Title: Florida monthly bulletin
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077082/00002
 Material Information
Title: Florida monthly bulletin
Alternate Title: Bulletin Florida Agricultural Department
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: The Dept.
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: May 1901
Frequency: monthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with v. 15, no. 4 (Sept. 1, 1905)?
Numbering Peculiarities: From vol. 14 numbering changes.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 66 (Apr. 1, 1901); title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077082
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 43189044
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture

Full Text



Vol. I1.


4


No. 67.


FLORIDA


(Department of Agriculture.)




..Monthly Bulletin..
I I1[ ]. .


I MAY, 1901. [


B. E. McLIN, Commissioner of Agriculture,
TALLAHASSEE, FLA.


Part I, Crops.
Part II. Fertillzere.
Part III. 4A/eather Report.
Part IV. Mlmacellaneoua.


These Bulletins are furnished free
to those requesting them .


p1_ TALLAHABREEAN BOOK AND JOB OFFICE, TALLAHAS EE. FLA.


V/o. //


I
I









































































































i.

i I











DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-



HON. B. E. McLIN, Com. H. S. ELLIOT, Chief Clerk.



CORRESPONDENTS' NOTES.

ALACHUA COUNTY.-Crops are growing finely; the wet weather is
making the grass very troublesome, and labor is very scarce. All ma-
turing crops are generally yielding well.
BRADFORD COUNTY.-Field crops are doing fine; it is difficult to tell just
what an average yield of oranges would be, because the trees are so fast
approaching a normal condition; the crop, however, will be about the
same as last year, though it should be larger; the same remarks apply to-
all citrus fruit family.
CITRUS COUNTY.-The crops generally are in fine condition, and vege-
table crops are yielding well, and selling for good prices. Orange trees
growing nicely, and other fruits doing well.
CLAY COUNTY.-Crops in this county are in good condition. Orange.
and lemon trees are growing fine. Peaches will yield a fine crop. Veg-
etable crops good.
COLUM~IA COUNTY.-All crops are about two weeks late, and are not
quite up to condition at same time last year; corn is doing well, but there
s too much rain for cotton.
DADE COUNTY.- Fruit trees and vegetable crops are all good, the lat-
ter about all marketed. Pineapple crop very fine.
DESOTO CoUNTY.-Crops are all fine; there has been an excellent year
for crops of all kinds; the fruit crop is specially fine.
ESCAMBIA COUNTY.-Crrps are in good condition, and general outlook
good; good peach crop, also melon, but pear crop a failure.
GADSDEN COUNTY.-Average condition of field crops is good, cotton
is a little backward. Fruit crops only medium.
HERNANDO COUNTY.-Season have been good, and all crops are in fine
condition with prospect for good yields. Fruit trees and fruit crops also-
good and doing well.
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.-Crops are all doing finely and seasons have
been favorable; fruit trees are growing nicely, and good crops will be
gathered; orange crops will be much larger than that of last year.







'HOLMES COUNTY.-Weather conditions have been very favorable;
early corn is being laid by, late rains have made great improve emets in
-*ondition of crops, and prospects are very promising.
JA.KSON CouNTY.-Weather conditions have been unfavorable, and
-crops are not in as good condition as they otherwise would be; crear wartn
-weather will soon bring them out.
LAKE COUNTY.-Crops are doing well, in good condition. Fruit trees
* doing remarkably well, peach and grape crops will be good.
LEE COUNTY.-All crops doing well, prospect for field crops very
:fine.
LEON COUNTY.-Some crops are poor, but most of them are very fine;
average condition 10 per cent. better than last year; average prospect very
no.d-
LEVY CoUNTY.-Crops are in good condition, and if nothing happens,
the yield will be satisfactory; melon crops are also good.
MADIsoN COUNTY.-Crops are in general good condition, some crops
.are grassy, but the prospect is good so far for good harvest. Fruit crops
.are very good.
MAXATEE COUNTY.-The crops have been better than usual and are
an fine condition, they brought better returns, and sales were satisfactory.
Fruit treesdoing very well, and the crop will be a large one; pineapple
erop line.
MA~ION CoUNTY.-We are having too much rain for all the crops, and
if it does not hold up soon, some of them will be past redemption. Fruit
-tees and crops are doing very fine.
NASSAU CUOUNTY.-Plenty of rain, and crops backward, though in
-good condition, and growing fine. Sweet potato crop will be large; good
prospect for all.
OaANE CUOUNTY.-Crops are in good condition and prospect is good
for fall yield. Citron fruit trees are growing finely; vegetable crops were
ine and fruit crops also good.
OSCEOLA COUNTY.-All citron trees are growing nicely but drought of
ringg out down the fruit so the yield will not exceed last year; other
-crps in good condition, withgood prospect.
PASoo CouNTY.-Crops are generally in fine condition and the pros-
Kects for a good yield are promising. Vegetable except tomatoes are fine.
.Mel~ps good. Orange and lemon trees doing very well.
POLK CoUNTY.-Recent rains have somewhat damaged cantaloupes
.and tomatoes, but the latter crop will then be above the average and so
,-will cantaloupes in-spite of drawbacks. Other crops are fine, citron fruit
trees making wonderful growth.
Pu!- aNAM COUNTY.--Crops of all kinds are doing well, fruit trees grow-
ing fine; the_general outlook .very promising for farmers.








SANTA ROSA COUNTY-All the crops appear to be d iiig-weir ii alU
parts of the county. The fruit crops are short,. about three-fourths o&
a crop is the best expected.
SUMTER COUNTY.-The average condition of crops- over-the county' iS
good, and the prospects of good crops are promising; the-meloa cops.-are-
only medium.
SUWANNEE COUNTY.- The entire crop so far is encouraging;' Iarge
acreage planted in cotton and corn; corn, peas, and peanut crop .leeokng
well and seasons are fine.
WALTON COUNTY.-The general condition of ,rops- in the-eounty iw
good, the seasons have been late and made crops late also, but the recent
rains are making them grow well and the prospects are very good.
WASHINGTON COUNTY.-The late spring kept crops back, but reeetlfy
they have been growing very well, and are in very satisfactory;.conditieb.,
and the prospects for good average crops are bright..








Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops for May, 1901,
Compared with an Average.


Upland
Cotton

Counties a





Alachua ................ ......
Baker................ . .
Bradford......... ......
Brevard................ ......
Calhoun ................ 95
C itrus............ ..... .. .
Clay................... ........
Columbia ............ ....
Dade.......... .........
DeSoto .............. ........
Escambia .............. 100
Franklin......... .............
Gadsden ............... 90
Hernando .....................
Hillsborough............ .
Holmes ............... 100
Jackson............... 70
Jefferson .............. 75
LaFayettee........... .....
Lake............... ........
Lee................... .......
Leon ................... 90
Levy .............. ......
Madison ................ 9
Manatee................ ........
Marion. ............ .........
'Nassau ................ .......
,Orange .......... ..... .. ....
Osceola......... ..........
Pasco...... .......... .... .
Polk ..... .... ....
Putnam ......................
St. Johns............. .....
Santa Rosa..............
:Sum ter........ ......... .....
Suwannee.............. .....
Taylor .............. ......
Wakulla ............... .100
Walton ................ 85
Washington ............ 90

General averages ....... 90


Island Corn Oats ugar Rice
Cotton Cane




O O
a a = a a
6 8 8 8 8o


80
95
100

85
............
110
100



80


80
60
90
85


90
90

10066




100


80
100
90
95


90


100
75
100
100
100
105
100
100

100
150
90
100
100
100
95
75
80
90
100
100
100
95
90
100
110
90
110
110
80
120
100
70
100
100
90
100
70
100
85

97


85

100

100
115
110
100

100
75
90
105
125
100
100
80
95
90
100
100
100
110
100
100


100
100
120

50
95
60
90
85
95
80
100

96


60
7h
100
100
100
100
100
95
95
100
90
100
90
60
90
90
100
100
100'
125
100

10
100
110
80
90
100
100
100
90
100
90
75
100
1%0
100
9(0
10(1

95


70
70
100
100
100
95
100
95

100
ioo
100









100
... ioo









100
90
75





90
100
100

100


100


100


80

100
90

100
80

93











Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

weet Field Cassava Velvet sabb Cucum-
Potatoes Peas Beans Cbage bers

Counties a

_ _ _ _ _ ) C


Alachua ............
Baker...............
Bradford...............
Brevard...............
Calhoun.... .. ...
Citrus ............. .....
C lay .. ..............
Columbia................
Dade ................
DeSoto ..............
Escambia ..............
Franklin ... ...........
Gadsden ....... .....
Hernando..............
Hillsborough.........
Holmes ..............
Jackson .............
Jefferson...............
Lafayette.............
Lake ........... ......
Lee........... ........
Leon .... ..........
L-vy .................
Madison....... ......
Manatee.... ........
Marion. ....... .........
N assau ........... .
4O range.................
Osceola................
Pa-co...................
Polk ....... ............
Putnam ... .........
St. Johns ...............
Santa Rosa..............
Sumter ........ .....
Suwannee..............
Taylor ...............
Waftulla................
Walton ................
Washington...........

General averages..


70
70
100
100
100
110
100
90
100
110
150
90
100
100

90
75
100
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
75
110
80
100
100
100
90
100
80
90
100



94


70 80

..'..... 100
100 .... ...
95 .......
90 .......
1(0 ... ...
90 95
100 ......
105 100
100 100
85 ........
90 ........
50 100
S. . . ........
100

100 ......1
85 ..........

110 100
90 .. .
90 100

100 ......
110 100

100 100
100 115
'75 100
120 120
100 90

........ ..... ..



85 . ......
100 100

931 100


100


*ii6
110
120
95

95
100


125
100
120


100
.... io
100
150

100

125
100
100
110
100
100
120
100
100

100


75
......i.


105


85

90


100
100
95
1"i 0
100


90

90



100
75
100



100
80
100

. .i66

90
100





94


70



90
100
93

90
100
90

100

100



120
90
110



100
75
70
100

80
65
110
100





92








8

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Beans Peanuts IIay Boacco Brom Orange
...c Corn Trees

Counties a a
.2 .2 2

o a a
__________ 6608166S


Alachua..............
Baker..................
Bradford..............
Brevard ............
Calhoun......... ......
Citrus. ............
Clay.................
Columbia .............
Dade................
DeSoto.................
Escambia.... .........
Franklin...............
Gadsden....... ........
Hernando.............
Hillsborough ..........
Holmes .... .......
Jackson................
Jefferson...... ......
Lafayette............
Lake...... ....... ....
Lee....................
Leon... ..............
LeManatee..............

Marion...............
Manateeau................
Orange........ ......
Osceola................
asco ..................
Polk.r...............
Putnam ............
St. Johns............
Santa Rosa............
Sumter...............
Suwannee..............
Taylor..............
Wakulla ...............
Walton ........ ....
Washington...............

G(Onral avprao ....


90
.....i66

........
100
85
100
95
........ i

150
90

100
goo

100
120




100
100

100

90
100
100
100
75
75
100
100

85


50 90

60....... ..........

100 ........
100 100'
100 100
90 100
... ........ i66
95 100
150 100
85 ........
100 ........
100 100

95 95
50 100
75 90
80 ..
100 100
100 100
100 100
100 ...... ..
....... ........
100 .........
...... /. 100

........ 90
......... .....' ...,-
.120
90 ........
75 ..........
100 .......
100 80
100 .......
100.......
60 ........
85 ......
80 100

90 98


90



























100
...... .


.......66
100
100



....... .











50





ioo




90


90
100
100
125
85
100
125
100
110
100
...... ..
. ....

100



60O
110



110
100
lOS
105
100
100
150
110
75





1. .. ..

10-






Condition and Prospective field of Crops-Continued.

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


lGrape
Lemon Limes IFruit
Trees Trees

Counties S
o 5 S
o 0C 0C


Alachua ................
Baker ................
Bradford ............
Brevard.......... .....
Calhoun........ ......
Citrus.................
Clay........ ........
Columbia...............
Dade... ..............
DeSoto........ ........
Escambia..............
Franklin ..............
Gadsden ................
Hernando...............
Hillsborough........
Holmes ...............
Jackson............ ...
Jefferson...... .. ......
Lafayette....... .............
Lake ....... ... .......
Lee................
Leon .................
Levy...................
Madison ................
Manatee...............
Marion ......... ... ..
Nassau........ ........
Orange......... .....
Osceola................
Pasco.......... ....
Polk .............. .
Putnam.............
St. Johns..............
Santa Rosa............
Sumter...............
Suwannee ...........
Taylor.................
W akulla ............
W alton ...............
Washington...........

General averages.......


..... i '6
120


...... 65.
100

105
100








50
100



lio
110
100
100
100
100
100
110
60


100



105
100









100




110
100



100
.... ...
....i...


98 102


..... iio


...... iio
125

110


110
95



100
100



"""75
120


110
120
100
110
110

150
110








109


Banan's Guavas I toe
Potatoes,

a a a
o 0






........ ........ 90 100

.....'.. ........ .... .."i ..
...... 100 100'
... .... .. ...... 95 100
........ ... .. 100 9&
105 ... ..
105 105 95 90
... ........ 100 150
........ .......... 40 50
........ .......... 100 100,
100 10 .... ....
... .... ... .. .. 9
....... . ... .. 90 .
.... ..... ... ....
........ ........ 0
25 75
100 110 100 100
...... I ........ 90 85
....... ......... oo lo
S ........ 100 100
100 125 100 0o


.. 80.......
100 140 80 8

10 100 100 1W0
........ . ........ 1 ...
........ ... .. 75 5&
........ ........ 100 100
........ ........ 50 50
.... ... ....... 100 100

... . .......... 85 75
....... .. ....... 90 900
... . ... 70 65

104 110 88 8s


I






10

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.

Tomato Egg Water- Canta-
Plant melon loupes

Counties

O O CL o a :
co'
o6 o r c


Alachua .................................. 90
Baker .......................... ......... .
Biadford. .......... .......... ........ 90
Brevard.......................................
Calboun .......................... .... ...
Citrus ................ ................. 95
Clay...................................... 100
Columbia............. ................. ..... 95
'Dade............................... ... .
DeSoto .... ................ ................. 95
Escambia .......................... ..... 100
Franklin ................ ........... ....... .
Gadsden ........................................
ernando.......................................
illsboro. .................................
Holmes .. ................................ 100
Jackson ............................... ......
Jefferson ................................
Lafayette ............................... ..
Lake ......... .......... .............. 50
Lee............ ........ ........... ........ 100
Leon ..................................... 80
Levy. ................ .. .......... 90
Madison ................ .... ... ............ 100
Manatee.................. ..................
Marion. .................................. O00
Nassau. ....................................... 50
Orange. .............................. ... 60
Osceola .................................. 50
Pasco.................. ....... .................
Polk................................ ..... 120
Putnam ............. ...................... 100
St. Johns. ............................... 100
Santa Rosa. ......................... .. ...
Sum ter................................ 100
Suwannee ....................... ..... .....
Taylor........................................ ..
W akulla...............................
Walton. ....... ........ .......
Washington............................. 100

General averages ........................ .. 89


I 931 891 891 901 911 941 96-


I f







11

Condition and Prospective Yield of Crops-Continued.


Counties


A lachua ..................................
Baker...................................
Bradford .......... ...... .. ...........
Brevard .................................
,Calhoun ......................... .....
Citrus ........ ......... .. .........
Clay.......................... .........
Colunbia ................ ........
Dade ...................................
DeSoto ....................... ..... ..
Escambia ...............................
Franklin ................. .........
-Gadsden ..............................
Hernando........... .... ...........
Hillaborough .............. .....
Holmes....................................
Jackson.......................... .... .......
Jefferson ................... ....
Lafayette............................... ...
Lake ...... ......................
Lee...................................
Leon........ .............................
Levy................ ....................
Madison ...... ..... ...... .. ... ..
Manatee ....................... ..........
Marion ..... .................... .........
Nassau .... ..... ... ..... .. ............
-Orange .............. ... .... .......
Osceola .................................
Pasco.......................... ..... ..
Polk........... .... .... ........... ... .....
Putnam...............................
St. Johns ................................
'Santa Rosa............................
Sumter ...................... .........
Suwannee ............................
Taylor.....................................
Wakulla................... .........
W alton ...... ...... ...... .........
Washington ...... ...................

General averages ....................


P ples Peaches Pears Grapes







... .... 90 40 100 50 60 5
.. .... 1 100 .... .... 100 10
.... 100 85 ... ... 10
. 75 :: i 66i 6
... .... 100 120 0 90 100 10
.... ... 10 5 ....... 100 10
11 0 10 .... 10010
110 200 1 0 0 100 50 105 13

.... .... 100 100 .... .... 100
.. .... 0 85 ..... 100 10'

... .... 1 0 80 50 60 100 10

...... .... 105 50 100 5 100 9!

...... .... ...... .... 20 25 100 10
... ... 100 90. ... .... 100 10
.... ... 1001 .... 100 10(
100 11 180 100 85....1001 10(




... .... 80 50 2 0 100 95
. . . . 4 0 6 0 ... . . . .. .
..... ...... 0 100. 50 50 100 10




120 120 75 50 60.......... 100 10
50 ........ 80 9/



0 1 1 0 1 110 10
... ... 100 100 1 100 10(



110 110 100 12 0 65 110 104
100 110 100 1001 100 100 10(
80 50 20 25 95 94







.... 10 0 o ..... .... 100
100 100 5.... 100 104
.... .... 100 125 .... ... 100 12
...... .. 75 75 50 50 75 71

.... ...... .... i66
........ 100 100........ 100 10
.... ...... 90 85 .... 100 10
..... ... 100 90 0 900 .... .
...... 25 25 .... ...... 100 10

105 124 90 92 72 71 98 9
.... ... ... ...-.. .. -... ..


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0


0

0



0
0
5








0
)











0
)'












BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS.

-W. A. RAWLS, State Chemist. E. E. McLIN, Clerk.

VALUATIONS.
'For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, Ammonia and
Potash for the Season of 1900-1901.
Available Phosphoric Acid ..............4 cents a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ................ 1 cent a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .... 15 cents a pound
:Potash (as actual potash, K20.).......... 5 cents per pound
If caluclated by units--
Available Phosphoric Acid .............. 90 cents per unit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid .............. 20 cents per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitrogen) .... $3.00 per unit
Potash ............ ...... .......... $1.00 per unit
With a uniform allowance of $2.00 per ton for mixing and
bagging.
A unit is twenty pounds, or 1 per cent in a ton. We find
this to be the easiest and quickest method for calculating the
,value of a fertilizer. To illustrate this take for example a
fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
.Available Phosphoric Acid, 6.39x.90 ................$ 5.75
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, 1.15x.20................ .23
Ammonia, 4.93x3.00.............. 14.79
-Potash, 7.11x1.00 .............. 7.11
Mixing and bagging .......... ......... ....... 2.00

$29.88
The above valuations are for cash for materials delivered at
Florida seaports, and they can be bought in one ton lots at
(these prices at the date of issuing this Bulletin. Where fer-
tilizers are bought at interior points, the additional freight to
that point must be added.








W. A. IAW LS, &tate Chemist.


BUREAU OF FERTILIZERS.
C. G. BELLMAN, Assistant Chemist.
nNnI rIBPe OB tPPOTII iTiB


Phos. Acid A GUARANTEED ANALYSIS.
0


NAUM op FzUTILIZB. u n 1 1By Whom and Where Manufactured.


Armour's H.G. Blood A Bone,or tank'ge

Bone Fine Ground.............
Blood., Bone and Potash.............
Blood and Bone, Pig's Foot Brand....
Iradley's Orange Tree Fertilizer.......
Bradley's Fruit and Vine Fertilizer.. .
Bradley's Bone Meal....... ..........
Bradley's Vegetable Fertilizer........
Blood, Bone and Potash ..............
Complete Vegetable Fertilizer........
Cudahy's Tankage......................
Dark Cotton Seed Meal.......... ....

Florida Special Pineapple............
Florida Beau Special..................
Flunit and Vine Fertilizer. ..........

Gou'ding's Vegetable Compound......
Goulding's Bone t ompound.........
Goulding's 3 per cent Potash Acid ...
Goulding'e Potash Mixture 12 & 2 pi ci
Goulling's 4 per cent Potash Acid....
Goulding's English Acid Phosphate...
Gould'ng's H. G. Acid Phosphate.....
Gon ding's Atlas Acid Phosphate......
Goulding's H.G. Acid Phos APot 12 & 1
Garbge Tankage ......................
High trace Vegetable Fish Guano....,
Orange Fruiter Special... .........


Simon Pure No. 1......................
Strawberry Fer'ilizer...............


11.69
12.81
13.79
13.76
13.09
14.87
14.96
14.87
12.96
6.24
11 b2
9.91

7.32
9.411


1.79 0.9o
12.35 12.16
5.11 6.40
2.62 0.64
8.98 2.17
7.23 4.801
8.71 3.65
6.72 2.51
5.11 6.14
8.38 1.24
7.87 4.93
2.45

4.60 4.80
6.84 1.73
7.10 2.37
7.48 4.80
10.05 4.73
13.66 0.90.
15.67 2.11.
14.68 2.11 .
15.10 2.94.
17.7b 1.28 .
16.10 2.94.
14.71 2.05 .
2.82 0.64
6.68 '.69
6.46 2.56

6.69 0.38
6.89 4.54


........ 4 to 5

4.v ... .....
.9 .
6.20 10 to 20
9.99 10 to l0

8.89 10 to 20
4.95 ........

9.08 12 to 16

1.7" 8 to 12

10.33 6 to 8
7.30 8 to 10
12.61 8 to 10

3.94 10 to 15
3.16 10 to 16
3.63 ........
2 95 .......
4.81 12 to 16
....10. .......8 to 10
...... .........
2.t2 .......

4.621. ...
16.10 8 to 10


7 to 81........


4 to 7
4 to 5
6 to 6
6bto73X
6 to 8
4 to 6
6 to 8
6 to 7

4 to 6
6 to 7
6 to 8

7 to 8
10 to 12
8 to 12
12 to 15
8 to 11
13
15
13 to 16
12 to 16
4 to 6
5 to 7
6 to 8


4.59 12.04......... 6 to 7
2.89 8.621........ 1 6 to 8


20 to 23
2 to 4
2 to 3
3 to 4
I to 2
2 to 4

1 to 2

2 to 3

6 to 7
1 to 2
1 to 2
1 to 3
1 to 8
2 to 4
1 to 2




3 to 4
1 to 2
2 to 3
2 to 4


10 ......... Armour Co Jacksonville, Fla,
4 to 5 ......... Standard Guano Chemical Jo New Orleans, La
4 to 6 4 to 6 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tampa, .
o ......... Wilon & Toomer, Jacksonville' la
39lo4% 5 to a American Agricultural Co., Bostpn, Mas.
2xto34 10 to 12 American Agricultural Co, Boston, Mass.
............... American Agricultural Co., Bosto.Mass.
4 to 5 5 to 7 American Agricoltural Co., Boston, Mass.
4 to 6 4 to 6 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tamp, Fla.
5 to 6 6 to 8 Ober & Sons Co., Baltimore, Md.
10 ........ udahy Pack g Co., o. Omaha, Neb.
6 to 7 X to 1. Florida Manufacturing Co Malitison, Fla.
4 to 5 7 to 9 Wil on& Toomer, Jacksonville, Fla.
3 to 4 6 to 8 Wilsn & Toomer, Jack-onvlld jFla.
2 to 4 12 to 14 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla.
4 to 6 4 to 6 Goulding Fertilizer Co., Pensacoja, Fla.
2 to2% I to 2 Goulding Fertliz-r Co, Pensac Fla.
...... 3 to 4 Goulding Fertilizer Co., Pensacola, pla.
........ 2 to 8 Gouding 'ertilizer Co., Pensacoli,Fla.
........ 4 to 5 Goulding Fertilizer Co., Pensacolu, Fla.
... .... ..... ... Goulding Fertilizer Co., PensaclJ1; Fla.
......... ..... Gouldlu Fertilizer Co., Pens) c)a, Fla.
........ ... ..... onuding Fertilizer Co., Pensacela Fla.
....... 4 to 2 Go ;ding Frtilizer Co., Peisacbl Fla.
3%to 6 .... .... Wilson Toomer, Jackonville a.
4 to 6 1 to 6 Tampa rlrtiliz r Co., Tampa, FJa
2 to 3 16 to 18 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fl..

4 to4,112 to 18 B. O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville, Fla.
2%to 4. 8 to 10 Tampa Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Pla.





~






Distribution of funds by counties arising from the hire of State prisoners
since last apportionment from November 1899 to May 1901, less the
amount appropriated by the Legislature for the RefOrm School and
other purposes.
.Alachua... .... ............ ................ ... $ 625 53
1Brevard ............................- ........... ..... 130 98
Bradford.... .............. ... ...................... 235 77
'Citrus ................................. ......... 175 65
Calhoun ...... ...................................... 103 05
Columbia....... .................................... 680 85
-Clay ................................................ 310 40
Dade ...................................... ........ 230 95
DeSoto .................. ...................... 27 20
Duval................................................ 3,744 63
Escambia ................................ .......... 1,556 25
Trankliu ................................................. 332 49
Gadsden.............. ............................. 329 59
Hernando....................................... 48 58
Hillsborough ................................. 1,259 00
Hamilton.. ....... .. ......... 277 35
-Jackson ............. ...... ................. .......... 555 35
Jefferson ............................................. 197 64
Lafayette ........................... .............. 133 15
L ake... ...................... ..... 158 05
Leon............................ ............. 891 30
Lee........ ....... .... ....... .. ..... ....... 41 33
L evy ......................... .......... .. ........ 96 18
Liberty. ....... ..... .. ............. ......... 1 65
Holmes .......................... ................... 162 05
Madison.............. ...... .... ....... ......... 281 60
M arion...... ............ ....................... ...... 229 20
Manatee................................ ......... 125 00
Monroe.... ... ... .. .. ..... ... ... ........ ...... 259 55
Nassau........................... ............. .. 342 93
Orange...................... ................... 307 15
Osceola ............. ........................ ... .. 93 20
Polk ................... .......................... 181 85
'Pasco ............................................. 199 15
Putnam .............................................. 397 30
Santa R osa................... ......... .. ...... .... 233 40
St. Johns .... ........................... .... ..... 204 20
Sumter ............................................. 204 45
Suwannee ................ .................... ........ 553 90
Taylor .............................................. 26 10
Volusia.... ... .......... ............. .. ..... 664 50
W alton ............................... .. .............. 210 12
W akulla................... ........................... 15 95
W ashington .................................. ...... 194 70

$17,028 92









Manufacture of Starch From Cassava.
(From Bulletin No. 58, U. S. Dept. of Agri.)
In Bulletin No. 44 of the Division of Chemistry is found a descriptib
of the sweet cassava, with remarks on its culture, properties, and uses.
This bu letin is out of print, and it is therefore advisable, in treating of
the subject of the manufacture of starch from cassava, to show the nature-
of its contents. Cassava grows in this country in the southern peninsula.
of Florida, and well up into the frost belt, and is also found in other
extreme portions of the United States. From a careful study of the
climatic conditions under which the plant flourishes, it is safe to assume
that it may also be grown with success in southern Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, Texas, Arizona and southern California.
The name "cassava" should properly apply only to the purified starch
derived from the roots of the plant, but it has passed into general use to
designate the plant itself. I am informed by the Division of Botany that
the plant is known by various names, as, for instance, Janiyha manihot,.
Manihot utilissima, Jatropha MJanihot, Manihot aipi, Manihot Iceflin-
gii, and Manihotpalmata. One of its common names is manioc plant.
The fleshy root of this plant yields the greatest portion of the daily food
of the natives of many portions of tropical America, and one of its forms
of starch is imported largely into this country as tapioca.* It is a woody
or shrubby plant, growing from fleshy, tuberous roots, the stems being
smooth, with nodules where the leaves grow.
SThere is properly only one variety of the plant growing in Florida,.
while that variety which grows in the Tropics contains so much hydro-
cyanic acid as to render it poisonous. The variety grown in the subtrop-
ical region of Florida, however, contains only a small quantity of hydro-
cyanic acid, and is therefore commonly known as sweet cassava. Some
of the growers of the plant in Florida claim that two varieties grow in
the State, one of which is poisonous on account of the large amount of
hydrocyanic acid which it contains, and the other nonpoisonous, as it con-
tains only a little hydrocyanic acid. It is quite probable, however, that
after the poisonous variety has grown for a long while in a subtropical
climate it would lose largely its poisonous properties. The leaves of the
poisonous' variety in the Tropics usually have seven branches, palmately,
divided. The leaves of the sweet variety are usually only five-parted.
The botanists clearly recongnize two distinct varieties. For instance, in
the Treasury of Botany (p. 718) the following remarks are made:
It is qnite clear that while the root of one is bitter and a virulent poison
that of the other is sweet and wholesome, and is commonly eaten cooked
*Three forms of tapioca are recognized in commerce, pearl tapioca, flake tapioca, and tapioca.
flour. The latter would be more appropriately called tapioca starch or cassava starch-






as a vegetab'e. Both of them, especially the bitter, are most extensively
cultivated over the greater part of tropical America and yield an abund-
ance of wholesome and nutritious food, the poison of the bitter kind
being got rid of during the process of preparation it undergoes. The
poisonous expressed juice, if allowed to settle, deposits a large quantity
of starch known as Brazilian arrowroot or tapioca meal, from which the
tapioca of the shops is prepared by simply torrefying the moist starch
upon hot plates, the heat causing the starch grains to swell and burst and
become agglutinated together. A sauce called oassareep,used for flavor-
ing soups and other dishes, particularly the West Indian dish known as
pepper pot, is also prepared from this juice by concentrating and render-
ing it harmless by boiling. Another of the products of cassava is an
intoxicating beverage called piwarrie, but the manner of preparing it is
not calculated to render it tempting to Europeans. It is made by the
women, who chew cassava cakes and throw the masticated.materials into
a wooden bowl, where it is allowed to ferment for some days and then
boiled. It is said to have an agreeable taste.
CASSAVA AS AN ARTICLE OF FOOD.
The sweet cassava as grown in Florida is a common article of diet, as
well as the source of the domestic starch used over large portions of the
peninsula. The roots of the cassava are grated and used directly as
human food, and they are also fed to cattle, pigs, mules, and horses, with
very happy effects, being a food which is greatly relished. Cassava flour
is prepared as a domestic product in many parts of Florida and other
localities where the cassava is grown. In the preparation of cassava flour
the root is peeled, chopped into thin slices or grated, spread in the sun
for two or three days until sufficiently dry, and then ground into a fine
powder. In this state it is used for making a kind of bread for puddings
and for other culinary purposes. In the making of puddings the addition
of milk, eggs, sugar, etc., to suit the taste, is recommended. As a substi-
tute for wheat flour in making bread, the cassava flour is of course inferior
in general nutritive and culinary properties. It contains an excessive
amount of carbohydrates, and is therefore not as well balanced a ration
as bread which is made from wheat. For instance, in ordinary wheat
flour the nitrogenous bodies vary from 8 to 14 per cent, while in cassava
flour they rarely reach as much as 2 per cent. The chemical composition
of the cassava roots and of the cassava flour, as determined in this labor-
atory, is shown in the following tables:







17

COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA ROOT (DRY MATTER.)
Serial number .......................... ............. 554T
Per cent,
Ash .................................................... 1.95
Petroleum other extract (fat) .............................. 1.27
Ether extract (resins, organic acids, etc.) ..................... .74
Alcohol extract (amids, sugars, glucosids, etc.) ................ 17.43
Crude fiber ............................................. 4.03
Starch ................................. ................ 71.85.
Protein (nitrogen X6.25) .......... ............... ......... 3.47

100.73
COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA FLOUR.
Serial numbers .................. ................ 5922 5923
Per cent. Per c en
Moisture .............................. ........ 10.56 11.86
Ash ........................................... 1.86 1.13
Petroleum ether extract (fat) .................. ..... 1.50 .86
Ether extract (resins and organic acids).... ........ .64 .43
Alcohol extract (amids, sugars, glucosids) ............. 13.69 4.50
Dextrin, gum, etc.,by difference .................... 2.85 5.63
Crude fiber ...................................... 2.96 4.15
Protein (nitrogenX6.25) .......................... 1.31 1.31
Starch ........................ .............. 64.63 70.13
Most extraordinary statements have been made in regard to the yield
of cassava per acre. Careful measurements, however, made under the
direction of this Division, show that the magnitude of the crop is usually
very much less than is stated in the reports which have been made. An
average crop, under favorable conditions, may be placed at 5 tons of roots
per acre. In many cases, however, the yield, where no fertilization is
practiced and where the roots are grown upon sandy soil, is much less.
than this. In the statement above, showing the composition of the root,.
the analysis of a single sample of roots is given. In order to determine
the composition of a more general sample, large quantities of roots were
obtained from Florida and subjected to analysis, and the means obtained
follow. In this case the roots were peeled in order to determine the
composition of the material as it would be prepared for human food. In
addition to the analysis of the pee ed roots, the fiber remaining aft .r the
removal of the starch was also subjected to analysis, and likewise the bark
which was removed from the root. In the case of the bark, however, the
starch was not determined separately, but if included in the undetermined
portion, forming, of course, a considerable portion thereof:









COMPOSITI N 07 PEELED ROOT, AND OF THE FIBER AND BARZ ?O THR ROOT.

Peeled root. Fibtr Bark of root.
after re-
Constituents. moval
of
Fresh. Dry. starch Fresh. Dry.
____ -dry.
Per eent. Percent. Per cent. Per cent Percent.
Moisture ............................... 61.0 ....... .. 61.30 .
Fat (ether extract) .................... .17 0.44 0. .66 1.70
Protein (nitrogen X 6.25) ............... 64 1.66 1.02 2.29 5.91
Starch (diastase Ex inverted with ICI) 30.98 80.06 64.64 ...
Fiber...................... ................ .88 2.26 10.68 3 83 9 89
As'i............. ....... .......... .51 1.31 1.42 2 02 5.23
Uudetermined....... ............ 5.52 14.27 21.94 2990 77.27
Total.............................. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100 00 100 00

With the starch, in the analysis given above, is reckoned also the solu-
ble carbohydrates, consisting almost exclusively of cane sugar, and of
*which, in an analysis of another portion of the dry substance, as high as
17 per cent was found. In the laboratory it is not difficult to prepare
-crystallized cane sugar from the aqueous extract of the fresh pulp. I
have made such a preparation. The percentage of sugar in the plant,
however, is too low to excite any reasonable hope of the preparation of
-this article on a commercial scale. The most promising way to save it is
by conversion into glucose, as indicated in another place. The undeter-
mined portion consists of the digestible fiber and carbohydrates of the
pentose series. The pentosans in the fiber were determined by the fur-
furol process, as modified by Krug, and the amount in the air-dried mate-
rial was found to be 3.92 per cent, and in the material after the removal
-of the starch 5.33 per cent.
The fresh root was found to contain 38.7 per cent of dry matter, being
.considerably more than was found in the fresh sample of the previous
analysis. Of this 38.7 per cent, 30.98 consisted of starch and soluble
.carbohydrates.
Experiments were made to determine the yield of air-dry starch which
-could be obtained from the roots by laboratory work. Two sets of expe-
riments were made. In the first set the roots were pulped on a Pellet
rasp, used for preparing beet pulp for instantaneous diffusion. Twelve
kilos of the unpeeled root were rasped in this way and the starch sepa-
rated by washing through a sieve of bolting cloth. The washings and
settling were collected and dried in the ordinary method of starch man-
ufacture. The yitel of pure starch was 3,105 grams, equivalent ti 25.9
per cent of the total weight of the root. The starch wqs almost abso-
lutely pure, containing only a trace of nitrogenous matter. In the second
-experiment 10 kilos of the root were ground in a pulping machine, used









for preparing green fodder for analysis. The pulp was much coarser
than that produced by the Pellet rasp. Treated in the same way, the
yield of air-dry starch was 2,360 grams, or 23.6 per cent. One of the
striking points in connection with the work is that the residue after the
extraction of the starch, consisting largely of fiber, contained still a large
percentage of Atarch, showing that the process employed did not secure
the whole of the starch from the pulp. The diameter of the starch gran-
iles is a little over 0.01 mm., being much smaller than the average of
potato starch.
The relations of the mineral components of the cassava plant to the
plant food in the soil, with the exception of nitrogen, are best studied
from the ash. A large quantity of ash, therefore, was prepared from the
peeled root and from the bark, and analyses of these samples were
obtained. The data are given in the following table:
ANALYSIS OF THE ASH OF THE CASSAVA ROOT.

Peeled Root. Bark of Root.
Constituents.
A. B. Mean A. B. Mean

Per ct. Per ct. er t. Per t. Per ct. Per ct.
Carbon ................. ............... 030 0.31 0.31 0.79 0.77, 0.78
Silica (soluble in solution of Na(CO3).... .97 .91 .94 10.53 11.36 10.94
Silica (insoluble in solution of NaUU) .. 7.15 7 15 7 15 5299 52 16 52.58
Ferric oxid (Fe2 ,) ............. ....... .66 .66 .66 2.46 2 44' 245
Calciun oxid (JaO) ................. 10 63 10 64 10 64 6 58 6 65 6 62
Magnesium oxid (VI~O) .............. 7 36 735' 735 331 3.33 3.32
Sodiun oxid (Na )....... ...... 1.12 1.28 1.20 .84 105 .95
Potassium oxid (K20) ............ 41.72 41.54 41.63 14.73 14 68 14.70
Phosphoric acid (P2O,) ............... 15.58 15.59 15 58 244 2.46 245
Sulphuric acid (SO)........ 3 67 3 80 3 7 1 71 1 71 1.71
Carbonic acid (CO,)..................... 9 15 912 9.14 2.53 250 251
C hlorin (Cl)......................... ... 2.76 2.75 2.75 1 41 1.42 1.41
Total .............................. 101 07 101.10 101 08 100.32 10 53 100.42
,Oxygen equivalent to chlorin .......... .62 .62 .62 .31 .31 .31
Difference...... ............. . .. 1. 0.-45 100 48 100.46 100.01 100.22 100.11

From the above numbers it is seen that the ash of the peeled root is
-especially rich in potash, almost one-half of the total weight being com-
posed of this substance. The potash is combined chiefly with carbonic
:and phosphoric acids. In the ash of the bark, as might be expected,
silica is the predominant element, comprising more than half the total
,weight.
Assuming a yield of 5 tons of root per acre, the weights of the im-
portant fertilizing materials removed by such a crop can be readily cal.
culated from the data given.









Since the bark forms approximately 2.2 per cent. of the entire root,
the total crop would be made up of the following amounts of bark andr
peeled root which -would contain the, amounts 'of mineral inatter given
below:
RELATIVE AMOUNTS OF BARK AND PEELED ROOT IN A CROP OF CASSAVA,,.
AND AMOUNT OF ASH CONTENT.


Substance Pounds Pounds
of ash

Peeled root.. ................................ 9,780 49.88
Bark of root ................................... 220 4.44

Total ................................ ..... 10,000 54.32

The most important mineral, matters contained therein are shown in
the following table:
TABLE SHOWING MINERAL MATTER CONTAINED IN ASH OF PEELED ROOT-
AND BARK.

Ash from A Total ash
Material peeled root bark (4.44 from 5 tons.
Mteri(49.88 P ( (54.32
pounds) Pounds)

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Lime (CaO).................... 5.31 0.29 5.60'
Magnesia (MgO).............. 3.67 .15 3.82:
Potash (K,0) ................ 20.77 .65 21.42
Phosphoric acid (PO,)......... 7.77 .11 7.88

Residue .... ................. 12.56 3.24 15.60

The less valuable mineral plant foods-that is, those that are of so
little note as to require no conservation or addition-amount to 15.60
pounds per acre, and the more valuable to 32.72 pounds per acre.
METHODS OF CULTURE.
Cassava was grown for one year at the Department experiment station,
at Runnymede (post office, Narcoossee), Osceola county, Fla. The crop
was grown as food for stock. The field in which the crop was grown is
high-pine sand, with almost no other ingredient. The soil on which it.
was grown was apparently pure sand.







Attempts were also made to grow the cassava in a piece of very wet
unuck land at the station in which sugar cane would not grow to any ad-
vantage. An immense development of tops was secured, some of the
plants reaching a height of 10 feet and resembling young trees. The
root development was fair, but not commensurately increased with the
top growth. Some of the stems were easily 2 inches in diameter. On
wel -drained muck land I think the crop would be large and profitable.
In sand land the planting should be preceded by the removal of
stumps, sprouts, etc., and the soil given a thorough plowing. It is ad-
visable to spread about 300 pounds of fine raw Florida phosphate floats
-or about 150 pounds of superphosphate containing 12 per cent. available
acid to the acre. This may be applied as to top-dressing and thoroughly
-worked into the soil by a deep running cultivator. The rows should be
marked out in furrows 3 to 4 inches deep and from 3J to 4 feet apart.
To get a good stand about double the number of cuttings required to
,produce 2,500 hills per acre should be planted. The excess of plants
-can be removed with a hoe as soon as vigorous growth is assured, leav-
ing one hill every 3 or 4 feet. About 150 pounds of kainit per acre
-should be dropped in the hills before planting, together with an equal
amount of cotton seed meal, or half that amount of Chile saltpeter (ni-
trate of soda).
The cultivation should be such as to keep the field free of all weeds
:and the surface of the soil well stirred. While the plants are young,
*deep cultivation is not objectionable, but as soon as the root system be-
gins to develop, superficial culture must be practiced not to exceed 2
,inches in depth. Some cultivators draw the soil to the plant during cul-
tivation, so as to form a ridge at the time of laying by. Where nitrate
of soda has been used an additional 50 or 75 pounds per acre should be
:sown broadcast just before the final cultivation. The above method is
the one which should be followed for the poorest kind of sand soils,
where a maximum crop is desired. For muck soils, the cotton seed meal
-and nitrate of soda should be omitted and about 500 pounds of Florida
phosphate floats used per acre. If sand soils are covered with a good
layer of muck before the plowing the nitrogenous fertilizers may also be
.omitted or reduced in quantity.
In ordinary seasons with the treatment outlined above, a crop of from
4 to 7 tons per acre will be secured. On sand soils containing a little
-organic matter approaching the hammock variety, a fair yield of from 2
to 4 tons per acre will be secured by good cultivation without fertihz-
ing.
For seed, the stems of the unfrosted plants are cut into pieces about
*6 inches in length, care being taken that each piece has two or more
-eyes. In planting, these pieces may be laid directly down in the furrows
-and covered, but the general practice is to place them obliquely in the
furrows so that one end may not be covered. In case of a threatening
frost before a field -is ready for planting, the unfrosted tops may be cut,







thrown into heaps, and protected with leaves or trash from the action of
the frost. They should, however, be embedded in moderately moist.
earth if they are to be kept for any length of time before planting. In
case of frost before the s, ed is saved, the stumps, i. e., the points of union
of the top with the root, will usually be found uninjured, and these may
be cut away and planted instead of the cuttings just described. The
larger parts of the stems immediately above the ground make the best
seed.
The roots should be left in the ground until they are needed for use,
whether for food, for starch, or for glucose. The crop can be harvested
at any time during the year, but the best s-ason is from October to May.
The roots should not be allowed to grow more than two seasons, and for
most purposes it is believed that an annual harvest will prove the more
profitable.
As is the case with all new and promising plants, the most extravagant
statements have been made in regard to the amount of cassava -vhich can
be produced per acre. In many of the returns received from our corre-
spondents in Florida statements were made in regard to the yield which
were entirely beyond the bounds of reason. These extravagant state-
ments, of course, did not proceed from any desire on the part of corre-
spondents to misstate the facts, but on account of their misapprehension
of them. Statements of yield are made, as a rule, not upon accurately
measured and weighed products, but upon a mere glance over a field or
the taking of a few hills. It is easy, therefore, for the most honest and
upright correspondent to fall into gross error in regard to the amount
which will be furnished by an acre. In my own observation of small
areas, and from the accredited statements of those authorities which seem
to merit the highest consideration, I am convinced that on the ordinary
pine land of Florida, with proper preparation and cultivation and appro.
private fertilization, a yield of from 4 to 7 or perhaps 8 tons per acre may
be reasonably expected. It is difficult to see, however, how it is possible
for such yields as have been reported-viz, 40, 50, and even 60 tons per
acre-to be gathered. In exceptional conditions, as is the case with all
cropq, exceptional yields may be obtained, but these must not be consid-
ered in the practical study of the problem of profitable production.
The profit which the farmer may make from growing this crop and the
manufacturer fjom using it should, in my opinion, be based upon a yield
of 4 or 5 tons per acre. If it be desired to make starch from the plant,
we may suppose as a minimum rate of yield that 20 per cent. of the
weight of the fresh root may be obtained as merchantable starch of a,
high gra4e. On a yield of 4 tons per acre this would amount to eight-
tenths of a ton, or 1,600 pounds. Compare this with the weight of
starch obtained from Indian corn' producing 40 bushels per acre. The
yield of merchantable starch of a high grade may be placed at 35
pounds per bushel, which for 40 bushels would amount to 1,400 pounds
It is thus seen that the rate of yield per acre in the matter of starch







from cassava would be fully equal if not superior to that from Indian
corn.
If the matter of the manufacture of glucose be considered, the esti-
mate is even more favorable. Our experiments have shown that after
the removal of the bark the whole root may be rasped and treated
directly for the manufacture of glucose, either by inversion with diastase
or by treating with dilute sulphuric acid. In the latter case not only
were the starch and sugar present in the root obtained as glucose, but
also a considerable quantity of the digestible fiber. It is not an extrav-
agant statement, therefore, to suppose that fully 30 per cent. of the
weight of the fresh root could be obtained as commercial glucose. This:
would give a yield per acre of 1.2 tons, or 2,400 pounds. These state-
ments are made, of course, subject to the practical determinations of the
manufacturer of glucose and starch from this plant. Attempts have al-
ready been made in the manufacture of starch, but of course the full de-
velopment of this industry must await the investment of capital and the
necessary adjustment of new machinery to new processes.
Mr. B. Remmers, of DeLand, Fla, has made many valuable sugges-
tions in regard to the industry of manufacturing starch from cassava.
According to the information which he has given, the general course of
procedure in the manufacture of starch from cassava is the same as with
potatoes. All the machinery used in the potato-starch factories can be
employed just as well in the cassava factories, but the character of the
rasps and bolting cloths must be adapted to the changed conditions due
to the differences in the raw materials employed. There are many
makers of potato-starch apparatus in the United States, and some man-
ufacturers prefer one form of apparatus and some another. The same is
true in regard to the working process; one person prefers the tabling of
the starch directly from the grater after sifting, while another prefers.
the settling tanks, and still others a combination of both.
It is evident that the methods of work must be adapted to the condi-
tions which obtain and the character of the materials to be employed.
In some seasons both the cassava and potatoes yield better results than
in others, Pnd only large experience can determine in the multitude of
details the best method to be pursued.
During the season of 1898-99, Mr. Remmers, with imperfect machin-
ery, secured a yield of 20 per cent. of commercial starch on the weight
of cassava root employed, and therefore with improved machinery and
improved cultivation it will not be difficult to bring this yield -,p to 25
per-cent.
It is evident from a careful study of the problem in so far as it has been
worked out in practical experience, and theoretically considered, that.
very little change in machinery and methods will be found necessary in
adapting a starch factory to the preparation of starch from cassava.
Since cassava will yield nearly double the percentage of starch obtained
from an equal weight of potatoes, it is evident that in this plant the-







practical man'will find a promising source of profit in those sections
-of our country where the soil and climate are situated to the growth of
*cassava.
Large areas in Florida are well situated to cassava growing whil.h so
far have not been found profitable for other agricultural purposes.
PRESENT -SiATU- OF THE CASSAVA INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA.
The factory of the Seminole Manufacturing Company, at DeLand, be-
,gan operations in the season of 1898-99. Difficulties developed in the
application of machinery selected for the manufacture of starch from
cassava. While this factory will be idle during the season of 1899-1900,
the officials of the .company are confident of the final success of cassava
as a commercial source of starch, and propose to continue operations at
DeLand, or in that vicinity.
The factory of the Planters' Manufacturing Company has been com-
pleted at Lake Mary in time for the crop of 1899 and 1900. It appears
that when changes are made in the pulping machinery to avoid difficulties
arising from the .more fibrous nature of the cassava root, as compared
with potatoes, the success of the manufacturer of cassava starch on a
large scale will be assured. The nature of this difficulty is not such that
it will long baffle the efforts of our mechanical engineers.
The McIntosh Cassava Company, a corporative organization, proposes
to erect a factory at McIntosh for the crop of 1900-1901.
The interest of the people is thoroughly aroused and the value of cas-
;sava as a stock food and as a source of starch is thoroughly appreciated.
The ag-icultural experiment station of Florida has been especially active
in conducting investigations in regard to the culture and feeling value of
the plant, and in bringing the results of these experiments to the atten-
ition of the farmers of the State. A considerable part of the station
iarm is devoted to the cassava experiments.




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