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 Title Page
 County map of state of Florida
 Crops
 Pecan culture in Florida
 Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods...














Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077083/00013
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Agricultural Department
Uniform Title: Avocado and mango propagation and culture
Tomato growing in Florida
Dasheen its uses and culture
Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Florida quarterly bulletin, Department of Agriculture
Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some fold) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: -1921
Frequency: quarterly
monthly[ former 1901- sept. 1905]
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 31, no. 3 (July 1, 1921).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 19, no. 2 (Apr. 1, 1909); title from cover.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division.
General Note: Vol. 31, no. 3 has supplements with distinctive titles : Avocado and mango propagation and culture, Tomato growing in Florida, and: The Dasheen; its uses and culture.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077083
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473206
 Related Items

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    County map of state of Florida
        Page 2
    Crops
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Division of the state by counties
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Condensed notes of correspondents
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
    Pecan culture in Florida
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Fertilizers, feed stuffs, and foods and drugs
        Page 49
        Regulations governing the taking and forwarding of fertilizer or commercial feeding stuff samples to the commissioner of agriculture
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Market prices of chemicals and fertilizing materials at Florida sea ports
            Page 52
            Page 53
        New York wholesale prices current
            Page 54
            Page 55
        State valuations
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Composition of fertilizer materials
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Average composition of commercial feedstuffs
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Commercial state values of feedstuffs for 1909
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Soil analyses
            Page 67
        Water analysis
            Page 68
        Bureau of fertilizers
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Analysis of fertilizers
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Bureau of feedstuffs
            Page 79
        Analyses of feedstuffs
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
        Special food analyses
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 96a
        Syrup-making on small apparatus with kettles or evaporators
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
Full Text











FLORIDA
QUARTERLY

BULLETIN
OF THE

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT


OCTOBER 1, 1909


B. E. McLIN
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part I--Crops. Part 2--Pecan Culture in Florida.
Part 3--Fertilizers and Feed Stuff.

Entered January 31,1903, at Tallahassee Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900.

THESE BULLETINS ARE ISSUED FREE TO THOSE REQUESTING THEM

CAPITAL PUBLISHING COMPANY,
State Printer
Tallahassee, Florida.

>^ -^


VOLUME 19 Wm. Hess.


NUMBER 4













COUNTY MAP OF STATE OF FLORIDA


N


















PART I.

CROPS.
















DIVISION OF THE STATE BY CCLNTIS.


Following are the divisions
ties contained in each:

Northern Division.

Franklin,
Gadsden,
Hamilton,
Jefferson,
Fafayette,
Leon,
Liberty,
Madison,
Suwannee,
Taylor,
Wakulla.-11.

Western Division.

Calhoun,
Escambia,
Holmes,
Jackson,
Santa Rosa,
Walton,
Washington-7.


of the State, and the coun


Northeastern Division.

Alachua,
Baker,
Bradford,
Clay,
Columbia,
Duval,
Nassau,
Putnam,
St. Johns-9.

Central Division.

Citrus,
Hernando,
Lake,
Levy,
Marion,
Orange,
Pasco,
Sumter,
Volusia-9.


Southern Division.


Brevard,
Dade,
DeSoto,
Hillsborough,
Lee,


Manatee,
Monroe,
Osceola,
Palm Beach,
Polk,
St. Lucie--l1.

















DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

B. E. McLIN, Commissioner. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.



CONDENSED NOTES OF CORRESPONDENTS.

BY DIVISIONS.

NORTHERN DIVISION.-As compared with the same pe-
riod last year, there is a very considerable loss in both
condition and prospective yield of cotton. The seasons
for cotton have been very unfavorable, and at this time it
looks as if the crop cannot reach more than half what it
promised in the first summer months; in addition to the
unfavorable climatic conditions, caterpillars have been
much in evidence, and also in many localities in the State,
in the upland cotton districts in particular, the cotton
plant has been very seriously affected by a most destruc-
tive fungus disease known as "Anthracnose." With all of
these troubles the plant is having a hard time to make,
and the crop cannot but be very short, the shortest in
years. On the other hand, the season just passing has
been the most universally favorable one for all other field
and vegetable crops. In this district the corn, oats and
hay crops excel in yield that of any other for fifteen years.



WESTERN DIVISION.-There is practically no difference
in the condition existing in this Division and the North-
ern, the percentage of condition and prospective yeild of
cotton differs very little, being low in both instances, and
at this late date there can be no possibility of recovery.
The cotton crop in the district has also suffered from the
same destructive troubles as in the Northern. Other field
crops, such as corn, oats and hay, have yielded bounti-
fully, and labor is in better shape than last year. Cattle,
horses, hogs and other live stock are probably in better
condition than they have been at this time for several
years. In both of the Northern and Western districts the











farmers fully realize the shortness of the cotton crop and
the advantage it offers them to obtain higher prices, and
there is a widespread disposition to market the crop grad-
ually that the best values may be maintained'.



NORTHEASTERN DIVISION.-In this Division condition of
crops differ little from the preceding districts, except that
they are somewhat better as regards the cotton crop,
which has not seemed to have suffered from the diseases
and worms to the extent that the cotton of other portions
of the State have. The field and vegetable crops have done
unusually well in this district, the seasons apparently
being just suited to their highest development, for the
immense yields and profitable returns prove alike the ex-
tent of the demand: and the consumption of the products.
Labor and wages have been in a more stable condition
than for some time, apparently more settled and reliable.
Live stock in this district, like the foregoing districts, is
in fine condition and no complaints of serious troubles
have been made.



CENTRAL DIVISION.-Agricultural operations in this dis-
trict are confined principally to the branches of vegeta-
ble and fruit growing. The climatic conditions have been
more favorable than in those districts previously de-
scribed, and crops of all kinds, including field crops, have
yielded well. The orange and grapefruit crops through-
out the district are making a fine showing, and indicate
a large increase over last year in yields. The vegetable
crops have been the largest and most profitable in the
history of the industry. Labor is more plentiful than
last year, and better satisfied. Live stock is in fine condi-
tion; the pastures were never in better shape or with heav-
ier crops of grass; consequently all stock is fat and in
fine condition for market.



SOUTHERN DIVISION.-Few field crops are grown in this
district to any extent, the growing of vegetables and fruits








9

for market being more profitable. Climatic conditions
have been very favorable for crops of all kinds in this
division; in fact, the past season has been the most profit-
able in truck farming in the history of the business, and
the citrus fruit crops promise to be the largest ever
known; it also bids fair, if expectations of the growers do
not miscarry, to be the most profitable citrus fruit crop
ever harvested in Florida.









Report of the Condition and Prospective Yield
of Crops, Fruits, and Fruit Trees, and Condition
of Live Stock, for Quarter Ending September 30,
1909, as Compared With Same Period Last Year.


Upland Cotton Sea Island Cotton
COUNTIES.
i. .- aa .


0 0
Northern Division, o Q _
Gadsden .................. 50 50 ..
Hamilton .. ........ ... 55 50 ....
Jefferson ... GO 6 65 80 75
Lafayette .............. ..... ..... 85 85
L eon .................. 50 50 .. ....
Liberty ................ 75 70 .....
Madison ............... 60 60 40 40
Suwannee ............. ...... ..... 75 75
Wakulla ............... 38 37 .. ...
Div. Average per cent. .._ 55 55 570 69 _
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 60 60 5
Escambia .............. 50 50 ....
Jackson ...............I 60 60 100 100
Santa Rosa ............ 90 90 .... .......
W alton ................ 75 50 ... .......
Washington .......... 80 60 ...
Div. Average per cent...1 69 62 75 75
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 9 90 80 80
B radford .............. I ..... ..... 75 80
Clay .................. ..... .. .. ... .......
Columbia .............. 80 80 90 85
Putnam ............... ... ...... .. .
Div. Average rer cent.. 5 | 85 82 '-
Central Division.
Citrus ............ .....
H ernando ............. .... .....
Levy ................. .. ... ..... 80 70
M arion ................ ..... 80 80
Orange .............. .. .... .....
Pasco .................. ..... .. .I ..... ..... .....
V olusia ............. ..... ..... ....
Div. Average per cent... 1- -..--75
Southern Division.


Brevard ............... ..
D ade .................. .....
D eSoto ................ .....
L ee ........ ........... ..
M anatee ............... ....
O sceola ................ ....
P olk .................. ...
St. Lucie ................
Div. Average per cent... ...
State Average per cent.. 69


77 75










Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Corn Sugar Cane
COUNTIES.- -



o a) 0
Northern Division. a, .
kiad:den ............... 125 125 85 85
Hamilton .............. 90 90 75 90
Jefferson .............. 100 100 90 90
Lafayette ............. 100 100 90 90
Leon .................. 100 125 90 100
Liberty ................ 100 100 80 80
Madison ............... 75 75 40 40
Suwannee ............. 90 90 80 S0
W akulla ............. 100 105 85 90
Div. Average per cent... 98 101 79 83
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 100 125 100 125
Escambia .............. i 80 80 100 100
Jackson ............... 100 125 85 90
Santa Rosa ........... 90 90 100 100
W alton ................ 100 110 100 100
Washington ........... 100 110 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 95 90 98 102
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 100 100 75 75
Bradford .............. 100 110 85 90
Clay .................. 100 150 100 100
Columbia .............. 100 110 95 100
Putnam ............... 90 100 90 90
Div. Average per cent... 98 114 89 91
Central Division.
Citrus ................ 105 110 100 100
Hernando .............. 80 80 100 100
Levy ................... 110 110 90 90
Marion ................ 100 100 100 100
Orange ................ 100 105 100 100
Pasco ................. 100 105 95 95
Volusia ................ 90 90 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 98 100 98 i 98
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... i 100 100 100 100
Dade ................ .... ..... ..
DeSoto ................ 90 95 100 100
Lee .................... 90 90 100 100
Manatee ............... 100 100 100 100
Osceola ................ 100 130 100 120
Polk .................. 100 110 100 100
St. Lucie ............ .. ... 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 97 104 100 1___ 03
State Average per cent.. 97 102 93 __ 95










Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


COUNTIES.




Northern Division.
Gadsden ...............
Ham ilton ...............
Jefferson ..............
Lafayette ..............
L eon ..................
Liberty ................
M adison ...............
Suwannee ............
W akulla ...............
Div. Average per cent...


Western Division.


Field Peas


56-
0
0


75
70
75
80
75
75
40
100
75


75
80
80
80
75
40

100
75


0
0
o







"40


71 I 73 401 40


2o
4a

C--







40


Calhoun .............. 87 90 87 9U
Escambia ............. 50 50 100 100
Jackson ............... 75 75 ..... .......
Santa Rosa ............ 90 90 ..... .......
W alton .............. ...... ..... ..... .......
Washington ........... 75 80 ..
Div. Average per cent... 75 77 93 95
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................ 60 60 90 90
Bradford .............. 60 65 .. ...
Clay .................. 100 100 .. ...
Colum bia .............. 90 90 .. ..
Putnam ............... 90 90 .....
Div. Average per cent... 80 81 90 90
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 100 75 ......
Hernando ........... 100 100 100 100
Levy .................. 100 100 ..... .
Marion ................ ..... ... .. 80 80
Orange .............. 100 100 ... ..
Pasco ................ 90 75 100 100
Volusia. ...............p 100 100 ..... .....
Div. Average per cent.. 98 92 93 93
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 90 85
Dade .................. 100 100
DeSoto ................ 75 80 95 95
Lee ................... 50 50 90 90
Manatee ............... 100 100 50 50
Osceola ................ 100 140 100 100
Polk .................. 80 85 80 80
St. Lucie .............. .... .....
Div. Average per cent... 85 91 83
State Average per cent.. 82 83 80 80










Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Sweet Potatoes Cassava
COUNTIES.
0 0
-a a oa

o o0 C a)o
Northern Division. 0 0 .0
Gadsden ........ .. 100 85 .
Ham ilton .............. 60 75 .. ..
Jefferson .............. 80 70 ..
Lafayette .............. 90 90 ..
Leon .................. 100 100 .. ..
Liberty ................ 70 65
Madison ............... 50 50 ..... .....
Suwannee ............. 90 90 ...
W akulla ............... 87 90 .. ...
Div. Average per cent.. 81 79 ..... .......
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 100 100 100 100
Escambia .............. 100 100 100 100
Jackson ............... 100 100 ..... .......
Santa Rosa ........... 100 100 ... ...
Walton ................. 90 90 ... .
Washington ........... 100 100 75 75
Div. Average per cent.. 98 98 92 92
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 100 100 ..... ....
Bradford .............. 100 100 ... ..
Clay .................. 90 95 ..
Columbia .............. 95 100 .. ...
Putnam ............... 80 80 ......
Div. Average per cent... 93 95 ..... .
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 100 90 ..... .......
Hernando .............. I 100 125 ..... ...
Levy .................. 80 75 100 100
M arion ................ 70 70 .......
Orange ................ 100 100 100 100
Pasco .................. 80 75 95 100
Volusia ............... 100 100 .....
Div. Average per cent.. 90 91 98 100
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 100 ..... .......
Dade .................. 100 100 .
DeSoto ................ 100 100 100 100
L ee ................... 75 80 .. ..
Manatee ............... 100 100
Oscela .................. 100 120 100 100
Polk .................. 95 100 100 110
St. Lucie .............. 80 80 ...
Div. Average iper cent... 94 98 100 103
State Average per cent..] 91 92 97 98










14
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Peanuts Broom Corn
COUNTIES.


---------- on r ona
Northern Division. O & *.'
Gadsden ............... 100 100 .....
Ham ilton .............. 85 90 .. ..
Jefferson .............. 100 100 .. ..
Lafayette .............. 90 90 .. ..
Leon .................. 100 100 .. ..
Liberty ................ 75 75 .. ..
M adison ............... 60 60 .. ..
Suwannee ............. 100 100 20 20
W akulla ............... 100 100 .
Div. Average per cent... 90 91 20
Western Division.
Caloun ............... 100 110
Escambia .............. 100 100 75 75
Jackson ............... 100 100 .. ...
Santa Rosa ........... 100 100
W alton ................ 100 100 .. ..
Washington ............ 100 100 ...
Div. Average per cent... 100 102 75 75
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 85 85
iradford ............... 80 85
Clay ..................[ 100 100
Columbia ..............[ 90 95
Putnam ............... ..... ..
Div. Average per cent... 89 91 ..
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 100 100.......
H ernando .............. 90 90 .. ...
Levy .................. 100 110 .. ..
M arion ................ 100 100....
Orange ........... ... ... .
Pasco .................. 85 90 .
Volusia ................ 100 100 .. .
Div. Average per cent... 96 98 ..... .......
Southern Division.
B revard ............... ..... ..... ..... .......
Dade .................... .... ..... ..... .......
D eSoto ................ .... .. ... ..... .......
Lee ................... ......... ...... .......
M anatee ............... ... .... ..... ..... .......
O sceola ................ ..... ..... ..... .......
P olk .................. 100 100 ..... ......
St. Lucie .............. ..... ..... ..... ........
Div. Average per cent... 10 1 ..... ....
State Average per cent.. 95 96 47 47










15
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Native Hay Grasses Alfalfa
COUNTIES. ___


1 0

Northern Division. a .
Gadsden ............... 125 125 ..... ..
Hamilton ............... 80 80 .... ......
Jefferson .............. 80 80.
Lafayette ............. ..... ..... .....
Leon .................. 100 100 100 100
Liberty ...... ........ ..... .... .......
Madison ............... 75 75
Suwannee ............. 100 100 ..
W akulla ............... 87 90 .
Div. Average per cent.. 92 9U ] i o l I u
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 100 110
Escambia .............. 100 100 100 100
Jackson ............... .... ........... .......
Santa Rosa ........... 80 80 ..... ...
W alton ................ 100 100 ... .......
W ashington ........... 100 100 ..... ...
Div. Average per cent... 96 98 100 100
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 90 85 .. .....
Bradford ................. 90 90 .....
C lay ................... 100 110 ......
Colum bia .............. 100 100 ......
Putnam ............... 90 90 .....
Div. Average per cent.. 94 9 ... .......
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 105 110 ....
H ernando ............. 125 125 ..... ....
Levy ................... 100 90 ......
M arion ................ 70 70 .. .
Orange ................ 100 100 ..... .
Pasco ................. 100 100 ..... ....
Volusia ................ 100 100 ... ...
Div. Average per cent... 100 99 ......
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 100 ......
D ade ................. I ..... ... .... ......
D eSoto ................. 100 I 100 ...
L ee ................... 90 90 ......
MIanatee ............... ..... ..... .. ......
Osceola ................ 100 150 .....
Polk ................... 100 110 ..... ...
St. Lucie ............. 100 100 ... ...
Div. Average per cent... 98 108 ........
State Average per cent.. 96 99 I 100 T1









16
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Pas-
Velvet Beans tes Bananas
COUNTIES.



Northern Division. 0 '-
Gadsden ............... 125 125 100 ...
Hamilton .............. 90 90 100 ...
Jefferson .............. 90 90 90 ... ..
Lafayette .............. 100 100 .
Leon ................... 100 100 100 .
Liberty ................ 80 80 .. ..
Madison ............... 60 60 .
Suwannee ............. 100 100 100 ...
W akulla ............... 60 65 100 ..
Div. Average per cent... 89 90 98
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 95 95 100 ...
Escambia .............. 125 125 100 .. ....
Jackson ............... 80 75 ... ... ..
Santa Rosa ............ 100 100 100 .. ...
W alton ................ 95 95 ... ..
Washington ............ 95 100 100 ... ...
Div. Average per cent... 98 98 100 ..
Northeastern Division.
Baker ................. 95 95 ...
Bradford .............. 95 100 100 ...
Clay .................. 100 100 100 ... ..
Columbia .............. 100 100 100 ... ..
Putnam ............... 90 100 ... .. ..
Div. Average per cent... 96 I 99 100 ... ...
Central Division.
Citrus ................. 90 90 100
Hernando .............. 100 90 125 100 100
Levy ................... 100 110 100 ... ....
Marion ................ 100 100 90 ... ..
Orange ............... 100 100 100 100 100
Pasco ................. 90 95 100 75 70
Volusia ................ 70 70 100 ... ..
Div. Average per cent... 93 f 94 102 91 90
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 100 100 75 80
Dade .................. 100 100 ... ...
DeSoto ................ 100 110 100 ... ..
Lee ................... ... ... 100 100 100
Manatee ............... 100 100 100 100 100
Osceola ................ 100 140 100 100 100
Polk ................... 100 100 100 ... ..
St. Lucie .............. 100 100 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 107 100 95 96
State Average per cent.. 95 98 100 93 93










SCondition and


17
Prospective Yield of Crops--Continued.


Pineapples Guavas
COUNTIES.



Northern Division.
Gadscen .............. .. .. .
H am ilton .............. ... .......
Jefferson ........... ..... .. .
Lafayette .......... ... .. .
L eon .................. .... ... ..... ......
L iberty ............... .. .........
M adison .............. ..... ..... .... .......
Suw annee ............. .. .. ..........
"W akulla ...............I ........
Div. Average per cent... .. .......
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... ..... .......
Escarnbia ............. ... ......
Jackson ............... .....
Santa Rosa .......... ..... i .....
W alton .............. ..... ......
W ashington ........... ..... ...
Div. Average per cent.... .... .
Northeastern Division.
Bake ................. .... ..... ..... .......
Bradford .............. ........ ..... .......
Clay .................. .... .. .. ..... .......
Colum bia .............. ..... ..... ..... .......
Putnam ............... ...... .... 60 60
Div. Average per cent... ...... T0 GO 60
Central Division.
C itru s ................. ..... ..... ..... .......
H ernando ............. ..... ..... ..... .......
L evy .................. .... ..... ..... .......
M arion ................ ..... ..... ..... .......
Orange ............... ..... .... .... .....
Pasco ................. ..... ..... 80 85
V olusia .......... ... .. .... ..
Div. Average per cent.. .... ... 80 __ 85
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 125 100 125
Dade .................. 100 110 100 105
DeSoto ............... ..... ..... 100 100
Lee ................... 75 75 100 100
Manatee ................ 100 100 100 100
Osceola ................ 100 110 90 60
Polk...................... ... 100 120
St. Lucie ............. 80 80 100 75
Div. Average per cent... 93 100 99 9
State Average per cent.. 93 100 80 SL
2--5ul.










18
Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Orange Trees Lemon Trees
COUNTIES.


---------a c a g f
Northern Division. I C
G adsden .............. ..... ..... ..... .......
H am ilton .............. ..... ..... ..... ......
Jefferson .............. ..... ..... ..... .......
Lafayette ............. ..... ..... .......
Leon .................. 100 100 ..... ......
L liberty ............... ..... ..... ..... .......
M adison ............... ..... .... ..... .......
Suwannee ............. 20 20 ..... .......
W akulla ............. ..... ... .. .......
Div. Average per cent... 60 .. .......
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... 100 75 .. ..
Escam bia ........... .... ..... ..... .......
Jackson ............... ..... ..... .......
Santa Rosa ............ ..... ..... ..... .......
W alton ................ ..... ..... ..... .......
Washington ...... .....
Div. Average per cent... 100 75
Northeastern Division,
Baker ................ 100 95 100 90
B radford .............. ..... ..... ..... .......
C lay .................. ..... ..... ..... .......
Columbia .............. ..... .... .... ......
Putnam ............... 100 100 100 100
Div. Average per cent... 100 97 100 95
Central Division.
Citrus ................ 105 100.......
Hernando ............. 125 150 .... .......
Levy .................. 90 100 ... .......
M arion ................ 60 60 ....
Orange ................ 100 125 ... .......
Pasco ................. 100 120 ...
Volusia ......... ...... 80 80 100 100
Div Average per cent... 94 119 100 100
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 125 95 9
Dade ................. 100 110 90 95
DeSoto ................ 100 125 100 120
Lee ................... 100 115 ..... .......
Manatee ............... 100 115 100 100
Osreola ................ 100 150 100 150
Polk .................. 100 100 80 70
St. Lucie ............ 100 100 100 100
Div Average per cent... 100 118 95 104
State Average per cent.. 91 94 98 100












Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Lime Trees Grapefruit Trees
COUNTIES.



Northern Division. C .-
Gadsilen .............. ..... ..... .. ..
H am ilton ...... ...... ..... ..
Jefferson .............. .. .. .
Lafayette ............. ..... ... ...
L eon .................. ..... ..... 40 41
L liberty ................ ..... .
Madison ............... ...... .. ...... ....
Suwannee ............. ... 20 20
Waklla ........................ ..... .......
Div. Average per cent... ... .... 30 30
Western Division.
Calhoun ............... ..... ..... 100 75
E scam bia ............. ..... ......
Jackson ............... ... i .
Santa R osa ............I .. .. ......
W alton ................ ..... ....... ... .......
Washington ........... ... ..... ..... .
Div. Average per cent... .... ..... 100 75
Northeastern Division.
Baker .......... .... .... ..... 100 9o
B radford ........ ...... ... ... .. ...
C lay ................ .... ... .......
Calum bia ..............
Putnam ............... ..... ..... 90 100
Div. Average per cent... ..... ..... 95 95
Central Division.
Citrus .. ...... .. 100 100
Hernando ............. ..... 125 250
Levy .................. .... 90 100
M arion ................ ..... ..... 80 80
Orange ................ 100 125
Pasco ................. 100 100 100 100
Volusia ............... ..... ..... 80 60
Div. Average per cent... 100 100 I 98 1"2
Southern Division.
Brevard ............... 100 100 100 12
Dade ............... 100 100 100 110
DeSoto ................ 100 115 100 120
Lee ................... 1100 00 100 115
Manatee ............... 100 100 100 115
Osreola ................ 100 140 100 125
Polk ................ 70 60 100 90
St. Lucie ............. 100 75 100 90
Div. Average per cent...1 96 99 ~ 00 -
State Average per cent.. 98 99 I 85





1*


114,.









f -**' '* J 11 i$ -/"








I ., *
"l- '*''*













PART II.
PECAN CULTURE IN FLORIDA.

















PECAN CULTURE IN FLORIDA.


Much the greater portion of this article is taken from
the Florida Experiment Station Bulletin No. 85, by Prof.
H. Harold Hume, and also from the written opinions of
other well-informed and expert growers of the Pecan.

BOTANY OF THE PECAN.

The pecan tree is indigenous in the United States in
the rich, alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi, and also
thought to be in some of the rich bottom lands of north-
east Texas. Its northern limit is supposed to be about
Davenport, Iowa. In the Mississippi valley proper it ex-
tends within a few miles of the Gulf Coast, further west
it extends into Mexico.
The area in which it may be grown is said to embrace
within its four extremities the cities of Davenport, Iowa,
Chattanooga, Tenn., Laredo, Texas, the region of the head
waters of the Colorado River in Texas, and even at the
present day as far west as Arizona. It extends furthest
from the center of the area along the streams and rivers.
It is at present grown in all of the Southern States in
greater or less degree. From the foregoing it will be seen
that the pecan tree is a native in parts of the following
States, viz.: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee,
Kentucky, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, New Mexico
and Oklahoma. Outside of this area it has been planted
in a large number of States. Its cultivated area corre-
sponds rather closely with that of the cotton plant,
though its extension beyond this area is constantly in-
creasing.
The Pecan belongs to tl-e family Juglandaceae (Walnut
family), its near relatives being the other species of hick-
ory, the walnut and butternut. For many years the sci-
entific name commonly applied to it was Carya Olivae
formis Nutt, but in deference to the rules of priority
this name has largely given place to the name Hicoria
pecan (Marsh) Britton. This name Hicoria pecan is pe-
culiarly significant, since it is truly American, being











derived from powcohicora and pecan, two words used by
the Indians for hickory nuts.
It is a large, stately tree, 75 to 170 feet in height, with
wide-spreading branches and symmetrical top. The bark
is rough, broken and grayish black in color. The bark
of the young twigs is quite smooth, liberally dotted with
lenticles, and during their early life, together with the
leaves and flowers of the tree, they are covered with a
liberal coating of rather rust-colored hairs. The leaves
are oval, compound, composed of from seven to fifteen
falcate, oblong-lanceolate, sharp-pointed serrated leaflets,
green and quite bright above, lighter colored below, and
when mature, nearly or quite smooth. The flowers are of
two kinds-pistillate and staminate. The former are
produced upon the young shoots, while the latter come
from buds upon twigs one year old. The staminate cat-
kins are usually produced in two groups of three each,
from a single bud, and have very short stalks. The
stamens are three to five in number in each flower, and
borne beneath a three-parted bract. The pistillate flow-
ers have a four-valved involucre (known in the mature
form as the husk) and a two-parted stigma. The nuts
are quite variable in size, shape, color and quality. Some
are long and pointed, others are nearly spherical. In
Texas the spherical, or nearly spherical, nuts appear to
be more common than elsewhere. Selected nuts of some
varieties will weigh an ounce or more each, while of many
other kinds it takes a hundred, more or less, to make a
pound.
As a general rule, the husks of most varieties open at
maturity. In some, however, they remain closed, or
nearly so. These latter varieties are objectionable on
account of the increased difficulty 6f gathering the crop.
POLLENATION.-The pecan is wind pollenated. In con-
sequence there is a great waste of pollen, to compensate
for which it is produced in large quantities. Wet, windy
weather at the time the trees are in bloom, frequently
interferes with pollenation to such an extent that the
crop is reduced very considerably.
With some species of hickory, notably H. minima and
H. glabra, cross-pollenation and consequent cross-fertili-
zation with the pecan have resulted in several well-
marked hybrids. None of these found thus far, with per-
haps one or two exceptions, have been worthy of propa-
gation.











RANGE OF CULTURE IN FLORIDA.

The pecan may be, and practically is, grown in all
sections of the State wherever the soil conditions are
found to be satisfactory. Its culture, however, should
not be attempted in the southern portion of the State
much, if any, below 28 degrees latitude; success would,
at best, be questionable; it might succeed in the elevated
portions of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, but it is
uncertain.
The statement is frequently made and quite generally
believed, that, the pecan will succeed wherever the larger
species of hickory are found in the State. This is largely
true, as the pecan belongs to the same family and genus
of trees, but it should not be relied on implicitly. In
no case must soil conditions be overlooked or disregarded.

PECAN PROPAGATION.

The pecan may be propagated from seed or by budding
and grafting.
Formerly they were grown almost entirely from seed
and seedling trees were planted. But now seedlings have
given place to budded and grafted trees. Why so? It
was announced as a fact not so many years ago, and
there are some who may still maintain it, that fifty
per cent. or some other per cent. of pecans would come
true to seed. But it must be stated as a fact that neither
fifty nor any other per cent. will come true to seed. We
have yet to find a single instance where the nut of a
seedling tree was identical with that borne by its parent
plant. Occasionally they are better, but the rule is that
they generally are vastly inferior to the fruit produced
by the parent tree. Hence if an orchard of trees of the
same habit of growth, prolificness, regularity in bearing,
uniform throughout, trees which will produce a crop of
nuts, uniform in size, shape, color and quality, is desired,
do not plant seedling trees. Scores of these seedling
trees produce nuts but little larger than chinquapins,
and it is a fact which cannot be gainsaid that the seedling
pecan up to the time of fruiting is an unknown quantity,
after which it is too frequently a disappointment.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown the
stocks upon which to work desirable varieties. From
seeds may be originated new and desirable varieties, for











it sometimes happens that the seedling is better than the
parent. Seedling trees may be grown and set out in
orchard form to be top-worked afterwards. This plan
has something to recommend it. It is less expensive, pro-
vided time is not an object, for it takes a longer time to
get bearing trees by this plan, and it is open to the fur-
ther objection that it is more dillicult to secure uniform-
ity in size and shape of the-tree than it is by setting out
budded or grafted trees at first. The objection in the
way of expense, if that be an objection, is lest overcome
by planting nuts in nursery rows, grafting the trees there,
and then setting them in the field. By no means should
the nuts be planted where the trees are to remain. It is
too difficult to give them the necessary care. Besides,
they are likely to be destroyed by squirrels or other ani-
mals, or the seedlings injured through carelessness in
cultivation.
SELECTING AND PLANTING NUTS.-NutS to be used in
growing stocks should be fully matured before gathering.
Some care should be taxen in their selection. They should
be of good size for the variety, and should be gathered
only from healthy, vigorous trees. Frequently the only
object held in view is to get as many nuts as possible
in a pound without regard to the tree on which they grew.
We believe that this is in a large degree responsible for
the unsatisfactory growth made by many grafted trees.
Those nuts which mature first are best for planting.
The nuts may be planted in Florida as soon as they are
taken from the trees, placing them in drills three and a
half feet apart and covering them two and a half or three
inches deep. In many cases it may be necessary and more
convenient to stratify the nuts in damp sand in boxes,
first an inch layer of sand, then a layer of nuts, until
the boxes are filled. These boxes should be placed in a
cool, shady place, under a building, in a cellar, or buried
in the earth. It is a good plan to cover them with wire
net to prevent mice, rats or squirrels from attacking
them. In early spring the boxes should be emptied out
and the nuts planted as directed above.
The seed-bed should be thoroughly prepared, plowed
deeply or subsoiled, well supplied with organic matter,
either from stable manure or from beggarweed, velvet
beans, cowpeas or some other leguminous crop on the soil,
and turned under.
During the growing season the seed-bed should be kept











well cultivated and free from weeds and grass. "A fer-
tilizer rich in nitrogen should be used. Its composition
will have to be governed very largely by the character of
the soil and the care and cultivation given it previously;
but for good nursery soils a fertilizer analyzing three
per cent. nitrogen will give good results. In a favorable
season the tops of the young trees will be a foot or some-
what more in height with a tap-root two feet and a half
or so in length. The following spring and summer many
of the young trees can be worked by grafting or budding.
I'OPAGATING TOOLS.-The tools necessary for propa-
gating pecans-nursery work and top-working-are a
common budding knife, a budding tool, a grafting iron,
a grafting mallet and a fine-toothed saw.
The budding knife should have a thin blade of good
steel, capable of retaining a keen sharp edge. The whet-
stone must be used frequently to keep the blade sharp to
insure the making of smooth, clean cuts.
At least three budding tools have been invented. These
are known as \hite's, Galbreath's and Nelson's budding
tools respectively. The principle in each one is that two
sharp cutting blades are fixed parallel to each other to
insure uniformity in cutting annular and veneer-shield
or patch buds. White's budding implement is especially
recommended for use in top-working. The holes along the
sides are used as a gauge for measuring the stock and
bud stick. In the writer's opinion the one best adapted
for veneer-shield budding, but the blades are just a little
too close together. A very satisfactory knife for this
work may be made from two ordinary budding knives
and a piece of wood three-quarters of an inch square and
four inches long. To opposite sides of this the blades
can be firmly attached with rivets and by binding with
fine wire and twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting.
These can be purchased at small cost, or a blacksmith
can make an excellent one from an old flat file. Three
or four inches of the file should be flattened and sharp-
ened for a blade. In the remainder drill two holes and
attach two pieces of wood to form a handle.
A small-sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely for a
grafting-mallet, or a very good one can be made from a
piece of tough wood or a piece of an old wagon spoke.
A leather thong should be attached to the handle through











which the wrist can be slipped to carry it Wh T io
working.
The best saw for use in top-working is a car
back saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth, and le'a
smooth, clean cut.
WAXES, CLOTH AND TWINE.-Good grafting wax may be
made according to either of the following formulas:
1. Resin 6 pounds, Ibeeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil 1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1 pound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow fire,
stirring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When melted
pour out into a bucket of cold water. Grease the hands,
remove the wax from the. after as soon as it can be han-
dled and pull until it is light yellow in color. Wax not
needed for immediate use may be rolled up in balls,
wrapped in oiled, stiff brown paper and put away for
future use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax in a
kettle and ,dropping into sheets or wide strips of old calico
or cotton cloth. As soon as saturated with the wax,
remove them from the kettle and stretch on a board. For
use tear into strips, one-quarter or one-half of an inch
wide.
Waxed twine is prepared by dropping balls of No. 18
Knitting cotton into the melted wax and stirring them
about for four or five minutes or until the wax has pene-
trated them.
SELECTING CIONS AND BUDS.-Cions and bud sticks
should be taken from healthy, vigorous trees. Select the
cions from well-matured wood of one year's growth,
though a piece of two-year-old wood at the base will not
matter. The wood is angular, small and the internodes
long, and the pith large in proportion to the diameter.
Either terminal portions of twigs may be used or portions
back of the tip, but the buds should always be well de-
veloped, full and plump. For this reason grafts should
not be cut from wood far back from the tip of the branch.
As stated already, twigs of the previous season's growth
are generally used, provided the growth is not too large.
Grafts are generally cut about five or six inches long and
should be from one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch iu
thickness.
It is best that the grafts be cut while still in a dormant
state, and inserted in the stock just before growth starts.
The cions may be kept for a considerable length of time









29 ,

ing them loosely packed, in damp moss or sawdust
ox. The box should be covered over with earth
1 the cions kept sufficiently moist to prevent drying
,, The difference in the condition of the stock and
'on, it should be understood, is not absolutely necessary,
as good results are frequently obtained without these pre-
cautions, but in grafting the pecan a difference in dor-
mancy is extremely desirable, and it is an important fac-
tor in securing good results.
For bud-sticks, well-developed one-year-old branches,
one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter and on
which the buds are well formed, or older wood with
plump, full buds are selected. Such sticks frequently
show three buds at a node, and if some misfortune should
overtake one or two of these, there is still a chance of
success, though the upper one, being the strongest, is gen-
erally the one which starts, provided, it is uninjured and
the bud takes. The degree of maturity of the bud is im-
portant, and care should be exercised that only those
which are plump, full and well developed, are used. It is
easy to distinguish between desirable and undesirable
buds.
GRAFTING AND GRAFTING METHODS.

Top-working by grafting or the grafting of nursery
stock above ground should be done in spring just before
growth starts. The preference is for the latter part of
the season, provided, there is not too much work to be done.
as the cions have less time to dry out before the process
of uniting with the stock begins. The work of whip-graft-
ing nursery stock under ground just at the crown roots
of the seedlings can be started in the latter part of De-
cember and continued until February. For this work
the earth is thrown back from the seedlings, leaving them
standing in a narrow trench. After the cions are in-
serted, the ground is placed back about them, covering
them up, leaving only the top bud exposed. The seed-
ling trees cannot be dug up and bench-grafted satisfacto-
rily in winter, as is the practice with apples, pears and
other fruits. It can be done, but the percentage of unions
secured is too small to make it an economical method to
follow. The only satisfactory plan is to graft the seed-
lings in the nursery row, as described above.
Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting for











top-working and whip-grafting for working both nursery
seedlings and old trees.
CLEFT-GRAFT'ING.--Having selected the place on the
branch or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be in-
serted, the part should be sawed off with a smooth, clean
cut. The end of the stub can then be cut squarely off at
the point desired.
The trunk or branch is then split with the grafting iron.
The cleft should be carefully made and should be about
one and a half inches in length. In preparing the cion,
a sloping cut is made at the lower end about one and a
half inches long, cutting into the pith from a point one-
half way up the cut, dowL to the lower end. On the oppo-
site side, the second cut should not touch the pith, but
should be made through the wood throughout. The cion
should be left wider on the outer side than on the inner
to make a tight fit when inserted. Start the cuts on each
side of and just at a bud.
Having made the cleft, open it with the wedge end of
the grafting iron and place the cion in position in the
cleft stock. The cambium layers should be in contact and
the cion should be shoved well down util the whole of
the wedge is within the stock. In large stocks two cions
may be inserted, the weaker of which should be removed
if both live. Large stocks will exert sufficient pressure
against the cions to render tieing unnecessary, but if the
stocks are small the union should be firmly tied with
waxed twine or cloth, and in any case the ends of the cut
stock and the union should be covered smoothly with
grafting wax. Should there be danger of the stock exert-
ing too much pressure (as in the case of large stocks),
the cleft should he made well out to one side of the center.
WAHIP- AF,'TING.-Sto(ks, whether seedling trees or
branches in the tops of old trees, should be less than an
inch in diameter, one-half or five-eighths inch being a
nice size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long, is
made at the end of the cion, a corresponding cut is made
on the stock, a small tongue of wood is raised on each by
making a cut with a knife blade parallel to rhe grain of
the wood. The tongue is raised a little on both stock and
cion and the two are then shoved together, with the cam-
bium layers on one or both sides in contact. They must
then be firmly bound either with twine or cloth, the











whole of the cut surfaces being covered over to the exclu-
sion of water, air and the germs of decay.
The cion and stock are preferably chosen of nearly the
same size, but a cion somewhat smaller than the stock
may be used, in which case the cambium layers along one
side of the surfaces in contact must be placed opposite
as already indicated. In working nursery seedlings by
whip-grafting the cions should be inserted so that the
point of union will be under the surface of the ground.
The earth should be placed back around the union as
soon as the work is completed. This plan of propogation
will not give satisfactory results except on well-drained
lands.
BUDDING AND METHODS.

Budding is preferred to grafting by some propagators,
as they are able to secure a larger percentage of unions
than lby grafting. MAch, however, depends upon the
locality, soil and drainage. IBy either netho.d from fifty
to seventy-five per cent. of successful unions must be con-
s:dered satisfactory. The amateur may well be satisfied
with ten per cent.
The season for budding is when the bark will slip well
during the months of .July and August. The season is,
however, oflen extended into September. .Many of the
buds inserted late in the season remain dormant until
the following spring.
During the season, from the first of July until Septem-
ber, the atmosphere is moist, the bonds are in good con-
dition, the sap ltows freely, and better results are secured
than at any other time. The buls commonly used are
those which have been formed just previously. They
should be carefully selected and only those fully matured
should he used. Oliver (Bulletin 30, Blureau P'lant In-
dustry, U. S. 1). A.) recommends the use of dormant buds
of last season, but the method has not met with favor
because of the large amount of wood which must be sacri-
ficed to secure a few buds.
ANNULAR IBUI)mniS.--By this method branches or seed-
ling trees three-quarters of an inch or less in diameter
may be worked. It is preferable that the stock and bud
stick be of the same size. though the stock may he some-
what smaller. From the stock remove a ring of hark an
inch or so in length. On the bud stick select a good bud
and remove it by taking out a ring of bark the same in









32

size as the one removed from the stock. Place this ring
in the place on the stock prepared for it and bandage
securely in place, using a piece of waxed cloth. The
wrapper should be brought around the stock so as to
cover the cut ends. The bud may be covered over or left
exposed.
In ten days or two weeks, remove the bandage, and
examine the bud. A plump full bud at this time is an
indication that union has taken place.
VENEER-SHIELD OR PATCH BUDDING.-If this method is
used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be of the
same size, and so far as size alone goes, almost any stock
may be used. A rectangular or triangular piece of bark
is removed from the side of the stock. From the bud
stick cut a similar piece of bark with a bud in its center.
'lace the bud in place on the stock and wrap as in annu-
lar budding. If the stock is considerably larger than the
bud stick, the piece of bark with bud attached will have
to be flattened out somewhat before inserting.
LoPPING.-Frequently buds, particularly those inserted
late in the season, act as dormant buds and do not begin
growth until the following spring. The top of stocks
budded during June, July and August; should be lopped
up to September first. It is always well to start the buds
out before growth ceases for the season, but stocks budded
after the first of September should not be lopped until
the following spring, just before growth begins.
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to within
five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later, after the
bud has grown to some size, it should be cut right back
to the bud and painted over to prevent rotting. Lopping
may also be performed by cutting the stock half off two or
three inches above the bud and bending it over. After
growth starts in the bud it should be removed entirely,
thus throwing the full flow of sap into the bud.

THE NURSERY.

The best soil for the pecan nursery is a well-drained,
loamy soil with a clay or sandy clay sub-soil. The land
should be put in good condition before the trees or nuts
are planted in it. Crops of beggarweed, velvet beans
plowed under, or a good dressing of well-rotted stable
manure will go a long way toward putting the ground










in good shape. The ground should be plowed deeply
and put in the very best tilth.
Throughout the growing season the ground should be
cultivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to conserve
moisture and destroy weeds is all that is necessary. It is
not possible to grow good trees without thorough, fre-
quent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should be
used at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre. One analyz-
ing 3 per cent. phosphoric acid, 3 per cent. potash and 6
per cent. nitrogen, is about right for nurseries on most
Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed it is an excellent
plan to sow the ground in one of the leguminous crops
mentioned above, to help it to recuperate. The frequent
cultivations, so necessary for the growth of the trees,
wear out the humus in the soil. The legumes will replace
this if grown, and plowed back into the soil, after they are
dead and dry.

TOP-WORKING PECAN TREES.

By far the greater number of seedling trees in the
State have not fulfilled the expectations of their planters.
The trees are not prolific or the fruit which they bear is
small and inferior. Such trees if in good health and
vigor may be top-worked to advantage. Seedlings may
be planted with the expectation of top-working them, but
this is not recommended.
If the trunks are small, an inch or an inch and a half
in diameter, the whole top may be removed at once. If
the trees are of medium size, the main branches may be
worked close to the trunk, and if large, grafts may be
inserted farther up from the trunk. Buds may be
inserted in vigorous branches. The growth of such
branches may be induced by cutting back the original
branch of the tree in late winter. Lateral buds will then
be forced into growth and by midsummer the branches
formed from them will te large enough to bud. The at-
tempt should not be made to bud or graft over the whole
top of a large tree in one season. Only a few branches
should be worked each year, and in the course of two,
three or four years, depending upon the size of the tree,
3-Bul.










the old top can be entirely removed and replaced by a
new one of a good variety.
Both cleft and whip-grafts may be used, but the latter
can, of course, only be used on small stocks. The objec-
tion to working very large branches is that they do not
heal readily; two and a half inches is about the maxi-
mum in size. Large wounds should be painted over with
white lead paint to prevent decay.
For several months after the new top has commenced
to grow the cions or buds have but a slight hold upon
the stock, and as the growth is usually very vigorous and
the leaf surface great, considerable damage is frequently
done by strong winds, or by wind and rain together. To
prevent this the young shoots may be tied together or
fastened to other portions of the stock. If this be done,
care should be taken that the twine used does not do in-
jury by cutting into the wood. To obviate this a piece
of burlap should be placed around the branch beneath
the twine, and the twine should be removed as soon as
it has served its purpose. In some cases the top may be
supported by lashing a pole against the side of the trunk
and fastening the grafts to the upper part of this, or a
pole may be driven into the ground at some distance
from the trunk, fastened against a branch or stub of a
branch above and used in the same way. After the top
has grown sufficiently to take care of itself these posts
can, of course, be removed. Sometimes, after the top has
made considerable growth, and particularly if large
branches are allowed to develop opposite each other, they
are split apart and the whole top ruined. If this unde-
sirable conformation exists it is best to take steps to pre-
vent splitting. A holt having a stout washer against the
head should be placed through two branches, a second
washer placed on and the nut screwed up. This bolt will,
in the course of a few years, be entirely covered. By
this means the tree trunks are held firmly together. This
same plan may be used to save branches which have par-
tially split apart. Sometimes a branch may be inarched
from one large branch to another to serve as a living
brace.
Necessarily a considerable number of wounds are made
in top-working. Branches are removed entirely, others
are cut back to within a foot or so of the trunk and
grafted. Often these fail to unite. Such stubs should not











be left. If branches are formed on them they should be
cut back to the point where these buds start; if no
branches come out from them they should be cut back to
the trunk or large branch on which they are borne. Ii
left they prevent the healing of the wound, rot back, and
the rot is carried into and down the trunk of the tree-
resulting in a hollow and weakening the trunk. Smooth
cuts should be made. and these should be covered with
white lead paint to prevent decay. A little lampblack may
be added, if desired, to make the paint nearly the color of
pecan bark.

SOILS AND THEIR PREPARATION.

The peculiar conditions of soil and moisture surround-
ing the pecan in its native home might be regarded as an
indication that it cannot be grown except on deep, rici
soil, in proximity to rivers, ponds or streams. Such.
however, would be a wrong inference, for it succeeds ad-
mirably and bears good crops on a wide range of soil'.
Hence we find it today in localities far removed from th.:
regions to which it is indigenous, and thriving under con-
ditions differing greatly from those obtaining in its ni-
tive home. In Florida trees may be found growing om
soils ranging from the black hammock to the less ferti,
high pine lands. On hammock soils, however, the tree:-
are often inclined to develop wood at the expense of fruit.
while on less fertile soils the trees make less wood ani
bear more fruit proportionately. Pecans thrive well on
flat woods; the grove of Dr. J. B. Curtis, Orange Heightf.,
Fla., is planted on this type of land. Moisture in suff-
cient quantity must be present, but it will not do to plan
the pecan on land that is continually wet and soggy.
The presence of a hard, impenetrable subsoil doubtless
has a great influence upon the welfare of the tree, and it
would be better to select other ground, or when this i:m.
impossible, to blast out the hard pan. A quicksand sub-
soil is equally objectionable. If close to the surface, it
should not be used. The roots cannot penetrate it. All
things considered, the best soil is probably one which h!s
previously supported a growth of holly, willow-leave.'
oak, dog-wood, hickory and those other trees usually
found associated with them. A sandy loam with a clay
or sandy clay subsoil is difficult to surpass.











A land intended for young trees should be well pre-
pared. This preparation will depend largely upon the
care and treatment which the soil has received previously.
Land on which the forest still stands should preferably
be thoroughly cleared and put in cultivation for a year
or two before planting. Leguminous crops are excellent
to precede the setting of the trees. Plow the ground thor-
oughly, break deeply, harrow it level and it is ready for
the trees.
PECAN PLANTING.

BUYING TREEs.-Florida has suffered as much from
fraudulent pecan tree agents as any other State. Seed-
ling trees have been "doctored" and sold to planters, and
varieties have been sold which were untrue to name.
Unfortunately, too few people are acquainted with the
characteristics of a budded or grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the wood,
twigs and branches of pecan trees are able to tell the dif-
ferent varieties at a glance. The color of the bark, the
shape, size and arrangement of the lenticles, the size and
shape of the buds are always characteristic, and by these
marks varieties can be distinguished. Every planter
should acquaint himself with the wood characteristics of
the varieties. But after all, the safest, by far the safest
plan is to deal directly with honest nurserymen, men of
unquestionable integrity, men who give their business
careful thought and attention.
The best trees for general planting are well-grown one-
year-old trees, from three to five feet high.
Too often but slight attention is given to the planting
of the trees. There is too frequently a disposition on the
part of the person setting trees of any kind to do the
work as rapidly as possible without consideration for the
future welfare of the plants. Few realize that time spent
in careful, intelligent preparation of the soil and in set-
ting the trees is time well spent, and well paid for in the
after development of trunk and branch. Better a month
spent in preparing the future home of the young tree
than years of its life spent in an unequal struggle for
existence. More than that, the tree may die outright
and a year must elapse before it can be replaced. It is
generally stated that the pecan is a slow grower, and yet
trees from twelve to fourteen years old will sometimes
measure from thirty-five to fifty-seven inches in circum-












ference at the base, while under less favorable circum-
stances others will stand still for a period of six or seven
years, or until they have accumulated sufficient energy
to overcome the untoward conditions of their environ-
ment.
DIsTANCES.-The distance apart at which the tree
should be set will depend in a measure upon the charac-
ter of the soil. If rich and moist the trees should be set
farther apart than on higher, drier soils. Forty feet is
generally believed to be about right for most Florida
lands. Two methods of setting may be followed, rectan-
gular and hexagonal. The number of trees which may
be set per acre by the rectangular system are as follows:

40x40 .......................... 27 trees
40x45 ................... ....... 24 trees
4Ox5i0 .......................... 21 trees
4(0x() .......................... 18 trees
45x45 ................ ........ 21 trees
50x50 .......................... 17 trees
5(0x(I) .......................... 14 trees
50x75 .......................... 11 trees
60x(;) .......................... 12 trees
(;0x75 ................ ......... 9 trees
70x70 .................. ....... 8 trees
70x75 ............. ............. 8 trees
75x75 .......................... 7 trees

To find Ihe number of trees for any distances not giv-n)
in the above table, multiply the distances together and
divide 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre, by
the product. The result will give the number of trees.
By the hexagonal system about fifteen per cent. more
trees may be set per acre than by the rectangular system.
If a double planting is contemplated, as pecans and
peaches, the rectangular system should be used, and one
or more peaches set out in each rectangle formed by the
pecans.
STAKING THE GROUND.-If a good plowman can be se-
cured, the rows can be run off with a plow, running both
lengthwise and crosswise of the field. Ordinarily, how-
ever, a true corner may be established with a carpenter's
square, the field staked out around the outside. For the
rectangular system, the stakes can then be set up in the












center of the field by measuring or by sighting, or by both.
Ordinary building laths make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method, com-
mence on one side of the field and plant stakes at the
desired distance apart where the trees are to stand.
Using two chains or two pieces of wire with rings at ihe
ends (their length being the same as the tree distance), the
positions for the second row of trees may be easily ascer-
tained. Drop the rings over two adjoining stakes and
stretch them out until they form an equilateral triangle
with the base line. Plant a stake at the apex to indicate
where the tree is to stand. Set up all the stakes for this
second d row in the same manner, then use it as a base line
and so on across the field.
PLANTING.-Having set a stake where each tree is to
stand, the planting board should then be brought into
use. This is simply a light board, five or six inches wide
and six feet long, with a notch cut in the center of one
side and an inch hole bored in each end. In digging the
!holes for the trees this board is laid down on the ground
with tle notch against the tree stake. Two small wooden
stakes are then shoved into the ground through the holes
in the ends and the board and tree stake both taken
away.
In preparing the tree for planting, all broken or bruised
roots should be cut off immediately behind the injuries.
This is usually done before packing for shipment if trees
are purchased from a nurseryman, but possibly may be
neglected or the ends of roots become rubbed or jagged
in transit. The cuts should be made with a sharp knife
from the underside of the roots and outwards, leaving a
smooth, sloping cut. To trim the roots to the best advan-
lage the tree should be held upside down while trimming.
In setting out a pecan tree, a hole 24 inches in diameter
and thirty inches deep is usually large enough, although
wider holes may be dug with advantage, thereby enabling
more pulverized' and richer soil to be put around the
1oots, which is beneficial to the new feeding roots as they
form. When setting out the trees carefully fill in among
Ihe roots with pulverized top soil or woods earth. Well-
lotted manure or not exceeding one and one-half pounds
of commercial fertilizer, may be put in outer sides of
!:ole, as far as practicable beyond outer ends of lateral
roots, while hole is being filled, but by no means to come
in contact with the roots or trunk of tree. No fertilizer












should be put at bottom of hole. Work and firmly press
the dirt among the roots, laying each root in a natural
position. No holes or cavities in the soil should be left
and soil must be in close contact with all roots, especially
the tap-root. The bottom of the hole should be firm, to
avoid further settling of the tree. The tree should be set
at such a depth that after a copious watering and the
permanent settling of the earth, it will be, perhaps, a lit-
tle deeper than it stood in the nursery row. It is very
important that no part of the crown or root be left uncov-
ered when planted or afterwards, and if at any time it is
found that the earth has settled and left any brownish-
red part of the crown or root exposed, it must again be
covered with soil
The point where the root and crown leave off and the
trunk begins is a very vital portion of the newly-set tree
and must always be underground. Trees should be care-
fully examined after the first heavy rain after planting,
and earth thrown to tree if soil has settled. It is better
to plant them an inch or two deeper than they stood in
the nursery row than to run any risk of having the crown
of root exposed. If tap-roots are inconveniently long,
say over thirty inches, they may be cut off by a sloping
cut with a sharp knife. In the larger size trees it is bet-
ter to sink a hole deep enough to receive the root without
cutting shorter than is done before packing. The foolish
theory about a pecan tree not bearing if its tap-root has
been cut has been so thoroughly disproved that it is not
worth discussion. If the tap-root is cut when the tree is
dug, as is often necessary, the cut quickly heals and a
new tap-root (sometimes several) will form. After plant-
ing is completed, loose soil should be lightly thrown
around the tree to lessen evaporation, or it may be
mulched with leaves, straw, etc., in lawns and other
places where no crops are to be planted. The mulching
of newly-set trees is highly recommended. The ground
is thereby kept moist, a slow decaying supply of natural
plant food is provided and grass and weeds are not so
troublesome, thus avoiding the necessity of so frequently
stirring the soil immediately around the trees. The
trees. The ground around fruit or nut trees should
never be allowed to bake or crust, and it is the more im-
portant with newly-set trees, particularly the first season.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become dried
out. It is best that the necessary root pruning be done in












the shed and the trees carried to the field wrapped in a
damp blanket, from which they are removed one by one as
required for planting. The tops should be pruned back
slightly to restore the balance between the roots and the
tops which has been disturbed in the process of trans-
planting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere between
the first of December or the latter part of November and
the first of February. Preference must be given to the
earlier part of this period, as the ground will have a
chance to become firmly packed and the root wounds will
have partially callused over before the growing season
begins. Besides, the early spring season in Florida is
usually dry and recently planted trees do not stand nearly
so good a show as those planted in December and Jan-
uary.
CULTIVATION.

Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some parts
of the country, many people suppose that it can be left
without care and cultivation, left as any other tree in the
fields and woods is left to shift for itself. But if fruit
is required from the tree, no matter whether planted in
the garden or the orchard, it should be given good care.
Too many of our practices are based upon ideas taken
from the native trees of the woods and fields. But all
these trees do from year to year is bear a few fruits,
many of which are imperfect, in the attempt to reproduce
themselves. If that is all that is desired of the pecan tree,
well and good; a system of neglect will secure the result
and the insects and fungi will be the chief beneficiaries
of the practice.
One lesson can be learned from the woods. The ideal
soil conditions for the pecan grove is that found in the
forest. The soil there is filled with vegetable matter, and
humus; it holds water and plant food. The aim in the
cultivation of the trees should be to provide and maintain
a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anyone would ihive the temerity to advocate
the cultivation of a pecan orchard along the lines applied
to peach orchards and citrus groves is seriously doubted.
A pecan plantation will begin to bear in from six to eight
years afier planting and should produce a very fair crop
at ten years, after which it rapidly increases in produc-
tivity. But during the period when the trees are growing












and no fruit is being produced, cultivation must be given.
This is best done by planting the land between the tree
rows in cotton, peanuts or other field crops, in vegetables,
cowpeas, beggarweed or velvet beans. The last mentioned
crops may be used in making hay. These are the ideal
crops for the pecan orchard. It would be best to follow
a systematic rotation of these crops. As, for instance,
first year peanuts, second year cotton, or first year crab-
grass and beggarweed, second year cotton, third year
velvet beans, or cowpeas.
The area grown in these crops should by no means
equal the total area of the field. The tree rows for a
widtllh of four or five feet on each side should not be
planted in crops during the first year. This strip should,
however, be cultivated during the first part of the season
and about the beginning of the rainy season sowed to
beggarweed. The cultivated area will necessarily become
more restricted each year, and eventually the ground will
have to he given up to the trees.
Then the plan frequently advised is to put the land in
grass and use it for a pasture. But grass is generally
an important item in the cultivation of neglected pecan
orchards. It is synonymous with neglect and bad treat-
ment. It interferes with the growth, development and
fruiting of the trees, and this plan is no longer advised
by growers.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in spring,
continuing the cultivation well up to the rainy season.
Later, in August, a crop of crabgrass and beggarweed
nmav be removed for hay. By autumn a considerable
additional growth will be formed to cover the ground
in winter and turned back into the soil to restore and
maintain the necessary humus content of the soil.

FERTILIZERS.

On nearly all Florida soils, pecan trees are benefited
by the application of fertilizers in some form or other.
Large quantities of food materials are taken from the
soil in the growth of the tree and the development of the
crop.
The greatest demand made on the soil by the tree is
for nitrogen, and this can be met by applying stable ma-
nure, or by growing leguminous crops and turning them
under as already directed. In the fertilizing of the pecan












this is by all means the best policy. The potash in the
form of sulphate or muriate of potash and the phosphoric
acid in the form of acid phosphate can be supplied sepa-
rately.
FORMULAS.-The requirements of the trees will differ at
different stages of their growth. The needs of the young
trees differ from those of fruiting ones. For young trees,
nitrogen in considerable amounts is required, while for
bearing trees, more potash and phosphoric acid and less
nitrogen relatively, are required. If complete fertilizers
are used, those given the young trees should analyze
about five per cent. phosphoric acid, six per cent. potash
and four per cent. nitrogen; while one containing six per
cent. phosphoric acid, eight per cent. potash and four
per cent. nitrogen is about right for bearing trees.
If we assume that acid phosphate analyzes 14 per cent.
phosphoric ncid, high grade sulphate of potash 50 per cent.
potash, cottonseed meal 6.5 per cent. nitrogen, and dried
blood 14 per cent. nitrogen, the following amounts of
these materials which may be mixed at home will give
approximately the above analysis:

Fon YOUNG TIuREIS-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent. goods)...... 700 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash................... 225 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ....................... 1,150 pounds

If dried blood is used in place of cotton seed meal one-
half of the amount, or 575 pounds, will give as much,
or slightly more, nitrogen than the 1,150 pounds of cotton
seed meal.

FoR OLD TREES-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent.)............ 850 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ................... 300 pounds
Dried Blood ............................ 250 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ....................... 600 pounds

2,000 pounds

APPLYING THE FERTILIZER.-The whole of the fertilizer
may be applied in spring just before the growth starts.
On the whole this is one of the best times to apply it. In
some cases it may be advisable to apply only half the












material at that time, leaving the other half for applica-
tion about the first of June. So far as the nitrogen part
of the fertilizer is concerned, this would be good practice,
but the potash and phosphoric acid may as well be applied
at the beginning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should be
put on in a circular band about the tree (closer or farther
away, depending on the size of the tree), and spreading
it around on a strip four or five feet wide. As the trees
increase in size, the fertilizer should be applied over a
larger area until, in the case of old trees, the whole sur-
face should receive an application.

PRUNING.

For such pruning as is necessary for pecan trees a few
tools should be provided. These will consist of a pair of
good pruning shears, German solid steel pruning shears
being the best, a pair of Walter's tree prunes for cutting
back long branches, and a good pruning saw. One of the
best pruning saws is what is known as a Climax pruning
saw, or a Pacific Coast pruning saw is equally as good.
It is not advisable to prune the trees during the time
when growth has just started in spring, and the sap is
in active motion. At this time it will be well-nigh impos-
sible to properly protect the wounds. The necessary
coat of paint will not stick to the wound when wet with
sap from the tree.
While pruning may be done during the summer months
when the tree is in full leaf, all things considered, the best
time to prune is in early spring before growth starts.
There is usually less to be done on the farm at this season,
and more time is available for the work. Wounds made
at this time usually heal quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held parallel
to the part which is to remain, and the branch should be
cut off smoothly close up to the trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound should be
painted to protect it from decay. For a protective cover-
ing nothing is better than white lead paint. A small
amount of coloring matter may be added to it, if desired.
As a general rule the pecan requires comparatively lit-
tle pruning. At the time of planting the young trees
should be cut back some distance, particularly if they are
very tall. It is well to have the main branches form












within four or five feet of the ground. After this about
all the pruning necessary is to remove dead or injured
branches and cut back those which have a tendency to
run up beyond their neighbors. For this work, as well as
in procuring grafts or bud-wood from the top of the tree,
the tree-pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable prun-
ing to get them started so that they will develop into
symmetrical trees.

HARVESTING AND MARKETING.

The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and prepare
for market as a crop of oranges or peaches, for instance,
and yet some care must be taken to put the nuts on the
market in inviting shape.
FIELD EQUIPMIENT.-The equipment necessary for har-
vesting consists of an extension ladder, a step-ldder, a
number of bamboo fishing poles and picking sacks. The
best kind of step-ladder is one having three legs instead
of four. Picking sacks may be made from ordinary hemp
or jule sacks. The sack should be spread open with a
piece of stick, sharp-pointed at both ends, placed in one
side of the mouth, thus making the opening triangular.
Place a pecan nut in the lower corner of the sack, tie one
end of a piece of stout twine about it as it lies in the
corner, and then tie the other end of the twine to the
center of the mount of the stick opposite the stick. The
twine should be short enough to draw the bottom and
top of the sack close together, leaving an opening through
which the arm may be thrust and the sack slung over
the shoulder.
I'ICING.-As soon as the greater percentage of the burs
have opened, the crop should be gathered. It will not
do to wait until all have opened, neither is it advisable
to pick the trees over a number of times. Pick them clean
at one picking. The burs of those nuts which are fully
matured will open; the burs of immature ones may not.
The latter should be discarded.
The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts by
hand, using the bamboo poles only for those entirely out
of reach. Even this should be done carefully so as not
to injure the bearing wood of the trees. Care in picking
good nuts by hand will amply pay the grower, because the
beating and shaking of the trees will cause a considerable










quantity of fruit to be lost, and a few pounds saved will re-
pay all the time and trouble. Of course, in very high trees,
there is frequently nothing to do but shake and thrash
the crop off the trees. The plan of covering the ground
beneath the trees with a large sheet would work well and
assist in reducing losses. As soon as taken from the trees
the nnts should be spread out under a shed or in a build-
ing to dry. A very convenient plan, and one which will
save space, is to provide a sufficient number of trays,
three feet by four feet, and three inches deep, with half-
inch mesh wire bottoms, and place the nuts in these, two
or two and a half inches deep. Racks can be provided
around the room in which to place these. In from ten
days to two weeks from the time of picking, the nuts
should be cured.
RAnDINs.-The variety should be made the basis of the
grade. tiat is, each variety should be picked, packed and
marketed by itself. This besides gives an excellent oppor-
tunity to compare the commercial value of different kinds.
When a grower has a large number of different kinds of
seedling nuls and a small quantity of each, they may be
graded by passing them through screens.
PoLISHiNmo.-At the present lime practically all of the
common market nuts are both polished and colored.
Coloring should not be resorted to, and in the case of good
varieties of nuts polishing should not be done. In the
case of smiill or mixed lots, however, polishing is useful
in making Ihe nuts more uniform. It can be accomplished
by putting thle nuts with a little dry sand in a barrel
fixed so that it can be rotated like a revolving churn and
turning until the nuts receive the desired polish. The
better nuts, however, should be put on the market just as
they come from the trees. The markings, dots and streaks
on the outside are their trademark, and should not be in-
terefered with.
PACKAGEs.-For shipping small quantities of pecans by
express nothing is better than a box. Barrels are best for
larger shipments. For mail shipments stout pasteboard,
wooden or tin boxes or tin cans make good packages.
Frequently shipments are made in sacks, but the sack does
not afford sufficient protection to the contents and should
not be used. As a rule the box should be made so that a
given weight will fill it, but this difficulty may be over-
come, to a certain extent, by putting in a pad of paper or











excelsior-paper being preferable. Fill the packages on a
solid floor, shaking them down well and putting in all they
will hold, placing the pad, if one has to be used, in the
bottom.
On the outside of the packages before shipping should
be placed the name of the grower, the variety, the number
of pounds and the shipping directions. Small boxes to
be shipped by express for the holiday trade should be wrap-
ped in good quality wrapping paper before shipping.
MARKETINo.-The best plan for marketing good pecan
nuts is to build up a private trade. As a matter of fact.
at the present time but very few of the large, full-meated
pecans find their way into the general market. They are
either taken by seedsmen or consumed by private cus-
tomers. In building up a private trade advertising has
its place, of course. Advertisements inserted in maga-
zines or papers, particularly in those which are published
in the tourist towns of the State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private cus-
tomer a package, bright, neat, attractive and containing
the best quality of nuts. If a certain price per pound is
fixed for a given quality, then this should not be varied
under any circumstances. Each year the same quality of
nuts should be given to each customer. It will not do to
give large ones one year and smaller ones the next; this
tends to create dissatisfaction. In some of the larger
cities there are high-class fruit dealers who handle nothing
but fruits, nuts, etc., of the very highest quality. Under
some circumstances it might be well to enter into nego-
tiations with such firms.

VARIETIES.

Although the pecan industry is not old, yet a very con-
siderable number of varieties has been brought forward.
Not all of these are or have been meritorious, and in fact
many varieties are now represented by name alone. Other
varieties are comparatively new, and no one can speak
authoritatively of what they will do over a wide range
of territory. Still other varieties have been propagated
by buds or grafts for a number of years with the result
that they have been tested fairly well over the country.
Some of the varieties so tried have proved satisfactory,
others have not. Of the older varieties, Stuart, Van










Deman and Frotscher have been found satisfactory in
nearly all cases, while Centennial and Rome have proved
so unsatisfactory that they have been cut out of the lists
of many propagators. It is doubtful whether a more worth-
less nut has ever been propagated and sold than that much
named variety, Rome, Columbian, Pride of the Coast,
Century, Twentieth Century, etc. For Florida planters
the best advice that can be given is to plant neither Cen-
tennial nor Rome. They either do not bear enough fruit
or that which they do produce is inferior or poorly filled
out. Van Deman, Stuart and Frolscher, on the other
hand, have generally borne full crops of nuts of good
quality.
A satisfactory commercial pecan nut must be prolific,
of good size, good quality, must not be spasmodic in its
bearing, plump, with a bright, presentable exterior and
preferably a light-colored kernel. The nuts should, be-
sides, yield sixty per cent. or upwards of kernels. All
these things in one variety make a difficult combination
to secure. Undue weight must not, however, be given to
size, for size and quality are usually antagonistic to each
other. In fact, in pecans as in other fruits we must go to
the small or medium sized ones for the best quality. No
variety of pecan is superior to San Saba in quality, yet
it is a small nut. Other varieties which may be regarded
as standards of quality are Schley and Curtis. The former
is a medium to a large nut and medium prolific variety,
while Curtis is of medium size, precocious and prolific.
Moneymaker is reported as doing well in Louisiana, and
being a medium-sized nut, it is likely to succeed in Flor-
ida; but the shell is rather thick. Georgia has proved to
be a prolific and precocious bearer. Nearly all of the
varieties given in the following list have been reported
upon favorably by dil'erent growers.
In planting pecans, no greater mistake than that of
planting a large number of varieties can be made. At
most the plantings should be confined to four or five va-
rieties. If the grower desires to experiment, and it is a
good thing to do, then a tree or two of a number of other
varieties should be included in order to test their merits.
TVARIEMTI RECOMMENDED.-The following list contains
the varieties which are worthy the attention of Florida
planters. Not all of them have been thoroughly tested as
yet, and the reason for inserting them here is to urge










that this be done-not in large numbers, not in ten-acre
blocks, but in lots of two or three trees. In the mean time,
until our knowledge of the varieties and their adaption is
increased, the safest advice that can be given the Florida
planter by the writer is to confine himself to Curtis,
Frotscher, Schley, Stuart, Van Deman. This list for plant-
ing in the western part of the State may be supplemented
by Bolton, Sweetmeat and Georgia. Pabst and Russell are
also much in favor with a good many growers. Con-
tinued improvements in those we have and equally as val
able additions are of course to be expected from time
to time.
REMARKS.

While we believe pec' n growing to be a fine investment,
we advise conservatism; do not plant more than can be
properly cared for; the industry has come to stay and with
time it will grow to vast proportions. We do not believe
that any person living today will ever see the demand
wholly supplied let alone a glutted market. The best
grade of pecans are bringing about 50 cts. per pound, but
if this price is reduced in time as low as ten cents per
pound there is more money in growing them than there
is in most of the standard crops under good management.
So we say to the young or the middle-aged man or woman
engaged in or about to engage in either general or special
farming, to plant pecans in proportion to their ability to
care for them properly-it will pay them.






















PART III.


Fertilizers,
Feed Stuffs, and
Foods and Drugs


4-Bul.











REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND
FO\WARlDING OF FERTILIZER OR COMMERCIAL
FEEDING STUFF SAMPLES TO TlHE COMM1S-
SIONER OF AGRICULTURE.

SECTION 15 OF THE LAWS.
Special samples of Fertilizers or ('CoIaercial Feeding
Stulrs sent in by purchasers, under Section 9 of the laws,
shall be drawn in the presence of two disinterested wit-
nesses, from one or more packages, thoroughly mixed, and
A FAIR SAMPLE OF THE SAME OF NOT LESS THAN EIGHT OUNCES
(ONE-HALF POUND) SHALL BE PLACED IN A CAN OR BOTTLE,
SEALED AND SENT BY A DISINTERESTED PARTY TO TIlE COM MIS-
SIONER OF AGRICULTURE AT TALLAHASSEE. NOT LESS THAN
EIGHT OUNCES, IN A TIN CAN OR BOTTLE, WILL BE ACCEPTED
FOR ANALYSIS. This rule is adopted to secure fair samples
of sufficient size to make the necessary determinations,
and to allow the preservation of a duplicate sample in case
of protest or appeal. This duplicate sample will be pre-
served for two mo1llhs from date of certificate of analysis.
The Sthite Chemist is not the proper officer to receive
special samples from the purchaser. The propriety of the
method of drawing and sending the samples as fixed by
the law is obvious.
The drawing and sending of special samples in rare cases
is in compliance with law. Samples are frequently sent in
paper packages or paper boxes, badly packed, and fre-
quently in very small quantity (less than ounce); fre-
quently there are no marks, numbers or other means of
identification; the postmark in some instances being
absent.
I would cail the attention of those who desire to avail
themselves of this privilege to Sections 9 and 10 of the law,
which are clear and explicit.
Hfereafter strict compliance with above regulations will
be required. The sample must not be lIsss thiu one-half
pound. in a can or bottle, sealed and addressed to the
Commissioner of A griculture. The sender's name and ad-
dress must a(lso be on the package. this rule applying to
special samples of fertilizers or commercial feeding stuff.












INSTRUCTIONSS TO MANUFACTURERS AND
DEALERS.

Each package of Commercial Fertilizer and each pack-
r-ge of (C'oinimercial Feeding Stauf must have, securely
attached thereto, a tag with thie guaranteed an:alsis re-
qtlired bv law. and the stamp showing the payment of th,
inspector's fee. Thlii provision of the law--Section 3 of
both la s--will b)e rigidly enforced].
Mania:';',ctuirers ;and dealers will be required to properly
tog and stnimp each package of Coimmercial Fertilizer or
Conmmerci;l Feeding Stuff under penalty as fixed in See
tion 6 of both laws. Tags shall be attached to the top
end of each bhig. or head of each barrel.

INSTRUCTIONS TO PUIRCHIIASERS.

Purchasers are cautioned to purchase no Commercial
Fertilizers or Commercial Feedinig Stiff that does not bear
on ach package an analysis tag with the guarantee re-
quired by law, and the stamp showing the ipavym(ent of the
inspector's fee. Goods not ha ving the guarantee t:ig and
stamp are irregular and fraudulent; tlhe absence of the
guarantee and stamp being evidence that the mianufrcturer
or dealer has not complied with the law. Without the guar.
antee tg a nd stamp showing what the goods are gunran
teed to contain, the lpulrchaser Is no recourse against the
manufacturer or dealer.. Such goods are sold illegally and
fraudulently, and are generally of little value. All repu-
table manufacturers and de:niers now comply strictly with
the law and regulations by placing the guarantee tag and
stamp on each package.

INSTRUCTIONS TO SHERIFFS.

The attention of Sheriffs of the various counties is called
to Section 3 of both laws, defining their duties. This de-
partment expects each Sheriff to assist in maintaining the.
law and protecting the citizens of the State from the impo-
sition of fraudulent, inferior or deficient Commercial Fer
tilizers or Commercial Feeding Stuffs.












MARKET PRICES OF CHEMICALS AND FERTIL-
IZING MATERIALS AT FLORIDA SEA
PORTS, JANUARY 1, 1909.


Ammoniates.
Nitrate of Soda, 17 per cent.
Ammonia ...............
Sulphate of Ammonia 25 per
cent Ammonia ...........

Dried Blood 17 per cent. Am-
m onia ..................
Dried Blood 15 per cent. Am-
m onia ..................


Less than 5 to 10 10 tons
5 tons. tons. & over.

$60.00 $59.50 $59.00

74.00 73.50 73.00


60.00 50.50 59.00

54.00 53.50 53.00


POTASH.


High Grade Sulphate Potash
48 per cent. Potash (K20) .
Low Grade Sulphate Potash
26 per cent. Potash ( K0) .
Muriate of Potash 50 per
cent Potash (K,? ) ......
Carbonate of Potash, 60 per
cent. Potash (KO) (90 per
cent. Carbonate of Potash)
Nitrate Potash, 13 Ams., 42
Potash (K,0O)............
Kainit 12 per cent Potash...
Canada Hardwood Ashes 4
per cent. (K20) Potash...


50.00 49.50 49.00

30.00 29.50 29.00

46.00 45.50 44.00


110.00

84.00 83.50 83.00
13.00 12.50 12.00

17.00 16.50 16.00


AMMONIA AND PHOSPHORIC ACID.


High Grade Blood and Bone,
10 per cent. Ammonia.....
Low Grade Blood and Bone,
6- per cent. Ammonia, 8
per cent. Phosphoric Acid.
'Raw Bone 4 per cent. Am-
monia, 22 per cent. Phos-
phoric Acid..............


40.00 39.50 39.00


31.00 29.50 29.00


32.00 31.50 31.00












Less than
Ammoniates. 5 tons.
Ammonia and Phosphoric Acid:
Ground Castor Pomace, 6
per cent. Ammonia, 2 per
cent Ilhosphori( Avcid .... .$25.00
Brihr Cottonseed Meal, 8
per cent. Ammonia, market
quotations .............. 31.00
Dark Cottonseed Meal, 5
per cent. Ammonia, market
quotations .............. 24.00


5 to 10 10 tons
tons. & over.



$24.50 $24.00


29.50 29.00


23.50 23.00


'POSPHORIC ACID.


High (frade Phosphoric Acid,
1(i percent. Available Phos-
phoric Acid .............
Acid Phosphate, 14 per cent.
Available Phosphoric Acid.
Boneblack, 17 per cent.
Available Phosphoric Acid.
Odorless Phosphate ........


15.00

14.00

24.00
25.00


14.50 14.50

13.50 13.00

23.50 23.00
24.50 24.00


MISCELLANEOUS.


H. G. Ground Tobacco Stems,
3 per cent. Ammonia, 9 per
cent. Potash .............
Pulverized Ground Tobacco
Stem s ..................
Tobacco Dust, No. 1, 3 per
cent. Ammonia, 5 per cent.
(K,0) Potash ...........
Tobacco Dust, No. 2, 1 per
cent. Ammonia, 11 per
cent. Potash ............
Dark Tobacco Stems, baled..
Land Plaster in sacks .......


25.00

16.00


23.00


19.00
15.00
10.50


24.50 24.CO

15.50 15.00


22.50 22.00


18.50
14.50
10.25


18.00
14.00
10.00


The charges by reputable manufacturers for mixing and
bagging any special or regular formula are $1.50 per ton
in excess of above prices.











NEW YORK WHOLESALE PRICES CURRENT JAN.
1, 1909-FERTILIZER MATERIALS.

AMAMONIATES.


Ammonia, sulphaie, foreign, spot, per 100
lbs. ......................... ........... $ 2.85
futures ...................... 2.871 @
Ammonia. sulphate, domestic, spot...... 2.87;()i
futures ...................... 2.90 @
Fish scrap. dried, 11 p.c. ammonia and 14
p. lnho pbhosimlnate, f o i. b. fil: works,
per unit .......................... 2.65 &
wel, acidulated, 6 p.c. ammonin, 3
p.e. phosphoric acid, f. o. b. fish
works ...................... 2.40 &
Ground fislh gunno. inmporled, 10 and 11
p.c. .1mmonia and 1,5-17 p.c. bone phos-
plhate, c. i. f. N. Y., Balio. or Phila.. 2.75 &
Tankage, 11 p.e. and 15 p.e., f. o. b. Chi-
cago .............................. 2.'30 &
Tankage. 9 and 20 p.c. f.o.h. Chicago.. 2.20 &
Tankage, and 25 p.c, f.o.b. Chicago. 15.00 @
Tankage, concentrated, f. o. 1. Chicago,
14 to 15 per cent f. o. b. Chicago.... 2.25 @
Garbage, tankage .................... 6.00 @
Sheep manure. concentrated, f. o. b.
Chicago. per ton ................... 7.50 c@
Hooflncal. f. o. b. Chica( o, per unit.... 2.30 (?i
Dried blood, 12-13 p. c. ammonia, f. o. b.
New York ......................... 2.00 @ ;
Dried blood. high grade, f. o. b. Chicago. 2.50 (0
Nitrate of soda, 95 p. c. spot, ptr 100 lbs 2.15 @
futures, 95 p. c............... 2.15 @


2.871
2.90
2.90
2.924


10


35


8.00


2.35

26.65
2.55
2.17)
2.17J


PIIOSPHATES.


Acid phosphate, per unit ............... 50 @ 55
Bones, raw. per ton .................... 20.00 @ --
ground, steamed, 3 p. c. ammo-
nia and 50 p. c. bone phosphate 24.00 @ -
unground, steamed .......... 17.50 @ 18.00












South Carolina phosphate rock, undried,
per 2.4(10 lbs., f. o. b. Ashley River....
South Carolina phosphate rock, hot air
dried, f. o. b. Ashley River .........
Florida land pebble phosphate rock, 68
p. c., f. o. h. 'ori Tamipa, Fla........
Florida high grade phosphate hard rocks,
77 p. c.. f. o. b. Florida or Georgia ports
Georgia ports ................
Tennessee lphosplhate rock, f. o. b. Mt.
Pleasamnt domestic. ier ton, 78(0 SO p.c.
7.5 p. c. guaranteed ............
8S@ 72 p. c...................
IOTASHIES.

Muriate potash, basis 8( p). c. per 100 lbs.
Manure salt. 20 p. c. actual potash ....
double manure salt, 48 p. c...
Sul phate lpot:sh (b sis 9 ) p. c.)........
Kainit in bulk, 2,240 lbs ..............


5.50 @ 5.75

7.00 @ 7.75

3.25 @ 3.50

9.25 @ 9.75
9.25 @ 9.75


5.00
4.75
4.00


@ 5.50
@ 5.00
@ 4.25


1.90 @
14.75 @
1.16(@
2.18 @
8.50 @












STATE VALUATIONS.

For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia
and Potash for the Season of 1909.

Available Phosphoric Acid............ 5 cents a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .............1 cent a pound
Ammonia( or its equivalent in nitrogen) 16t cents a pound
Potash (as actual potash (K,0)........ 5 cents a pound
If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid............... $1.00 per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid...............20 c. per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen). .$3.30 per unit
Potash ................................. 1.10 per unit

With a uniform allowance of $1.50 per ton for mixing
and bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent, in a ton. We
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of fertilizer. To illustrate this take for
example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows.
Available Phosphoric Acid... 6.22 per cent.x$1.00-$ 6.22
Insoluable Phosphoric Acid..1.50 per cent.x .20- .30
Ammonia ............... .3.42 per cent.x 3.30- 11.28
Potash .....................7.23 per cent.x 1.10- 7.95
Mixing and Bagging................ .............- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports..................$27.25

Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:

Available Phosphoric Acid ....8 per cent.x$1.00-$ 8.00
Ammonia ................. .2 per cent.x 3.30- 6.60
Potash .....................2 per cent.x 1.10- 2.20
Mixing and Bagging ........................- 1.50

Commercial value at seaports................. .$18.30

The above valuations are for cash for materials deliv-
ered at Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one
ton lots at these prices at the date of issuing this Bulle-
tin. Where fertilizers are bought at interior points, the
additional freight to that point must be added.












If purchased in carload lots for cash, a reduction of
ten per cent. can be made in above valuations, i. e:
Available Phosphoric Acid ............90 cents per unit
Potash (K,O) .....................99 cents per unit
Ammonia (or equivalent in nitrogen)... .$2.9'i per unit

The valuations and market prices in succeeding illus-
trations, are based, on market prices for one-ton lots.

STATE VALUES.

It is not intended by the "State valuation" to fix the
price or commercial value of a given brand. The "State
values" are the market prices for the various approved
chemicals and materials used in mixing or manufacturing
commercial fertilizers or commercial stock feed at the
date of issuing a bulletin, or the opening of the "season."
They may, but seldom do, vary from the market prices,
and are made liberal to meet any slight advance or
decline.
They are compiled from price lists and commercial
reports by reputable dealers and journals.
The question is frequently asked: "What is 'Smith's
Fruit and Vine' worth per ton?" Such a question cannot
be answered categorically. By analysis, the ammonia,
available phosphoric acid, and potash may be determined,
and the inquirer informed what the cost of the necessary
material to compound a ton of goods similar to "Smith's
Fruit and Vine" would be. using none but accepted and
well known materials of the best quality.
State values do not consider "trade secrets," loss on
bad bills, cost of advertisements, and expenses of collec-
tions. The "State value" is simply that price at which
the various ingredients necessary to use in compounding
a fertilizer, or feed, can be purchased for cash in ton lots
at Florida sea ports.
These price lists in one, five and ten lots, are published
in this report, with the "State values" for 1909 deducted
therefrom.











58


COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
NITROGENOUS MATERIALS.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED


Phosphoric
Ammonia Acid


Potash


Nitrate of Soaa..........
Sulphate of Ammonia ...
Dried Blood..............
Concentrated Tankage....
Bone Tankage ...........
Dried Fish Scrap........
Cotton Seed Meal .........
Hoof Meal .............


17 to 19 ............ ............
21 to 24 ............ ............
12 to 17 ........... **. *.** .
12 to 5 5 1 to 2 ............
6 to 9 10 to 15...........
8 to 11 6 to 8 ...........
7 to 10 2 to 3 1I to 2
13 to 17 1l to 2 ............


PHOSPHATE MATERIALS.
PO[JNI)S PER HUNDRED


Available
Ammonia Phos. Acid

Florida Pebbei Phosphate. ......... .......
Florida Rock Phosphate.............. ............
Florida Super Phosphate.............. 14 to 19
Ground Bone ............ 3 to 6 5 to 8
Steamed Bone .......... 3 to 4 6 to 9
Dissolved Bone ......... 2 to 4 13 to 15


Insoluble
Phosphoric
Acid

26 to 32
33 to 35
1 to 35
15 to 17
10 to 20
2 to 3


POTASH MATERIALS AND FARM MANURES.
POUNDS PER HUNDRED


Actual I Phosphoric
Potash Ammonia. a ci Lime

Muriate of Potash....... 50 ......... ......... .........
Sulphate of Potash...... 48 to 52 ......... ......... .........
Carbonate of Potash .... 55 to 30 ......... .................
Nitrate of Potash...... 40 to 44 12 to 16 ........ .........
Double Sul. of Pot. & Mag 26 to 30 ......... ........ .........
Kainit ................. 12 to 124 ......... ..... .. .......
Sylvinit ............... 16 to 20 ......... .................
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.. 15 to 30......... 7 to 9 10
Wood Ashes, unleashed.. 2 to 8 ......... 1 to 2 .........
Wood Ashes. leached.... 1 to 2 ......... 1 to 1i 35 to 40
Tobacco Stems... ..... 5 to 8 2 to 4 ......... 3,
Cow Manure (fresh).... 0.40 0 to 41 0.16 0.31
Horse Manure (fresh).. 0.53 0 to 60 0.28 0.31
Sheep Manure (fresh).. 0.67 1.00 0.23 0.33
Hog Manure (fresh).... 0.60 0.55 0.19 0.08
Hen Dung (fresh)...... 0.85 2.07 1.54 0.24
Mixed Stable Manure....( 0.63 0.76 0.26 0.70












FACTORS FOR CONVERSION.

To convert--
Ammonia into nitrogen, multiply by............ 0.824
Ammonia into protein by...................... 5.15
Nitrogen into ammonia, multiply by............ 1.214
Nitrate of soda into nitrogen, multiply by...... 16.47
Nitrogen into protein, by....................... 6.25
Bone phosphate into phosphoric acid, multiply by 0.458
Phosphoric acid into bone phosphate, multiply by 2.184
Murinte of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.632
Actual polash into muriate of potash. multiply by 1.583
Sulphate of potash into actual potash, multiply by 0.541
Actual potash into sulphate of potash, multiply by 1.85
Nitrate of potash into nitrogen, multiply by...... 0.139
Carbonate of poaish into ctual potash, multiply by 0.681
A actual potf'sh into carbonate of potnsh,n;nllliply by 1.466
Chlorine, in 'kainit," multiply potash (KO) by.. 2.33

For instance, you buy 95 per cent. of nitrate of soda
and want to know how much nitrogen is in it. multiply 95
per cent. by 16.47 you will get 15.(;5 per cent. nitrogen;
you want to know how much ammonia this nitrogen is
equivalent to, then multiply 15.65 per cent. by 1.214 and
you get 18.99 per cent., the equivalent in ammonia.
Or. to convert 90 per cent. carbonate of potash into
actual potash (K,0). multiply 90 by 0.681, equals 01.29
per cent. actual potash (K.O).


COPIES OF THE FERTILIZER AND STOCKFEED
LAWS.

Citizens interested in the fertilizer and stock feed laws
of the Slate, and desiring to avail themselves of their
protection. can obtain copies free of charge by sending for
same to the Commissioner of Agriculture.
COPIES OF THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG LAW.

Copies of the Pure Food and Drug Law, rules and
regulations, standards, blanks, etc., can be obtained from
the Commissioner of Agriculture.












SPECIAL SAMPLES.

It is shown by the number of "Special Samples" (those
dent in direct by the purchaser of fertilizers or feeds) that
the law is becoming more generally understood by the
farmer, fruit and vegetable grower. Purchasers who have
any reason to doubt the correctness of the guarantee on
the goods furnished them, should not hesitate to send in
samples for an analysis.
This right to have a sample of the goods purchased
analyzed by the State Chemist, under Section 9 of
the law-without charge-the inspection fees covering the
cost of analysis, as well as inspection-has doubtless had
a direct influence upon the increased quality of the goods
sold in the State. When properly drawn, sealed, wit-
nessed and transmitted, the "Special Sample" has proved
a safeguard to the consumer, legitimate ,dealer, and man-
ufacturer, and a check upon the careless, ignorant, or
fraudulent vendor or manufacturer.
It furnishes the consumer with the same protection
demanded by the manufacturer, who buys his materials
only upon the guarantee, and pays for them according to
analysis.
By far the largest amount of commercial fertilizers used
in Florida are manufactured or mixed by factories in
the State. Large amounts of fertilizing materials are
imported direct by factories and dealers located at our
seaport cities; cargoes of potash salts direct from Ger-
many are now frequently received by Florida importers,
while large amounts of acid phosphate are manufactured
at and exported from the various Gulf and Atlantic ports.
Florida consumers may now purchase their fertilizers
and chemicals at Florida seaports as cheaply as at any of
the seaports of the country.
Tables of the average composition of feeds and ferti-
lizer materials will be found in this bulletin. The con-
sumer should consult them, compare the guarantee tag
therewith, and if doubtful of the truthfulness of the
"guarantee," send a "Special Sample" in a tin can to the
Commissioner of Agriculture for analysis, as directed in
regulations governing the taking and sending of special
samples-on another page.











AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL
FEEDSTUFFS.


NAME OF FEED



Bright Cott'n Seed Meal

Dark Cotton Seed Meal

Linseed Meal ........

Wheat Bran .........

Middlings ...........

Mixed Feed (wheat)..

Corn Meal ...........

Corn (grain) ........

Corn Cobs ...........

Corn and Cob Meal....
Corn and Oats, cq'l pts.I

W heat ..............

O ais ................

Soja Beans ..........
Velvet Beans & Hulls..

Rice Hulls ..........

Gluten Meal .........

Gluten Feed .........

Barley ... ..........

Barley and Oats equallyl
parts) ...... .. .


I-






9.351

20.031

8.76

8.12

5.171

7.80

1.64

2.101

30.101

6.601

5.801

1.80

9.50
4.80
9.20

35.70

1.251

7.311

9.68


9.59


zd



39.70 28.58S

22.89 37.141

34.70 35.91

15.49 55.151

16.821 58.741

16.861 54.44f

8.73 71.321

10.501 69.601
2.40 54.901

8.501 64.801
11 15 64.651

11.90 71.991

11.80 59.701
I
34.00 28.00I

19.701 51.30

3.601 38.60

37.061 46.52

24.17 54.30

14.00 33.35


12.901 46.621


7.78

5.48

5.34

3.861
I
4.171

4.79

3.141
5.401

0.50

3.501
5.201

2.10

5.001

16.501
4.50

0.70

3.27

3.44
3.76


5.84

4.99

6.12

5.98

4.50

5.30

1.20

1.50

1.40

1.50
230

1.80

3.09

5.40

3.30

13.20

0.68

1.80
2.40


2.75









62

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL FEED)
STEFFS-(Continued.)



NAME OF FEED, 7



Homin v Feed ........ 4.(5 10.49 ( .27 7.851 2.51

Rye Products (bran) .. -.1 -7 1.57! 61.2~ 3,.i02 :.80

Barley Sprouts ... ... 10.041 27.201 42.6(;i 1 ..5 (.3

Distillers' Orains ..... 12.!)901 2.23 : .'l 12.0' 1.8
I I I I
Oat Feed .......... 2(0.5)71 7.911 54.58 2.2 (; 5. t

Provender ........... 2. !.1! 10.621 67.341 4.031 1.83

Ship Stuff ........... I 5.(; 11.61 59.80 4.97 3.7t

Victor Feed .......... .11.501 8.29! 64.05! 2.I 0I :.441

XXX Corn & Oat Feedsl 9.941 !.6 6 .6(i! 5.0! 3.24

Corn & Oats Feeds.... 12.091 8.783 61.73 :8.73l 3.22

Proprietary Horse F'ds 9.57 12.48 60.54 4.27 2.83

Molasses Feeds ....... 8.491 10.241 51.72 1.79! 0.18

Poultry Feeds ....... 4.G2 15.89 (0.27 5.32 27.63

Beef Scrap ........... ....... 44.701 3.28 11.75 29.20

Quaker Dairy Feed.... 15.53 14.42 52.12 4.05 5.31

Creamery Feed ....... 10.07 20.06 51.00 5.38 3.57

Purina Feed ......... 8.69 13.21 59.36 3.G1 3.60












COMMERCIAL STATE VALUES OF FEEDSTUFFS
FOR 1909.

For the season of 1909 tile following "State values"
are fixed as a guide to purcha'ers.
These values are based on the current price of corn,
whi li li.s Ieen chosen as a standard in fixing the coin-
miertial values; the price of corn. to a arge extent, gov-
erning tlie price of other feeds, pork, beef, etc.:

('OMiMERIAL 'VALUES OF F STUFFS FIST SOR 1909.

Protein, 3:} cents per pound ........... 6. cents per unit
Stai ch and Sugar, 1 cents per pound. .30 cents per unit
Fats, :t cents per pound .............. (5 cents per unit
A unit being 20 pounds (1 per cent) of a ton.
Indian corn being tie s;inidard @ $30.00 per ton.
To find, the commercial State value, multiply the per-
cent ages by the price per unit.

EXAMPLE NO. 1.

HOMINY FEED-

Protein. ....................... 10.49 x 65e, A 6.S1
Starch and Sugar .............. (r.27 x .10c, 19.58
Fats... ...................... 7.85 x 65e, 5.10

State value per ton ...................... 31.49

EXAMPLE No. 2.

CORN AND OAT FEED-

Protein ..................... .11.15 x 6R e, S 7.25
Stareh and Sugar ............. .4..5 x 30c. 19.40
Fats. ..................... .5.20 x 65c, 3.38

State value per ton ......................$30.03












FORMULAS.

There are frequent inquiries for formulas for various
crops, and there are hundreds of such formulas published;
and while there are hundreds of "Brands" the variations
in these grades are surprisingly little. Dozens of
"Brands" put up by the same manufacturer are identical
goods, the only difference being in the name printed on
the tag or sack. A good general Formula for field or
garden might be called a "Vegetable Formula." and
would have the following: Ammonia 31%, available
phosphoric acid G-%, and potash 71%. The following
formulas will furnish the necessary plant food in about
the above proportion. I have purposely avoided the use
of any fraction of 100 pounds in these formulas to sim-
plify them. Values are taken from price lists furnished
by the trade, which we published in our Report of Jan-
uary 1, 1909.
For Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes, and Vegetables:
Ammonia 3 per cent., available phosphoric acid G6 per
cent., potash 7- per cent.

(A) "VEGETABLE."

No. 1.
Per Cent.
900 pounds of Cotton Seed Meal (74-2-1l) ...... 3.25 Ammonia
800 pounds of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).... 6.40 Available
300 pounds of Muriate (or Sulphate) (50 per cent) 7.50 Potash
2000
Commercial value mixed and bagged......$28.60
Plant Food per ton..................... 343 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
1000 lbs of Blood and Bone (60-8)........ 3.25 Ammonia
400 Ibs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 7.00 Avail Phos.
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot.(26 per ct.) 7.80 Potash
2000
Commercial value mixed and bagged...... $30.20
Plant Food per ton ...................... 360 pounds














No. 3.
Per Cent.
300 lbs of Dried Blood (16 per cent.) ..... 25 Ammonia
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.)... 3.25 Ammonia
1000 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)... 0 Avaiable
600 lbs of Low Grade Sulp. Pot. (26 per ct.) 7.0 Potah

2000
Commercial value mixed and bagged......$31.00
Plant Food per ton........................ 381 pounds


(B) "FRUIT AND VINE."

No. 1.

Fruits, Melons, Strawberries, Irish Potatoes: Ammonia 4 per
cent., Available Phosphoric Acid 7 per cent., Potash 10 per cent.


1000 lbs of Blood aad Bone (64-8)........
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per ecnt.)..
500 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)..
400 lbs of Muriate of Potash (50 per ct.) ..

2000


Per Cent.
4 Ammonia
8 Available
10 Potash


Commercial value mixed and bagged...... $34.00
Plant Food per ton..........................440pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
500 lbs of Castor Poniace (6-2 per cent.).. 4.00 Ammonia
200 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.)... .70 Available
900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. vable
400 lbs of Sulp. of Pot. (48 per cent.)... : 9.0 Potash

2000
Commercial value mixed and bagged......$32.25
Plant Food per ton ........................ 426 pounds

No. 3.

Per Cent.
500 lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (74-21-1) ....
100 lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.).. 3.97 Ammonia
100 lbs of Sulp. of Am. (25 per cent.).... 8.30 Available
900 lbs of Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.).. 8.97 Potash
400 lbs of Sulp. of Potash (48 per cent.)..

2000
Commercial value mixed and bagged....... .$31.65
Plant Food per ton ...................... 425 pounds


5-Bul.


















300
400
200
750
300
50

2000


No. 4.

lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42)..... .
lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-3)............
lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)


Per Cent.
4.45 Ammonia
10.00 Available
11.55 Potash


Commercial value mixed and bagged....... $39.50
Plant Food per ton........................ 520 pounds


(C) "TOBACCO FORMULAS."

No. 1.
Per Cent.
Ibs of Carb. of Pot. (60 per cent)....
lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-5) ............ 3.05 Ammonia
lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (71-2b-1) .... 8.95 Available
lbs of Bone Meal (4-10) .............. 10.50 Potash
lbs of concentrated Pros. (25 per cent.)
lbs of Nitrate of Soda (17 per cent.)...


Commercial value per ton mixed and bagged.$38.30
Plant Food per ton........................ 440 pounds

No. 2.
Per Cent.
lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42)......
Ibs of Carbonate of Potash (60 per ct.). 3.05 Ammonia
lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-3)............I 8.95 Available
lbs of Bone Meal (3-12).............. 10.50 Potash
lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)


Commercial value mixed and bagged......$38.30
Plant Food per ton........................ 440 pounds

No. 3.
Per Cent.
lbs of Nitrate of Potash (13-42)......
lbs of Cotton Seed Meal (7j-24-1) .... 4.20 Ammonia
lbs of Tobacco Dust (2-5)............ 9.45 Available
lbs of Bone Meal (3-12) ................ 10.20 Potash
lbs of concentrated Phos. (25 per cent.)


Commercial value mixed and bagged........ $37.15
Plant Food per ton........................ 477 pounds












SOIL ANALYSES.

We frequently have samples of soil sent in for analysis
and a request to advise as to the best methods of fertilizing.
Excepting in extreme cases such as 1-eavy Clays, Pure
Sand, and Muck Lands, there is but little information
to be derived from a soil analysis that would be of benefit
to farmers. So much depends on tilth, drainage, culture,
and other physical conditions, that an analysis made
under laboratory conditions is of little value. In this
connection we quote from the Report of the Indiana
Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University,
Lafayette. Indiana, as follows:
"SoIL ANALYSIS OF LITTLE VALUE IN SHOWING FERTILIZER
REIQUIREM1ENTs.-The Chemical Department is called upon
to answer hundreds of letters of inquiry in relation to
agricultural chemical problems from people all over the
State. In this connection it might be well to say that
there is a widespread idea that the chemist can analyze
a sample of soil, and without further knowledge of the
conditions, write out a prescription of a fertilizer which
will fill the needs of that particular soil.
The Experiment Station does not analyze samples of
soil to determine the fertilizer requirements. There is
no chemical method known that will show reliably the
availability of the plant food elements present in the soil
as this is a variable factor, influenced by the kind of crop,
the type of soil, the climate and biological conditions;
hence we do not recommend this method of testing soil.
The method recommended by the Indiana Station is
the field fertilizer test or plot system, in which long nar-
row strips of the field' to be tested are measured off side
by side. The crop is planted uniformly over each. Dif-
ferent fertilizers are applied to the different plots, every
third or fourth one being left unfertilized. The produce
from these plots is harvested separately and weighed. In
this manner the farmer can tell what fertilizer is best
suited for his needs. As climatic conditions may influ-
ence the yield with different fertilizers, it is best to carry
on such tests for more than one year before drawing defi-
nite conclusions. There is positively no easier or shorter
method of testing the soil, that we feel safe in recom-
mending.












Soil can be greatly improved by an intelligent rotation
of crops, the conservation of stable manure, and the use
of some kind of commercial fertilizer. Farmers need have
no fear that the proper application of commercial fertil-
izer will injure the land.

WATER ANALYSIS.

We frequently analyse water for public use, city, town
and neighLborhood supplies; springs and artesian wells in
which the public is interested; and for individuals when
a question of health or when sone economic question is to
be decided, such as the use of water for boilers or similar
uses.
We do not make a complete quantitative determination,
seplaraling each mineral impurity and definitely stating
the quantity thereof. Such an analysis would be costly in
time and labor and of no real value to the inquirer. We
determine the total amount of minerals in the sample an.d
report them as paris per 100.000 of total solids, naming
them in the order of their predominance. We find Cal-
cimn Carbonate (Lime), followed by Sodium Chloride
(Salt), Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom Salt), Silicia
(Sand), and Aluminum Oxide (Clay) is the general order
in which they occur, though on the coast where 1he total
of solids amount to 500 parts or more per 100,000 parts
we find Salt is the predominant substance, followed by
Lime and then Epsom Salt.
We require two gallons of each sample in a new jug,
stopt with a new cork, not sealed with parafine or seal-
ing wax, by prepaid express for analysis. We require also
a description of the source of the water, kind and depth of
well, location of well or spring by Section, Township and
Range.
We do not make bacterial examinations, or examina-
tions for disease germs. Such examinations or analyses,
are made by the State Board of Health at Jacksonville.









BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS.
R E. ROSE, State Chemist. L. IEIMBUR(OR. A'sistant Chemist.
Analyses of Special Samples under Sec. 9, Act approved May 22, 1901.
(Samples taken by purchaser.)

Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. S a ; BY \0'!OM SENT.
S FI 1 -

M ..

Fertilizer No. 1 ............ 11869 8.39 7.69 0.16 7.85 3.85 12.351 C. W. Stevens, Thonotosassa, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2............ 1870 8. 0l 7.25 u.14 7.39 3.94 12.91 C. W. Stevens, Thonotosassa, Fla.
Muriate of Potash.......... 1871 ...... ..... .... ..... ...... 49.08 Ed. Chasan, W illis, Fla.
Fertilizer "A-2" ........... 1872 5.44 6 .3 0.02 6.38 5.10 6.22 J. R. Williams, Citra, Fla.
Cotton Seed eall .......... 1873 ... . .... . ... .. 4.84 ...... Fla. Cotton Oil Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1............ 1874 12.8S! 11.30 0.41 11.71 2.06 2.91 S. H. Bass, Milton, Fla.
Cotton Seed Meal No. 3. 1875 ... . ...... ...... 4.01 ...... S. H. Bass, Mlilton, Fla.
Fertilizer ................. 1876 ...... 6.95 0.83 7.781 4.87 6.85 Frank McCord, Largo, Fla.
Fertilizer ................. 1877 .... 8.75 0.22 8.971 4.04 10.83 Dan W. Roberts, Redland, Fla.
Fertilizer "A" ............. 1878 8.23. .. ...... G.G 4.38 8.51 Wm. J. Krome, Marathon, Fla.
Fertilizer "B"......... 1879 9.7 ........... 7.0 4.44 6.71 Wm. J. Krome, Marathon, Fla.
Fertilizer "C" .......... ...1880 8.78; ............. 6.73 4.71 8.23 Wm. J. Krome, Marathon, Fla.
Fertilizer ................. 1881 11.7 10..95: 0.47 11.42 2.08 1.991 C. D. Thompson, Sullivan, Fla.
Fertilizer (Ground Bone).. 1882 ...... 6.02' 13.58 19.60 6.15 ..... C. F. Wolf, Jenoen, Fla.
Fertilizer ................. 1883 9.92 7.351 1.41 8.7G 2.001 11.04 H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
Fertilizer ................. 1884 8.831 5.GG! 2.33 7.991 3.741 8.281 R. D. Hoyt, Clearwater, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1........... 1885 8.01I 9.10! 0.17! 9.271 3.181 10.30 M. V. McMullen, Seminole, Fla.











BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND.




Fertilizer No. 2............ 1886 8.931
Fertilizer ................. 1887 16.901
Fertilizer ................. 1888 15.88|
Fish Guano (Dried Fish) ... 1889 ......
Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture). 1890 7.17
Fertilizer ................. 1891 4. 5C
Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture). 1892 9.11]
Fertz. (Pineapple Mixture). 1893 7.39'
Fertilizer (Tankage) ...... 1894 ...... .
Fertilizer No. 1 ............ 18951......
Fertilizer No. 2 ........... 1896 ......
Fertilizer .................. 1897 15.61
Acid Phosphate ............ 1898 ......
Fertilizer No. 1............ 1899 6.28!
Fertilizer No. 2............ 1900 7.57]
Cotton Seed Meal .......... 1901 ...... I.
Fertilizer No. 1............ 1903 19.441
Fertilizer No. 2............ 1904 26.24
Fertilizer No. 3............ 1905 26.27
Fertilizer .................. 19061 20.60
Fertilizer (Tankage) ...... 1907 ...... .


Phosphoric Acid.








10.36 0.41 10.77

i I 6.25
4.20 9.19 13.394





11.17 0.55 11.72
1 .301 0.57 13.87
6.92. 1.94 8.86
7.051 4.121 11.17
4.10; Tr. 4.10
4.121 Tr. 4.12
6.50 Tr. 6.50
12.431 0.77 13.20!
. .... . ... 6 .00


- BY WHOM SENT.




3.10 10.241 M. V. McMullen, Seminole, Fla.
1.72 1.80 W. E. Cooley, Berrydale, Fla.
1.881 1.90 Frank Cooley, Berrydale, Fla.
12.34 ...... C. I. Baird, Gainesville, Fla.
8.80 7.15 John Sorensen, Jensen, Fla.
3.54 13.55 M. M. Morgan, Arcadia, Fla.
6.681 9.09 J. G. May, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
6.93: 8.76 J. G. May, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
10.70 ...... D. E. Austin, Jensen, Fla.
3.79 12.82 H. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
3.77 12.80 ri. A. Perry, Pomona, Fla.
1.70 2.07 J. E. Thompson, Sullivan, Fla.
........... J. E. Thompson, Sullivan, Fla.
2.98 10.99 Guss Garrison, Milton, Fla.
3.82 9.95 Guss Garrison, Milton, Fla.
6.93...... Pensacola Oil Mill, Pensacola, Fla.
3.46 8.07 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
3.77 7.36 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
2.521 11.69 D. S. Borland, Buckingham. Fla.
1.53 1.43i H. Powell, Campbellton, Fla.
10.50 ...... C. F. Wolf, Jensen, Fla.








Fertz. (Acid Phosphate)... 1908 ......I 17.87 0.45( 18.32 ... .. ..... D. G. Gordon, Red Rock, Fla.
Cotton Seed Meal .......... 1909 ...... ..... 7.55 ...... D. G. Gordon, Red Rock, Fla.
Fertilizer .................. 1910 6.22 1.85 2.11 3.96 6.04 8.26 M. K. Moore, Eldred, Fla.
Nitrate of Soda (Sweep-
ings) .................... 1911 ..... ...... ........... 16.04 ...... I .E. Dubuisson & Bro., Pensacola, Fla.
Tobacco Dust ............ 1912 .... .... ...... .. ........ 2.58 7.74 R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla.
H. G. Blood and Bone ..... 1913 ................... 15.26 11.52 ...... R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla.
Fish Guano ............... 1914 .............. ...... 7.73 10.28 ...... R. B. Campbell, Tampa, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1............ 1915 12.99. 12.861 0.22 13.08 ..... 3.47 Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2 (Acid Phos- I
phate) .................. 1916 ...... 17.76 0.08 17.84 ...... ...... Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 3 (Muriate of
Potash) ................. 1917 .................. ........ 51.48 Rowland Brown, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1............ |1918 14.16 10.09[ Tr 10.09 1.61 2.991 E. I. Murphy, Milton, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2............ 1919 13.86 8.42, 0.50 8.92 1.22 0.95 E. L. Murphy, Milton, Fla.
Tobacco Dust .............. .1920 ... ... .. ...... 2.40 9.52 C. I. Baird, Gainesville, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 1............ 1921 8.951 8.38 0.05 8.43 5.35 7.77 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
Fertilizer No. 2............ 1922 7.38 8.16 0.10 8.26 3.37 13.96 D. S. Borland, Buckingham, Fla.
Fertilizer .................. 1923 ...... 3.711 10.35 14.060 1.82 10.011 Henry W Smith, W auchula, Fla.
Fertilizer .................. 1924 6.15 6.311 8.111 14.42 5.60 5.20 M. B. Holly, Winter Haven, Fla.
No. 2 Tobacco Dust........ 1925 ...... ...... ...... ..... 2.45 9.54 C. I. Baird, Gainesville, Fla.
Kainit ..................... 1926 ............................... 13.15 John H. Blake, Tampa, Fla.
Tobacco Dust .............. 1927 ...... ............ ....... 2.60 9.99 John H. Blake, Tampa, Fla.











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE--DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 1909. L. HEIMBURGER, Assistant Chemist.
Samples Taken by the State Chemist Under Section 1, Act Approved May 22, 1901.


Phosphoric Acid.



5 -4
? s
CO 3
'^ 0 Ct


Marianna Home Mixture
Guano ................. 1350 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001 8.00 2.00 ...... 2.00
Official Analysis... 13.106 8.87 0.95 9.82 2.35

Liberty Bell Guano ...... 1351 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 8.00 ~ 2.00 ...... 2.00
Official Analysis... 13.14 10.55 0.33 10.881 2.031

Alabama Standard Guano. 1352iGuarant'd Analysis 10.001 8.00 2.00 ...... 2.00
1Official Analysis.. 10.911 9.79 0.371 10.161 1.96

Farmer's Fish Guano.... 1353 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 10.00 2.00
1 2.00 ...... 1 2.001


Kainit ................... 1354 Guarant'd Analysis 15.00 ...... . ............
Official Analysis......... ... ... ..... ......


BY WHOM AND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.


2.00lMarianna Mfg. Co., Ma-
2.48! rianna, Fla.

2.00 Ala. Chem. Co., Mont-
1.84 gomery, Ala.

2.001Ala. Chem. Co., Mont-
2.00! gomery, Ala.

2.00 Farmer's Fertilizer Co.,
2.21 Montgomery, Ala.

12.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
12.58 Jacksonville, Fla.
I


NAME, OR BRAND.


1 C5
'0l
P"









Bone Flour .............. 1355 Guarant'd Analysisl 10.00
Official Analysis.........
Armour's Corn and Cotton
Grower ................ 135G Guarant'd Analysis 10.001
Official Analysis... 10.201
Armour's Fruit and Root
Crop Special ........... 1357 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001
Official Analysis... 12.18

Sweet Potato Special..... 358 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00)
Official Analysis... 8.28S

Orange Fruiter .......... 1359 Guarant'd Analysis 10.00'
Official Analysis... 6.601

Tomato Special .......... 1360 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001
Official Analysis... 7.191

Melon Special ........... 1361 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00
Official Analysis... 7.40

Orange Tree Grower...... 1362 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001
S Official Analysis... 7.941

Vegetable Special ........ 1363 Guarant'd Analysis 10.001
Official Analysis... 7.581

Special Fruit and Vine. .11364 Guarant'd Analysis 8.001
S Official Analysis... 8.401
Georgia State Ammoniatedl
Superphosphate ........ 11365!Guarant'd Analysisl 10.001
I Official Analysis... 8.811


12.00|
9.371

7.00
7.73I

8.00
7.90

6.00
7.28S

6.00
6.69

5.00
6.371

6.00
7.211

6.00
7.451

6.001
6.761

6.00
7.071

8.00
6.811


14.00 ......
16.19 25.56

1. 00 ......
1.541 9.27

1.00[ ......
0.79: 8.69

2.00 8.00
1.28 8.56

1.00 7.00
0.10 6.79

1.00 ......
0.59 6.96

1.00 7.00
0.70 7.91

1.00 7.00
1.35 8.80

1.00 7.001
1.26 8.02

1.00 7.001
0.071 7.14

1.00 ......
3.021 9.83


3.50 ...... Armour Fertz. Works,
3.15 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 2.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
2.13 2.66 Jacksonville, Fla.

2.00 5.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
1.98 5.74 Jacksonville, Fla.

3.50 5.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.85 6.44 Tampa, Fla.

4.00 10.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
4.45 11.741 Tam:a, Fla.

4.00 8.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co., -i
4.10 9.07 Tampa, Fla. C

3.50 7.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.97 7.41 Tampa, Fla.

5.00 6.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
4.85 6.94! Tampa, Fla.
I
5.00 5.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
5.081 5.291 Tampa, Fla.

3.001 13.00 The Gulf Fertilizer Co.,
3.36 13.691 Tampa, Fla.

2.001 2.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
2.231 2.221 Co., Savannah, Ga.










ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS-Continued.

SPhosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND.



H. G. V. C. Tip Top Tomato
Trucker ............... 1366 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
H. G. V. C. Florida Fruit
Growers' Formula ..... 1367 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
DeSoto Brand Orange Tree
Grower .............. 1368 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Blood, Bone and Potash. 1369 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Watermelon Special ...... 1370 Guarant'd Analysis
S Official Analysis...

Tomato Special .......... 1371 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Corn Special ............ 1372 Guarant'd Analysis
I Official Analysis...


8.00!
6.73]

8.00
4.58

10.00
4.091

10.00
10.32|

10.00
6.26

10.00
8.45

10.00
10.251


Vi
.0 .
0
0


7.00
12.411

7.001
8.04

6.00 .
7.73

8.00o
8.20o

5.00
5.38

6.00
6.50

6.00
6.061


1.00 ......
0.44 12.85

1.00 .. .. ..
2.48 10.52

..... ......
0.871 8.60

1.00 ......
0.57 8.77

1.00 ......
0.03 6.01

1.00 ......
1.20 7.70i

1.00 .. .
1.51 7.571


5.00
4.14
5.00
4.90

3.00
2.83

5.00
4.43

3.00
2.791


SBY WHOM AND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.




5.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.041 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem. -
3.81 Co., Savannah, Ga.

G.50 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
5.89 Co., Savannah, Ga.

7.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
7.68 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
8.55 Jacksonville, Fla.

8.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
7.70 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.17 Jacksonville, Fla.









Sweet Potato Special.....


Vegetable ................

Largo Special Fruit and
V ine ..................


Fruit and Vine .........


Ideal Vegetable Manure...

Ideal Fruit and Vine Ma-i
nure ...................


Orange Tree Grower......


Tampa Fruiter ..........


Fruit and Vine...........


Dark Acid Phosphate ....


Acid Phosphate ..........


1373 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1374 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1375 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1376 Guaran'td Analysis
Official Analysis...

1377 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1378 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1379 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1380 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1381 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1382 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

1383 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


10.00
10.59
1
10.00
9.38

10.00
8.321

10.00
8.37

8.00
10.35

10.00
8.99

5.00


5.00
1.81


4.59


6.50 1.00 ...... 2.50 3.50 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.79 0.94 7.73 2.47 3.96 Jacksonville, Fla.

7.00 2.00 ...... 4.00 6.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
8.01 0.94 8.95 3.63 5.64 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 1.00 ...... 3.00 10.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.40 0.95 7.35 3.06 9.41 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 1.00 ...... 2.50 11.00 Armour Fertz. Works,
6.72 0.75 7.47 2.38 9.99 Jacksonville, Fla.

6.Ou 1.00 ...... 4.00 8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
6.24 1.19 7.43 3.88 8.80 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

6.00 ...... ...... 3.00 10.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
5.76 1.33 7.09 3.28 10.26 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

4.50 5.00 ...... 4.00 5.00 Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
S.74 5.61 14.35 4.80 6.11 Tampa, Fla.

6.00 5.00 ...... 4.00 12.00 Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
4.18 10.49 14.67 4.241 13.51 Tampa, Fla.

6.00 ...... ...... 2.00 12.00 Tampa Fertilizer Co.,
8.09 4.53 12.62 2.30 12.35 Tampa, Fla.

15.00 ..... .. .... .. ........ Goulding's Fertz. Co.,
16.12 0.32 16.44 .......... Pensacola, Fla.

16.00 ...... ...... .... .. Goulding's Fertz. Co.,
17.16 0.11 17.27..... ...... Pensacola, Fla.









ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS-Continued.

Phosphoric Acid.

NAME, OR BRAND. BY WHOM AND WHERE
S| ~ M MANUFACTURED.
ol
II I ?. <; *

Kainit ................... 13S4 Garant'd Analysis ....................... .. 12.00 E. Painter Fertz. Co.,
Official Analysis ...... ........... .. ...... 13.35 Jacksonville, Fla.
Simon Pure Tomato...... 1385 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00j 4.00 3.00 ...... 5.00 9.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
Official Analysis... 11.481 5.371 3.56 8.93 5.13 9.17 Jacksonville, Fla. o
Gem Orange Tree........ 1386 Guarant'd Analysis 5.00 5.00 3.00 ...... 4.00 6.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
SOfficial Analysis... 9.42 4.85i 1.07 5.92 4.80S 6.441 Jacksonville, Fla.
Simon Pure No. 1....... 13S7KGuarant'd Analysis 8.00 6.00 1.00 ...... 4.001 11.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
I Official Analysis... 11.00 6.131 0.311 6.441 4.181 12.12 Jacksonville, Fla.
No. 1 Ground Tobacco Dust 1388 Guarant'd Analysis ......... 1 ... ........ 2.001 2.00 E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
S Official Analysis. .. ....... 1 .... ..... 1.55 2.07 Jacksonville, Fla.
Ideal Vegetable Manure .. 1389 Guarant'd Analysis 8.00 6.00 1.00 ...... 4.00 8.00 Wilson & Toomer Fertz.
I Official Analysis... 9.32 5.65 1.15 6.80 4.50 9.77 Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
Bradley Florida Vegetable 13901Guarant'd Analysis 10.00 6.00 1.00 ...... 4.00 5.00 Am. Agr. Chemical Co.,
I Official Analysis... 10.171 7.011 0.97i 7.98 4.04 5.35 Jacksonville, Fla.









Mapes' Vegetable Manure. 1391 Guarant'd Analysis|
S Official Analysis...

Mapes Orange Tree Manure 1392 Cuarant'd Analysis,
Official Analysis...

Blood and Bone .......... 1393 Guarant'd Analvysin
Official Analysis...
H. G. V. C. Old Dominion il
Potato Manure ........ 1394 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
H. G. V. C. Tip Top Tomato
Trucker ............... 1395 Guarant'd Analysis
S Official Analysis...
H. G. V. C. Fla. Fruit Grow- cl
her's Formula .......... 1396 Giiarant'd Analysis1
I Official Analysis.. .

H. G. V. C. Fruit and Vine 1397 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
H. G. V. C. Champion Cit-
rus Compound ......... 1398 Guarant'd Analysis!
| Official Analysis.. .

Simon Pure No. 1........ 1899 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis. ..

Simon Pure Special No. 2. 1400 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis..


12.001
13.941
l i.Oi
12.001
11.96

10.00


8.00
6.14!

8.00
4.441

S.00
6.36

8.00
5.30

10.00
5.291

8.00
7.61;

8.00
G.86


6.00
5.39

6.00
5.64

7.00
3.96!

7.00o
9.99

7.00!
7.49

7.00i
9.19

6.00
7.84

6.00
8.09

6.00
6.18

6.00
6.24


2.00 ......
3.001 8.78

2.00 ..... .
4.53 10.17


S.11 12.07

1.00 ......
0.91 10.90

1 .00) ...... I
0.76 8.25

1.00 ......
1.20 10.391

1.00 .
0.11 7.95

1 00! ......
Tr. S.091

1 I

Tr. G.1S
2.00 .. .. .
Tr. 6.24


5.00 4.00 Mapes' For. and Per.
4.69 5.70 Guano Co., New York.

4.00 3.00 Mapes For. and Per.
3.80 3.80 Guano Co., New York.

6.50 ...... Armour Fertz. Works,
6.19 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 8.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
4.20 8.12 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.001 5.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
4.841 5.511 Co., Savannah, Ga.

3.501 4.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem. --
3.26 4.48 Co., Savannah, Ga.

2.50 10.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.18 10.24 Co., Savannah, Ga.

3.00 14.00 Virginia-Carolina Chem.
3.06 14.39 Co., Savannah, Ga.

4.001 11.001E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.40 11.401 Jacksonville, Fla.

4.001 G.00E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
5.48 7.66 Jacksonville, Fla.











ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS-Continued.


Phosphoric Acid.


NAME, OR BRAND. S 6 3a





L. G. Blood and Bone.... 1401 Guarant'd Analysis 5.00 ............ 12.001
Official Analysis ...... ...... . 12.92
Bright Cotton Seed Meal. 1402 Guarant'd Analysis ...... I ..................
Official Analysis.. ........ . . ..

H. G. Dried Blood ....... 1403 Guarant'd Analysis ..... ...... .
Official Analysis. .. ... . . .


C
S
o
a


X
cI



C


BY WHOM AND WHERE
MANUFACTURED.


6. 50 .....E. E. Painter Fertz. Co.,
0.52 ...... Jacksonville, Fla.

S.O00 1.00 E. 0. Painter Fertz. Co.,
7. 99...... .Jacksonville, Fla. cc

16.00| ...... E. O. Painter Fertz. Co.,
1G.04! ..... Jacksonville, Fla.
I I











f. E. ROSE, State Chemist.


BUREAU OF FEEDSTUFFS.
E. PECK GREENE, Assistant Chemist


Analyses of Special Samples under Sec. 9, act approved May 24, 1905. (Samples taken by purchaser.)


NAME, OR BRAND. .


Coffee W eed ........................ 107122.02 18.22 39.12
B ran ................................ 108i .95 13.34 54.65
Feed ............................... 109 11.62 10.08 63.50
Wheat Shorts .................... 110 3.39 17.72 60.56
Bran ............................... 111 S.44 17.24 51.84

Shorts ............................. 1121 4.10 17.72 58.16


2.22 11.48
6.32 5.42
1.11; 1.16
4.651 2.90
5.065 4.63

4.63 3.44


By Whom Sent.


R. E. Rose, Tallahassee, Fla.
C. E. Pleas, Chipley, Fla.
Geo. W. Ward, DeFuniak Springs, Fla.
C. S. Bushnell, Arcadia, Fla.
Peninsular Naval Stores Co., Tampa, -
Fla. c
Peninsular Naval Stores Co., Tampa,
Fla.


NOTICE.-The especial attention of consumers and dealers is called to the following paragraph:
Consumers desiring to avail themselves of the provisions of Sec. 9 of the laws providing for "Special Sam-
ples" drawn by consumers are requested to read carefully Sec. 9 of the laws and the "Rules and Regulations gov-
erning the taking and forwarding Special Samples of Feedstuffs and Fertilizers" found on a preceding page of
the report. Also to compare the "official analysis" and the "market value" of various feeds sold in the State.
It will be found that in a number of cases the "market value," or price, is no criterion of the actual feeding
value of the goods-that in several instances the highest "market value" is placed on the most inferior goods.
Consumers should compare the guarantee tag on the bag with the table of "average composition of feed-
stuffs." In case of doubt as to the truthfulness of the guarantee, draw a sample, according to law and regula-
tions, and send in a tin box, sealed, to the "Commissioner of Agriculture." Preserve the "guarantee tags" off the
packages, to compare with the result of the analysis of the sample by the State Chemist.










DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS. 1909.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. E. PECK GREENE, Assistant Chemist.
Samples Taken by State Chemist Under Section 2. Act aIpproved May 24, 1905.


NAME, OR BRAND.



Cotton Seed Meal........


Cotton Seed Meal .......

Medium Grade Cotton Seed
M eal ..................


Cotton Seed Meal........


U-N-I. Feed, "A" Grade..


W heat Shorts ...........

Pure Winter Wheat Mid-
dlings .......... .......


801 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis... 9.83

802 Guarant'd Analysis .....
Official Analysis... 10.891
1

803 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis... 10.94

804 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis... 10.40i

805 Guarant'd Analysis 14.40
Official Analysis... 10.43

806 Guarant'd Analysis 6.00-
Official Analysis... 4.239

807 Gnarant'd Analysis .1..0
Official Analysis... 6.08


Si ADDRESS OF
S1 MANUFACTURERS.

i IF

41. 20 ...... ....... ...... Farnmr's Cotton Oil and Fertil-
37.82 30.431 7.99 4.95 izer Co., Toccoa, Ga.

3.62 ..... ...... ...... Crawford Oil Mills, Crawford, oo
34.40 33.38j 7.42 5.54 Ga.

38.62 ................... People's Cotton Oil Mills, Sel-
3S.79i 32.11 5.98 5.87 ma, Ala.

32.35 ...... 7.00 ...... Georgia Cotton Oil Company,
53.78 36.74 5.81 3.78 Atlanta, Ga.

13.03f 53.47 2.15 ......United Grocery Company, Jack-
12.021 60.32 2.08 4.31 sonville, Fla.

15.00' 57.00] 4.00 ...... Nashville Roller Mills, Nash-
14. C5 00.65 5.77 3.70 ville, Tenn.

If. 00; 50;.00 4.00 ..... The Hunter Bros. Milling Co.,
17.241 57.22; 4.20 4.19 St. Louis, Mo.








Pure Wheat Bran........


: Crescent Shorts ..........


Pure Wheat Shorts.......


Pure Wheat Middlings ...


Barley and Oats Mixed....


Cotton Seed Meal........


Cotton Seed Feed Meal ....
i
Cotton Seed Meal... ...


Cotton Seed Meal ........


Dried Beet Pulp..........


Corno Chick Feed .........


808 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

809 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

S10 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

811 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

812 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

813 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

814 Guarant'd Analysis
Offcial Analysis...

815 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

816 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

817 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

818 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


7.49
8.09

8.00
6.77

6.00
6.581

5.18
4.98

10.71
9.79


10.63


13.01


8.93


9.00

20.001
19.13

3.40
2.03


16.09
14.92

16.00
18.08

16.00
14.57

17.11
16.01

12.06
10.88

41.20
38.79

32.18
30.28

38.62
37.16

38.62
38.74

8.00
10.001

10.00
10.221


53.58
57.61

53.75
53.96

48.00
59.25

58.18
60.76

49.73
60:77


28.96


34.59


33.21


31.98

60.00
57.41

70.00
68.751


4.68 ...... Acme Mills and Elevator Co.,
3.85 4.58 Hopkinsville, Ky.

4.25 ...... Kemper Mills and Elevator
4.77 5.50 Co., Kansas City, Mo.

4.00 ...... Southern Mills, Nashville,
4.26 4.43 Tenn.

4.41 ...... George P. Plant Milling Co.,
4.13 3.62 St. Louis, Mo.

4.25 ...... Southern States Grain Co.,
3.17 3.18 Nashville, Tenn.

.......... Clay County Oil Mills and Fer- o0
6.51 5.16 tilizer Co., Lineville, Ala. -

.... ...... Florida Cotton Oil Co., Jack-
5.88 5.01 sonville, Fla.

..... ...... Vienna Cotton Oil Company,
6.53 5.61 Vienna, Ga.

..... ...... Quitman Oil Company, Quit-
6.58 5.77 man, Ga.

0.50 ...... The Larrowe Milling Company,
0.32 1.96 Detroit, Mich.

3.50 .... The Corno Mills Company, St.
4.86 1.61 Louis, Mo.











ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS-Continued.


NAME OR BRAND.


Protena Feed ...........


Heavy Draught Feed.....


Grainfalfa Feed ..........


Corno Horse and Mule Feed


Stayrite Feed ........... .


Victor Feed ..............


Ship Stuff ...............


Pine Leaf Middlings......


n*

9E.
o P



819 Guarant'd Analysis 9.70
Official Analysis... 10.081

820 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis.. 5.44

821 Guarant'd Analysis 11.00
Official Analysis... 12.02;

822 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00]
Official Analysis.. 13.041

823 Guarant'd Analysis' 10.50
Official Analysis... 10.55

824 Guarant'd Analysis 12.00
Official Analysis... 10.45

825 Guarant'd Analysis 7.00
IOfficial Analysis... 6.53|

826 Guarant'd Analysis 6.101
Official Analysis... 3.911


5.-)
0


12.00
12.06

10.35
11.1411

11.00
11.67

10.00t
11.011

9.751
9.44

7.501
7.811

14.50
15.011

15.75
16.32|


cac
S':




57.00
59.88

64.43
65.96]

60.00
57.97

58.50|
56.66i

63.00
63.54

62.00
66.56

54.00
56.15

57.95
61.681


ADDRESS OF
1 MANUFACTURERS.



3.80 ..... Ralston Purina Company, St
4.181 2.25 Louis, Mo.

3.42 ...... United Grocery Company, Jack-
3.14 2.07 sonville, Fla.

4.00 ...... The Great Western Cereal Co.,
3.48 3.981 Chicago, I11.

3.50 ...... The Corno Mills Company, St.
3.81 3.53 Louis, Mo.

3.50 ...... The Quaker Oats Company,
2.50 3.30 Chicago, Ill.

3.00 ..... The Quaker Oats Company,
2.17 3.01 Chicago, Ill.

4.00 ...... The Dunlop Mills, Richmond,
5.59 4.88 Va.

4.20 4.10 Cairo Milling Company, Cairo,
5.18 3.14 Ill.









Boss Chop Feed ..........


Corno Horse & Mule Feed


Barley and Oats Mixed....


Ground Corn and Oats....


Cotton Seed Meal .........


Forest City Feed Meal....

Fancy White Flour Mid-
dlings .................


B ran ....................


Mayzo Feed .............


Sucrene Horse and Mule
F eed ...................


S27 Guarant'd Analysis] 11.00
Official Analysis... 10.281

828 Guarant'd Analvsis 12.001
Official Analysis... 10.29

829 Guarant'd Analysis 9.00
Official Analysis.. 9.43

830 Guarant'd Analysis 5.80
Official Analysis... 3.95

831 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis. .. 24.11

832 Guarant'd Analysis ......
Official Analysis.. 18.38

833 Guarant'd Analysis 3.97
Official Analysis. 3.65

834 Guarant'd Analysis 9.20
Official Analysis.. 7.07

835 Guarant'd Analysis' 11.00
Official Analysis.. 13.271


836 Guarant'd Analysis 13.501
Official Analysis... 9.221


8.50] 60.00
8.34 65.16

10.00 58.50'
11.41 60.38

11.00 65.00
10.79 62.13

10.751 65.00
10.041 68.88

22.00 '30.00
19.17 39.49

23.00 30.00
24.35 36.32

17.75 58.58]
18.11| 55.57

13.10o 54.50
14.481 56.03

11.00| 60.00,
10.75' 58.71


10.001 50.001
9.62| 61.38'
I i


3.50 ...... The Great Western Cereal Co.,
4.74 3.06 Chicago, Ill.

3.50, .... The Corno Mills Company, St.
4.23 3.50 Louis, Mo.

5.00 ...... Baker & Holmes Company,
3.981 2.90 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.15 ..... Baker & Holmes Company,
3.78 1.93 Jacksonville, Fla.

5.00 ....... Tennessee Fibre Co., Memphis,
3.18 3.59 Tenn.

4.50 ...... The Southern Cotton Oil Co., 00
6.54 4.29 Savannah, Ga. C

6.351 3.55 Hecker Jones Jewell Milling
5.681 3.53 Co., New York City.

4.751 ...... Charleston Milling Company,
4.15 5.01 Charleston, Mo.

4.00 ...... The Great Western Cereal Co.,
3.101 2.79 Chicago, Ill.


3.00...... American Milling Company,
2.541 5.251 Chicago, Ill.
I i










ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS-Continued.


NAME, OR BRAND. I



Cotton Seed Feed Meal...


Cotton Seed Feed Meal...

Sucrene Horse and Mule
Feed ..................


Choice Bran .............


Sucrene Dairy Feed.......


Pure Wheat Middlings....


Pure Wheat Shorts........


Victor Feed ..............


837 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

838 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

839 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

840 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

841 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

842 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

843 Gnarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

844 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


28.00
22.68


10.07

13.50
10.76

9.50
8.63

12.00
12.57

5.18
4.921

6.00
5.98

12.001
11.571


25.00
17.76

34.50
36.51

10.00
10.76

14.95
15.45

16.50
14.86

17.11
17.72

16.00
17.32

7.60
8.69


a
fc |
10 S
E PI


E5-


15.00
42.18


31.40

50.00
58.01

53.25
54.42

48.54
46.72

58.18
58.26

48.00
56.61

62.00
64.95


ADDRESS OF
MANUFACTURERS.


5.00
4.02

9.00
7.38

3.00
2.45

5.35
4.24

3.50
4.31

4.41
5.01

4.00
5.39

3.00
3.81


..... J. Lindsay Wells Company,
3.971 Memphis, Tenn.

..... Farmers' Oil and Fertilizer Co.,
5.21 Dawson, Ga.

..... American Milling Company,
5.48 Chicago, Ill.

..... Hecker Jones Jewell Milling
5.45 Co., New York City.

..... American Milling Company,
8.80 Chicago, Ill.

..... George P. Plant Milling Co., St.
3.85 Louis, Mo.

..... Liberty Mills, Nashville Tenn.
4.21

..... The Quaker Oats Company,
2.29 Chicago, Ill.










Barley Mixed Oats........ 845 Guarant'd Analysis 9.001 9.001 40.00 .00 ..... L. F. Miller & Sons, Philadel-
Official Analysis... 5.36| 8.86 68.21 3.26 3.08 phia, Pa.

Pine Leaf Middlings...... 846 Guarant'd Analysis 6.10 15.75 57.95 4.20 4.10 Cairo Milling Company, Cairo,
Official Analysis... 5.021 15.88 60.10 5.11 3.18 Ill.

Stafolife Feed ............ 847 Guarant'd Analysis 12.75 11.00 53.00 6.00 ...... Lawrence & Hamilton Feed Co.,
Official Analysis... 16.87 11.06 55.74 4.34 5.11 New Orleans, La.

Cotton Seed Feed Meal.. 848 Guarant'd Analysis 28.00 25.00 15.00 5.00 ...... J. Lindsay Wells Company,
Official Analysis... 21.60 23.78 37.96 3.56 3.60 Memphis, Tenn.

Cotton Seed Meal. ....... 849 Guarant'd Analysis ...... 38.62 ......... ...... Americus Oil Company, Ameri-
Official Analysis... 9.91 37.29 31.32 7.07 5.69 cus, Ga.

Cotton Seed Meal ........ 850|Guarant'd Analysis 28.00 25.00 15.00 5.00 ...... J. Lindsay Wells Company, 0
Official Analysis... 10.77 22.00 44.75 3.07 3.94 Memphis, Tenn. "
Medium Grade Cotton Seed
Meal ................. 851 Guarantd Analysis .... 3.2.... ........... ...... People's Cotton Oil Company,
Official Analysis... 10.24 37.52 31.67 6.16 5.56 Selma, Ala.

Hawkeye Chop Feed...... 852 Guarant'd Analysis 11.00 8.50 60.00 3.50 ...... The Great Western Cereal Co.,
| Official Analysis... 7.34| 8.20 67.67 4.10 2.381 Chicago, Ill.

Winter Wheat Bran...... 853Guarant'd Analysis 9.201 15.001 ...... 4.80 ...... Sarks Milling Company, Alton,
Official Analysis... 8.71 16.32 52.92 4.601 5.83 Ill.

Brown Shorts ........... 8541Guarant'd Analysis 6.00 15.00 60.83 4.00 ...... Atlanta Milling Company, At-
Official Analysis... 6.11 15.221 58.79! 4.69 4.62 lanta, Ga.

Ceralfa Stock Feed........ 855 Guarant'd Analysis 11.50 14.00 55.00 4.50...... J. B. Edgar Grain Company,
Official Analysis... 10.291 14.61! 57.321 4.26! 3.34 Memphis, Tenn.










ANALYSES OF FEEDSTUFFS-Continued.


NAME OF BRAND. .]
0 c c
L, M
CS S 5
I 1E -i | M


Pure Wheat Shorts........ 856 Guarant'd Analysis
SOfficial Analysis...
Pure Wheat Bran ........ 857 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis.. .
Pure Winter Wheat Mid-
dlings ................. 858 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Durham Chop Feed........ 859 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Cooked Cow Feed ......... 860 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...

Shorts ................... 861 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...
Milo-Falo Feed .......... 862 Guarant'd Analysis
Official Analysis...


6.001
7.16

9.49
9.81


5.10

11.00
10.411

10.00o
11.59

9.001
7.57

14.001
17.65


16.00
15.84

14.60
16.27

16.00
17.341

8.50
7.721

26.00
25.18

5.00
5.06

14.00
13.471


48.00
56.15

57.23
51.89

56.00J
59.12

60.00
66.32

44.00
42.88

55.00
53.30

52.00
52.79


ADDRESS OF
MANUFACTURERS.



4.00 ...... Cumberland Mills, Nashville,
5.40 4.87 Tenn.

4.06 ...... The Dunlop Milling Company,
3.48 5.93 Clarksville, Tenn.

4.00 ..... The Hunter Bros. Milling Co.,
4.01 3.49 St. Louis, Mo.

3.50 ...... The Great Western Cereal Co.,
2.57 2.49 Chicago, Ill.

7.50 ...... American Steam Feed Com-
4.48 ...... pany, Nashville, Tenn.

5.00 5.00 United Mills Flour Company,
4.97 5.06 New York City.

4.00 ...... Altus Alfalfa Milling Company,
2.50 3.71 Altus, Okla.


M




















SPECIAL NOTICE.-The attention of dealers and consumers is called to the table of "Average Composition of
Feedstuffs" on a preceding page. This table shows approximately the composition of the various feedstuffs sold
throughout the country. Any material variation from these averages is presumptive evidence of impurity or
adulteration.
A careful examination of the foregoing tables is recommended to both dealers and consumers. The guarantee N
of the manufacturer should not vary materially from this table of averages, while the "official analysis" should
show practically the same composition as the guarantee. Dealers and consumers are requested, in all cases of
suspected inferiority or adulteration, to send a sample at once to the Commissioner of Agriculture for analysis.










FOOD AND DRUG SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. Samples Sent in by Citizens.
SPECIAL FOOD ANALYSES.
ALCOHOLIC DRINKS.



E NAME. OR BRAND. MANUFACTURER.

a
261 Pure Apple Cider.............. ....................................

262 Georgia Home Beer............ Savannah Brewing Co., Savannah, Ga.

263 Draft Beer-Jesse Hinson...... ...................................

264 Red Heart Mead................ The Jung Brewing Co., Cincinnati, O.

265 Bevo-A Beverage ............. Anheuser-Bush, St. Louis, Mo........

266 Cider ..... ......... .... ..................................

267 Beer .......................... .................................

268 Cabinet Beer .................. Savannah Brewing Co., Savannah, Ga.

269 Budw eiser ..................... C. C. & Co..........................

270 Budweiser Lager Beer.......... C. Conrad & Co., St. Louis, Mo......

272 W hite Top Near Beer .......... ....................................


A. M. HENRY, Assistant Chemist





FROM


5.71 United Grocery Co., Jacksonville.

3.25 J. A. Durrance, Trenton.

4.00 G. S. Gregory, Quincy, Sheriff of
Gadsden County.
2.30 W. J. Sapp, Lake City.

1.54 W. J. Sapp, Lake City.

8.95 C. F. Prevatt, Kissimmee, Sheriff
of Osceola County.
4.26 J. W. Nance, Lake City, Sheriff
of Columbia County.
4.45 J. W. Nance, Lake City, Sheriff
of Columbia County.
5.10G. W. Hinsey, Apalachicola.

S.10 G. W. Hinsey, Apalachicola.

2.11 G. W. Hinsey, Apalachicola.









Great American Hop Ale.......

W ine ....................... ..

W ine .......................

B ig Chief .....................

W hite Top ....................

N ear Beer ................... ..

Near Beer ................ ..

W white Top .....................


American Beverage Co., St. Louis, Mo.I 1.00 G. L. Fleetwood, Dade City.

...................... .... 14.20 J. P. S. Houston, Tallahassee,
Sheriff of Leon County.
.................... ........ .. 14.25 J. P. S. Houston, Tallahassee,
Sheriff of Leon County.
The Capital Brewing and Ice Co., 2.50 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor
Montgomery, Ala .................. of Ft. Myers.
The Capitol Brewing and Ice Co., 1.99 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor
Montgomery, Ala................... of Ft. Myers.
The Florida Brewing Co., Tampa, Fla. 2.70 H. A. Hendry, Ft. Myers, Mayor
of Ft. Myers.
The Florida Brewing Co., Tampa, Fla. 3.00 H. H. Solt, Ft. Myers.

The Capitol Brewing and Ice Co., 2.00 R. H. Solt,
Montgomery, Ala.................. Ft. Myers.
I










MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSIS.
I 'I
No. NAME, OR BRAND. RESULTS OF EXAMINATION. FROM

271 Honey ......................... W after (per cent.)............ .17.02 J. O. Hinton, Plant City.
Ash (per cent.)................ 0.26
Sucrose by Clerget (per cent.).. 1.21
Glucose (polarizing at 175 V)
(per cent.) .................. 4.91
274 Coco-Cola, Hygeia Bot. Works,
Pensacola, Fla................. Saccharin present.................. ... J. Canova, Bagdad.

275 Pepsi-Cola, Escambia Bottling
Works, Pensacola, Fla ........ Saccharine absent.................... J. F. Canova, Bagdad.

278 Soda Water, Hygea Bottlin
Works, Pensacola, Fla........ Saccharine present................. 1.F. Faust, Pensacola.








FOOD AND DRUG SECTION.
R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. A. M. HENRY, Assistant Chemist.
OFFICIAL SAMPLES DRAWN BY THE STATE INSPECTOR, UNDER CHAPTER 5662, ACTS OF 1907.
FOOD ANALYSES-BAKING POWDER.


NAME OR BRAND MANUFACTURER RETAILER INGREDIENTS CLASS REMARKS

55[Hi-Lo Baking Continental Baking The West Gadsden 12.08jSodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
Powder. Powder Co., Nash- Trading Compa- Magnesium Carbon-
ville, Tenn. ny, Greensboro. ate, Alum & Starch.

157 Watermel o n The Sea Gull Spe- Douglass & McKin- 17.13 Sodium Bicarbonate. Alum Powder. Legal
Baking Pow- cialty Co., Balti- non, DeFuniak Alum, and Starch.
der. more, Md. Springs. e

158 Parrott and The Sea Gull Spe- Douglass & McKin- 16.75 Sodium Bicarbonate. Alum Powder. Legal
Monkey Bak-l cialty Co., Balti- non, DeFuniak Alum, and Starch.
ing Powder.: more, Md. Springs.

166 Sodarine. The Sea Gull Spe- W. P. Sheppard, 14.71 Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
cialty Co., Balti- Lake City. Alum, and Starch.
more, Md.

239 Campbell's Ba- Kenton B a k i n g James McHugh,Pen- 15.871Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. Legal
king Powder Powder Co., Cin- sacola. Alum, and Starch.
I ) cinnati, Ohio.
252 Cascade Bak- AmericanPure Food J. K. Peters, Chip- 9.75 Sodium Bicarbonate, Alum Powder. *Illegal.
Sing Powder. Co., St. Louis, Mo. ley. I Alum, and Starch.
*Misbranded. No statement of the ingredients on the label.














No. Name, or Brand.

215 Gold Cross Evaporated
Milk.

217 Blue Cross Condensed
Milk.

218 A. & P. Brand, Evapo-
rated Milk.

219 Grandmother's BrandA.
& P. Condensed Milk.

220 Carnation Brand Evapo-
rated Milk.

222 Globe Evaporated Milk.


247 Meadow Brand Evapo-
rated Milk.


CONDENSED MILKS.

Manufacturer. Retailer.

Mohawk Condensed Milk Co., Ball Grocery Company,
Rochester, N. Y. Tampa.

Mohawk Condensed Milk Co., Hendry & McClelland, Tam-
Rochester, N. Y. pa.

The Great Atlantic & Pacific Thomas Cahill, Manager,
Tea Co., New York, N. Y. Jacksonville.

Northern Condensed Milk Thomas Cahill, Manager,
Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Jacksonville.

Pacific Coast Condensed Milk Haas & Boyer, Jacksonville.
Co., Seattle, Wash.

National Condensed Milk Co., Wilkinson & Spiller, Jackson-
Chicago, Ill. ville.

Emery Food Co., Chicago, Ill. D. T. William & Co., Milton.


Total Amt. I Remarks.


8.80


8.80


8.00


9.60


8.00


10.00


10.00


ILegal.


Legal.


Legal.


Legal.


Legal.


Legal.


Legal.









FLAVORING EXTRACTS.



No. Name, or Brand. Manufacturer. Retailer.



223 Burnett's Imitation Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- Wilkinson & Spiller Jack-
Peach Flavoring. ton, Mass. sonville.

224 Burnett's Imitation Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- Wilkinson & Spiller, Jack-
Strawberry Flavor- ton, Mass. sonville.
ing.

225 Cannon Brand Artifi- Cannon Bros., Jackson- Jones & DeLoach, Jack-
cial Extract of ville, Fla. sonville.
Pineapple.

226 Extract Banana. Barrs Drug Co., Jackson- J. J. Patterson & Co.,
ville, Fla. Jacksonville.

227 Blue Ribbon Flavor- Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack-
ing Extract Cinna- Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.
mon.

228 Blue Ribbon Flavor- Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack-
ing Extract Pep- Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.
permit.

229 Blue Ribbon ExtractGreever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack-
of Pure Almond. Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville.


0-I
S1 Remarks.



92.90 Legal.


29.05 Legal.



46.05 |Legal.



4G.57 Illegal-misbranded. No State-
ment of Imitation.

74.45 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement.


78.70 Illegal--misbranded. No Alcohol
statement.


49.80 Illegal-misbranded. io Alcohol
I statement.











FLAVORING EXTRACTS-Continued.


0 .
No. Name, or Brand. Manufacturer. Retailer. 0 g Remarks.


230 Blue Ribbon Extract
of Pure Rose.

2311 Blue Ribbon Imita-
tion Flavor Rasp-
berry.
232 Dr. Price's Flavoring
Extract of True
Orange.

233 Kitchen Queen Or-I
ange.



235 Banana Extract.


237 Burnett's Extract Va-'
nilla .............

238 Sauer's Pure Extract
Vanilla ..........


Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'glP. H. Boyer & Co., Jack- 46.77 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville. statement.

Greever-Lotspeich Man'f'g P. H. Boyer & Co., Jack- 50.00 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
Co., Knoxville, Tenn. sonville. statement.

Price Flavoring Extract!Dignan & O'Brien, Jack-85.33 Orange Oil 6.53%. Illegal-mis-
Co., Chicago, Ill. sonville. branded. No Alcohol statement 3


Interstate Chemical Co., George Mike, Jacsonville 2.39 Orange Oil 2.18%. Illegal-mis-
Baltimore, Md. branded. No Alcohol statement.
Adulterated-below standard
in Orange Oil.
Barrs Drug Co., Jackson- J. Safer, Jacksonville. 129.50 Illegal-misbranded. No state-
ville, Fla. I meant of imitation.

Joseph Burnett Co., Bos- James McHugh, Pensa- 36.30 Legal.
ton, Mass. cola.

The C. F. Sauer Co., Rich- James McHugh, Pensa- 32.50 Legal.
mond, Va. cola.









241 Hance's Vanilla.


246 Dove Brand Extract
Vanilla.

250S w an Flavoring
Ethereal Pineapple


253 The Cooks' Pride-
Terpenless Orange.

254 The Cooks' Pride Ar-
tificial Extr ac t
Strawberry.
255 Vanilla Flavoring
(made from Vanil-
lin and Coumarin.)

256 Eagle Flavoring Ex-
tract Orange, 2%
Orange Oil.


257 Eagle Flavoring Ba-
nana Extract, Arti-
ficial.


R. A. Hance Co., Philadel- H. Muller, Pensacola.
phia, Pa.

The Frank Tea and Spice Hicks Bros. & Co., Mil-
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. ton.

Cumberland Manufactur- Hughes Mercantile Co.,
ing Co., Nashville,Tenn. Bonifay.


Edward Westen Tea and McKenzie & Co., Panama
Spice Co., St. Louis, Mo. City.

Edward Westen Tea and McKenzie & Co., Panama
Spice Co., St. Louis, Mo. City.

Mobile Drug Company,'A. F. Thomas, Cottondale.
Mobile, Ala.


Webb Manufacturing Co., The Barrett Mercantile
Nashville, Tenn. Co., Cottondale.


25.00 Legal.


40.62 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement.

22.00 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement. No statement of im-
itation.

32.93 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement.

29.50 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
statement.

18.25 Illegal-misbranded.


32.75 Orange Oil 0.0%. Illegal-
branded. No Alcohol Statement.


Adulterated-below stated per-
centage of Orange Oil.

Webb Manufacturing Co., The Barrett Mercantile34.751 Illegal-misbranded. No Alcohol
Nashville, Tenn. Co., Cottondale. statement.
i i


l













No. NAME, OR BRAND. MANUFA


-MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES.

CTURER. RETAILER.


RESULTS.


Remarks.


216'Re D'Italia Brand Cants, Curimano & Co., Joseph Caruso, Ybor City. Index of Refraction 1.4692. *Illegal.
Olive Oil and Salad New Orleans, La. Cotton Seed Oil present.
Oil-Olio Finissi-
mo D'Oliva Ver-
gine.

236 Apple Cider. Liberty Fruit Product Liberty Fruit Product Alcohol 6.42 per cent. Illegal.
Co., Jacksonville, Fla. Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

* Misbranded and Adulterated. A mixture of olive, or salad oil, and cotton seed oil, and not so stated.
t Misbranded. No Alcohol statement.










SIRUPS.


NAME, OR BRAND.



313 Georgia Cracker Brand Pure
Syrup.

.84 Sweetland Brand Compound of
Cane Syrup and Glucose-
Cane Syrup ..............75%
Glucose ..................25%

91 Magnolia Farm Pure Cane Syrup

145 Alaga Alabama Georgia Syrup
Blend.

162 Pure Florida Cane Syrup........

169 Pure Florida Japanese Cane
Syrup.

173 All Pure Brand Louisiana Cane
Syrup.

182 Pure Florida Cane Syrup.

189 Pure Florida Cane Syrup........

209 Karo Corn Syrup with Cane Fla-
vor-
Corn Syrup ..............85%
Refiner's Syrup ..........15%

210 Wilder's Uniform Brand Syrup-
Cane Syrup ..............85%
Corn Syrup ..............15%

211 Marigold Brand Corn Refiners'
Cane Syrup.

212 Morning Glory Brand Syrup
Blend.

213 Car-Wi-Co Brand Georgia Syrup.

214 Peacock Brand Georgia Cane and
Corn Syrutp.

221 Buzz About Gayco Georgia-Florida
Cane and Corn Syrup.

234 Ingleside Brand Georgia Cane
Syrup.


MANUFACTURER.


New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
La.

SNew Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
La.


.................... ....... .........

Alabama-Georgia Syrup Co., Mont-
gomery, Ala.

Will Watson, Miarianna, Fla.

T. C. Cresland & Co., Punta Gorda,
Fla.

The Globe Coffee & Molasses Co., New
Orleans, La.

Tom Budd, Arcadia, Fla.

E. G. Gardner, Galloway, Fla.

Corn Products Manufacturing Co.,
Davenport, Iowa.


D. R. Wilder Manufacturing Co., At-
lanta, Ga.


Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.


Florida-Georgia Syrup Co., Jackson-
ville, Fla.

Cargill-Wight Co., Columbus, Ga.

Southern Syrup Co., Montgomery,
Ala.

C. B. Gay Co., Jacksonville, Fla.

Penick & Ford, Columbus, Ga.


Autocrat Brand Corn and Cane The Burkenroad-Goldsmith Co., New
Syrup. Orleans, La.

Revona Brand Syrup Compound- New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
Cane Syrup ..............75% La.
Corn Syrup ..............25%

LaBelle Brand Table Syrup Com- Gibbs Preserving Co., Baltimore, Md.
Ipound-
Sugar Syrup .............25%
Glucose .................75%

Fancy Cane Cerop and Corn Louisiana Molasses Co., New Orleans,
Syrup- La.
Cane Syrup ..............80%
Corn Syrup ..............20%

"Iwanit" Brand Louisiana Cane Louisiana Molasses Co., New Orleans,
Juice ......................... La.

Cane Field Brand Louisiana The Globe Coffee & Molasses Co., New
Syrup and Corn Syrup Comn- Orleans, La.
pound.

Everybody's Brand Evaporated New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
Syrup- La.
-Sugar Cane Syrup........ 75%'
Corn Syrup ..............25%

Cracker Brand Pure Syrup. New Orleans Coffee Co., New Orleans,
La.
Koo-Koo Brand Corn and Canei Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.
Syrup.


Sugar Cane and Corn Syrup- Penick & Ford, New Orleans, La.
Cane ...................40%
Corn ...................60%

Mallard Brand Table Syrup. A Georgia Cane Product Co., Columbus,
blend of Cane and Corn Syrups. Ga.

Pet Brand Syrup Compound- Stringfellow & Doty Co., Jacksonville,
Cane products ............ 75% Fla.
Corn Syrup ..............25%


RETAILER.


D. T. Williams c Co., Milton.


D. T. Williams & Co., Milton.



Sol. Cohn & Co., Pensacola.

Will L. Moyer, Pensacola.


R. D. Daffin & Co., Marianna.

T. C. Crossland & Co., Punta Gorda.


Wm. E. Roberts, Key West.

Arcadia Mercantile Co., Arcadia.

W. J. Reddick, Lakeland.

J. W. Collins & Co., Tallahassee.


VanBrunt & DeMilly, Tallahassee.


Frank R. Blount, Punta Gorda.


Frank R. Blount, Punta Gorda.


S. J. Drawfy, Tampa.

Hillsborough Grocery Co., Tampa.


T. H. Sompaynac, Jacksonville.


F. M. Dowling & Co., Jacksonville.


J. E. Concannon & Co., Pensacola.


E. B. Hoffman & Son, Pensacola.


E. B. Hoffman & Son, Pensacola.


Angus Nicholson,


Milton.


Angus Nicholson, Milton.

S. J. Stewart & Bros., Milton.


Burruss Cawthon, DeFuniak Springs.



J. D. Leonard, Bonifay.


F. G. Merritt, Marianna.


Chas. H. Meinscher, Quincy.


E. B. Shelfer Co., Havana.

Tillis & Moreland, Havana.


o a



46.7-17.0


70.0 ......



45.5 18.8

89.7 .. .


59.9

35.5


51.2


51.8

51.2

153.5



56.1


118.1


78.8


48.6

100.01

92.5


48.5


107.0


72.8


119.8



65.0



50.0

68.2


84.1



47.9


102.1


112.0


113.0


70.1


-21.6

-23.0


-16.0


1-21.6

-20.0

147.5



1.6


107.6


28.4


-20.0

63.0

60.4


-20.4


89.6

35.6


100.0



16.2



-11.0


20.0


4.0


2.0



0.0

0.0


1.6


0.0

0.0

147.5


33 -~is,


48.021 2.46


S18.6 41.08


105.2

40.0


0.8

71.2

68.0


0.0


89.8


43.6


102.4


1.23



0.00

0.00

0.99


0.00

0.00

90.49



11.41


64.54


24.54


0.00

43.68

41.72


0.00

55.09


26.75


14.92 62.82


30.0136.78


18.40



4.30

19.02


REMARKS.


1.11132.01 Legal.


1.96 30.02 Legal.



0.57 24.76 Legal

0.51 29.39 Legal.


0.80 21.06 Legal.

0.96 19.88 Legal.


1.59 27.47 Legal.


0.53 28.14 Legal.

0.71 27.12 Legal.

0.22 25.68 Legal.



0.40 29.40 Legal.


0.30 28.22 Illegal-misbranded and Adulter-
ated. A corn and Cane Syrup.

0.48 28.08 Legal.


0.53 30.04 Legal

0.54 25.34 Legal.


0.36 28.91 Legal.


0.47 33.35 Legal.

0.60 31.69 Legal.


1.61 30.53 Legal.


26.73



30.83



29.90


31.71


Legal.



Legal.



Legal.


Legal.


36.21 49.2(36.11130.771 1.26 28.91 Legal.


-21.8


83.6


93.6





28.0


52.54


13.95


95.6113.87158.65


32.49


29.84


31.34


Legal.


Legal.


I
30.90ILegal.


27.43 Legal.


30.64 Legal.















MISCELLANEOUS.


SYRUP-MAKING ON SMALL APPARATUS WITH
KETTLES OR EVAPORATORS.

BY R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST.

Numerous letters of inquiry have recently been received
by this division of the State Agricultural Department,
for information and directions for "syrup-making" on a
small scale. It being impractical to answer all these let-
ters individually, and intelligently, a short description
of the apparatus required, and the methods most gener-
ally used have been compiled.
While these general rules and directions are given,
there are many "kinks" and conditions arising that require
experience and skill to succeed in making a really good
quality of syrup-or sugar. The art of sugar boiling is
like all other arts, and requires practice and skill to be-
come an adept. While it is possible to tell "why" cer-
tain results should follow certain processes, one can only
learn "how" by practice. Numerous failures may be ex-
pected-some of the most skillful sugar boilers are unable
to tell "why," but they do know "how" to produce the best
results. There are numbers of chemists who, while thev
know "why" certain results are to be expected from given
conditions and process, have not the skill required to boil
syrup, or sugar successfully. "Syrup boiling" in all
sugar-making countries is a distinct art, trade, or pro-
fession; skillful sugar boilers frequently being paid as
much, or more than either the superintendent, manager,
chemist, or engineer of a sugar factory.
MATERIAL.-The cane for sugar-making should be fairly
matured; two-thirds or three-fourths of the stalk should
have matured, and dropped its leaves; cane is mature up
to the last green leaf. Those joints that still have grow-
ing leaves, or blades are not mature. In cutting cane for
syrup-making, a part of the immature stalk-several joints
above the ripe or "red" joints-should be sent to the mill.
7-13ul.












These immature joints contain a larger proportion of
"glucose"-immature sugar-than the ripe joints; the
ripe joints have but little "glucose" in them; in perfectly
matured cane there is practically no "glucose." In syrup-
making it is absolutely necessary to have a considerable
quantity of "glucose" to prevent the sugar or "sucrose."
from crystallizing, when the material is evaporated to
sufficient density to make a desirable syrup.
The "glucose" content varies in cane of different con-
ditions of maturity; it also is largely increased by fermen-
tation, also by long boiling; hence it is frequently the
practice to allow cane of high sugar content-very ripe
cane, liable to crystallize into sugar-to lay after cutting,
for some time in the sun, to induce fermenting, a practice
that would ruin a "sugar-maker," but is allowable in
"syrup-making." The object of the syrup-maker is to
secure a thick, clear material that will not granulate or
"sugar off;" this he can only do by having a quantity of
"glucose" in his solution of "sugar."
Quite the opposite practice is required for sugar-mak-
ing; in this case we want ripe cane with as much "sucrose"
and as little "glucose" as possible; we want fresh-cut cane
and no ferment to secure the largest amount of crystals,
and as little molasses as possible.
LIME.-The universal agent used for clarifying or deffi-
cating cane juice is quick lime-unslaked, freshly burned
lime, properly water-slaked. The lime is best prepared
by slaking fifty pounds of such lime in a barrel, gradu-
ally adding water till the lime is slaked, and the violent
heat has subsided; then add water, making up the solution
to fifty gallons. Each gallon of "lime wash" should con-
tain one pound of lime, or four ounces to each quart. This
should be strained through a sack to remove coarse parti-
cles, and kept in a covered barrel or tub. Before dipping
out a portion for use, the whole should be well stirred, as
the lime settles and the top layer has not a sufficient
quantity of lime (four ounces to the quart), if this stir-
ring is not done each time the necessary quantity is taken
out for use.
To each one hundred gallons of raw, strained juice, add
one quart of the lime wash, the object being to use about
four ounces of lime to each one hundred gallons of normal
juice. Experience will soon teach when too much or too
little lime is used. Cane juice from the mill is always












acid, frequently very much so, particularly when using
frosted or fermented cane. The object of lime is to correct
this acidity, but not to destroy it completely. In syrup-
making the juice should remain slightly acid, changing
blue litmus paper to a faint pink color. Should the blue
litmus remain blue, or be very slightly changed, more raw
juice should be added till a decided pink color be shown
by the test paper.
The lime should be added to the cold raw juice, either
in a tank, or the clarifying compartment of the evap-
orator. The object of the lime is to correct too much
acidity, to coagulate albumens and gums, causing the
light impurities to float as skum, the heavier ones to sink
as mud, in the clarifying or settling tank.
A perforated metal strainer or seive should be used
under the mill spout; over the juice barrel a strainer of
bagging should be placed; below this one of flannel. Sev-
eral sets of these strainers should be on hand, that they
may be frequently changed and washed. They should be
stretched loosely over hoops to fit over the juice barrel.
Saccharometer, or hydrometer-a "Beaume" saccharo-
meter; also a tall, clear wide mouth bottle, or a tin cylin-
der with broad base, two inches in diameter and ten inches
deep, should be provided. They are absolutely necessary
for uniform work. They can be had! or ordered by any
druggist.
Juice tanks and settling tanks are necessary for good
results. Kerosene, or whisky barrels, burned out with
straw and perfectly cleaned, answer very well. They
should be sawed in two, making two tubs out of each bar-
rel. Eight or more such tubs should be provided for a
small mill, making, say forty gallons per day. Each tub
should have a cover, made of cloth, stretched tightly over
a hoop to fit snugly over the tub.
A juice barrel, at the mill, with its strainers, and a
lime-wash barrel must also be provided. The evaporator,
or kettles, should be well set in masonry and covered with
a shed. If kettles are used, two at least should be pro-
vided, of say, sixty and eighty gallons each; the larger one
for the clarifierr," the smaller one for the evaporator and
finishing kettle. Properly handled, no apparatus makes
a better quality of syrup than does the old-fashioned ket-
tle.




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