Title: Florida monthly bulletin
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077082/00005
 Material Information
Title: Florida monthly bulletin
Alternate Title: Bulletin Florida Agricultural Department
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Dept.
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: August 1901
Frequency: monthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with v. 15, no. 4 (Sept. 1, 1905)?
Numbering Peculiarities: From vol. 14 numbering changes.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 66 (Apr. 1, 1901); title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077082
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 43189044
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture

Full Text
'/. /!



Vol. I1. No. 70.


FLORIDA


(Department of Agriculture.)



..Monthly Bulletin..




ALJOUGUST, 1901.



B. E. McLIN, Commissioner of Agriculture,
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part I. Crope.
Part II. Fertilizera.
Part III. Weather Report.
Part IV. MVl cellaneous.


These Bulletins are furnished free
to those requesting them . .

TALLAHAS8EEAN BOOK AND JOS OFFICE, TALLAHASSEE, FLA.








County Map of the State of Florida.
(For the Bulletin.)













DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE -


HON. B. E. McLIx, Com. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief C~erL.


CORRESPONDENTS' NOTES.
ALACHUA COUNTY-Cotton and corn are both shot of am, avgz :
other crops doing well. A good deal of hay and fodder will be'ss~ .L
BAKER COUNTY-The general condition of all growing. eropsl i.
lost fully 25 per cent. owing to excessive rain through, the monthne .
August; cotton is dropping its fruit fast; sweet potatoes axre near z .
drowned out; field peas, peanuts and velvet beans are holding up w s.,
and rice and sugar cane are doing very well; corn is fully matuned..
BRADFORD COUNTY-Corn and cotton crops are short, owing-t to tm:o
much rain; as a general thing other field crops are very good, and'd~ing:
well.
BREVARD COUNTY-Season has been good, and all crops have do -.
well. Orange trees have made a fine, healthy growth, all the better fwr
the short crop of fruit; other citron trees and all other fruit trees ae
doing well.
CALHOUN COUNTY-We are having dry weather now, which is ccckr-
ing growth of cane, potatoes and peas; caterpillars have also made t6ir-
appearance, and have greatly damaged a good many fields of cottac;:
other crops generally good.
CITRUS COUNTY-The general condition of all growing- crops s:
fully up to the average of a good crop year. Hay crop is good, tut
owing to so much rain cannot be cured in the best manner. Cbrn is-
ready to gather and is better matured than for several years. The
area planted in velvet beans has been greatly increased in the last few-
years; have plenty of rain all the year hence the fine crops.
CLAY COUNTY-Cotton has suffered from rust and shedding of tie
bolls, which are drying up and falling off; other crops are fair and giwg
promise of a fair yield, though corn is not filled well, and is light ews
on good land.
DESOTO COUNTY-Conditions are favorable for all crops and fruit,
except grape fruit, which is a short crop, owing to the overbearing a&
the trees last year. (










GADSDEN COUNTY-Crops are in fair condition, and with one or two
exceptions will yield fair average crops.
HERNANDO COUNTY-Crops are fairly good, and promise good aver-
age yields. Citrus trees growing fine.
HOLMES COUNTY-The storm of 15th August caused some damage
to corn and cotton, particularly short cotton, cane, long cotton and
,potatoes all right; hay is very fine, there will be 100 per cent. more
hay saved than ever before. The fair days of sunshine are helping cot-
ton.
JACKSON COUNTY-Rust and caterpillars have cut cotton short; corn
,crop short also; hay crop is good, and olner smaller crops doing well.
LEE COUNTY-Crops are all doing well. Fruit trees growing fine,
.and bearing large crops of fruit; orange and guava crops fine.
LEON COUNTY-Cotton and corn crops are both short. with cater-
pillars doing considerable damage in some localities. Smaller crops are
,doing well.
LEVY COUNTY-Crops are up to an average on high pine land, but
hammock and flat woods lands have suffered heavily from too much
rein.
MADISON COUNTY-Upland cotton is rusting from excessive rains;
long cotton also damaged by rains; caterpillars making their appear-
-ance in bottom lands, but no material damage done yet; other crops
fairly good.
MANATEE COUNTY-Weather for last two weeks has been very hot
and dry. Crops of all kinds in good condition. Fruit doing well,
trees growing vigorously.
MARION COUNTY-All crops are fine, and will yield full crops; cas-
sava crop is largest by far ever grown; large acreage was planted.
NASSAU COUNTY-The season for three weeks has been quite dry;
.a continuance will cause a decrease in crops, which are at present
doing well.
ORANGE COUNTY-We have had an excellent season, and all crops that
.have been well cultivated are good; the prospect is good for full yields
of corn, sweet potatoes and cane.
POLK COUNTY-We consider the estimate of yields of crops as
.given quite reliable, and have no doubt that each will turn out the
average indicated. Other crops are equally fine; fruit trees fine, and
crop has every appearance now of being better fruit than last year; the
groves are better cared for, which also improves the quality of fruit.
PUTNAM COUNTY-Crops mentioned are the food and provision
crops; rain and caterpillars have damaged both cotton and hay crops;
the other crops are fairly good.








5

TAYLOR COUNTY-Cotton and corn are both short, on account of too,
much rain; all crops are somewhat damaged, except sweet potatoes.
VOLUSIA COUNTY-All citrus trees are in fair condition; many of
the groves that have been brought out since the freeze are bearing a
little fruit.
WAKULLA COUNTY-The rains have greatly damaged all crops, ex--
cept rice and sugar cane.
WALTON COUNTY-Rains of the past month have caused shedding:
of bolls of cotton and retarded picking; corn has also been damaged
by rain, and velvet beans are rotting in some sections; other crops are
generally fair.
WASHINGTON COUNTY-Cotton is doing very well, but corn is short;
all other crops are fine, and some of them are much better than usual;
prospect is very promising all around for a good yield.













Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for August,
1901, compared with an average.

plan Seland Corn Sugar Field Rice
otton C Cotton Cane Peas



... 80 0 0 10 9 9 80


Maker ........... .... ...... 50 50 75 75 90 90 50 50 90o 90
Skadford .......... ........ 70 60 70 75 100 110 70 75 100, 110
19m vard ............... .. ... 100 100 100 100 1 ....
ounties............... 60 60 85 85 85 5 10 100 75 75
o 5, ....s. 'o o o o oo o



h ............ ........ ..... 00 17 0 90 5 100 9 1 800
er....................... 50 9075 75 90 910 0 50 50 90 90

a gu bia r .................. 60 95 95 10 0 100 100 110
a rd .................. ..... 100 100 10 0 .... ....
4eloun...... ...... 60 60 70 75 85 85 85 95 100 100 75 75

OEi .... .........0 110 190 75 100 100 110 100
....a a .............. 75 0 ... 100 100 0 100 0 100 100 10 00
ae~ bklin ................... 5 0 95 95 95 100 100 11

Hernanedo................... 100 100 90 80 .... 80 80
ieSaoro gh ................ 110 105 10 100 1 10 100
Escarbia .............. 75 100 ..... 10 100 100 1 100 l95 1001 100

oklins ................ 90 90 0 5 100 10
Jacsden.............. 908 0 80 75 80 85 90 80 655 95
e o.............. 100o 0 80 8 ... 80
ie..oro.................... ... 100 o110 110 0 90 100
H;mes................85 8 90 90 80 90 10 1 10 0 10 115 110
J ............. 9 90 80 75 90 90 90 90 1 100 80 80
l ette................ 85 8 80 5 100 100 100
a ee -. .. ......... .. .... .... 100 100 85110 110 9 90 100 100
Marion.................. 8 0 110 100 10 100 1100 100 100 100
Ijre~ ............. ... "890 85 75 90 90 9 0 0 .... 0 75 80
i... 10. 110 0 85 90 9o 90 100 100

.............. ... 160 160 100 100 160 160 '125 125
StMa ......... .... .... ... 90 75 10u 100 100 100 85 8 .......
:l. ja................ .. .. 50 50 85 85 80 80 ....
osa............... 7 75 ..... 100 100 100 100 90 95 80 80
annee ............... ... 8 85 70 75 85 85 90 90 70 75
STaylor ............... ....... 80 75 50 60 75 85 75 60 6 60
rV eolsia ............. ..... .. ... ... 100 100 1
Wakla- ............... 50 50 50 60 65 100 100 50 50 100 100
Waton .............. 85 85 .... .. 95 90 100 100 75 80 95 95
'Wahington ........... 10 100 75 70 100 100 100 100 90 90
-Ceneral averages....... 80 3 80 78 88 90 92 96 8| 92 94 94










7

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

"weto, Cassava Peanuts Hay ens Bannas


Counties a :

;S a" C6 0 z C C
0 0 P 0 c >4 0 4;. 1
0J a, Zo E U a.0o C)
Alachu& ... ..... 1041 100 .... t-0 75 7V 7 100 ... ...
Baker ...... ......... 50 0........ 50 50 ....... 90 90......
Bradford................ 100 75 .. ..100 70 100 100 120 140......
Brevard............... 100 .... .. .. 100 100 ........ 100 150
Calhoun.... ..... 1. 100 1 0 100 .... . .. ....... ....
Citrus................ 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 .... ...
Clay ................ 00 100 100 100 110 120 110 120 . ...
Columbia ..... ... 95 95 10( 100 100 100 105 110 100 100 .......
Dade ............ 0..... ..0 1 ... ... 100 100
DeSoto .............. 100 110 95 90 90 80 110 120 100 110 100 110
Escambia.............. 100 150 100 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 .....
Franklin.... 100..... 90 100 ....... 100 100 .. 90 95 ......
Gadsden........... 100 95 .. 100 100 75 95 ... .... ....
Hernando....... ......... ... .. 100 100 100 100 100 110 .... ...
Hillsborough...... ... 100 100 ... .......... ... 100 200 ...
Holmes .............. 90 9 90 0 100 100 100 115 120 125 100 ......
Jackson... ..... ...... 75 80 .... ... 100 110 110 120 ..... .... .. ......
Lafayette........... .... 100 100 ... .... 100 10100100 110 100 120 .. .....
Lake............ .....100 100 110 80 85 75 75 100 100 25 25
Lee.................. 90 90 100 100 100 100 110 110 150 150 100 1tO
Leon ...... ........ 100 110 .... 100 100 100 115 100 110 .... ..
Lvy .................. 75 75 10 100 100 100 90 90 100 100 .... ...
Madison.... ... ...... 81 801.... ... 90 90 110 110 .... ... ...
Manatee............. 100 100 100 100 100 100 5 95
Marion................... 10 100 0 1101100 110 100 90 80 120 120... ...
Nassau ........... .. 100 100' ... .... .. .... .. 100 100 .... ..
Orange................ 110 100 115 115.... .... 110 110 125 125 ... ...
Polk................. 160 160 505 100 100 125 125 125 125 140 140
Putnam ............. 100 100.... ...... 100 100 85 75 .... ....... ....
St. Johns .............. 90 90 .. .......... .... 90 90.... .... ....
Santa Rosa............. 90 90 ... ... 10 100 90 90 .... ........ ....
Suwannee.............100 100 .... .... 100 100 100 100 .... ...... ....
Taylor ......... ...... 100 100 ...... .. 50 50 65 70 ... .. ... ....
Volusia ............... 100 100 95 100....... :.. 100 100 .... ...
Wakulla.......... .... 100 100 75 75 50 50 50 50 100 100..... ..
Walton ................ 100 100 ... .... 90 90 75 80 .. ....
Washington ........... 80 75 2001200 100 100 200 200 125 125.......

General averages.. ....9 95 109 181 93 91 99 100 106 114 94 103









8

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops--Continued.

Pine- Guava Orange Lemon Lime Grpe
apples ua Trees Trees Trees Tre






B baker ................. .... .... ... ... .. ..... ....... ....
Bradfo .............. 0 0 .... i20
Counties t .. .0 .t a *





Bre ard.. .. .......... .. 00 . ... ....
CPtrus lO; 00 a
00 0 0, 0, C 0 t cS
Alacha....0.....
laker................... ... ... .... .... 120 ..... .. .... .... .. ......... .

Columbiaradford................ ... .. .... . 120 .... 50.... ....... 120...
Breade................ .1 115 00 00 125 80 ............ 105 1 50


DeSoto . . ............ 110 200 100 120 100 110 100 120 100 110 110 9.
Escambia .............. .. ...... .... ............... .. .... ..
Fran i .............. ............... ..1 0 ..... ... .... 10
Cladden...... ...... ... .. .... ....1 ... ................

Hernando ............... ........ .... 100.... 100 ....
DadeHillsborough ...... ......... 110 115 1 105 10 50 100 100 100 0 110
DeSoto................ 110 200 100 120 100 110 100 120 100 110 110 90,

Hoambia................ ..... ..... .. ...... .. ........ ......
Jacksolin.............. ........ .. ... .. .. .. ....
Laayette ........... ... ............... .... ..... .........
Hernandoke........... .. .. 100... 10.... ...... ... 100
HLeel h............ ...... 1 .. 120 1 110 80 110 ..... .... .... 1
H olmes.. .... ............ ... .... ... .. .. ..... ... .
Jackson............... ... ... ... ........ .... ..... .... ..... .
Lafayetteon ............. ... ........ .... ....... ... .... .......
Lakee........... .... 10 1 80 3 10 90 00 100 00 100 .10.
Lee.Ma ................ 0 ... 100 120 .. 10 12 0 0 1 10 100 110 110 12
Leonau......... ... ... ...... .... 0. ... 100 .... ... .... . ....



Orange .................. 1001 0 l 65 10 .... 75 ... ... ...... '90.. .
Manatee.......... 100 12 100 10 150 150i 1100 115 1-00 100 125 950
N u.au o ................ ....... .... 100 .... 100 ....... .. ......
Orange Rosa.............100 10.... 65 65 100 .... 7............. ..
Polk......... ....... 100 125 100 100 150 150 110 115 100 100 125 150
Putnam ................. ............ .. ........ ...
St. Johns............. . .. ... . .... ..... . ....
Santa Rosa........................... .........................
Suwannee................. .... ...... ....... .. .. .
Taylor....... ............
Volusia ................ 1...
Wakulla..................
W alton ................ .... .. .... .... .... ... .... ......... .
W ashington ...... .. ... ... ... .. ... .
General averages.. .... 110 120 96 121 106 117 96 109 108i 107 1150













BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS.

R. E. ROSE, State Chemist. E. E. McLIN, Clerk.

VALUATIONS.
For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia and
Potash for the Season of 1900-1901.
Available Phosphoric Acid .............. 4j cents a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ................ 1 cent a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .... 15 cents a pound
Potash (as actual potash, K20.).......... 5 cents per pound
If caluclated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid .............. 90 cents per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .............. 20 cents per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .... $3.00 per unit
Potash ...............................$1.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of $2.00 per ton for mixing and
bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent in a ton. We find
this to be the easiest and quickest method for calculating the
value of a fertilizer. To illustrate this take for example a
fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid, 6.39x.90 ................$ 5.75
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, 1.15x.20................ .23
Ammonia, 4.93x3.00 .............. 14.79
Potash, 7.11x1.00 .............. 7.11
Mixing and bagging .......... ......... ......... 2.00

$29.88
The above valuations are for cash for materials delivered at
Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one ton lots at
these prices at the date of issuing this Bulletin. Where fer-
tilizers are bought at interior points, the additional freight to
that point must be added.

















BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS.


'1. E. Rosa, State Chemist.


MARION G. DONK, Assistant Chemist.


Analysis of Special Samples under Sec. 9, Act approved May 22, 1901.

(Samples taken by purchaser.)


Name of Fertilizer


H. G. Blood and B ne.
E .H. G. Blood and Bo e.
.H. G. Blood and Bone.
SBlood and Bone...........
Dried Blood............
SSpecial Mixture.....
Bat Guano................
Acid Phosphate.......
Ashes, ..............
Fertilizer...........
Castor Pumace.......
SCanada, H. W., Ashes
Bat ManUre or Guano.


Phosphoric Acid



4 3
X a A
odd


a

o ~s
S
6S
r .&


Name of Sender


9.66 ..... W1ou & Toomer, Fert. Co., Jacksonville.
10. .... Wilson & Toomer, FPrt. Co., Jacksonville.
10. .... Wilson & Toomer, Fert. Co., Jacksonville.
7.14 .... Wilson & Toomer, Fert. Co., Jacksonville.
17.0 ... E. 0. Painter Fert. Co Jacksonville, Fla.
5.O2 11.21 W. H. Cox, Boyton, Fla.
10.81 1.95 E 0. Painter Pert. Co., Jacksonmille, Fla.
.... .... E. O Painter kert. Co., Jacksonlle, Fla.
... 4.06 W. H. Cox, Boyton, Fla.
3.18 2.19 Wm. Y. Douglass, Dunedin, Fla
7. 4.67 E. 0. Painter Fert. Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
. 3.76 H. H. Harvey, Seffner, Fla.
0 44 1.71 Lyle & Co., Bartow, Fla.


For values see h. a&ing "Bureau of Frtllizere."








UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

Climate and Crop Service of the Weather Bureau-Florida Section.

A. J. MITCHELL, SECTION DIRECTOR, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


Stations


Climatological Data for July


Temperature, in de
SFahrenbeit

0 2
a
Counties
0 0

C S a .a.


NORTHERN SECTION.

Archer............ Alachua.......
Bainbridge ......... Decatur, Ga .....
Federal Point....... St. Jchns......
Fernandina......... Nass'u ...... ..
Fort Georgef ....... Duval..........
Gainesville.... a.... Alachua........
Huntington ........ Putnam........
Jacksonville........ Duval............
Jasper.. ....n.... Hamilton.....
Lake Butler...h.... Bradford ......
Lake City........... Columbia......
Macclenny... 1 ... Baker.........
cAlpin......... Suwannee......
Iicanopy .......... Alachua........
Iiiidleb rg ........ Clay...........
w n y i i;i? ,2 *,: .


81.6
82.2




82 2
82 6
81.7
80.8
81.6
82.1
83.4
81.9
82 7


agrees Precipitation, in inches Sky



ILK L ^


*o

ri


Cs
0


5.74
3 94
5 05


7 76
3 39
4 26
6 66
6 55
5 65
4 10
3 00
5 62
6 78


0
**- CB Et a
a3 *a

al 10 z
g
^ c! Z,
Q~ C5 2;


-0.10
-3 79
-2 32


+0 92
-3 59
--2 06

-1 25
-1 63


-1 98
1 .....


a a s
o z _
h~ i. ^
S?-a^
am 9 a.a*
C- 3 "3T
ZTI 1 7- \


C
0

an

-.-


a


sw

e



se



e
;....



.. ..


I


----------


I I I I







Climatological Data for July-(Continued.)


Stations


Savannah, UGa.......
St. Augustine ......
Suimner ..........
Switzerland .a.....
Thomasyille, Ga ....
Waycross, Ga......


CENTRAL SECTION.

Bartow............
Brooksville ........
Clermont...........
DeLand...........
Earnestville ........
Eustis............. . . .
Ft. Meade.......
Fort Pierce.........
Inverness...........
Kissimmee.........
Merritt's Island ....
New Smyrna..d.....
Ocala..............
Orange City........
Orlando,.........,


Counties


Chatham, Ga.. 36 30
St. Johns....... 10 52
Levy................. 10
St. Johns...... .... 15
Thomas, Ga.... 330 23
Ware, Ga...... 131 19

Means.... ..........


Polk.... .... ..
Hernando......
Lake...........
Volusia.......
Pasco...... ...
Lake...... .. ...
Polk...........
Brevard.... .. .
Oitrus........ .
Osceola ......
Brevard.......
Volusia..........
Marion .....
Volusia ......
Orange .......


^


81.4
88 2
80 8
81 1
82 2
82 2

81 8


81 6
81 4
82 8
81 7
83 3
83 8
81 6
81 1
81 2
81 1
83 4
81 1
82 5
83 0
82 0


-0 21
+0 7
-0 3

+03
+1 3
+1 6
+1 3
40 1
-1 5
+1 0

+1 3
-0 4
+0 4


3.69 -2.02
7 33 +1 02
8 18 +0 04
4 09 -4 11
10 16 +3 59
2 90 -2 91

5 65 --1 37


9 86 +0 40
7 41 -2 11
4 52 -2 60

13 35 3 66
5 93 -0 861
11 35 +3 101
3 04 -2 401
8 75 +0 34
2 84 -3 30
1 55 -3 63
3 20 -2 23
8 16 +1 39
4 31 -2 35
4 28 -2 33,


17' 8
13 17
15 9

19 7
17 5
17 18
8 17
11 ...
10 -
6 25
5 -
15 6
14 14
17 16


231
13
18

16
22
13




14
12
14


9 sw
.... 8W




6[se


Os
1 ne-w
4 tie

8e


6 se
... se

2e
11e
5 se
1se


Temperature, in degrees Precipitation, in inches Sky
Fahrenheit

0
8a a a
._ __ ---
d "". Q Ed L;
1 0
<0 Q; to 14 Cc B L h >
0 M = Z, Z ZV 2,'
M i'd ma aI 5 8 a aZ a L
a a f ^ a . Q -sz z ^








Plant City.......... Hillsborough... 121 71 82.0
Rockwell..... a.... Marion............. 1 83 2
Sebastian ........... Brevard ......36 3 80 8
Tampa ............ Hillsborough.... 20 11 81 8
Tarpon Sprirgs .... .illsborough ..20 16 ....
Titusville IF........ Brevard........ .... ..... 81 1
Means...... ... ... 82 0

SOUTHERN SECTION.

Flamingo........ Monroe .. .... .... 81 3
Havana......... Cuba ....... .. 57 10 80 4
Hyoluxo ..... .... Dade... ... 4 81 6
Jupiter.... Dade...... ade......28 13 81 2
Key West .. Monroe.. 22 30 81 5
Manatee............ Manatee ........ 16 18 80 2
M arco .... ......... Lee.............. .... .... 81 4
Miami ...a......... Dade.... .... .. 83 2
Myers ...... ...... Lee... ... ...... 15 81 9
Nassau............ N. P. Bahamas. .......... 79 5
Nocatee... .... DeSoto........... 1 82 3
San Juan.......... Puerto Rico.... 82 ..... 82 4

Means ......... 81 6
WESTERN SECTION.

Carrabelle.... a..... Franklin...... 12 4 81 4
Daphne.... g ....... B ldwin, Ala... ...... ... 82 2
DeFuniak Springs.. Walton........ 193 3 81 1
Marianna ......... Jackson............ 1 81 2
Mobile............... Mobile, Ala .... 35 30 82 2
Montgomery.... Hontgom'y, Ala 219 28 83 3
Monticello ......... Jefferson......... .......... .


+0.5 98 2*
..... 98 15
+0 1 93 13
00 93 29

- 0 93 12*
- --I


90 27*
89 13
90 15-
92 12
8827
94 1V
96 19
90 10*
90 1
90 12*
97 1*


6.76 -1.3[
5 15 .......

6 82 -1 37
. . ..
1 62 -5 23

6 13 -1 02


7 51
9 08
4 90
7 23
5 58
11 12
9 21
8 18
5 28
8 08
10 86


7 76


8 18
6 60
8 71
4 47
8 95
1 85


+4 02
+0 40
4-2 00
+2 10
-0 49

+0 31
-2 82



+0 25


+2 39
-1 02
+1 23

+2 11
-2 67


1.88 19 7 24 0 se
1 50 8 .... .. sw
1 10 6 .... .... ..
2 26 18 1 23 7

0 57 6 .... .. ....

.... 13 11 16 4e


2 05 4........ .. e
2 80 15 5 21 5 e
1 33 16...... .. ......
2 09 18 9 19 3 e
1 79 16 11 13 7e
3 26 21 3 25 3 se
1 75 18 17 8 6o

1 03 17 15 13 3es
4 38 17 ... .... .... ......
2 25 15 9 0 22 ......


...... 15 11 13 7ese


6 20

11 12
13 13
. I .


w


sw
SW
3
$






Climatological Data for July, 1901-Continued.

Temperature, in degrees Precipitation, in inches Sky
Fahrenheit
___ .20
Stations Counties 0 | | |

0 0 0 a btc


__________ ___ j __ Q_ a Z_ Za lZ
Newton ............. ..Dale, Ala.... .. . . . . .. . . ." . .... . . . . ..............
Pensacola.......... Escambia ...... .56 21 823+1 0 103 12 7114 24 6.74 -0.15 2.03 18 7 14 10 ne
Quincy.... .......... Gadsden... .... ........... ... . .. ....... .... ...... ....... .
St. Andrews Bay... Washington.... .... 3 81 5 -0 3 96 12 69 4* 24 997 +1 45 1 50 15 "17 13 "1 w"
Stephensvillet...... Taylor............ ... 2 80 1 0 ( 97 30 6523 .... 9 69 -3 73 2 00 14 2 26 3 ]w
Tallahassee....... Leon........... 193 15 80 7+0 3 9512*6515 24 8 25 +0 02 2 15 13 ..
Wausau........... Washington. .. 250 3 88 0+0 810712 6624 37 6 10 +0 46 1 19 .16 8'20 3
Wewahitchka...... Calhoun.... ... ....... 81 6 .. 98 1* 67 5 28 11 40 ...... 2 03 20 1 6 24s
M 31 r1 8.







Means...... ....... 81....... ..17 24 .... 14 7 16 8sw
JUNE, 1901. State Means...... .... 81 8 0 3 .. ... ... 6 7 0 00 .... 3 10 15 6
Key West.................... .. .... 80 8-1 0 88 3 69 10 16 5 65 +1 63 1 24 14 4 19 1 e

Thermometers are not self-registering and readings are All records, except stations outside of the State, are used
Thermomete are not self-registe g ad r s ae in determining State or district means, but State and district
made at 7 a. m,. 2 p, m. and 9 p. m. daily, departures are determined by comparison of current data of
*More than one day. fWeather Bureau, only such stations as have normals.
a, b, c, etc., following name of station, indicate number
1Not used in obtaining means, of days missing from report,














Salient Climatic Features.


ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
The mean pressure for the month was 30.00 inches, which is 0.06
inch below normal. The highest observed pressure was 30.17 inches,
at Jacksonville and Pensacola on the 1st; the lowest 29.79 inches, at
Jacksonville on the 12th; monthly range for the State was 0.38 inch.
TEMPERATURE.
(Degrees Fahrenheit.)
The monthly mean temperature for the State was 81.8 degrees, 0.3
degrees above normal. By sections, the means were: Northern, 81.8 de-
grees; Central, 82.0 degrees; Southern, 81.6 degrees; Western, 81.4 de-
grees. The highest monthly mean temperature was 83.8 degrees, at
Eustis; the lowest monthly mean temperature was 79.5, at Myers. The
highest temperature during the month was 107 degrees, at Wausau on
the 12th; the lowest temperature during the month was 64 degrees, at
Sumner on the 6th; absolute range for the State was 43 degrees.
PRECIPITATION.
(Inches and hundredths.)
The average precipitation for the State during the month was 6.67
inches, which is the normal amount. By sections, the averages were:
Northern, 5.65 inches; Central, 6.13 inches; Southern, 7.76 inches; West-
ern, 8.17 inches. The greatest monthly amount was 13.55 inches, at
Earnestville; the least was 1.55 inches, at Merritt's Island. The greatest
amount for any twenty-four hours was 3.26 inches, at Manatee on
the 2d.
WIND AND WEATHER.
The prevailing winds during the month were from the southeast.
By section there were: Northern, 12 clear days; 13 partly cloudy; 6
cloudy. Central, 11 clear; 16 partly cloudy; 4 cloudy. Southern, 11
clear; 13 partly cloudy; 7 cloudy. Western, 7 clear; 16 partly cloudy;
8 cloudy.
Rainy days: Northern section, 13; Central, 13; Southern, 15; West-
ern, 14.
MISCELLANEOUS PHENOMENA.
(Dates of.)
Fog-Middleburg, 22; Wewahitchka, 11, 21.
Halos, Lunar-Earnestville, 26, 28, 29; Federal Point, 21, 23, 26,
28, 29, 30.









16

Halos, Solar-Earnestville, 11.
Thunderstorms-Carrabelle, 2, 16; Earnestville, 1, 2, 3, 4. 7, 8, 17
to 22, inclusive; Federal Point, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 14 to 22, inclusive, 26,
31; Fort Meade, 2, 5, 10, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, 26; Fort Pierce, 19; Gaines-
ville, 2, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 to 23, inclusive, 26; Huntington, 8, 9, 17;
Merritt's Island, 3, 4, 5, 7 to 14 and 17 to 23, inclusive,; Miami, 2, 11,
14, 26; Middleburg, 2, 4 to 10 and 13 to 21, inclusive, 23, 27; Ocala,
1; Orlando, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 26; Rockwell, 5,
*8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 27; Sumner, 3, 4, 17; Wewahitchka, 13, 14, 21, 22, 23,
24, 28, 29.

PRESSURE AND WIND TABLE

Wind Velocity, Relative
Atmospheric Pressure in Miles Humidity

Stations ,5 A r




Jacksonville............. 30.02 30.17 1 29.79 12 5.421 36 e12 95 5480
Jupiter. ................ 30.00 30.10 1 29.88126.814 30 se 4 96 6982
Key West.............. 29.97 30.12 1 29.86 46,131 26 ne 2.....
Pensacola .............. *30.02 30.17 1 29.88 135,623 32 nw 15 93 4778
Tampn................. 30.00 30.14 1 29.90 123.467 43 se 4 92 51. 1
*8 a. m. readings only.


-COMPARATIVE TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL DATA FOR JULY, DURING
THE PAST TEN YEARS.
Mean Average Rainfall.
Year. Temperature. Inches and hundredths.
1892 ........ ........ 81.4 ........ ........ 4.69
1893 ........ ........ 82.3 ........ ........ 5.14
1894 ........ ........ 80.4 ........ ........ 8.04
1895 ........ ........ 81.1 ........ ........ 7.16
1896 ........ ........ 81.4 ........ ........ 3.18
1897 ........ ........ 82.1 ........ ........ 6.90
1898 ........ ........ 81.6 ........ ........ 8.66
1899 ........ ........ 80.9 ........ ........ 8.88
1900 ........ ........ 81.7 ........ ........ 7.41
1901 ...... .. ....... 81.8 ................ 6.67
The normal temperature for July is 81.5 degrees; normal rainfall
is 6.67 inches.










TWENTY-FOUR HOUR PRECIPITATION,
Exceeding Two Inches.
Bartow, 4:2.55. Carrabelle, 3:2.03. Earnestville, 31:2.05. Flam-
ingo, 5: 2.08; 7: 2.01; 29: 2.05. Fort Meade, 19: 2.50. Inverness,
22: 2.18. Lake City, 21: 2.50 Manatee, 2: 3.24. Miami, 20: 3.20;
26: 2.00. Nocatee, 18: 2.25; 20: 2.00. St. Augustine, 2: 2.79. Talla-
hassee, 21: 2.15. Wewahitchka, 22: 2.03.


OBSERVERS' REMARKS.
Fort Meade-Severe thunderstorms occurred on 1, 2, 10, 14, 18 to 22,,
inclusive, with high winds.
Huntington-Severe thunderstorm at 11.45 p. m., damaged store house
and contents of C. H. Preston & Co., Crescent City, to the extent
of $550
Lake City-21: heavy thunderstorm from 7 to 9 p. m.
Middleburg-Corn badly damaged by Hessian fly; crops are generally
short.















Cassava Growing and Starch Making in Florida.

The following estimates of the cost of erecting a starch factory to handle 50
tons of cassava roots per day (of 24 hours), making 18,000 pounds of starch per
day, with an estimate of cost of culture and harvest, with probable results to
farmer and manufacturer, are submitted. The estimates are conservativee and
well within bounds, both as to cost of factory and raw material, while the
cultural charges are considerably higher than- allowed by practical and compe-
tent growers. Properly and systematically managed, no business offers greater
inducements to the capitalist and farmer than does the growth and manufacture
of starch from cassava, an article of universal demand.
Cassava starch now sells for 41 cents per pound; the demand far exceeds the
supply; no starch equals it for dextrin, nor for fine laundry work, while for cul-
inary purposes it is superior to that made from corn, wheat or potatoes. No
chemicals are used in its manufacture, and no fermentation required, hence it is
peculiarily adapted for food, and is the base of the best tapiocas and similar
foods. For particulars as to culture, yield and other details, see Bulletins Nos.
49 and 55 in the Florida Experiment Station, Lake City, Florida:
MANUFACTURING-ESTIMATE OF COST AND OPERATING.
$50,000 Capital Stock-500 Shares, $100 Each. Paid in as Follows:
25 Per Cent. on Subscribing, 25 Per Cent. in Three Months, 25 Per Cent, in Six
Months, 25 Per Cent. Stock Dividend.
PERMANENT INVESTMENT.
Factory complete, with necessary ground...................................... $25,000 00
Working capital.................................... .... ..... .. ... ....
ANNUAL EXPENSES.
M anager.... .. .... .... ...... ............................. 3,600 00
Superintendent ana Engineer.. ....................................... 1,200 00
C lerk............................ ................ ......................... 600 00
10opercent wear and tear, depreciation...... ............... .......... 2,50000
5 per cent. insurance and taxes .......................... ....... 1,250 00- 9.150 00
Reserve fund, incidental expenses ...................................... 3,350 00
Total actual cash required...................................... ....... $37,500 00
Stock premium .. .............. .................................... 12,500 00

$50,000 00
Running expenses during the "season" are estimated at I cent per pound
of finished product. $90.00 per day-practical experience shows this to be more
than ample.
MANUFACTURER'S ESTIMATED BALANCE SHEET.
On basis of paying one- half the gross value of the product to the grower:
O5 tons roots per day (yields 18 per cent. starch).
9 tons, 18,000 pounds starch per day.
Gross value of product at 4 cents p r pound .... .................. ..................... 720 00
Ono-half paid grower ....... .................................... $360 00
Cost to manufacture at % cent per pound............. ........ ....... 0 00
Manufacturer' gross profit .... .................... .......... .. 270 00

$720 00
Season 90 days, $270.00 gross profit per day, manufacturer's gross
profit per season $24,300 00
6 per cent. interest on $37. 500. 00 invested............................ 2, 250 00
Working capital replaced. ....... .................................... 12,500 00
15 per cent. dividend on $50,000.00 stock.. ........................... 7,50000
Undivided profits........................ ................. .. ... 2,050-00
$24,300 00
Total sum paid growers, $32,400. 00.
Average value, $7.20 per ton. 4,500 tons.
A average, 8 tons per ac'e, 562Y. acres.
Average $57. 60 ier acre to grower. ...











19

MANUFACTURER'S ESTIMATED BALANCE SHEET.
Based on paying $6.00 per ton delivered at factory:
SO tons roots per day at $6.00.................................. 300 00
Manufacturing at Y cent per pound. ........... ... ............. 9000
Gros daily profit................................. ..................... 330 00

$720 00
Gross value daily output 18,000 pounds at 4 cents .......7.....0 00
Season 90 days, gross daily profit $330.00.......... ................ $9, 700 00
6per cent. on 67,500.00 .................................. $ 2,250 00
Working capital replaced.................................... 12,500 00
25 per cent. dividend on $50,000.00 ................................ 12 ,5 0000
Undivided profits......... .................................... 2,450 00- 29,700 00
Total sum paid growers, 4,500 tons at $6.00 .... ............ .. 27,000 00
Averaging 8 tons per acre.
Averaging $48.00 per acre gross.
AGRICULTURAL ESTIMATED BALANCE SHEET.
Based on 10 acres, agricultural labor at 75 cents per day:
Rent 8 per cent on $25.00 value per acre cleared and fenced ...................... 20 00
Plowing. 2 00 per acre................... ..... .. ................... .. 20 00
Harrowing, 50 cents per acre.... .... ....................................... 5 00
Fertilizer, 350 pounds per acre ........ ............... ................ ....... 3500
Fertilizer, distributing.......... .............................. ..... ..... 500
Planting, $1.50 per acre......... .............. 15 00
Cultivating 4 times, at $1.00 per acre... ... ................................... 40 00
Seed, first year only, $2.50 per acre......... ... ................................... 25 00
Total cost 10 acres ready to harvest ............ ..$165 00
Harvest and delivery to factory ($1.00 ton)....... ........................... 80 00
Total cost 80 tons delivered at factory .................... ................. .... 245 00
Average cost per acre to produce ..................... .... .... $16 50
Average cost per acre to harvest....... .................. 8 00
Average cost per ton to produce ......... ....... ....... $2 06%
Average cost per ton to harvest and deliver..................... 1 1... 00
Total cost to produce and deliver per ton.. .. .............
Net profit at $6.00 per ton ............................... .......~.~ .... .. 2 930

Net profits per acre...... ............. $23 50
Cost per acre........... ................. 24 50
Gross returns per acre......................... 48 00
AGRICULTURAL ESTIMATE.
100 ACRES.
Value of lands cleared and fenced, $25.00 per acre. ......... ....... 9$2,500 00
Improvements...... ......... ..... .................................. .. 1,500
Permanent investment.... ......................................... $4,000 00
Working capital, $16.50 per acre............... ......................1,650 00
Cost of harvest, $8.00 per acre..... ........................................ 800 00
Gross investment.. .. ............ ............................ ...... $6,450 00
Gross returns 800 tons at $6.00...... ............ ........ ...... $4 800 00
8 per cent. interest on permanent investment............. .....$ 320 00
Working capital, returned.. ..... ............... .......... 1,650 00
Cost of harvest, returned........ ...... ................... 00
40 per cent. on $4,000.00 permanent investment.................. 1, 600 00
Undivided profits ............................ ......... ...'...*... 430 00

$4,80000
These figures are considered conservative; are higher than any yet furn-
ished by numbers of practical farmers. The yield is below what may be ex-
pected from conditions of fertilizing and culture indicated.
The yield of starch is placed at 18 per cent., under proper conditions and
careful manipulation, a larger yield may be expected.









20

The value of the "by-products" of the factory for stock feed is not include I
in the estimate. The value of cassava for stock feed is much greater than its
value for starch making. The farmer need not therefore depend on the factory
solely for a market, nor need the factory depend solely on the starch consumer
for a customer.
Cassava roots yield 80 per cent. of dry flour or meal, equal to the best wheat
flour-600 pounds of flour or meal per ton of roots, or three barrels, worth as
much as wheat flour as a food and fully equal to it in appearance and quality,
when properly man.:factured. A starch factory can be used as a fleur m'll at
little additional expense; the profits to the grower and miller are about the same
in one case as the other.
Cassava meal or flour contains: Protien, 2.59 per cent.; fat, 0.55 per cent.;
amids and sugars, 15.96 percent.; potash, 0 90 per cent., and phosphoric acid,
0.24 per cent, necessarily lost in starch making. As food for man and beast
cassava flour is superior to corn meal, and compares favorably with wheat.
For producing beef, pork and milk it is equaled by few feed stuffs, and is
superior to many. For work stock, horses, mules and oxen it equals corn. fed
as a root or as a dried product. Dried and ground it will keep indefinitely as
does meal or flour.
One good "hand" can cultivate 20 acres, with some help in planting. Har-
vest requires extra labor.
The estimates for yields per acre and per centage of starch are conservative-
10 tons or roots per acre, with 22 per cent. starch contents are by no means rare
with the liberal culture and fertilizing indicated. The results estimated may be
expected under ordinary conditions.
The estimates for cost of factory and manufacture of starch are made from
direct tenders to construct and deliver in running order, complete in all respects,
the factory under full guarantee by responsible bidders to do the work indicated
at a cost not to exceed the sums mentioned.
N. B.-A factory of one-half the above capacity can be erected for two-
thirds the cost, $16.000. The cost of management will not be decreased, while
running expenses will be but little less than for the larger plant. rhe munu-
facturing cost will be practically double that of the larger plant per pound of
finished starch.












Grafting Pecans.


(From Bulletin No. 57, Florida Agricultural Experiment Static n )
Grafting should be done in spring or just at the time the buds start,
from the middle of February to the middle of March being about the
season for Northern and Western Florida. The preference is for the
latter part of the season, provided there is not too much work to be
done, because the growth will soon start and there is less danger of
misfortune to the graft, and the conditions are more favorable for a
good union. Trees may be grafted on the trunk, if small. If of medium
size, the operation should be performed on the main branches a little
way from the trunk, and if large, the grafts should be inserted on the
branches farther up from the trunk. The attempt should not be made
to bud or graft over the whole top of a large tree in one season. Only
a few branches should be worked each year, and in the course of three,
four or five years, depending upon the size of the tree, the old top can
be entirely replaced by the new variety.
Two methods of grafting may be used, cleft and whip or tongue,
but the latter can only be used on small branches (less than one inch),
while the former method can be used on large stock. A modification
of cleft grafting, known as cleft sap grafting, has been used in Florida
with success. The latter method is used on the larger size of stocks and
does not materially differ from cleft grafting, except that the clefts are
made to one side of the centre and frequently two are made in the
place of one. This latter method is to be preferred for the working of
very large stocks. If the cuts are made to one side of the centre, the
pressure of the cion is very much lessened, whereas, if the cion is placed
in the centre of the stock, as in the ordinary method of cleft grafting, the
tissue of the cion may be injured to such an extent as to prevent a
union. However, it is by no means advisable to graft very large limbs,
for the cut ends do not heal over readily. If left thus exposed for a
considerable length of time, as must necessarily be the case, the germs
of decay may find entrance and cause rotting of the portion, which will
undoubtedly spread to the older wood. In view of this fact, it is not
deemed advisable to graft branches which exceed two and one-half
inches in diameter at the very outside.
The tools and materials required in the performance of the work are
a grafting iron, a mallet, an ordinary budding knife, grafting wax and
strips of waxed cloth. A good grafting wax may be made as follows:
Resin ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ... 6 lbs.
Beeswax ............... ....... ..... .......2 lbs.
Linseed Oil ...... ...... ...... ...... .......1 lb.









The resin should be finely broken up; the beeswax should be cut in
small pieces, an these together with the linseed oil, should be placed
over a slow flame and melted. This done, the liquid should be poured
out into a bucket of water, and as soon as it is cool enough to handle,
it should be pulled until it assumes a light color. To prepare the cloth,
grafting wax is melted, old cotton is cut into strips, one inch wide or
narrower, rolled on a square stick, six inches long, and dropped into the
melted wax, or pieces of the cotton four or five inches wide may be
used, wound around a stick as before, and afterwards cut up. In using
grafting wax, the hands should be greased to prevent sticking.
Cleft Grafting. Having selected the branch for cleft grafting and
the point at which the cions are to be inserted, the branch should be
carefully and smoothly cut off. The stub can then be cut squarely off
just below the lower cut, i.e., at the point chosen. The limb is then
split by using the grafting iron. If rapid work is to be done, grafts
should be prepared beforehand and carried to the field, wrapped in
damp paper. In preparing the cion, a sloping cut should be made
about one and one-half inches long, cutting into the pith from a point
one-half way up the cut down to the lower end. On the opposite side
the cut should not be made to touch the pith, but should be confined
to woody tissue throughout its whole length. The knife should have a
keen, sharp edge. The cut should be clean, smooth and straight, and
the cion should be left wider on the outer side. Start the cuts on each
side of and just at a bud.
Having made the cleft, it is opened with a wedge on the end of the
grafting iron and the cion is placed in position. The cambium layers
should be in contact. Slip the cion well down until the whole of the
cut surface is within the cleft. If the stock is large enough insert two
cions. After inserting the cion it should be firmly held in place by
binding the stock with strips of wax cloth, after which a covering of
wax may be placed over the cloth. The cut end of the stock should be
covered, and if the cion be other than a terminal shoot, its distal end
should be waxed also.
As already stated, branches which are to be worked by whip-grafting
must be less than one inch in diameter. A sloping cut, an inch and a
half long, is made diagonally across the stock. A corresponding cut is
made in the cion, a tongue is raised about the centre of each cut by
making another cut with the budding knife held almost parallel to the
sides of the wood. The tongue is raised a little on both stock and cion
and the two are shoved together. They should be securely bound with a
strip of wax cloth and a layer of grafting wax should be spread over
the whole, covering up all the cut surfaces to the exculsion of water, air
and the germs of decay.
The cion and stock are preferably chosen of nearly the same size, but
a cion somewhat smaller than the stock may be used, in which case the









cambium layers along one side of the surface in contact should be placed
opposite each other, and the projecting portion of the stock trimmed
off.
BUDDING.
In Florida and perhaps most of the Southern States, more particu-
larly those bordering on the Gulf, the time for budding is during the
month of August and early September. During this season the at-
mosphere is generally quite moist, the buds are in good condition, the
sap flows freely, and better results are obtained then than at any other
time. Too frequent stress cannot be laid upon the condition of the stock
and the weather, both in budding and grafting. Upon these depend in
a large measure the success of the work.
Two methods of budding pecan trees are in common use. The an-
nular and a modification of it known as the veneer shield, to which
reference has already been made in Bulletin No. 54. The latter method
is probably the preferable.
Annular Budding. By this method branches three-quarters of an
inch or less in diameter may be worked. It is preferable that the stock
and cion be of the same size. From the stock remove a ring of bark
from one inch to one and a half inches long. On the bud stick select
a good plump bud and from it remove the bud by taking out a ring,
which will exactly fit that already made on the stock. To do this it
is necessary to make a slit on the side of the ring opposite that on which
the bud is. The ring of bark should then be carefully removed and placed
upon the stock in the place already prepared for it. Following this the
bud should be securely tied in place, using a strip of the waxed cloth
already described. The bandage should be brought around the stock so
as to cover the cuts, but the bud should be left exposed.
Veneer Shield-Budding. If this method be used it is not essential that
the stock and cion be of the same size, and so far as size alone goes
almost any stock may be used. A square piece of bark is removed from
the side of the stock. From the bud-stick a bud is cut in much the same
way as already indicated for the annular method. If the stock is.larger
than the cion, it will be necessary to flatten out the cylinder of bark
which holds the bud. Having placed the shield of bark in position, it
should be firmly tied. It is very essential that the buds be tightly tied
in place.
Frequently the buds will make a start the same season they are in-
serted, but often they act as dormant buds and do not begin growth
until the following spring. In either case it is the usual practice to cut
off or lop the top just before growth starts the next season. In remov-
ing the upper portion of the stock the cut may be made six or eight
inches above the bud and the cut surface painted over with white lead.









'This stub may then be used during the first season, at least, as a sup-
port- for the young shoot. It may be tied to the stub, using a piece of
-soft twine.



Hay Making in the South.
When grass and clover are growing the leaves and flowers are covered
-with a film of gum. If it were not for this film of gum or wax, the
trains and dews would wash out the sugar.
When hay dries rapidly, the film of wax cracks and then the rain or
,dew can get at the sugar and wash it out. This is the most important
fact to be clearly understood and observed in curing grass. I think it
.safe to say that nine-tenths of the hay made in the South is nearly ruined
by leaving it too long in the hot sun. My plan of curing hay is to start
mower late in the afternoon. While it is green the dew or rain will
not injure it. As soon as grass dries off and is wilted start rake and
put into small winrows. If necessary later on turn it over to give the
under side a better chance to dry. Be sure and put that hay in the barn
'or cock before you leave the field. We like to get hay in without rain,
and you will be surprised how green you can house it without injury.
'The richer the sap the better it will keep. A few days of sharp fer-
mentation will do no harm. The heat generated will kill the microbes,
and decomposition will stop. It should be remembered that there is
.quite a difference between external and internal moisture. Never put
hay in the barn when there is any dew or rain on it. It will. spoil sure.
Much hay is over-cured. It is exposed to the sun and air till it becomes
.dry, hard and brittle, and the handling necessary to get it in the mow
;and then to the animals loses a part of the most valuable portions, and
it is less digestible than if it had only the proper amount of curing.
This over-curing is not necessary to the proper preservation of hay.
Hay can be stored in mows, while the grasses have a decided green
tinge. It is hard to tell in words the indications of the proper con-
Sdition of storing. Each farmer should experiment till he learns the
least amount of curing necesasry to get the best results.
The farmer who makes a success of raising stock must have plenty of
good feed, and good hay is one of the great essentials, and there is no
-place where one can have better hay and plenty of it than in the South.
It has been one of the neglected industries. The possibilities of the
Southern States in the production of grasses, forage crops, including
'hay, sorghum, fodder corn, kaffir corn, beggar weed, pearl millet, velvet
beans, cow-peas, Mexican clover, rye and oats for winter pasture, and
-many other plants and grasses gives us a greater variety of feed than
.any othb- section.-G. A. DANELY, in the Stockman.




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