 2112
S 23157" ..................
Cotton Seed Meal, "P. R. R. 2113
4783" ..................
Cotton Seed Meal, "M. P. 2114
39010" ..................
Fertilizer ................... 2115
Fertilizer .................. 2116


........ .... ...... I ......


8.81
7.41


7.54
8.29


0.37
0.16


7.91
8.45


6.95 ...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.

7.191...... Kraus, McFarlln Co., Quincy, Fla.

6.96 ...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.

7.17 ...... Kraus, McFarlin Co., Quincy, Fla.

4.951 9.03 A. H. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
3.30! 11.44 John T. Richards, Orlando, Fla.












DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FERTILIZER SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1910. L. HEIMBUBGER, Assistant Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist Under Sections 1 and 2, Act Approved May 22, 1905.


Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. 3




Nitrate of Potash ........ 1452 Guarant'd Analysis ...... ...... ...... ......
Official Analysis... ....... ...... ...... ......

Bean Fertilizer .......... 11453 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 5.00 1.00 ......
Official Analysis... 8.01; 5.27 0.92 6.19

Mapes' Fruit and Vine 1454 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 5.00 2.00 ......
Manure ................ I Official Analysis... 8.631 5.32 3.72 9.04

Mapes' Vegetable Manure. 1455 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00j .00 2.00 ......
Official Analysis... 9.60 5.91 3.69 9.60

H. G. Blood and Bone.... 1456 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 3.00 1.50 ......
S Official Analysis... ...... 2.52 1.37 3.891


C BY WHOM AND WHERE
5 MANUFACTURED.










2.79 11.44 Guano Co., New York.
10.00 ..... Independent Fertz. Co.,
14.25 42...64 Jacksonville, Fla.
5.00 5.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
4.92 5.82 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 10.00 Mapes' For. & Peruvian
2.79 11.44 Guano Co., New York.

5.00 4.00 Mapes' For. & Peruvian
5.43 5.66/ Guano Co., New York.

10.00 ..... .Independent Fertz. Co.,
10.591 ...... I Jacksonville, Fla.






H. G. Sulphate of Potash.. 1457 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Dried Blood ..............11458 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Hard Wood Ashes........ 1459 Guarant'd Analysis
SOfficial Analysis...

H. G. Acid Phosphate.... 1460 Guarant'd Analysis
S Official Analysis...

Prime Bright Cotton Seed 1461 Guarant'd Analysis
Meal .................. |Official Analysis...

H. G. Ky. Tobacco Stems.. 1462 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Favorite Non-Ammoniated 1463 Guarant'd Analysis
Special ................. Official Analysis...

Simon Pure Tomato...... 1464 Guarant'd Analysis
S Official Analysis...

Simon Pure Rose Special. 1465 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
I
Simon Pure No. 1........ 1466lGuarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Gem Special ............ 1467 Guarant'd Analysis
:Official Analysis...


10.00 .....: ..... .. .... ....... 48.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
..50.88 Jacksonville, Fla.

12.00 ... .... ..... 16.00 ...... Independent Fertz. Co.,
...... ..... .... ...... 17.24 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

15.00 ...... .. .... .. .. ..... 4.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
..... .. . . 2.25 Jacksonville, Fla.

10.00 16.00 0.50 ..................Independent Fertz. Co.,
...... 18.79 0.02 18.81 ...... ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

... . ..... ....... 7.50 ......Independent Fertz. Co.,
...... ...... ...... ... .. 7.62 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

10.001 ...... ......2.00 7.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
...... .. .. ... .. .. .. 2.58 9.64 Jacksonville, Fla.

10.00 10.00' 1.00...... ...... 11.00 Independent Fertz. Co.,
8.17 10.37 0.17 10.54 ...... 10.97 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.001 4.00 3.00 ...... 5.00 9.00 E. O. Painler Fertz. Co.,
6.651 6.03 2.52 8.55 5.961 9.97 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00] 3.50 1.75 ...... 4.50 5.25 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
8.26 4.41 1.50 5.91 5.30 7.60 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.001 6.00 1.00 ...... 4.00 12.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
6.98 5.80 0.03 5.83 4.05 13.13 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.001 5.00 3.00 ...... 4.00 6.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.631 6.33 0.251 6.58 4.35 6.67 Jacksonville, Fla.











OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1910-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND.


., .
0a
0 0
Q


Gem Fruit and Vine...... 1468


Simon Pure No. 2......... 1469


Sulphate of Ammonia..... 1470


Lawn Special ............ 1471


Seminole Tree Grower .... 1472


W. & T.'s Special Fruit and 1473
Vine Manure ..........

Williams & Clark Fruit and 1474
V ine ...................


Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


I-
Oa



8.00
6.21

8.00
5.73





4.99

8.001
8.791

10.00,
9.011

10.00
6.81


Phosphori


c Acid.


Q5
Cdp
d 0
.Ei a
0] O


6.00 1.00 ......
6.57 1.05 7.62

6.00 2.00 ......
6.79 2.06 8.85

. .. . . ..


7.00 1.00 ......
6.13 0.33 6.46

6.00 . ...
6.45 0.86 7.31

6.00 1.00 .
7.18 0.11 7.29

5.50 3.00 .....
6.321 0.98| 7.301


BY WHOM AND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.


3.00 10.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
3.32 11.17 Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 6.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
4.72 7.97 Jacksonville, Fla.

25.00 ...... 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
25.80 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

6.50 5.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
8.02 8.10 Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
4.04 8.69 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

4.00 13.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
4.26 12.72 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

2.25 10.00 Am. Agr. Chemical Co.,
2.31 9.81 Jacksonville, Fla.






Bradley Florida Vegetable. 14751Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Williams & Clark Florida 1476 Guarant'd Analysis;
Vegetable ................. Official Analysis...

Bradley Fruit and Vine.. 1477 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.. .

Lazaretto Early Trucker.. 1478 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis..

Williams & Clark Nursery 1479 Guarannt'd Analysis[
Stock .................. Official Analysis...

Williams & Clark Special 1480 Guarant'd Analysis
Fruit and Vine............ Official Analysis...

Bradley Orange Tree...... 14Sl2Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis..

Peruvian Orange Tree 1482 Guarant'd Analysis
Grower ................ Official Analysis..

Special Mixture No. 1.... 14831Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Ideal Vegetable Manure... 1485 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


10.001
7.75
s~aoi
10.00|
S.30j

10.001
6.57i

8.00'
9.711

10. 001
9.72,

10.001
10.11


7.55




8.001
9.87!

8.00
9.771


6.00
6.7;

0.00









S.O.I

5.50
7.052

0. 500C


6 010
7.05

c ooP
G.15

7.00!
6.29!


1 .00! ......
1.161 7.95:

] .00 ..


1 .')0 ..... .
0.77 7.09

2. 00 ......
1.51 9.701

1 .o ......
1.02! 9.07

. .l. .
1.CG' 8.71

1.nn ......
0.A8 7.851

2. 00 ......
2.22 8.87

1.00 .. ...
1.78 7.931

1.00 ......
0.95, 7.?4


4.00!
4.260

4.001
4.13

2.25
2.44

5.001
4.821

4.50
4.29

4.25f
4.G00

3.50[
3.701

5.001
5.25!

5.00i
5.o1!

4.00
4.51!


5.00JAm. Agr. Chemical Co..
5.701 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 Am. Agr. Chemical Cc.
4.,81 Jacksonville, Fla.

10.0OAm. Agr. Chemical Co.,
10.70! Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00|Am. Agr. Chemical Co..
5.431 Jacksonville, Fla.

3.001Am. Agr. Chemical Co..
3.571 Jacksonville, Fla.

10.00!Am. Agr. Chemical Co..
7.601 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 Am. Agr. Chemical Co.,
4.71! Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
10.08)' Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

5.001 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
5.661' Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
7.600! Co., Jacksonville, Fla.













OFFICIAL FERTILIZER ANALYSES, 1910-Continued.


Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. 2 6

=Z |



Ideal Sugar Cane Fertilizer 1486 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 7.00 ...... ....
Official Analysis... 11.25 6.65 1.20 7.

Spec. Mixt. for Cowpenned 1487 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 8.00 ..........
or Over-Am'oniated Trees Official Analysis... 5.82 8.50 1.93 10.

Kainit ................... 1488 Guarant'd Analysis ..... ...... ...... ....
Official Analysis... ....... .. ...... ....

Complete Sweet Potato Fer- 1489 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 8.00 1.00 ....
tilizer .................. Official Analysis... 13.221 8.33 1.36 9.

Armour's Fruit and Vine.. 1490 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 6.00 1.00 ....
Official Analysis... 6.15 6.30 0.28 6.

Armour's Blood, Bone and 1491 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 8.00 1.00....
Potash ................. Official Analysis... 8.481 7.65 2.35 10.

Armour's Vegetable ...... 1492 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 7.00 2.00 ....
Official Analysis... 9.23 6.93 1.17 8.


CS
0
S
S


. 3.00
85 3.33


43 ......




2.50
69 2.68

2.50
67 3.30

5.00
0 5.10

4.00
10 3.58


BY WHOM AND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.
Cd
0


4.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
5.49' Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

13.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
12.58' Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

12.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
15.03" Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

3.50 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
4.56' Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

11.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
11.04 Jacksonville, Fla.

7.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
7.68 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
6.63 Jacksonville, Fla.








Special Mixture .......... 1493


Armour's Practical Trucker 1494


Armour's Orange Fruiter.. 1495


Goulding's Bone Compound 1496


Goulding's 16% Acid Phos- 1497
phate ..................

Cuke Special ............ 1498


Orange Fruiter .......... 1499


Orange Tree Grower...... 1500


Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


...... 8.00 .
9.01 8.77 0.2

10.001 .00 2.0
8.07 5.80 0.9

10.00 8.00, 1.0
6.33 7.95 0.5

16.00 8.00 2.0
10.22 8.73 1.4

16.00 16.00 2.0
... 16.89 0.3

8.00 5.00 1.0
9.64 5.55 0.C

10.00 6.00 1.0
5.87 7.05 0.2

8.00 6.00 1.0
7.67 6.61 0.S


0 .
l2


8.98 .....

..... 3.00
6.72 2.72

.. 4.00
8.47 4.35

2.00
10.18 3.08


17.25


5.59

7.00
7.30

7.00
7.43


5.00
4.40

4.00
4.64

5.00
5.40


15.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
13.36 Jacksonville, Fla.

10.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
10.92 Jacksonville, Fla.

12.00 The Armour Fertz.Wks.,
11.89 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 The Goulding Fertz. Co.,
2.00 Pensacola, Fla.

...... The Goulding Fertz. Co.,
...... Pensacola, Fla.

8.00 The Gulf Fertz. Co., -
10.72 Tampa, Fla. -

11.00 The Gulf Fertz. Co.,
11.07 Tampa, Fla.

6.00 The Gulf Fertz. Co.,
7.37 Tampa, Fla.


.


.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.


FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. SPECIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1910.
Samples Taken by Purchaser Under Section 9, .Act Approved


NAME, OR BRAND.
NAME, OR BRAND. -

c ,


E. PECK GREENE, Asst. Chemist.
May 24, 1905.


BY WHOM SENT.


Barley Mixed Oats ................
Barley Mixed Oats ..................
Rice Bran .
Rice Bran.........................
Kornfalfa Feed ...................
Mixed Grain (Oats), No. 6783........
Mixed Grain (Oats), No. 13670......
Ground Corn Ear....................
Feed No. 1 .................... .....
Feed N o. 2.........................
Corn Shucks ........................
Mixed Oats .........................


120 s.45 11.23 63.13 3.05
121 9.34 11.45 63.14 3.01
122 ]3.82i12.15 42.,4 11.82
123 12.13 11.76 56.92 2.S5
124 8.52 11.30.57.7S 3.50
125 7.87 11.50 60.4 3.571
126 11.38 7.72165.95' 2.77
127i11.5511 0.84 62.2! 3.6C2
128111.10112.37 59. 11 .' )
129'32.bal. 2.2S 52. 0.57
1300 9.77;12.32 5S.72 4.271


2.97 Ganahl & Saussy, Jacksonville, Fla.
3.34 Benoker Bros., Pensacola, Fla.
9.50 0. Barksdale, Tampa, Fla.
3.37 Peninsular Naval Stores Co., Tampa, Fla.
3.25'Lewis Bear Co., Pensacola, Fla.
3.30 Lev is Bear Co., Pensacola, Fla.
1.501R. F. Howard, Tallahassee, Fla.
1.85 R. F. Howard, Tallabassee. Fla.
2.22 R. F. Howard, Tallahassee, Fia.
1.67,R. F. IHoward, Tallahassee, Fla.
3.15!L vws Bear Co., Pen-acola, Fla.






DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FEEDING STUFF SECTION.
R. E. RosE, State Chemist. OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1910. E. PECK GREENE, Asst. Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemnist and State Inspector Under Sections 1, 2 and 13, Act Approved May 24, 1905.


NAME, OR BRAND. NAME AND ADDRESS OF
NAME, OR BRAND. p MANUFACTURER.
C0 MANUFACTURER.
91 A is I 9

Fancy Shorts ........... 901 Guarant'd Analysis 7.35! 16.03 59.52 4.32 ...... Phoenix Flour Mill, Evansville,
Official Analysis... 7.48 17.59 56.46 4.24 4.21 Ind.
|I
Pine Leaf Middlings...... 902 Guarant'd Analysis 6.10 15.75 57.95 4.20 4.10 Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, Ill.
Official Analysis... 6.03 17.S5 57.99 4.46 3.53

Middlings ................ 903 Guarantd Analysis 5.001 16.00 57.00 4.50 ...... H. C. Cole Milling Co., Ches-
Official Analysis... 5.181 17.81 58.90 4.21 3.66 ter, Ill.

Pure Wheat Middlings.... 904 Guarant'd Analysis 4.581 16.04 62.48 4.17 ......The Dunlop Milling Co., Clarks-
Official Analysis... 5.02[ 17.90 56.65 5.16 4.31 ville, Tenn.

Heavy Draught Feed...... 905 Guaranl'd Analysis ...... 10.35 64.431 3.42...... United Grocery Co., Jackson-
Official Analysis... 5.571 10.71 C6.64 2.68 2.19 ville, Fla.

"Purity" Bran..........906 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 14.00 54.00 3.50 ...... Cairo Milling Co., Cairo, Ill.
Official Analysis... 7.81 13.60 57.07 3.78 6.26










OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANAL YSES, 1910-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND.



Victor Feed ..............


Purina Feed .............


Pure Wheat Shorts .......


Star Middlings ..........


Barley Mixed Oats ........


Protena Feed ............


Lillie Bran ............


Schumacher Scratch i n g
Grains .................


Official Analysis...

908 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

909 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

910 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

911 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

912 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

913 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis....

914 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


12.00
10.13

8.90
11.19

6.00
5.88

8.00o
8.61


9.35

9.701
12.91

8.501
8.841
I
4.50
2.84


7.50
10.00

12.50
12.02

16.00
15.55

15.00
16.32


11.27

12.00
11.27

15.00
15.01

10.50


SI2

62.00
63.42

58.00
57.53

48.00
58.42

54.00
55.10


62.86

57.00
59.91

56.50
57.12

64.00
70.98


NAME AND ADDRESS OF
MANUFACTURER.



3.00 ...... The Quaker Oats, Co., Chicago,
3.27 3.50 Ill.

4.00 ...... Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis,
4.75 3.79 Mo.

4.00 ...... Liberty Mills, Nashville, Tenn.
3.64 3.68

4.00 ...... Star & Crescent Milling Co.,
4.53 4.80 Chicago, Ill.

...... ...... Atlantic & Gulf Grocery Co.,
2.99 2.86 Jacksonville, Fla.

3.80 ..... Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis,
3.60 3.17 Mo.

4.00 ...... Lillie Mill Co., Franklin, Tenn.
3.11 5.77

3.00 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chicago,
2.19 2.00 111.








Stafolife Feed ........... 915 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Nutriline ................ 916 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Vim Horse Feed.......... 917 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
Cotton Seed Meal......... 918 Guarant'd Analysis.
Official Analysis...

Cotton Seed Meal........ 919 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Cotton Seed Meal......... 920 Guarantd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Globe Gluten Feed........ 921 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Stafolife Feed ............ 922 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Protena ................. 923 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Pure Wheat Middlings.... 924 Guarant'd Analysis'
Official Analysis...

Sugaration Stock Feed.... 925 Guarant'd Analysis
I Official Analysis...


12.75
12.99

10.001
8.44

10.50
10.10

10.98,



..... t
6.75


8.161

..... .
8.231

12.751
14.051
I
9.70
10.70

6.121
4.651

11.00
8.06


11.00 53.00 6.00 ...... Lawrence & Hamilton Feed
10.66 55.45 4.72 5.60 Co., New Orleans, La.

12.001 58.00 3.50 ...... Nutriline Milling Co., Crowley,
13.51 56.08 4.001 7.221 La.

10.00 60.00 3.75 ...... The Quaker Oats Co., Chicago,
10.71 61.75 1.54 4.09 ill.
38.62 ...... ...... ...... Georgia Cotton Oil Co., Macon,
32.80 35.14 6.49 5.51 Ga.

38.62 ...... ........... Grovania Fertilizer & Oil Co.,
39.26 31.35 8.75 6.04 Grovania, Ga.

88.62 ............ ...... Vienna Cotton Oil Co., Vienna,
37.29 33.411 6.98 5.94 Ga.

24.00 51.00 2.50 Corn Products Refining Co.,
26.32 51.48 2.15 3.12 New York, N. Y.

11.00 53.00 6.00 Lawrence & Hamilton Feed Co.,
11.97 52.36 3.98 8.42 New Orleans, La.

12.00! 57.001 3.80 ...... Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis,
11.58 59.10 4.30 3.72 Mo.

15.00 56.00 6.40 ...... Maney Milling Co., Omaha,
17.55 57.33 4.64 4.45 Neb.

11.65 64.40 4.00 ...... Inter-State Milling Co., Mem-
10.441 66.85 3.05 4.01 phis, Tenn.












NAME, OR BRAND.



Sucrene Dairy Feed......


Barley Mixed Oats........


Forest City Feed Meal ....


Sugaration Stock Feed....


Pure Wheat Middlings....


Star Middlings ...........


Bran and Shorts ........


Alfalfa Meal ............


OFFICIAL FEEDING RSTU-FF ANALYSES, 1910--Continued.


a: NAME AND ADDRESS OF
on i MANUFACTURER.



926 Guarant'd Analysis 12.001 16.50 46.00 3.50 ...... American Milling Co., Owens-
Official Analysis... 10.81j 17.29 49.83 z.81 9.76 boro, Ky.

927 Giarant'd Analysisl 11.001 10.00 40.001 1.00 ..... R. R. Detre, Philadelphia, Pa.
Official Analysis.. 13.32 10.531 5S.01 3.51 3.421
928 Guarant'd Analysis ..... 2.00 30.00 4.00 ...... The Southern Cotton Oil Co.,
Official Analysis... 18.73 23.85 38.3S 6.25 4.69 Savannah, Ga.

929 Guarant'd Analysis 11.0j0 11.05 64.40 4.00 ....... Inter-State Milling Co., Mem-
Official Analysis... 10.58S 17.291 51.68 3.50 5.12 phis, Tenn.

930 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00 16.00 40.00 5.00 .....'Taylor-Greer Grain Co., Mem-
Official Analysis... 7.73 17.00 54.74 4.C0 4.42 phis, Tenn.

931 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00 1.5 1,0' 4. )00 4 .0..... Star & Crescent Milling Co.,
Official Analysis... 6.85 1C.27! 5:(.12 41.02 4.271 Chicago, Ill.

932 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00i 11.50[ 58.02t 4.00 ...... Alanta Milling Co., Atlanta,
Official Analysis... 5.79 15.00 FS.95 4.17 4.62 Ga.
I I I I !
933Guarant'd Analysis ...... .... .. .... ...... ... ornfalfa Feed Milling Co.,
| Official Analysis... 31.10 10.4, 37.38. 1.101 6.771 Kansas City, Mo.







Cotton Seed Meal .......


Mill Feed Compound......


Cotton Seed Meal.........


Ceralfa Stock Feed........


Sucrene Horse & Mule Feed


Cremo Brand, Second Class
Cotton Seed Meal.......

Cotton Seed Meal.........


Prime Cotton Seed Meal..


Cotton Seed Meal .......


Pure Wheat Shipstuff.....

Cotton Seed Feed Meal....


934 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 38.521......
Official Analysis... 10.40 33.87 33.31

935 Guarant'd Analysis 9.50 13.00 58.62
Official Analysis... 4.77 13.431 63.79

930 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 38.52 ......
Official Analysis... 8.65 37.21 31.47

937 Guarant'd Analysis 11.50 13.00 55.00
Official Analysis... 11.60 13.12 53.30

938 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00 10.00 50.00
Official Analysis... 10.45 8.00 63.41

939 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 20.00 30.00
Official Analysis... 22.15 20.84 38.85

940 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 25.00 ...
Official Analysis... 19.72 21.411 38.23

941 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 38.62 ......
Official Analysis... 11.75 34.40 32.44

942 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 38.62......
Official Analysis... 8.20 37.60 30.34

943 Guarant'd Analysis 6.05 18.13 56.22
Official Analysis... 3.30 17.11 57.37
944 Guarant'd Analysis 28.001 25.00 53.00
Official Analysis... 19.051 22.09 39.38


........... Florida Cotton Oil Co., Jackson-
8.55 5.22 ville, Fla.


3.15 3.96


8.20 5.87

4.00 .....
2.98 4.04

3.50 ......
2.14 5.45

5.00 ......
4.50 3.75


6.10 4.67


6.70 5.75


8.27 5.82

5.92 ......
4.671 7.02
5.00 ...
5.49 4.07


Atlanta Milling Co., Atlanta,
Ga.

Florida Cotton Oil Co., Talla-
hassee, Fla.

J. B. Edgar Grain Co., Mem-
phis, Tenn.

American Milling Co., Chicago,
Ill.

Tennessee Fiber Co., Memphis, -
Tenn.

Florida Cotton Oil Co., Talla-
hassee, Fla.

Alabama Cotten Oil Co., Mont-
gomery, Ala.

The Southern Cotton Oil Co.,
Pensacola, Fla.

Home Mill & Grain Co., Mount
Vernon, Ind.
J. Lindsay Wells Co., Memphis,
Tenn.









OFFICIAL FEEDING STUFF ANALYSES, 1910-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND.


.oZ


Standard Middlings ...... 945 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis... 7.03

Pure Wheat Middlings.... 946 Guarant'd Analysis 5.18
Official Analysis... 4.95

Alfalfa Meal ............. 947 Guarant'd Analysis 35.00
Official Analysis... 33.07


SE a
0 1d 03


NAME AND ADDRESS OF
MANUFACTURER.


14.501 50.00 4.00...... Washburn-Crosby Co., Minneap-
15.03 57.09 5.28 4.50 oils, Minn.

S17.11i 58.18 4.41 ...... Geo. P. Plant Milling Co., St.
16.981 57.68 5.00 3.72 Louis, Mo.

8.00 32.00 ...... ...... Kornfalfa Feed Milling Co., q
10.14 38.07 1.82 5.05 Kansas City, Mo.






R. E. ROSE, State Chemist.


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
FOOD AND DRUG SECTION.
Samples Taken by State Inspector Under Section 9, Act Approved June 3, 1907.
OFFICIAL FOOD ANALYSIS, 1910.
BUTTER AND BUTTER SUBSTITUTES.


A. M. HENRY, Assistant Chemist.


BRAND.


MANUFACTURER, OR WHOLESALER.


Clover Bloom Butter............. Armour & Co., Tampa, Fla...........

Brookfleld Extra Creamery Butter Swift & Co., Tampa, Fla............

Butter .......................... J. J. Caylor & Sons, Varnells, Ga....

Clover Leaf Brand Fancy Cream- W. P. Pillans & Co., Lakeland, Fla...
ery Butter.
I. D. L. Best Creamery Butter.... Williams & Moorhouse, Tampa, Fla..


217

318

319

320

321

322

323

324

325

o26

327

3z8

329

330

331

132

.333

-334

335

336

237
:338

:839

'340

'341

342


Elgin Butter Co., of Fla., Jacksonville,
Fla.
Swift & Co., Tampa, Fla............

Williams & Moorhouse, Tampa, Fla..

Fox River Butter Co., Aurora, Ill.....

Cudahy Packing Co., South Omaha,
Neb.
Fox River Butter Co., Aurora, Ill....

DeJournett & Co., Calhoun, Ga......

Swift & Co., Tampa, Fla.............

J. H. McLaurin & Co., Jacksonville,
Fla.
L. K. Riley, Jacksonville, Fla.......


RETAILER.


C. M. Weeks, Lakeland.............

C. M. Weeks, Lakeland............

J. C. Griffin, Lakeland.............

J. C. Griffin, Lakeland..............

W. J. Sutton, Lakeland............

W. J. Reddick, Lakeland...........

Ball Grocery Co., Tampa...........

Ball Grocery Co., Tampa...........

S. J. Drawdy, Tampa..............

Cudahy Packing Co., Tampa........

J. R. Mickler, Tampa...............

Crenshaw Bros., Tampa...........

Ball Grocery Co., Tampa...........

L. P. McCulley, Sanford...........

H. H. Hill, Sanford ..............


Meadow-Gold Butter ............ VanDeman-Lewis Co., Jacksonville, Sanford Grocery
Fla.
Butter .................... .... .. .................................. .. .. VanOrsdall & C

Monogram Creamery Butter...... Elgin Butter Co. of Fla., Jacksonville, L. G. Lyman, Da:
Fla.
Butter .......................... E. W. Perry, Hendersonville, N. C... Gay Brothers, Pal

Monogram Creamery Butter...... Kingan & Co., Jacksonville, Fla...... Eugene Masters, S

Pure Jersey Butter............. Racy Cream Co., Knoxville, Tenn... W. S. Dorsey & C(

Butternut Butter ................ Armour & Co., Jacksonville, Fla..... Kelly Brothers, Ji

White Clover Brand Butter...... Elgin Butter Co., Elgin, Ill.......... Kelly Brothers, JE

Jersey Brand Fancy Creamery The Geo. C. Mansfield Co., Johnson Smith, Richardsoi
Butter. Creek, Wis. sonville.
Star Brand Creamery Butter...... Pinney & Geddes, New York, N. Y.... Lewis K. Riley,

"Elgin Clover" Brand Butter..... The Associated Elgin Creameries, El- Consolidated Groc
Sgin, Ill. ville.
*Adulterated and Misbranded; a renovated Butter adulterated with water and salt.
I


Co., Sanford......

!o., Daytona.......

ytona.............

atka..............

t. Augustine......

)., Jacksonville....

icksonvlue.........

icksonville ........

n & Conroy, Jack-

Jacksonville......

:ery Co., Jackson-


0.
h
a

'*
il


12.82

14.39

14.58

10.50

12.21

S16.49

15.00

13.66
I.
13.56

10.98

11.67

16.21

9.65

12.96

13.58

15.68

10.17

5.05

10.81

12.76

10.87

10.74

11.37

16.95

9.00


4.-5
I


a
S
5
ri2
C)
'C


I


9.31 1 0.89
I


(0.
.0m
cC
"1


r


1.83

0.96

1.72

0.70

1.00

1.27

1.13

1.01

1.21

0.85

1.40

1.80

1.49

0.98

1.02

0.90

1.07

0.60

1.26

0.81

1.22

0.92

0.76

0.90

1.15


-W4
aI
,OS

d 0


NC'
10 d



a ^q
| ^


2.87

2.81

0.95

2.20

2.10

1.22

3.37

3.37

2.76

2.22

1.48

4.95

3.92

2.77

2.64

3.17

2.42

0.85

1.39

2.18

1.73

1.43

1.85

1.85

1.50

1.77


88.02 1 1.4614


0
C)





34


27.73

26.11

25.51

27.71

24.19

25.38

24.65

24.94

26.49

24.17

29.19

21.84

23.00

26.41

25.21

23.68

28.95

28.71

27.51

25.74

27.02

26.54

24.00

26.68

26.38

24.91


83.39

81.84

82.75

86.60

84.69

81.02

80.50

8-1.95

82.43

85.91

85.44

77.04

84.94

83.31

82.76

80.25

86.34

93.05

86.54

84.25

86.18

86.90

86.02

80.30

88.35


"4 Crown" Butter..............

Swastika Brand Butter..........

Ball's "Cream" Fancy Butter.....

S. J. Drawdy's Fox River Fancy
Creamery Butter.
Creamery Butter ................

Mickler's Fifth Avenue Creamery
Butter.
Butter ..........................

Renovated Butter ...............

Diamond X Butter...............

Butter .........................


1.4607

1.4601

1.4601

1.4610

1.4612

1.4601

1.4604

1.4604

1.4612

1.4604

1.4601

1.4607

1.4604

1.4612

1.4612

1.4602

1.4607

1.4604

1.4607-

1.4614

1.4606

1.4612

1.4614

1.4605

1.4613


o -
0 d



Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Sputters *IllegaL

Sputters Legal.

Foams Legal.
Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.

Foams Legal.
Foams Legal.


Azo Dye


Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams


Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.





''""'"













BRAND.



I


343

344

345

346

347

348

349

350

851

3521

353

354

355

356

358

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

3661

367]

368

369

370

5011


OFFICIAL FOOD ANALYSIS, 1910-Continued.
BUTTER AND BUTTER SUBSTITUTES-Continued.





MANUFACTr E, OB9 WHOLESALEI. RETAILER. 3 e 5
V 0&
;-4

C V Cd J l
Cd CD ZJ
Sa P 0
.:| I 0
p. 0 i 0&
-Q~ ro, q
U ,
.a5 ,.
0 0 P 00


0 0 P
4., 0. 'P. ,~
.P~ ~ .~. 0. 5


Sumner's 4X Creamery Butter... W. P. Sumner Co., Jacksonville, Fla. S. S. Averitt, Jacksonville.........

Strictly Fancy Creamery Crown Marx Brothers, Jacksonville, Fla.... .R.R. Parnell, Jacksonville ........
Brand Butter.
Prize Elgin Butter.............. R. H. Peck, New York, N.. Y........ J. N. King, Fernandina............

Blue Ribbon Brand Superior But- V. Lopez & Co., New York, N. Y.... J. R. Reed, Fernandina ...........
ter.
Royalton Butter ................ Smith, Richardson & Conroy, Jackson- George Lewis, Jacksonville ........
ville, Fla.
Butter ......................... Davis, Richardson & Barnette, Dalton, George Wolf, Live Oak...........
Ga.
Blue Grass Butter.............. W. B. Johnson & Co., Jacksonville, S. P. Mays, Live Oak..............
Fla.
Goldenrod Brand Pure Creamery James Rowland & Co., New York, H. A. Blackburn, Live Oak.........
Butter. N. Y.
Butter .......................... DeJournette & Co., Calhoun, Ga..... W. H. Slaughter, Perry...........

Butter ......................... Quitman Grocery Co., Quitman, Ga.. W. H. Slaughter, Perry...........

Butter .......................... Stone Produce Co., Dalton, Ga...... ereen & Crews, Perry............

Butter ........................ Sterling Butter Co., Aurora, Ill..... S. H. Peacock, Perry..............

Peerless Brand Fancy Creamery Kingan & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.... W. E. Dean, Monticello............
Butter.
Special Creamery Butter........ R. C. Williams & Co., New York, N. Y. G. C. McCall, Monticello............

Process Butter .................. Armour & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.... O. P. Rhoad, Apalachicola..........

Extra Bouquet Creamery Butter.. Russell Crego & Son, New York, N. Y. J. P. Hickey, Apalachicola..........

Process Butter .................. Swift & Co., Jacksonville, Fla....... C. H. Meinscher, Quincy...........

Oleomargarine ................. Smith, Richardson & Conroy, Jackson- R. C. Stearns, Quincy..............
ville, Fla.
Butter ........................ M. H. Johnson, Tallahassee, Fla..... Love & Hearin Co., Quincy.........

Meadow Brook Strictly Pure J. H. McLaurin & Co., Jacksonville, Brumby & Co., Quincy.............
Process Butter. Fla.
Renovated Butter ............... Swift & Co., Pensacola, Fla....... Hoyt Bros. & Co., Pensacola ........

Swift's Premium Oleomargarine.. Swift & Co., Fort Worth, Texas.... A. McD. Moyer, Pensacola...........

Four-Leaf Clover Creamery But- Lewis Bros. & Co., New Orleans, La.. Will L. Moyer, Pensacola..........
ter.
Butter ........................Lewis Bear Co., Pensacola, Fla...... R. H. Jackson, DeFuniak Springs..

butter ......................... A. S. Wells, Tallahassee, Fla........ Randolph & Fenn, Tallahassee......

butter .................... A. P. McCaskill, Tallahassee, Fla.... P. T. Mickler, Tallahassee.........

butter ......................... H. P. Smith, Tallahassee, Fla........ VanBrunt & Demilly, Tallahassee...

butter ......................... R. Bradford, Tallahassee, Fla....... Randolph & Penn, Tallahassee......


*Adulterated with water and salt.


13.41

16.00

10.25

26.74

11.67

13.42

13.72

8.04

15.51

15.32

11.39

10.82

14.35

13.51

19.87

12.45

13.83

10.75

9.63

13.33

12.42

8.72

13.55

1/.16

9.83

13.22

16.00

11.95


1.13

1.08

0.83

1.28

1.04

1.81

0.89

0.76

1.93

2.19

2.52

1.49

1.24

1.30

2.13

1.10

1.38

1.69

1.25

1.78

1.48

1.00


1.05

0.73

0.60

1.13

1.70

1.60


Azo Dye

Azo Dye


1.87

1.85

2.12

6.04

1.51

2.78

3.26

1.02

5.54

1.70

3.04

2.37

4.21

1.31

4.80

2.32

3.44

2.87

8.57

3.36

3.56

1.31

3.10

3.67

8.38

1.62

1.18

2.90


83.58

81.06

86.80

65.94

85:78

82.08

82.12

90.17

77.00

80.80

83.05

85.32

80.20

83.88

73.20

84.13

81.34

84.76

80.75

81.53

83.04

88.96

82.30

83.44

81.64

84.03

81.12

83.55


1.4U60

1.4607

1.4616

1.4607

1.4616

1.4609

1.4612

1.4618

.1.4608

1.4607

1.4607

1.4603

1.4615

1.4613

1.4609

1.4612

1.4607

1.4639

1.4603

1.4608

1.4610

1.4641

1.4607

1.4608

1.4612

1.4607

1.4600

1.4598


28.24

28.44

23.99

25.55

25.21

20.02

27.89

22.62

22.52

20.69

19.85

28.80

24.05

26.57

25.35

29.18

27.30

2.66

26.91

25.40

26.13

5.76

27.53

26.37

20.80

28.11

22.11

27.89


Azo Dye


Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Sputters

Foams

Spptters

Sputters

Foams

Sputters

Sputters

Sputters

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams

Foams


Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

*Illegal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal

Legal.

*Illegal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal

Legal.

Legal

*Illegal

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal.

Legal,

Legal..

Legal.

Legal.

Legal

Legal.


'"''''"

'''''''"

'''''''"

''''''''

'''"



'''"""


.. . . (


-----------~


I




















PART IV.

The Citrus Grove, Its Location
and Cultivation.

















THE CITRUS GROVE,


ITS LOCATION AND CULTIVATION.

by

P. H. ROLFS, M. S.

Director Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
and State Superintendent of Farmers' Insti-
tutes, University of Florida, Gainesville.


CITRUS CULTURE.
CHOOSING A LOCATION.

The character of Florida soils is variable to a consider-
able extent. Even in the same vicinity various kinds of
soils may occur. These vary from a clay to loamy, sandy,
and marly soils. Some of them, also, are muck soils.
Clay Soil is one of the best for citrus-growing when it
is found in a warm region. Less fertilizer is required
and the trees are productive, bearing an unusually fine
quality of fruit if the soil is properly handled.
Loamy Soil.-This is the character of the soil that is
most largely employed for citrus-growing and with best
results. Elsewhere this soil might be referred to as sandy
loam. It contains a considerable admixture of clay and
organic matter, with a large body of sand.
Sandy Soil, or sandy land as it is often called, is usually
free from a perceptible admixture of either vegetable
matter or clay. For the most part it tends to be lacking
in water and fertilizer-holding power. When it is almost
pure sand it appears white, and is usually considered an
unfavorable soil.
Marly Soils occur in some sections. After a consider-
able amount of humus has been worked into the stiff
i;-]5ul.












marl, they make good soils for citrus trees. In their
original state, the marly soils are apt to produce an in-
different growth in the young trees, usually causing them
to suffer more or less from dieback, scale insects, and
other such disorders. This condition, however, passes off
as the soil becomes more thoroughly tilled and has more
vegetable matter incorporated in it.
iltclk S'oils are not the ideal soils upon which to plant
citrus trees, since they are inclined to be sour, to produce
an exuberant growth, and for a number of years to give
rough and imperfect fruit. After muck lands have been
cultivated for a number of years and brought into a
thorough state of tilth, they produce excellent crops of
citrus fruits, unless the mucks remain raw in form and
contain a considerable amount of humic acid.

THE NATURAL GROWTH AS AN INDEX.

Hamnmock.-It is in our native hammocks that the wild
citrus groves occur. In some regions thousands of trees
have been transplanted from these old native groves to
higher lands. In other places the hammocks were cleaned
up, leaving the orange seedlings standing, to be budded
over to the better varieties. These wild trees were always
found to be the sour orange. At the present time the
hammock lands are regarded as the ideal ones for citrus
culture. The great cost necessary to clear these up thor-
oughly has in many cases deterred people from making
use of them.
Rolling Pine.-The higher pine lands, more or less roll-
ing, upon which long-leaf pine trees are growing, give us
some of the best citrus lands we have in the State. These
lands are easily cleared, and quickly brought into service
for setting out to citrus trees. They are usually suffi-
ciently drained naturally to permit the citrus groves to
grow off promptly and produce a lot of fine fruit. They
are less desirable than the hammocks, on account of re-
quiring a larger amount of fertilizer to bring the trees
into bearing. After years of cropping, however, they will
require little or no more fertilizer than the adjacent
hammocks.
C,7hlh,a,, Palmetto Hammock.-These hammocks differ
from the hammocks proper in that they are usually more
or less covered with water for a part of lihe year. The
cabbage palmetto is the predominating tree. Wherever











the land is high enough above the adjacent water, these
lands may be drained and brought into service for citrus
culture. When properly handled, they make among our
best citrus groves.
Shell Hamnnock.-These differ from the other forms of
hammock in that the soil is composed, to a greater or less
degree, of shell. The trees usually grow off promptly
and make a good showing, but sooner or later are apt to
be affected severely with dieback; and while in many
cases most excellent fruit is raised on shell hammocks
they require a special and careful treatment. This char-
acter of land may safely be used by those who are expert
in handling citrus trees.
Drained Lands.-Lake beds and other lands, sometimes
called prairie, that are high enough to permit of thorough
drainage, have been used to a considerable extent for
planting to citrus. In these lands it is purely a question
as to whether they are sufficiently high to permit of thor-
ough drainage during the rainy portion of the year.
Pine Land, With Oak Undcr growuth.-Some of the pine
land, frequently called second-grade pine land, especially
that which has a considerable undergrowth of scrub oaks,
must be looked upon with some suspicion. Where clay is
found within two or three feet from the surface, this char-
acter of soil can be safely employed for locating a citrus
grove, but where the sand is very deep it will be prefer-
able to choose a location elsewhere.
Flatwoods.-This character of land is usually level and
more or less covered with water during the rainy season.
As a rule, a hardpan occurs from a few inches to a few
feet below the surface. This prevents rapid and thorough
drainage. Saw palmettoes are usually absent or scattered
on this character of land. The predominating under-
growth is gallberry. By hardpan. we should understand
a more or less impervious stratum occurring in the soil
at a depth of a few inches or a few feet. It obstructs the
passage of water downward, and also obstructs the down-
w-ard progress of the roots, causing the soil to become
water-logged during the rainy period, and probably very
dry during a period of drought. This hardpan may be
made up of various matters, either calcareous, siliceous
or ferruginous. The cementing material usually breaks
up and lets the sand fall apart when exposed to the air.
If the hardpan is of a ferruginous nature, it is more or
less poisonous to citrus trees. Various methods have been











adopted for bringing into cultivation land that has a
hardpan under it. Sometimes this hardpan has been
broken through by means of plowing. In such cases the
hardpan was near the surface and in a thin layer. In
olher cases, the surface soil has been mounded up so as to
put the trees on ridges. In a few cases the hardpan has
been broken by discharging dynamite under the trees.
iron salts as they normally occur in the soil have a
yellowish or reddish color. Where these colors occur, the
darker colored iron hardpans are not likely to be present,
consequently it is sometimes concluded that a reddish or
yellow soil indicates one especially favorable for agricul-
lural purposes. These llatwoods lands, when thoroughly
and deeply drained and the hardpan broken, make a fair
place for producing citrus fruit.
Sprucc-Pinc Land.-The spruce-pine land, as well as
the scrub-oak land, should not be employed for citrus-
growing at the present time. Sallendid citrus orchards
occur on lands of this kind, but they have been brought
out by experts and at the cost of much more than would
have been necessary on lands better adapted for citrus-
growing. In addition lo this, these lands produce trees
that are subject to many disorders.

SITE OF THE GROyE.

Immediately upon deciding that one wishes to plant a
grove, lie should select the best site that can be procured.
A great many questions arise in determining where a
grove shall be located. A few of these are discussed
below.
Distance From Transportation, Liinc.-The ultimate
object being the selling of fruit at a remunerative figure,
ii becomes necessary to locate a grove within a reasonable
distance of some line of railroad or water transportation.
The distance which it will be profitable to transport fruit
by wagon will depend largely upon the condition of the
roads.
Another determining factor in the matter is the cost
of lie l;nd. A grove of moderui te-sized Irees. heavily
loaded, should produce a thousand boxes of oranges to
the acre. Allowing fifty boxes to a load, lhis would re-
quire twenty trips to the transportation station. If a
grove were located three miles away from the station, it
would probably take one man with a two-horse team six












days to haul this fruit. If located one-half that distance,
it would require only three or four days. Allowing about
$4 a day for this work, the hauling of the fruit from the
more distant grove would increase the cost about $8 per
acre, which amount must be charged as an annual tax.
From this the intending purchaser can readily calculate
how much more he can afford to pay proportionately for
land in close proximity to the railroad station.
Frost Protec ion.-There are no parts of Florida that
are entirely free from occasional frosts, and in most parts
of the State freezing weather may be expected to occur
during every winter. There are a few isolated places,
however, that are so favorably located that freezing
weather is of rare occurrence.
Under ordinary circumstances, a drop in temperature
to 28 degrees and a continuation of this for several hours
will not freeze citrus fruit. If, however, the drop goes
lower, say to about 26 or 25 degrees, serious damage is
apt to result, especially if it is long continued. A drop in
temperature to 24 degrees is not likely to prove seriously
damaging to trees unless it is of continued duration.
Trees in a thoroughly dormant condition will pass through
a temperalure of 1S degrees without the loss of much
wood, but. as a rule, a considerable amount of foliage is
lost at that temperature. This, however, varies with
different varieties and with the conditions of the tree
and the duration of the cold. Even if it does go to freez-
ing, a sudden drop in the temperature and a continuation
of it for a number of days proves rather disadvantageous
to the health of the citrus grove. It is, therefore, very
desirable to have some form of protection against cold.
Wl'atrr Protcclion.-Water protection proves to be one
of Ihe best shelters against occasional cold days in winter.
It has been found that regions located in large bodies of
water. or with a norllern, eastern and western protection
of water, are much less subject 1o drops in temperature
than those that are exposed. Quite a number of such
places may be found as far north as 29 degrees 45 minutes
of latitude. Even north of this region some fine groves
occur that have been protected by artificial means. Far-
ther south, at about thle '28lt parallel of latitude, a nunm-
ber of locations have been found where water has pro-
tected the trees, and in some cases even the fruit, against
the most severe cold that we have had.
Hai imock Protection.-Quite a number of citrus grow











ers in the State have found that hammock protection is
quite as feasible as water protection. By locating in a
large hammock and securing the surrounding lands, citrus
growers have cut out small tracts in the hammock varying
from live to ten acres in extent and planted these in citrus
trees, leaving these small groves entirely surrounded by
hammock trees. To make such a plan practicable, it is
necessary to own the surrounding hammock; otherwise,
one would have no control over the hammock trees which
he wishes to use as protection against cold.

SHELTER FROM SEA WINDS.

Around the coast of Florida the bleak sea winds are
damaging to citrus trees and citrus fruits. The direct
influence of the sea breezes is to cause the atmosphere and
soil to become dry. This stunts 1he grove and in some
cases makes it absolutely impossible for the trees to
attain a size that will enable them to bear a profitable
crop. In some cases, where groves have been planted in
such exposed places, it has become necessary to erect an
artificial windbreak. This being built ten or twelve feet
high, affords the first row protection against the sea
breezes. Each row then successively forms a protection
for the succeeding row.
In addition to the direct influence of the sea winds, we
also have the indirect effect in causing the fruit to become
lorn, scratched, bruised, or otherwise mutilated, and unfit
for market purposes. The foliage, and especially the
rapidly growing young schools, are likely to be seriously
damaged by mechanical injury from the sea winds. Where
it becomes desirable to plant a grove within the influence
of the sea winds, it is very important that a strip of ham-
imock should be left as a wind protection. If this is not
available, a protecting row of trees should be planted.
The native bay tree resists the influence of the sea winds
well, but probably a much better tree for the purpose is
the camphor.

PREPARING THE LAND.

Clearing the Field.-In preparing for a citrus orchard,
ii is important that all native trees, stumps and other
material should be removed from the soil. A few cab-
bage palmettoes may be left for nurse trees for some time,










but there should not be a large number, certainly not
more than one hundred to one hundred and fifty to the
acre, and, of course, all of those occurring in the rows
where trees should stand ought to be removed. Liveoaks
and especially pines are found to be very injurious to the
growth of citrus trees.
It is not impossible for a person to make a good grove
in a field that is full of stumps and debris. The chances,
however, are much against his making a success. He
would be the exception to the rule if he did so.
Breaking and Plowing.-After the field has been thor-
oughly grubbed and freed from all obstructions in sight,
hle next important step is to plow the land thoroughly.
During this operation a large amount of roots and under-
ground trash will be turned up. This should be removed
and burned. Weeds, grass and stuff that will decay rap-
idly can be left on the ground and be plowed under to
good advantage. It is important to have a large plow
and sufficient horse power to do the work thoroughly. A
fourteen or sixteen-inch plow, or, better still, a thirty-
inch disc plow, will be found useful.
Previous Cropping.-Most people who are intending to
put out a citrus grove become impatient for a crop and,
consequently, are too much in a hurry to plant trees. The
severe change that has taken place on the land by the
removal of the forest and the burning of the stumps has
set up a disturbance in the soil. The land therefore, is
in most cases unfit to receive anything but the most
vigorous plants. If the field is prepared in time to be
planted to a crop of vegetables, this is highly advisable.
These vegetables will be less affected by the adverse con-
ditions than are the citrus trees, and even if they should
be adversely affected it would mean only the loss of one
crop and would not be communicated to the succeeding
years. If the season is not a proper one for planting out
vegetables, the field may be planted to some farm crop,
especially a cover crop, such as velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. If a good crop of velvet beans has been
grown upon the soil, we are pretty certain to have it in
first-class condition for setting out to citrus trees. In addi-
tion to putting the soil in good condition, the velvet
beans will add a large amount of ammonia to the soil,
requiring less of this element in the fertilizer to be ap-
plied to the trees when set out.
Catch Crops.-During the succeeding year vegetables










and farm crops may be profitably planted between the
rows of citrus trees. One should, however, not lose sight
of the fact that the citrus orchard is the main project
under consideration, and that these catch crops must be
removed or entirely destroyed if they in any way inter-
fere with the health and growth of the citrus trees. After
the vegetable crop has been removed from the citrus grove
the middles may be planted to velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. These plants will continue to add ammonia
to the soil, prevent leaching by heavy rains and finally
return to the soil a large amount of humus, which is very
much needed to produce growth and health in citrus trees.
It is, however, entirely possible to get so much organic
ammonia in the soil as to cause dieback in the small trees.
When this occurs, the planter loses from one to two years'
time in the growth of his trees.
Perfect DN,'.;,,, Necessary.-One of our foremost
agriculturists in the State has said that there is not an
acre of land in the State of Florida that does not need
draining; that even the steep clay hillsides would be im-
proved by being underlaid with tile drains. Our general
experience has been that when people speak of land as
being perfectly drained they mean that it is perfectly
drained during the dry part of the year, and forget alto-
gether about the rainy part of the year, which is the
critical season. A grove site should be so perfectly
drained, naturally and artificially, as to never allow the
soil water to stand above two feet from the surface at
any time. Several instances are known where groves
located on the top of a hill, seventy-five feet above a lake,
had standing water in the soil during the rainy season.
Such trees as are within the influence of this water neces-
sarily become weakened by the exclusion of oxygen and
interference with the bacterial life in the soil. For the
orange grove as a whole, surface drainage appears to be
the cheapest and most profitable. Tile drains are likely
to become clogged by citrus roots, and much damage may
result before the grower recognizes the defect.
Irrigation.-While much good can be done by conserv-
ing the moisture in the soil, occasional years occur, how-
ever, when the drought becomes so severe that if one had
an irrigating plant the advantages derived from it would
be sufficient to pay for the whole outfit; and during
about three years out of five a sufficient number of
droughts occur to make a good irrigating plant very de-











sirable. The type of plant to use depends very much
upon one's own inclinations and the amount of money he
has to spend. Furrow irrigation, as practiced in Cali-
fornia, is entirely practicable and has been used to some
extent in Florida. This is the cheapest method, and the
one which will doubtless be generally adopted.

CULTURE PROPER.

Object.-Too many grove owners look upon cultivation
in the light taken by a certain colored boy, who. when
asked what he was cultivating for, replied: "Seventy-five
cents a day." During a money stringency the first thing
the grove owner does in many cases is to cut down the
amount of cultivation. We cultivate an orange grove to
admit air into the soil, as a first requisite, to keep up the
bacterial life; and, secondly, to conserve the moisture
present.
Germ Action.-Plants in general take up the ammonia
in the soil in the form of nitrates. These nitrates, to a
large extent, are formed from broken-down vegetable
matter. They are prepared by the organisms constantly
present in the soil. Nearly all of our fertilizers applied
to the trees must go through this breaking-down process.
Possibly the only exception to this is when we use nitrate
of soda and nitrate of potaslh. To secure the best results
the ni rifying bacterial must be present I in the soil in suffi-
cient quantity. The temperature of the soil must range
somewhere between 40 and 1:0 degrees F., the most favor-
able soil Iemperature being about 98 to 99 degrees. A
reasonable amount of moisture is necessary, and there
must !e a free circulation of air. The nitrates are most
rapidly formed in the soil near the surface, especially in
Ihe first six inches. The depth at which the largest
amount ofl nitrates are formed varies with the condition
of the soil. From this it will le seen that nitrates are
forming rather rapidly in our soils during almost the
entire year.
Conserving Moistur.--Another important reason for
cultivating is to conserve the moisture of the soil. To
make the fertilizer applied available to the plant, it be-
comes necessary for these substances to be placed in solu-
tion. In the absence of moisture in the soil the fertilizer
applied to the grove will be as useless as if left in the
bag. On the other hand, if too large an amount of mois-










ture be present, the plants are unable to get a sufficient
amount of the chemical elements in the water that is
being absorbed. Conservation of moisture by cultivation
is best accomplished by using some light implement that
will work rapidly over the soil, breaking the crust or
stirring the already loose surface soil, forming what is
usually spoken of as the soil mulch. The appended table
shows the effect of cultivation and non-cultivation on
lands that would be considered fairly good citrus lands.
During the year when these tests were being made there
was a very great deficiency in the rainfall; in fact during
the four months following the first of January, there was
only one rainfall that amounted to enough to wet the soil.

MOISTURE IN CULTIVATED AND UNCULTIVATED
LAND.

April 18, 1908. April 24, 1908.
Percent- Tons Percent- Tons
Cultivated- age. per acre. age. per acre.
First foot ......... 5.35 107.0 4.71 94.2
Second foot. ....... 5.73 114.6 5.67 113.4
Third foot ......... 5.17 103.4 5.28 105.6
Fourth foot ....... 4.94 98.8 4.95 99.0

Totals .......... .... 423.8 .... 412.2
Uncultivated-
First foot ......... 2.81 56.2 2.91 58.4
Second foot ....... 3.17 63.4 3.20 64.0
Third foot ......... 2.92 58.4 2.99 59.8
Fourth foot ....... 2.83 61.6 3.19 63.8

Totals .......... .... 239. 6 .... 246.0
Cultivated land, average ......... 418.0 tons.
Uncultivated land. average....... 242.8 tons.

Diff. in favor of cultivated land. 175.2 tons of water,
or 12 in. of rain.

The above table shows that an amount of moisture
equal to one and one-half inches of rainfall may be con-
served by plowing and cultivating.
Increasing Humus Content.-The humus is the dark-
colored material which occurs in practically all soils to a











greater or less extent. Sandy soils almost devoid of
humus are very white. When a large amount of humus
is added to such a soil, it takes on a dark color. Our
pure muck or peat beds may be said to be pure beds of
humus, though the decaying vegetable matter at this
period of its transition is not usually spoken of as humus,
but rather as peat. In the next stage of its decay it
takes on more of an earthy character, and is then spoken
of as humus. All forms of animal and vegetable matter
take this form before changing into distinctly inorganic
substance. Large roots, roots of crops, stalks of crops,
and similar growth, are useful in increasing the humus
of the soil. The most useful of our humus-supplying
plants are the legumes. Foremost among these is the
velvet bean. Cowpeas and beggarweed are also excellent
for citrus groves.
Humus in the soil improves its mechanical condition
1'y making a compact soil looser and more permeable to
the roots of the plants. It gives the leachy soil a water-
holding capacity and, therefore, a capacity for holding
plant-food, especially such as has been supplied in the
form of fertilizers. It furnishes a convenient location
and food for the useful micro-organisms which prepare
the fertilizers for the citrus trees. In addition to the
above advantages an increase in the humus content of the
soil increases the soil warmth.
From what has been said in the foregoing paragraph,
it should not be considered that humus is an unmixed
blessing. Too large a supply of humus in a grove will
cause dieback, and in a fruiting grove it is likely to pro-
duce what the orange growers properly know as amno-
niated fruits, as well as dieback. Consequently, the citrus
fruit grower must not attempt to push his trees too rap-
idly, and must also be careful to have his soil thoroughly
drained (drainage for the rainy season) in order that the
life processes in the soil may go on in a normal way.

KINDS OF CULTURE.

There is probably no other subject in citrus-growing
that formerly elicited so much heated discussion as did
the question of the time and kind of cultivation. Usually
the debaters ignored entirely the kind of soil, the char-
acter of their land, and the length of time during which
they had practiced their particular hobbies. We, there-











fore, find that the sects were divided into practically three
schools: The perfectly clean culture men, who considered
it a disgrace to have a sprig of grass visible in their
groves; lhe school who argued that since our wild trees
never were cultivated in the native state, therefore the
grove trees should not be cultivated; later, a third school
sprang 1up that considered it entirely proper to cultivate
during the drier part of the year, but ceased cultivation
altogether during the rainy part of the year. It speaks
well for the hardihood of the orange tree to be able to
endure and produce a paying crop under all of these con-
ditions of cultivation. Some of the school of clean cultur-
ists conserved the moisture of the soil by using a liberal
organic mulch. Some, in fact, went so far as to spend
much time and money in cutting shrubbery from the ham-
mock or piney woods and applying this under the trees
as a inlI hlir.. to add humus to the soil and to conserve
the moisture.
Later, and from necessity, a number of orange growers
have had to take care of orange groves that became com-
pletely sodded with Bermuda grass. We might call these
the Bermuda sod groves.
.l'**';,,* Cultivation.-In sections of Florida where it
becomes necessary to bank trees to protect them against
the danger of winter freezing, cultivation should not be
begun until all danger of frost or freezing is past. Re-
move the heating apparatus or piles of wood that may
have been placed in the grove to protect it against freez-
ing, Ilen pull down the banks and begin to cultivate.
(roves that have been well tilled the year before will
be found in excellent shape for using small tools, such as
the Acme harrow, Planet Jr., etc. In groves where con-
siderable vegetable matter is left over fromn the previous
year, it may be necessary to use a cutaway harrow to
break Ilhis up. The first cultivation in the spring may be
somewhat deep, since it is not likely that new feeding
roots have been formed near the surface. If, however,
the cultivation is not started until feeding roots have
formed, it is best to avoid deep cultivation. Deep culti-
vation at this time of' Ie year, as at any other time, is a
relative rather than an absolute term.
After Ile first cultivation, nothing more than a mere
stirring of the iirst inch or two of soil should be given.
This conserves the moisture so much needed at this time
of the year. Our driest portion of the year is likely to











occur during March, April and May. The more fre-
quently we cultivate, the more of the soil moisture is
conserved. Ordinarily, it is not profitable to cultivate
more frequently than once a week. If our soil is in the
best possible condition, a weeder may be used. It may be
necessary to load the weeder with a small piece of cord-
wood. With such an implement, a man and a horse can
cultivate a ten-acre grove in a day.
Catch Crops.-Where some form of crop is being grown
between Ihe rows of trees, it is necessary to give this crop
the best of attention and an abundance of fertilizer to
keep it from drawing heavily on the young grove. It is a
good practice to keep at least six feet away from the reach
of the branches. Trees that are over five years old are
likely to have roots extending as far as midway between
the rows; consequently, cultivation of the catch crop
should be gauged according to the needs of the citrus
grove.
Summer Cultivation.-Some fine groves and much ex-
cellent fruit have been produced by a continuous summer
cultivation; other groves have been seriously injured and
the crops of fruit have been ruined by such work. The
question depends more upon what the character of the
land is than upon any dogmatic method of procedure.
Ordinarily, it is safe to discontinue cultivation as soon
as abundant rains occur, and to allow grass and weeds to
grow at their will. If the grass and weeds become too
tall and appear to be a detriment to the grove, a mower
may he used to cut 1hem down. During the summer
season these will rot and return to the soil as humus. If
thle i'grov does not need mowing., tIe grass and weeds may
be allowed to grow. and at the close of tle rainy season
1he grass may be made into hay and removed from the
field. Where the soil is deficient in humus. it will prob-
ably pay belier to mow the grass and weeds and allow
them to rot to humus in the grove.
Velvet beans, cowpoas and beggarweed may also be
planted in groves if the soil is not too rich in organic
ammonia. This can usually be told by the character of
the growth and the character of the fruit which is being
produced. Tlhese legumes abstract nitrogen from the
atmosphere and return it to the soil in the organic form.
Thore are instances where this has been carried on to the
extent of producing dieback in the grove. Where there
is the probability of getting too much organic nitrogen in












the soil, the legume may be made into hay. If these
legumes are used in the grove, they should be mown in
the beginning of the dry season so as to reduce the number
of plant bugs to a minimum, since frequently these suck-
ing insects cause a loss of fruit when the legumes are per-
mitted to remain late in the fall.
Fall Cultivation.-Whether we should cultivate in the
fall or not will depend largely on local conditions. If we
are having a severe drought it may be advisable to use a
cutaway harrow, or an implement of this kind, to break
up the surface soil so as to conserve the moisture. If the
moisture is not needed, it is usually preferable to allow
the soil to remain undisturbed.
Winter Cultivation.-In the early winter, before there
is any danger from frost, it is frequently necessary for us
to cultivate to prevent rapid evaporation of the moisture.
We can'also at that time incorporate more or less of the
cover crop that grew during the summer season. Care
must, however, be taken not to carry this cultivation to
the extent of stimulating the trees into late growth;
otherwise, we are apt to get our trees severely injured by
an early freeze. If however, the work is carried on in
such a way as to conserve the moisture and yet not stim-
ulate the grove into growth, much good can be done by
early winter cultivation.
Cultivation and Dieback.-Dieback is a disease to which
practically all of our citrus trees are subject, and one
that causes much annoyance and frequently considerable
loss. The observant grove owner, however, will recognize
the preliminary symptoms of the disease and guard
against it. The disease seems to be due to unfavorable
soil conditions, brought on by too rapid a development
of ammonia in the soil. It may also occur as a result of a
number of other conditions.
Depth to Cultivate.-The depth to which a grove may
be cultivated safelv depends more on the character of the
soil than on any othor condition. In sections where there
is a deep clay soil, the roots of the trees penetrate well
into the ground. In thin, sandy soil, the roots are apt to
keep close to the surface. This is also the case in our low
palmetto hammocks.
The depth to which we should cultivate, then, will de-
pend largely on the character of the soil on which the
grove has been planted. In general, we should never plow
or cultivate so deeply as to disturb any considerable












number of the fibrous roots, and certainly not to the ex-
tent of breaking large roots.
By observing the depth of the roots in the soil, we will
be able to gauge, in a measure, the depth to which we can
cultivate. This, we will find, varies, however, in the same
grove in different years. Consequently, very much de-
pends on the judgment of the man who is doing the culti-
vation, or having it done.
Imlploments.-Under ordinary circumstances, the heavy
two-horse plow has no place in a grove in good health. A
light one-horse plow may be used to some extent. This
tool, however, is a poor implement, since it wastes so
much time for the grove owner. One of the best imple-
ments for deep cultivating is the cutaway harrow or disc
harrow. For a small grove, the one-horse harrow will be
found preferable. For an extensive grove this is too slow,
and we need a two or three-horse cutaway or disc harrow.
The spading harrow will also be found useful under cer-
tain circumstances. The Acme harrow is also an excellent
implement to use when the vegetable matter has been
worked into the soil. It does poor work, however, when
a considerable amount of vegetable matter is present on
the surface. The Planet Jr. cultivator or Sweep culti-
vator is also excellent for shallow cultivation. When the
orchard has been put into a good state of tilth, and our
only object is to conserve the moisture, the weeder is one
of the best and most serviceable implements. The ordi-
nary spring-toothed cultivators are not good implements,
since they pull up too many of the roots they happen to
come in contact with.

BUILDING UP A NEGLECTED GROVE.

The best way to build up a neglected grove is to let the
other fellow do it. Buying a neglected grove is like buy-
ing an old, neglected horse. Under certain circumstances
it may be done with profit, but under ordinary circum-
stances it is cheaper and much more satisfactory to start
a new grove.
It happens frequently, however, that one has an old
grove, or that part of his property happens to be an old.
neglected grove. In such cases, we wish to know what is
best to do.
Pruning.-The first step in such conditions is to go
into the grove with a good sharp saw, pruning shears and











other implements for butchering trees. The pruning
should be done thoroughly and severely. Take out first
all dead wood; then take out all of the weakened wood;
finally, shape the tree up so as to make it more or less
symmetrical. Do not leave any long, spreading branches,
even if they appear to be perfectly healthy. Head them
back, so as to make a good, compact tree. When an old,
neglected orchard has been properly treated, it is usually
a sad-looking sight.
Fertilizers.-Give the entire grove a liberal allowance
of a fertilizer such as is used ordinarily for producing
growth. A good formula for this purpose will contain
about 4 per cent. ammonia, 6 per cent. phosphoric acid,
and 8 per cent. potash. As a source of ammonia, nitrate
of soda may be employed; as a source of potash, use a
high-grade sulphate of potash, or low-grade sulphate of
potash; and as a source of phosphoric acid, the acid
phosphate. The amount to be applied per tree should be
very liberal. More people err in applying too little than
in applying too much. Spread the fertilizer evenly broad-
cast over the entire grove, at least over the portion of the
grove where trees occur.
Plowing.-Ordinarily, such a grove should be plowed
very deep, even to the point of breaking and cutting large
roots. Care must, of course, be taken not to plow so
deeply as to destroy a large percentage of the roots of the
trees. This will vary according to the character of the
soil on which the grove happens to be located. Ordi-
narily, the plow may be made to go five or six inches deep,
plowing much deeper in the middles and shallower near
the trunks of the trees. After the grove has been plowed
in one direction, then cross-plow it. In this way the fer-
tilizer is pretty thoroughly incorporated with the soil
and brought where the roots can get it almost imme-
diately. After this thorough and deep plowing has been
completed, cultivation with an ordinary implement should
be continued.
By such drastic treatment, the weaker trees are likely
to be killed out entirely. The sooner these are killed out
the more profitable it will be for the owner. THe can then
replace them with vigorous yonng trees. The old trees
that have vitality enough to stand such vigorous treat-
ment are pretty sure to respond promptly.




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