• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Public speaking
 The right organization and how...
 Community music
 Principles of public speaking
 Types of speech illustrated
 How to outline
 Parliamentary rules
 A suggestion for constitution and...
 Order of business and procedure...
 Stages of a bill before the house...
 Routing a bill through congres...
 Orators
 Essays
 Peculiartities of English
 Writing poetry
 Writing poetry














Title: Quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077081/00001
 Material Information
Title: Quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Physical Description: 7 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.,
s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: October 1929
Copyright Date: 19291936
Frequency: quarterly bulletin of the department of agriculture
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 39, no. 4 (Oct. 1929)-v. 45, no. 1 (1936).
Numbering Peculiarities: None published 1932?
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077081
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473185
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Bulletin

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Public speaking
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The right organization and how to get it
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Community music
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Principles of public speaking
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Types of speech illustrated
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    How to outline
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Parliamentary rules
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    A suggestion for constitution and by laws
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Order of business and procedure Florida state senate, 1929
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Stages of a bill before the house of congress
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Routing a bill through congress
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Orators
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Essays
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Peculiartities of English
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Writing poetry
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
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        Page 184
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        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Writing poetry
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
Full Text



VOLUME 39 NUMBER 4




RURAL



CULTURE




Quarterly Bulletin
of
Department of Agriculture
October, 1929




STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner
TALLAHASSEE



Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-
class matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Accept-
ance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized September
11, 1918."














































NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture











PREFACE


THE problem in any vocation is, how to provide for a
satisfying life.

When life on the whole is less satisfying in one line of
work than in another there is a struggle to get out of one
into the other. People have been going from the farm to
every other work known to man, but very few have changed
from other kinds of work to that of agriculture. The main
reason is that on the whole farm life is not satisfying.

One of the reasons for this is that there is a lack of
cultural life on the farm. Remember I say ONE of the
causes. There are requisites that are economic and re-
quisites that are psychologic.

This volume is intended to give a stimulus to the cul-
tural side of farm life. Food, shelter and raiment are not
ends in themselves but a means to an end if civilization is
to exist. Great characters have been developed in solitude,
but contact must finally come if accumulated force is to
function to any purpose. Healthy rivalries in noble cul-
tural purpose are the greatest stimuli to self-development.
From the ranks of the masses must come those who are
to lead and those who are to know whom to follow in the
coming years. Each generation treads closely on the heels
of the preceding, and the present generation is the creator
of the one that is coming. Humanity has powers and apti-
tudes which are susceptible of moulding and guiding by
deliberation. He who is interested has a rich field in which
to work.

NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture










CONTENTS



PART ONE
PUBLIC SPEAKING


Introduction
Classes of Public Speaking
How to Organize and Conduct
Parliamentary Rules
Outlining a Debate
Constitution and By-Laws
Rules of Florida Senate
Subjects for Discussion
Selections of Orations


Debating Societies


Essay Writing
Essay and Book Clubs
Selections of Short Essays
Subjects for Composition


PART THREE
POETRY

Writing Poetry
Rules and Methods
Gems of Poetry


LITERARY


PART TWO
SOCIETIES OTHER THAN FOR PUBLIC
SPEAKING










INTRODUCTION


THERE was but one object in preparing this volume-
to stimulate the intellects of the youths of this country.
Nothing else is worth while. All other things follow the
thoughts of people, of all ages. The kind and degree of
thinking that is done by the youth determine the civilization
of the future.
Why this character of book from a Department of
Agriculture? In 1911 I was in the office of the Southern
Agriculturist in Nashville, and the editor and publisher of
the paper, Mr. J. Kirk Rankin, asked me what I would put
in an agricultural paper if I were editing one. I told him
that I would use about the same character of materials
that other editors printed in farm papers, but that I would
devote at least a page to fine literature; that it was a mis-
take to think that gems of the classics would not be ap-
preciated by farmers; that when I was a boy on a farm
I read more magazines and books of a literary and scientific
character than I did agricultural publications. His reaction
to my suggestion was favorable and he spoke of including
stories. My reply was to the effect that a story was all
right, but it entirely missed the mark. What I had in
mind was fine writing, purely literary stuff. He seemed
to think well of my suggestion.
Many a farm home has only a farm paper, and if a
second is added it is apt to be a daily. Neither of them
answers the longing for fine literature nor cultivates a
taste for the classics. I am of opinion that the proverbial
dryness of official bulletins is not altogether necessary.
Facts should not be foreign to interesting methods of state-
ment. No one should sacrifice his subject for something
to say, nor strive for florid expression on commonplace
subjects. But there is no excuse for assuming that rhetoric
has no place in a scientific treatise or in literature on the
commonest phases of farm life. There is too great a ten-
dency to sacrifice the family for the farm and its equipment.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


This is no better than sacrificing everything for pleasure
and the whims of the profligate.
Being a child of the back country, I know the handicaps
and advantages of the more remote rural life. The great
handicap in all grades of society has been and will continue
to be a lack of a proper stimulant to intellectual develop-
ment. The public school is supposed to furnish this stim-
ulus, but it fails to completely fill the requirements. When
we note the great number of leaders in all walks of life who
came from the strictly rural communities, this is proof
that talent is there and only needs to be stimulated to show
forth in dynamic functioning. Literature, in books, maga-
zies and dailies helps, but it, too, fails to contribute certain
needed promptings and facilities for training. It takes
the active participation in the struggle of wits to touch off
the spark which fires the mind.
"Man does not live by bread alone" was uttered near
two thousand years ago in Palestine. It was true then
and now and always will be. The farmer doesn't live sole-
ly by the soil. His feet are on the ground but his mind
plays with the universe the same as those of the cultured
professions. The son or daughter of the soil may think
higher thoughts than the son or daughter of a man whose
office is in the fortieth story of an office building.
A literary circle should be conducted in every commun-
ity where there is a sufficient number of people (young or
older people) interested to justify it. Nothing is more
conducive to culture and keen perception and readiness of
conversation than a well conducted literary circle. Such
rules and regulations as apply to local conditions can be
adopted. The individual who is in earnest about wanting
to learn and self improvement will court contests which
put him on his mettle. Some may prefer contests in writ-
ing to that of speaking. It is generally agreed that there
is no better way to train one's self to compose well than to
pick out splendid specimens of literature and re-write them
in one's own language, and then compare the result with
the original. Let others compare them and criticise the
imitation with the original.







RURAL CULTURE


Another method would be to select a subject and have
the members of the circle write theses on it and then com-
pare them in a meeting of round table discussion. It mat-
ters not what facilities for investigation and study are
offered, it is only the very few who will take advantage of
the opportunity and make the most of it. There must be a
greater stimulus than mere opportunity. Ability is not
sufficient of itself. There must be an electric spark that
will touch off and keep on touching off the static energy
of youth and transfer it into dynamic energy. Of course
all people are not stirred by the same agencies; there is
no one stimulating force that has equal effect on every
one.
What are some of the things that could be utilized as
stimulants for the young in thinking on things worth while?
To begin with, we might as well take it for granted that
any appeal to the capable will pass over the heads of the
unresponsive. That understood, we know that we have
only an unknown percentage of people of any community
who will take part in an activity calculated to arouse the
enthusiastic interest in studies requiring application, time
and diligent research-with no immediate pecuniary re-
ward as an inducement. They who are devoid of a mental
craving, of a desire for self improvement, of ambition or
aspiration, are not to be considered, as they are hopeless.
Great events will march by them without arousing much
concern.
There are always those who have the intellectual urge
and who can be enlisted, by proper encouragement, to take
part in self-improvement activities. It is for these that the
suggestions herewith are made:
1. Find your neighbor-the fellow that is interested in
the same things that you are. Let your hobby or favorite
subject be whatever it may, provided it is worth doing, and
submit the subject to others for consideration. Have a
meeting and work together on the task. Your mutual in-
terest will be intensified by cooperative effort. If it is
only two boys interested in making a toy out of wood, it
creates a common point of interest. If it is two girls in-







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


terested in making something, or learning a poem or a
musical composition, it is worth while. There is no trouble
in getting your folks interested in going somewhere. There
is nothing wrong about going somewhere as a diversion or
means of culture, but when trips become an end in them-
selves and not a means of diversion or information they
are mere time-killers. Too much detraction is the bane
of youth in city life. Solitude and meditation will accom-
plish more in character building.
A literary club where good books are studied or where
debates are held, is as good a method of self-development
as has ever been tried; it is a great burnisher of intellect.
Here is a peculiar psychological study. Debating societies
are to be found only in the remotest rural districts. Towns
and cities do not have them. Many a statesman, orator,
editor, author, actor, lecturer, had his first inspiration and
training in the debating societies of the old back woods log
school house. It is a pity that these societies have grown
fewer instead of more numerous of late years. For three
hundred years there were heated public debates between
religious leaders-they have been discontinued-almost ta-
booed. Aside from all considerations of the merits of re-
ligious controversies, the practice made for keen, alert,
forensics. Political debates were the rule and not the ex-
ception. The United States developed the greatest array
of public speakers that any country in the world ever had.
The benefits of learning to speak in public do not stop with
the speakers. The public gets much of its education on the
problems of the day from public speakers. A nation of
orators will be a free nation. "Corruption shrinks, scorched
from the glance of the mind" of public debaters. Honesty
does not shun investigation. Truth stands the gaff in the
open forum. He that is in the right courts publicity.
Humanity has nothing to lose in public discussion. He who
fears the sword of truth doubts the impregnability of his
cause. Justice is bound to confront injustice before the
jury of public opinion.
Some people deplore controversies; that is their mis-
fortune. When a man says he will not argue nor listen to








RURAL CULTURE


an argument, it means that he has a weak cause or is a weak
controversialist. Bigots and ignoramuses assume that any
opinion contrary to theirs is silly. A closed mind is fit only
to exist in a mummy. Some very learned men have the
most stupid ideas on subjects not within the domain of their
specialties. Often the very intelligent have prejudices
that render them ridiculous or even contemptible. Breadth
of mind and vision comes only of thorough investigation.
Thoroughness is impossible from ex parte evidence or biased
opinions and superficial considerations.
The open forum on platform and in press is the best
method of sharpening wits and finding out the truth. To
shun discussion is to acknowledge defeat and discourage
honest search for truth. The parliamentary rules, order
of business, list of subjects for discussion and debate, ref-
erences cited, etc., are all offered as aids to young men
and women who have red blood in their veins and have
sufficient care for themselves to strive for self development.
Some will not bother about it-and take the consequence.
Shakespeare has a character to say:
"What is a man,
If the chief good and market of his time
Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more.
Surely, He who made us with such large discourse,
Looking before and after, gave us not
That capability and god-like reason
To rust in us unused."
And this from Lowell:
"Life is a leaf of paper white,
On which each of us may write
His line or two, and then comes night.
Though thou have time but for a line,
Be that sublime;
Not failure, but low aim is crime."

T, J. BROOKS
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture






































PUBLIC DEBATE


/4i~f



,~i











RUMAL CULThIE



PART 1.
CHAPTER I.

PUBLIC SPEAKING

Debate: A debate is a public discussion, either spoken
or written, of a subject stated controversially.
Example: Resolved, that we should have municipal
ownership of public utilities.
A discussion of a subject may be had without reference
to an affirmative or a negative.
Example: What is to be the future of the United
States with regard to the struggle between Capital and
Labor?
Interest in public speaking is usually accentuated by a
subject being discussed in the form of a debate. When
both sides of an issue are to be represented by capable
debaters, the spirit of rivalry lends interest to the occasion.

Preparation
The most important thing necessary for an effective
address is proper preparation on the part of the speaker.
All else is incidental. No one can make a great speech
without preparation. Of course he might be prepared as
to information and still make a failure, but he is sure to
fail without preparation.
After you have studied your subject and become in-
formed, the next requisite is to avoid self-consciousness.
Most anyone can avoid self-consciousness in an ordinary
conversation. It is just one step from a conversation to
that of a public address.
Thinking and talking while sitting, and thinking and







12 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

talking in a louder and more animated way while standing,
make the two styles of expression. The size of the audi-
ence has more to do with the feeling of self-consciousness
than the mere sitting or standing posture. The one ef-
fective remedy for self-consciousness is thorough prepara-
tion. When you know that you know your subject, self
confidence takes possession of you; then forget self and
think only of your message. This is the whole story.
As to elocution being an aid has been doubted, because
some of the world's most effective public speakers never
had a lesson in elocution. However, a study of the prin-
ciples of delivery is a great aid to finished and polished
public speaking. It is a means of lopping off awkwardness
in gestures and detracting postures and habits of speech
which others detect better than the speaker. Constructive
criticism should be offered only when the student of public
speaking is fairly well fixed in the determination to be a
speaker. Timid beginners are easily discouraged.
It is a bad habit to memorize your public address and
undertake to deliver it verbatim. When memory slips you
are left stranded. To have a goodly store of memorized
gems of literature is a wonderful asset to a speaker or
writer, but the main address in a debate should be extem-
poraneous. A regular set platform lecture should, in most
cases, be memorized. Learning to think as you go in ad-
dressing an audience is the greatest training you can re-
ceive for public speaking. This can be done only when
you have studied the subject until you are literally full of it.
The use of notes should be discouraged. Self-reliance is
best cultivated by depending on memory in following a con-
secutive order in discussing the subject.
The ambition of every young person should be to possess
or have access to at least a few well selected books. The
best of all as the foundation of a library is a good una-
bridged dictionary and a standard encyclopaedia. Armed
with these two authorities you can learn something about
any subject whatsoever.







RURAL CULTURE


Choosing a Subject
It is advisable to select a subject that is likely to in-
terest the audience, and one on which you have information
for a speech or on which you can obtain information.

Planning a Speech
It is fortunate if you have learned to make an outline of
a discourse. This method enables you to arrange your
material in logical order, arranging coordinates and sub-
ordinates in their proper places.
An example of outlining is given herein as a guide in
laying out a plan of discussion.

Classes of Speaking
Speaking in public may be divided into two general
classes:
1-Debates
2-Lectures
Each of these classes of speaking lends itself especially
to certain groups of subjects. Debating is particularly
adapted to politics and law. Almost every occasion for a
speech in either a political campaign or in a lawsuit calls
for either affirmative or negative argumentative discus-
sion. Theological subjects also lend themselves to foren-
sics.
There is a great field for discussion which is particularly
adapted to expository discourse.
Scientific subjects call for explanation of laws, phe-
nomena, methods, principles, formulas, theories, etc. Ex-
planation is the method employed when lecturing in class
rooms and laboratories.
Morals and ethics call for lectures of universal public
concern. Certain issues of public moment are also suited
to public debate. Literary and cultural themes are best
handled by the straight lecture method.







14 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER II.

THE RIGHT ORGANIZATION
AND HOW TO GET IT
This chapter taken from "Rural Organizations Handbook"
issued by the University of Wisconsin.

"The country will rise no higher than the aspirations
of the people who live there, and the problems must
be solved in such a way that they will meet the condi-
tions as they exist on the spot."
-Liberty Hyde Bailey.
One of the secrets of successful organization is the
certainty of getting the type of organization that fits the
special needs of the community. No two communities are
exactly alike, and consequently there is no assurance that a
type of organization can be used in one, that has proved
successful in another. Therefore, as a preliminary step to
any organization, the communities' needs and problems need
to be studied. Facts and figures thus gathered are always
valuable in correcting individual judgments and in arous-
ing united action.

A Preliminary Study
The preliminary study can consist of anything from the
most casual personal interviewing of the leaders of the com-
munity to a complete and detailed method of survey by
getting answers to a definite and complete set of questions,
which can be tabulated and summarized. If such a detailed
survey is wanted, it can be worked out through some local
organizations. Farm organizations of most kinds, schools,
banks, and chambers of commerce, are usually glad to help
get such information, providing they understand the prop-
osition, and are given proper credit for their assistance.
Help can be secured from the state agricultural college or
from the agricultural department of the state government.
In all cases, the study should cover the territory affected
by the proposed organization. It must not show preference
for any interested group, nor exclude any other groups or








RURAL CULTURE


individuals who might be interested. Particular effort
must be made to keep the study fair and unprejudiced.
The objects of a good local study should be to get exact
information regarding the following:

Objects of the Study
1. Whether the need for organization really exists.
2. Is the community ready to support an organization?
3. What type of organization is needed?
4. What leadership and workers are available, and
where they can be found.
5. What are the local lines of cleavage, prejudices, fac-
tions, and conflicting interests that must be care-
fully avoided?
6. What projects and problems should the organiza-
tion undertake?
Such a study is also good publicity. First, to get the
proposition before the people for consideration. Second,
to get good local material which can be used in furthering
the organization. Many a good community undertaking has
died prematurely because of the lack of publicity which al-
lowed the worthwhile idea to be crowded out of the minds
of people by other and less important things, because the
other things seemed to have the greater news value.

Use of Publicity
Newspapers exert a powerful influence on the thought
and action of the people in rural communities. The rural
newspaper can and should be very helpful in any plan for
community improvement. Rural leaders should be friendly
with the editor of the local paper, explain the work to him,
and get his interest if possible. Get to know the local cor-
respondents for the papers in your community or neighbor-
hood. Some of the most valuable publicity can be put
across through them. Items in their columns should be
aimed directly to interest the people of that particular lo-
cality.
Do not depend upon the local editor for publicity. Ed-








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


itors are busy men, but they are always willing to print all
of the news that is written in acceptable form. News items
should always be written clearly so they can be easily read.
A typewriter is handy for this purpose.
Successful publicity depends to a large extent on the
observance of these rather common but very important
points:

Essentials of Good Publicity
1. Write naturally, as you would talk. Brilliance is
not necessary.
2. Use names, especially local names, at every oppor-
tunity and in every article.
3. Use local facts, especially the progress made by the
organization and local favorable comments. Adver-
tise and report all meetings and events of special
interest.
4. General material from outside sources must usually
be broken up or condensed into shorter articles, and
local comment and names mixed in to make them
more interesting.
5. Write short articles and keep them before the people
at least once a week. Big front page spreads and
feature articles are good occasionally, but they must
be followed up by other articles or they will be soon
forgotten.
6. Care must be taken to keep clear of all controversies.
They take up valuable time and space, and do not
accomplish results favorable to any worthwhile com-
munity effort.

Newspaper publicity is not the only kind, but it is the
cheapest and one of the most effective. Interested people
should be encouraged to talk about the proposed plans to
their friends. Posters, hand bills, circular letters, and even
personal letters and telephone calls can be used very ef-
fectively in building up knowledge and favorable sentiment
for any line of community improvement.








RURAL CULTURE


Steps in Organization
Secure Support of Leaders and Organizations
Every community or neighborhood has its own local lead-
ers who are looked to by the people of the community because
of the things for which they stand. Successful organiza-
tion is best brought about through these local leaders, and
they should be consulted from the start. Plans for organ-
ization must be explained to them and their interest arous-
ed so that all can unite on what seems to be the best plan
for getting desired results. It is very important and es-
pecially helpful at this point to get the active aid and co-
operation of any organizations of recognized standing in the
community. When such organizations become willing to
aid and, in a sense, sponsor a new plan, there are prospects
for the success of the undertaking.
Preliminary Meeting
The time is then at hand when a general meeting of all
interested parties should be called to consider the propo-
sition. This meeting can well be arranged through the
sponsoring organizations, or may be arranged independent-
ly. It must be well and generally advertised, and open to
the public. It may have a well-prepared and definite pro-
gram or line of action planned in advance.
Select the Chairman Carefully
The president of some sponsoring organization or some
other prominent local individual in whom the people have
confidence, should act as chairman. It is the duty of this
chairman to see that the program is carried out completely
and with enthusiasm, as well as handle any special situations
as they come up. His task is important and he should be
selected before the meeting with this in mind. A tempor-
ary secretary must be selected and may be elected by ac-
clamation. In opening this meeting, the chairman should
state briefly the purpose for which it was called. It is also
valuable to tactfully outline the amount of progress that is
expected and the amount of actual organization work to be
considered at this meeting.







18 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Tell the Story of Successful Similar Efforts
People like to hear of the experiences of others, and one
of the features of this preliminary organization meeting
should be a good speaker who can give the experience of
similar groups with similar organizations, or better still,
get members of a similar organization to attend this meet-
ing and tell of the experience, success, and plans of their
organization. This is clearly the main feature of such a
program.
Encourage Full Discussion
The whole plan must be explained fully and discussed
thoroughly. Ample chance must be given to ask and ans-
wer all questions. Discussion must be encouraged from all
angles. There must be no hurry or seeming attempt to
railroad action. Care must be taken to make sure that the
meeting does not end here in an anti-climax with nothing
accomplished. Definite steps must be taken at this meet-
ing toward permanent organization. As soon as the ques-
tions are all in and answered, several of the local leaders
should petition the chairman for a chance to give their
views as to the advantages of such an organization
for their own local community. If they are not volunteer-
ing to speak, they should be called upon. These speeches
should be short and spontaneous, and need not contain
much more than a personal endorsement of the plan by
those interested in it. The results of the preliminary study
must be kept in mind. It may be well at this point to call
for a report of the findings.

Secure Vote of Confidence
There should be a motion from the floor at this time,
moving the adoption of the plan of organization as pro-
posed. This motion should be discussed and handled in
the regular manner. This is really more of a vote of con-
fidence and approval of organization than otherwise, but a
large percentage of "ayes" will spur the leaders on to
greater effort and may be the first installment of pay long
due for effort in the past.







RURAL CULTURE


Take Definite Steps Toward Organization
Now comes the real work of organization. A committee
must be appointed or elected to prepare a form of constitu-
tion and by-laws for presentation at the next meeting. This
must be a committee of active workers who know the
thought and conditions in the community, and are willing
to do considerable work in making or adapting a workable
set of rules under which the organization can work to ac-
complish the desired objects in the best and easiest way
possible. The time and place of the next meeting should
be discussed and determined before adjournment is allowed.

Social Entertainment Is in Order
At this preliminary or first organization meeting, some
entertainment may be in order, and in many cases it is val-
uable. One or two numbers rather light and humorous in
character put people in a good humor and do not take much
time from the business at hand. A general song or two is
splendid. If a suitable leader is available, the accompani-
ment can be dispensed with. This singing must be done
with lots of pep and everybody must join in to make it
really successful.
Refreshments are valuable and sometimes a seemingly
necessary addition to the program. These should be light
in character so that the ladies of the community are not
imposed upon. This period of eating together following
the organization meeting often furnishes one of the best
opportunities for discussion leading to mutual understand-
ing and advancement of the plans under consideration.
Informal Method May Succeed
If the problem under consideration is not such a difficult
one, much of the elaborate preparation can be dispensed
with. For a local community get-together party with
games and light refreshments, organizations fostering a
real social good time is the best kind. This is also a good
way to start a musical or literary club, or to plan for a
special day or event not requiring a hard and fast formal
type of organization. The informal plan especially appeals







20 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

to younger people. Different communities and different
types of organization demand different treatment. It may
be well not to depart from the ordinary methods any far-
ther than is necessary in order to make the occasion inter-
esting and at the same time accomplish the desired results.

Organization Meeting
The final organization meeting should follow the general
outline of procedure and preparation suggested for the pre-
liminary meeting. The first order of business should be
the report of the committee on constitution and by-laws.
The proposed constitution should be read entirely and the
various parts explained which are questioned or are known
to need explanation. Each section may then be adopted
separately, article by article, or the whole may be adopted
by regular form, if there are no objections or no desired
changes.
As soon as the constitution and by-laws are adopted, the
meeting should proceed to sign up members present under
the plan adopted in the constitution. The temporary sec-
retary may do this work. As soon as the members are
signed up, the meeting should proceed to the election of
officers and committees as provided for in the constitu-
tion. The permanent officers should then take their places,
and the new organization is ready for consideration of its
plans for work and for such other business as may come
before the organization. The committees should be ap-
pointed as soon as it is practically possible to name them,
and active work of a definite and lasting nature should be
udertaken at once. Enthusiasm is running high and it
should be put to work. Stored-up enthusiasm never lasts.
The best outlet for it is hard work, constructive in nature.

Some Sample Programs
Programs, to be successful, must be worked out care-
fully and in considerable detail well in advance of presenta-
tion. In very few cases is it advisable to have only one
speaker. Experience indicates that an effective program is
a well balanced program, and that local people should have










RURAL CULTURE


some part in it. A few suggestive programs with these
elements present are given as samples of what can be done.


A General Type of Program
The following is a general plan
for a program which may be used
in many community meetings:
Approximate time
1. Meeting called to order.
2. Business .............. .........20 min.
3. Community singing........10 min.
4. Reading or recitation....10 min.
5. Musical selection... .......10 min.
6. Special feature (speak-
er, debate, or discus-
sion of special project) 10 min.
7. M usic ................---..........--.- 10 m in.
8. Adjournment
9. Social hour and re-
freshments ...................60 min.

Total ..............2 hrs. 30 minutes

With Major Emphasis on Business
For a meeting in which the ma-
jor emphasis is on business, a
logical order of business should
be followed. For such a meeting a
special arrangement is often de-
sirable to help liven up the meet-
ing, and also add definiteness.
1. Roll call-respond with a short
quotation.
2. Group singing
3. Read minutes of the previous
meeting
4. Reports of committees
5. Treasurer's report
6. Unfinished business
7. New business
8. Program
9. Adjournment
10. Social hour

With All Parts Taken by Members
A very common and beneficial
type of program is one in which
all of the parts are taken by mem-
bers of the community and which
is both of an educational and so-
cial character.
1. Community singing local
leader
2. Reading or recitation
3. A dialogue-school children
4. Instrumental music
5. A humorous reading
6. Vocal solo or duet
7. A mock trial-"Trial of a soil
robber" or "Trial of a scrub
bull"
8. Singing


9. Adjournment
10. Refreshments

Program for a Full Day
The foregoing arrangements
have assumed that the program
is being held in the afternoon or
evening, but occasionally it is the
desire to plan a program for a full
day. In such an event, a more
comprehensive plan must be used.
Morning
1. Meeting called to order by
president
2. Singing-by group
3. The plans of the day-by the
president
4. Musical selections
5. The specialty of the morning
6. Discussion (if specialty per-
mits discussion)
Afternoon
1. Call to order
2. Business session
3. Special music
4. Recitation or reading
5. Debate papers-prepared by
members
6. Music or comic reading
7. Speaker for the afternoon
8. Question box or discussion
9. Closing song
10. Adjournment
Evening
1. Membership banquet
2. Musical concert
3. Dramatic production
4. Lecture course number
5. Social activities
In the case of a program lasting
all day or afternoon and evening,
arrangements must be made to
take care of the crowd at meal
times. Regular meals may be serv-
ed, or a "bag lunch" may be pre-
pared. A paper bag containing
lunch enough for one person may
be sold at a nominal charge and
hot coffee or milk served. These
lunches or dinners together are
one of the most effective social
opportunities available, and should
not be overlooked.

Ways to Respond to Roll Call
Novelty and interest is often
added to a program by requesting










22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


each member to respond to roll
call in some unusual way. They
must do any of the following:
1. Spell their given name back-
wards or merely give the first
name.
2. "My best remembered spank-
ing"
3. Name the trees in their front
yard
4. Tell a story or Mother Goose
rhyme
5. Give some suggestion for im-
proving the club
6. Tell of some place they have
visited
7. Tell for what they spent their
last dollar or how they earned
their last dollar
8. Tell what farm people need
most at the present time
9. Give a quotation from the
Bible or a well known book
and tell where it is found
10. Tell what they have to be
thankful for (Thanksgiving
meeting)

Some Special Feature Programs
Successful feature programs are
always adapted to the season of
the year, to the place in which
they are held, and to the type of
organization and people for which
they are intended. There are very
many types of which the follow-
ing are but a few suggestive
samples:
1. Mock trials
2. Debates
3. Play or pageant


4. Community song festival
5. Picnics
6. Discussion of governmental af-
fairs
7. Banquets
8. Conferences
9. Play days
10. "Good health" round-up
11. Social gatherings
12. Children's program
13. Men's or women's program
14. Celebration of a national hol-
iday or patriotic meetings
15. Book reviews
16. Motion pictures
17. Exhibits or festivals
18. Chicken-pie supper
19. Spell-down or geography
match
20. Dedication ceremonies
Suggestive Topics to be Considered
The type of meeting may also be
decided according to the topics un-
der consideration. This often af-
fords an interesting educational
approach. These are a few sugges-
tions:
1. Roads
2. Good health
3. Farm management
4. Opportunities in social life
5. The farm tractor
6. The rural school problem
7. Taxation
8. Opportunities in agriculture
9. What farm organizations are
doing
10. Cooperative marketing
11. The rural church
12. A survey of the community











































REHEARSING








RURAL CULTURE


COMMUNITY MUSIC

Music Essential Whenever People Get Together
(Rural Organization Handbook, University of Wisconsin)
"Let us have a singing,
smiling, united people."
-Community Service
Community music had its start even before the World
War. It was well under way as early as 1913, but the war
and the emphasis placed upon music at that time gave its
development a decided impetus. People who before were
only passive listeners began to sing, and the American
army became known as a "singing army." With this im-
pelling desire on the part of the people who had learned to
like to sing, it is no wonder that music occupies the im-
portant place that it now does in community organizations.
In any type of public gathering there is probably no other
one thing that will afford everyone opportunity for ex-
pression as does community singing. Every person has a
share in this part of the program, and a spirit of unity
and "one-ness" is created. This alone gives music a well
deserved place in almost any gathering.

Types of Musical Organizations
Community or Group Singing-Community or group
singing is the most valuable form of singing from the view-
point of the community. These "sings" are most success-
ful when strictly informal, and when all members of the
group join in the singing. The leadership which it is some-
times believed to be difficult to secure, is really not so
difficult after all. One service presents this problem as
follows:
"Whom have we who has the following requisites for
song leadership?
1. Willingness to lead
2. Wit and humor to hold the crowd
3. Personality to influence the crowd
4. Ability to beat time for the singers
5. Ability to sing








26 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Of these the first is the most important, because the lead-
er having this qualification will let himself out and be en-
thusiastic, and since the enthusiasm is contagious, his
crowd will catch it from him and half of his battle will be
won. Such a leader, if he can add quality (2) and (3), can
do good work even without being an expert in (4) and (5).
He will be able to do better than someone who is expert
in (4) and (5), but without the (1), (2), and (3) qualifi-
cations. The song leader's lack of ability to sing can be
supplied by a sustaining chorus, especially picked for that
purpose."5
The best accompanist for community singing is not
always the best pianist. The best accompanist should know
a great deal about music, but at the same time must realize
the impossibility of a finished performance with an ord-
inary crowd. "They should use their utmost knowledge
and ability in backing the efforts of the leader and the
crowd, playing introductions to indicate the time, sound
the chords to help the leader and the crowd to get the right
pitch, emphasizing the rhythm, keeping in time with the
leader and the crowd when they insist on getting out of
time, and repeating until the singing will pass muster."
In case no pianist is available, a player piano or even
a phonograph may be used as a substitute, the local dealer
usually being able to supply practically any song rolls or
records desired.
Chorus or Glee Club-The chorus or glee club usually
consists of a group of especially interested individuals.
These groups may be a high school chorus, or glee club, a
children's chorus, or a regular community chorus. There
are probably very few schools or churches at the present
time where some effort in this line is not made. In the
absence of certain voices for part singing (as tenor voices
or second alto voices among girls) three-part rather than
four-part music may be wisely used. If some training in
note reading can be given, it will prove a valuable foundation
on which to build further musical knowledge.
A children's chorus is an especially attractive type of
5 Parish Sings, Y. M. S. State Office, Effingham, Ill.








RURAL CULTURE


group singing, and at the present time publishers are sup-
plying an almost unlimited quantity of charming and ap-
propriate music written for this purpose. In many schools
there are teachers qualified to teach such group singing,
and there is no question but that such teaching should be
made available for all children.

Community Quartet-The community quartet or double
quartet, although it may bring together relatively fewer
members of the community has a distinctive musical value.
It will probably be named after the community from which
its members are chosen, and will represent a higher musical
ability than the average. Its place on a program is often
very unique, and it forms a splendid nucleus for a com-
munity "sing."

The Orchestra-The orchestra is an especially valuable
form of musical development. In it may be blended both
string and wind instruments and individuals with varying
degrees of musical skill and proficiency. Many communi-
ties have persons qualified to direct an orchestra that will
bring credit to the locality and greatly benefit the indi-
vidual members of the orchestra. Also many places are
finding it very beneficial to engage the services of a trained
director to meet with their orchestra once or twice a week,
and assume the leadership of the group. He is then secured
as private tutor for certain individual members who are
just beginning the study of their respective instruments,
and hope to make especially rapid progress in mastering
them. This is usually more satisfactory than depending
upon the instructions given with the instrument by the
company selling it, although many beginners have learned
to play their instruments very well in this way. The or-
chestra is a great help in putting on a really good "com-
munity sing," and often can furnish a very attractive even-
ing's entertainment alone.

Mandolin and Guitar Club-The mandolin and guitar
club, although not to be considered in the same class with
an orchestra, is a distinct asset to any community. There








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


is an advantage in that these instruments require less ser-
ious study to be played well together, and by the addition
of certain instruments such as the violin, cello, flute, and
others, may gradually take on the characteristics of and
develop into an orchestra.
The Band-The band probably can put more life into a
community gathering and have a more universal appeal
than any other type of musical organization. Its success
depends very largely upon good leadership and a realization
on the part of both members and audience of service to
the community. "Faithful membership in a band that
stands ready to play on all public occasions requires quali-
ties of good citizenship that should be recognized. Because
of a lack of appreciation of such service, it too frequently
happens that the membership loses interest in its playing
as an avocation and as a community service and assumes
a professional attitude which makes the members unwilling
to play unless they are compensated for it."6
As regards leadership and methods of securing it, much
the same can be said for the band as for the orchestra. In
some high schools and in many communities very excellent
results have been obtained in a few months time. In 1913
a law was enacted in Wisconsin which provides for the
maintenance at public expense of concerts in cities, towns,
and villages.7

Relation of Music to Community
Organizations
Any of the various types of musical organizations above
mentioned may be promoted by or carried on within any
community organization, church, school, or interest group
within the community. They will, in most cases, be most
effective as such and more representative of the entire
community organization itself. Group and chorus singing
are very common in churches and schools; and orchestras,
bands and glee clubs are becoming more and more popular
at the present time.
6-Community Music and Drama-Extension Division Bulletin of the
University of Wisconsin.
7-Wisconsin State Law No. 780A, Chapter 281, published May 20, 1913.








RURAL CULTURE


One community decided that good singing could become
a great asset to its people. Accordingly there was organ-
ized a "singing school," meeting in the school house once
each week. One member was delegated to go to a city
about six miles distant each week for the singing teacher
and take her back again after the school for the evening
was over. It is needless to say that the people of that com-
munity learned to like music, and today there is some kind
of musical instrument in practically every home.
A person who has had considerable experience with
community bands suggests that many times when it is not
possible for any one community alone to support a compe-
tent band leader and director, it is often possible for two or
three neighboring communities to do so collectively. He
suggests that in each of these communities (three being a
very satisfactory number) a band be started. They might
then meet one night every week for practice, and pay the
director about $10.00 per night for his services. This would
total about $40.00 per band per month to the director.
being about $120 per month from the three communities.
In addition to this, the director would have private pupils
on their respective instruments, and also the sale of in-
struments. He states that to be successful a band must
think of itself as an agency to serve its community, and if
wise, will stay out of the professional class. The director's
expenses may be paid out of funds raised by the community
as a whole, thus making the band distinctly a community
enterprise, or by contributions from the members of the
band, as they are receiving the greatest benefits.









NOTE-For a list of suggested publications for use in community
musical work address the Musical Director of the University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, or the School of Music, Florida State College for
Women, Tallahassee, Florida.







30 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER III.

PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
From "Public Speaking and Debate"
Ontario Department of Agriculture

Public speaking is very much like ordinary conversation
in two important points:
1. The speaker's words express something that he is
thinking and feeling at the time he speaks.
2. The speaker has the sense that he is in active com-
munication with his hearers, that is, they are respond-
ing to what he says.
These are far more important aspects of public speaking
than its resemblance to our elementary attempts at recita-
tion.
Some would-be speakers worry a great deal when the
time comes to deliver their speeches, but are not suffic-
iently worried about preparation to spend more than two or
three hours on that. In order to make a good speech it is,
first of all, necessary to have something to say worth say-
ing. Thorough preparation is the only way to make sure
of that; furthermore, it is one of the best possible means
of avoiding stage-fright at the last minute.

The Extempore Method
The best method for the beginner to practice is what
is known as the extempore method. This method demands
careful preparation of material but prohibits any exact
memorization or any reading from manuscript. The ma-
terial is carefully collected and arranged, and the whole
speech may be written out as the speaker would like to
deliver it. But at that point the speaker discards his
manuscript and practices delivery with only brief notes be-
fore him to recall the various sections of the speech.
The chief advantage of extemporaneous speaking is that
in this kind of speech it is much easier to establish and
maintain that feeling of active communication between







RURAL CULTURE


speaker and audience which is the very life blood of a
successful speech. Without its presence running through-
out, the body of the speech, no matter how well chosen the
speaker's words may be, will remain cold and lifeless.
Why has the extempore speech this advantage? First,
because if the speaker reads his address, the manuscript
itself forms a barrier between speaker and audience which
neither can entirely forget. Second, because if the speaker
recites a memorized speech he must recall an exact set of
words and phrases and in so doing, unless the process has
become purely instinctive, his attention is concentrated on
words, not on the ideas and emotions which the words rep-
resent. The result is that the words and the words alone,
are communicated; the speaker is using dead language and
his delivery seems cold and mechanical.
The extempore is by no means a lazy man's method,
and the speaker's first attempts may be more difficult than
if memorization were allowed. It is worth while, however,
to learn from the very beginning to talk to an audience and
to avoid reading or reciting. Practice in this method will give
a feeling of freedom and ease in speaking which the be-
ginner can obtain by no other method.

Choosing a Subject
The choice of a subject is not an easy matter, not be-
cause of a lack of good subjects, but because of the diffi-
culty of selecting one. If compelled to make your own se-
lection you may find it of some assistance to think over
the following suggestions as possible sources of a subject:
1. Personal experience, especially the unusual sort of
experience.
2. The events of the day as presented in the news and
editorial columns of newspapers and periodicals, e. g., Lind-
bergh's flight might suggest a speech telling of recent ad-
vances in aviation or possibly a speech telling of the first
crossing of the Atlantic by a steamship.
3. Articles of special interest in magazines or books,
e.g., articles telling of new discoveries or inventions either
of general interest or of special importance to the farmer.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


4. Topics of conversation on which you have noticed
that people express differences of opinion.
5. Other matters of provincial, national, or internation-
al interest.
Choose a subject which is likely to interest your aud-
ience and one on which you have or can obtain sufficient
information for a speech that will be worth while.
If you are a beginner the best sort of subject to choose
is one in which you have more experience or direct first-
hand knowledge than the majority of your audience. If
you have taken a trip on a harvest excursion, or spent a
winter in a lumber camp, or done some prospecting in nor-
thern Ontario, or spent some time in a large automobile
factory, you have in any one of these experiences suitable
material for a short speech. Subject matter that comes
from your own experience is apt to be presented more vivid-
ly than subject matter derived solely from reading.

Making a Plan
If you are to speak on a subject that you are not at all
familiar with, it may be impossible to draw up a plan until
you have acquired a considerable amount of information.
As soon as possible, however, a tentative plan should be
made out. A plan helps to collect and define the rather
vague and hazy first ideas which one has upon a new sub-
ject. Without an outline of some sort you are likely to
waste much time and effort in collecting material that will
be of no use.
In making out your first plan, review what you already
know of the subject and write down possible headings under
which the material might be placed. Look through your
headings, combine those that are closely related, eliminate
the unimportant, and arrange what remains in the simplest
logical order.
This preliminary plan should be regarded as purely
tentative and should be open to change repeatedly as fresh
information on the subject reveals a possibility of bettering
it. The planning of the speech is a process, not a single
act, and it should not be regarded as completed till all your







RURAL CULTURE


material has been assembled. Then, and then only, you
are ready to draw up your final plan in the assurance that
you are making the best possible use of the material in
hand.

Limiting the Subject

The length of time that you are to speak will necessarily
limit the amount of material in your speech. Don't try
to exhaust the subject; long before you do this you will
have exhausted your audience. To begin with, do not un-
dertake to make speeches of more than five or ten minutes.
Only the really good speaker should be allowed to talk for
more than ten minutes at a time.
Although you have decided that you will make but a
short speech, you may find when you begin to make your
preliminary plan or outline that the subject you are in-
tending to speak on is a broad one and that there are many
possible headings to consider. Suppose, for example, that
you have decided to speak on Radio. Radio is new enough
and remarkable enough to interest almost everyone; so the
subject seems a good one. Thinking over possible headings
you might write down:
1. History of Radio.
2. How it works-the general principles.
3. Kinds of transmitting stations.
4. Kinds of receiving sets.
5. How to install and care for a receiving set.
6. The widespread use of radio at present.
7. Its value for entertainment.
8. Its value for business and other purposes.
9. A forecast of future uses.
You will see, on looking over the list, that the subject
is a very broad one. If your speech were to last a week,
you might be able to deal fully with all these aspects; but
since your time is limited, you must limit the subject ac-
cordingly. It is best to choose one or two headings from
such a list and develop them fully, neglecting the others
entirely. This will leave room for illustrations and for suf-







34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ficient detail to make the speech worth while. The super-
ficial survey of such a broad subject is generally much less
interesting than a full account of some limited aspect.
What headings should you choose to speak on? That
depends entirely on the object of the speech. If your pur-
pose is to convince people that it is worth while to own a
radio set, you might speak chiefly on its values for enter-
tainment, business, and other purposes. If you wish to
impress them with the importance of radio, you could men-
tion briefly its widespread use at present and the short time
it has been in use, and then deal more fully with its present
values and possible future uses. If you wish to give some
information of value to those who own or intend to own
radio sets, you might speak on the kinds of receiving sets,
and how to install and care for a set.
From this example we see that to make a successful
speech, not only must you choose a subject, but you must
also decide what the object or purpose of your speech is.
Having decided that, you must limit the subject and select
the material you are to use in accordance with your pur-
pose.

Arranging Material
During the time that you are collecting material you
should be arranging it in accordance with your preliminary
plan and making changes in this plan when you see any
possibility of improvements. When, at last, you have all
your material together, you are ready to consider its final
arrangement.
Sometimes the nature of the material is such as to de-
termine your arrangement; in such cases you are forced to
follow what may be called a logical order. For example,
if you are telling how to build a barn, you would start with
the foundation and work up, not with the roof and work
down.
In all other cases you follow what might be called a
psychological order. That is, you consider the tastes and
interests of your audience and choose from a variety of
possible arrangements the one most likely to gain and hold








RURAL CULTURE


their attention. Some time should be spent in considering
the possibilities of arrangement. If you have used the
card system in collecting material, it will be easy not only
to outline on a separate sheet of paper the various possibili-
ties, but actually to arrange all your material in the several
ways which may seem desirable. After doing this it should
be much easier to decide on the most suitable plan.

Testing the Arrangement

The varying nature of the subject matter, the purpose
of the speaker, and the type of audience to be addressed all
affect the arrangement and make it impossible to lay down
any general rules. There are, however, certain tests which
may be applied to almost any type of arrangement. Unless
there is good reason to the contrary, your arrangement
should meet these tests.

Central Idea Test
(a) Quite near the beginning of the speech make clear
to the audience what your subject is and what you propose
to do with it.* If the subject is a complicated one it may
be well to outline in advance the plan you propose to follow
in dealing with it.
(b) See that the greater part of the speech is devoted
to the development of this announced subject and do not
allow minor issues to take up much of your time.
(c) Make clear to the audience the connection of the
various parts of your speech, both to each other and to the
general subject of your address.
(d) See that your material is so arranged and develop-
ed that it will be impossible for anyone who has half listened
to you to go away afterward and say he did not know what
you were talking about.
*This does not mean that the speech should be begun with a formal
statement, "My subject tonight is so and so and my purpose on speak-
ing on it is thus and thus." The subject may be announced formally;
the purpose should usually be implied indirectly. On some occasions to
begin with an open announcement of purpose would defeat the whole
object of the speech.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Beginning and End Test
(a) Plan the beginning with the aim of arousing inter-
est in your subject; introduce the subject in such a way
that the audience will wish to hear more about it.
(b) Plan the conclusion to emphasize the most impor-
tant idea in your whole speech.
(c) Make the first and last section of your speech
such that a person who had heard only those would know
at least what you had aimed to accomplish.

Writing the Speech
Some experienced speakers may find that in preparing
to speak they need to do little or no writing beyond jotting
down a few headings and possibly a set of figures to which
they may wish to refer. On the other hand, many speakers
with years of experience still find it advisable to write out
the whole speech. It is impossible to say that one method
is right and the other wrong, but for the beginner writing
is recommended.
Although you have made copious notes in collecting your
material, the speech you are to deliver is bound to seem
very vague until it is actually before you in black and white.
You know then just what you are doing with your material,
and you are far better able to revise and criticise both
style and arrangement. Furthermore, the very act of
writing out what you intend to say serves to impress it on
your mind so that it is much more easily recalled. You
will not remember exactly what you have written, but you
will have much less trouble in expressing yourself orally
than if you had not previously expressed the material in
writing.
Write out the whole speech just as you would like to
deliver it. If you have used cards or slips in collecting
material, you will now find it easy to keep before you the
material needed for each succeeding section of the speech.
Consider carefully what you have written and make any
last improvements you can in style or in the beginning and
conclusion. Some speakers find it advisable to write the








RURAL CULTURE


beginning of the speech last of all since they can then be
more certain what will make an effective introduction.

Preparing Platform Notes
You are now ready to prepare notes to speak from.
Many people feel that to be most effective the speaker
should address his audience without showing or glancing
at notes or manuscript. On some occasions, such as in
delivering brief after-dinner speeches when an appearance
of freedom and spontaneity aids greatly in giving the right
atmosphere, it is well to get on without notes if one can.
But on other occasions when the material to be dealt with
may be complex and when it is important to omit nothing
and to present all in the order planned, it is wiser for most
speakers to use notes.
Your notes should consist of headings which will readily
recall to you each section or each paragraph of your speech.
Do not copy whole sentences which you may be tempted
to read from the notes. Put down headings only, so that
you will be forced to speak, not read. Quotations that you
wish to read out or sets of figures may, if brief, be copied
in full in their appropriate place. If very long they may
be copied out on a separate card or sheet of paper. Make
your notes legible. The light may be poor on the platform
where you speak, and a mere glance at the notes should
suffice to give you what you need from them at any time.
Avoid equally the use of notes made out on large sheets
of paper or on slips of postage stamp size. The former are
extremely obvious, difficult to manipulate, and the audience
may feel the large sheets get between them and the speaker.
The latter are easily misplaced, difficult to read, and fre-
quently give the impression that you are trying to conceal
the fact that you are using notes. If you use notes, use
them openly, but unobtrusively. Small cards or slips of
paper, such as were used in collecting material, are best.

Practicing the Speech
The manuscript should now be put away and not referred
to again. Force yourself to talk through the whole speech,







38 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

using the notes to keep your arrangement as planned. If
you remember the words you have written down previously,
use them; but when you fail to recall them, do not refer
to the written manuscript. Express the idea in a new set
of words and get through the whole speech. Practice in
this way as frequently as possible, not trying to retain the
exact wording of the manuscript so long as you get some
suitable wording for your ideas. This is the most impor-
tant step in the preparation of your speech. No matter
how good your material, poor delivery will ruin its effect-
iveness. See that the writing of your speech is completed
in time to allow you at least two or three days for practice
of this sort.
The beginning and the end are the most important parts
of the speech and should be prepared and practiced the most
carefully. Some speakers like to memorize them while giv-
ing the rest of the speech extempore, but such a plan is not
generally to be recommended.

Delivering the Speech
When a grouchy old lawyer was once asked by a young
speaker for some advice on delivery, he rather testily re-
plied "Stand up! Speak up! Shut up!" This reply touches
on the three points of major importance, but perhaps the
beginner might appreciate a little more detailed advice.

Getting Started
Before beginning to speak you should take up a po-
sition close to the front of the platform and as near the
middle as possible. Don't be in too great a hurry to begin
lest some of the audience fail to hear your first words.
If people are shifting position or exchanging comments,
pause a moment till you see that you have their attention.
Begin by addressing the chair and your audience. Then
announce your subject in such a way that everyone will
hear you. It is a good plan to select some one near the
rear who seems to be attentive and interested and address
your opening remarks directly to him. You can tell by the
expression of his face whether or not he is hearing you;







RURAL CULTURE


make him hear easily and the rest of the audience also will
hear you.
Face the Music
Most important of all, in beginning and throughout the
speech, talk to the audience, not to a window on one side,
or to the first row of empty seats, or to your own toes.
Even though at first it may seem hard to face the concen-
trated attention of several dozen pairs of eyes, look your
audience in the face. Without doing that you can never
speak effectively. In private life we distrust the man who
refuses to meet our eyes. On the public platform we de-
mand that any man who would hold our attention must look
at us, not at the ceiling or the floor. It is difficult at first,
but will seem less so if you remember that you are speaking
before people whose attitude is not hostile but friendly.
An audience always sympathizes with the speaker in his
first attempt and admires the one who, in spite of his
nervousness, gets through his speech successfully. The
audience is working with you and for you, not against you.
Their obvious interest and enjoyment, once you have learned
to look for it, will be a great encouragement and will help
you to put more of yourself into the speech.
Make Yourself Heard
Not only in beginning the speech, but throughout, take
care to make yourself easily heard. Remember to watch
your friend in the back seat and see that he continues to
hear easily. Some speakers who begin well soon drop
their voices to a low monotone and never succeed in break-
ing away from it. An audience will not listen to one whose
voice is so weak that they must strain to catch every word.
Give the material that you have prepared a fair chance
by making it as easy as possible for people to listen. Speak-
ing too loudly is a fault, but it is a fault found in few
beginners. Speak up!
Take Your Time
Don't talk as if you were being paid for your efforts in
accordance with the number of words per minute that you







40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

can utter. Give the audience time to grasp the signifi-
cance of what you say. In reading, if one misses a point,
one can go back and read over the doubtful passage. In
listening to a speaker there is no chance to pick up a point
once missed. See that each idea is understood as you pre-
sent it, and do not be too anxious to hurry on to the next
idea. If your time is near an end and you have much left
to say, leave out some parts entirely and deliver what you
do present effectively. Few beginners need to be advised
to speed up rather than to go slowly. Such slowness is
usually the result of inadequate preparation, and the best
way to remedy it is by more practice in delivering the
speech before attempting it in public.

Avoid Monotony
Next to inaudibility the greatest of sins in a speaker
is monotony. Some variety is essential for a continued
interest in almost any phase of human activity. Even
sports and games lose much of their appeal when the luck
or ability is all on one side and the result always the same.
Monotony may be of two sorts-monotoy of tone and
monotony of pace. The best remedy for both is to acquire
that feeling, so often spoken of in this bulletin, of being
in active communication with your audience. Just as long
as you are trying to talk off into space a certain amount
of previously prepared material, you are likely to be mon-
otonous. As soon as you begin to look at your audience and
to take an interest in their reaction to your words, you are
on the way to a varied and interesting type of delivery.
Another aid in avoiding monotony is to make sure that
you give proper emphasis to your spoken words. To bring
out the meaning of almost any sentence you speak, it is
necessary to emphasize some words more than others. This
emphasis may come from the tone of your voice, the speed
at which you speak, or from a break in your regular pace
of speaking, that is from a pause. Variation in tone alone
may serve to give half a dozen different interpretations to
such a single group of words as "He is going to town." We
illustrate only the three simplest:







RURAL CULTURE


(a) Simple statement-He is going to town.
(b) Determination that he must go-He is going to
town.
(c) Question-He is going to town?
The pace at which you speak should not remain uni-
form throughout your speech. Less important matters
may be passed over comparatively quickly, but you should
go more slowly in sections that are of great importance or
in sections where the material is unusually complex.
The proper use of pauses is a further valuable method
of securing emphasis and of giving variation to your speech.
A pause serves to recall the attention of the audience and
to concentrate it on what immediately follows. A pause
after a striking statement or a question gives the audience
time to consider it before you give your own commentary
or answer. If the statement or question comes at the end
of a section as the climax, a pause should be made before
beginning the next section. Meaningless pauses should be
avoided. The speaker who indulges in them loses his power
to gain emphasis by a pause properly placed. Avoid par-
ticularly the habit of pausing at the end of every three or
four words you utter, quite regardless of the meaning and
grammatical structure of the sentence you are delivering.
Pause, rather, before you begin the sentence till you have
your idea clearly in mind. Then you will be able to make
the pauses come at points where there is a natural pause in
the meaning or structure of the sentence.
Avoid addressing all your remarks to the same section
of the audience. Don't watch that man in the middle back
seat all the time. Look about you and pick out several
of the most interested looking people in different parts of
the audience. As you continue your speech, look now at
one and now at another. By so doing you not only vary
your manner, but you also make people in all parts of the
audience feel that you are talking directly to them.

Avoid Slovenly Speech
Some of us in our ordinary conversation are very care-
less as to the use of proper English. We make mistakes







42 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

in grammar when we really know better, we use common-
place worn-out slang phrases, and we mispronounce or slur
over many of our words. In speaking in public we should
be more careful, since a mistake made from the platform
sounds much worse than one made in private conversation.
The best way to prepare to speak clearly and correctly in
public is to try to do so as much as possible in private.

Avoid "Running Down"

Some speakers who do well with the greater part of
their speeches seem to allow the conclusion to fade out in
feebleness. The effect is somewhat like an alarm clock
that is running down and giving a last few irregular strokes.
You have prepared your speech with the idea that the con-
clusion will be an important part of it. Your delivery must
give emphasis to this material; otherwise it will fall flat.
Avoid acting as if you yourself had grown tired of the
subject or were anxious to get to the end of an ordeal.
Above all, don't leave your place at the middle front of
the platform until you are entirely finished with your
speech. Nothing can give a worse impression than to see
some one gradually talking himself to the edge of the plat-
form and ending his speech just as he steps off.

Gesture and Movement; Good or Bad?

The elaborate system of gestures for which directions
are given in some books on public speaking belongs with the
memorized speech and the oratorical type of delivery. The
aim of this bulletin is to advocate a style of speaking much
more simple, direct, and business-like. In regard to gesture
the personality of the speaker must settle the matter. Some
good speakers use no gestures at all; the majority, per-
haps, use them to a certain extent. A French orator speaks
with his whole body; the Anglo-Saxon is likely to be less
demonstrative. Most speakers will possibly find that after
they become accustomed to speaking in public they are
inclined to develop a few gestures. If such movements are







RURAL CULTURE


easy and natural and are used to emphasize the speaker's
words, they may add to the effectiveness of the speech.
If forced and artificial, or if of such a nature as to attract
attention to themselves, they may hinder rather than help.
The speaker who uses gesture in private conversation
will possibly never do his best on the platform without the
use of gesture. Another type of speaker might do much
better by avoiding it entirely. Each must find out his
own best method of procedure. The extremes of both
types are bad. Avoid standing with such rigidity that you
might be mistaken for a speaking statue: avoid also whirl-
ing your arms about like a windmill.
Movements which do not serve to emphasize the speak-
er's remarks should be avoided. The buttoning and un-
buttoning of one's coat, the thrusting of hands into pock-
ets, the meaningless stroll up and down the platform, the
nervous shifting of weight from one foot to the other-all
tend to distract the attention of the audience. The be-
ginner is apt to indulge in some of these movements with-
out knowledge that he does it. He should have some friend
who will report to him afterwards, on hand to watch for
such errors when he is delivering his speech. By being thus
warned of his defects, he may be able to avoid them in
his next attempt.

Be Grateful for Criticism

A last word on delivery. Both in practice and after de-
livery of your speech try to get the advice and criticism
of some one who knows what good public speaking is.
Purely destructive criticism is discouraging, but the friend
who can point out your faults in a kindly fashion is doing
you a much greater service than the people who tell you
that your speech was splendid and have nothing to say
about it. Without such criticism you will never discover
many faults that are quite obvious to the audience.







44 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

TYPES OF SPEECH ILLUSTRATED


We have chosen the following types for illustration: 1.
Informative speech. II. Narrative or descriptive speech.
III. Speech persuading to action. IV. Speech of introduc-
tion. V. After-dinner speech. Each of these types requires
a particular method of approach, based partly on the ma-
terial and partly on the kind of audience for which it is
prepared.

I. The Informative Speech
The main object here is to give a clear explanation
You may have to show the construction of a piece of ma-
chinery, to give directions as to how some work is to be
done, or even to explain some abstract idea. It is to be
presumed that your audience is anxious to learn something
rather than to be amused, and therefore you should con-
centrate your energy upon getting as clear and logical an
arrangement as possible. Here are some subjects for this
kind of address:

Dramatics for Rural Sections.
Installing a radio set.
Methods (or Advantages) of Tree-Planting.
Labor Savers for the Housewife.
The Importance of Pure-Bred Stock.
Forests and Water Supply.
Woman's Opportunity in Agriculture.

The introduction should contain one or all of the follow-
ing: (a) A definition of the subject; (b) a reference to
its timeliness or importance; (c) an illustration from ac-
tual experience. For example, in beginning a speech on
"Radio" you can refer to its educational value and to the
number of farms now equipped with radio sets; and if you
intend to go into some detail it is a great help to the audi-
ence to state the main divisions of your speech in the in-
troduction.







RURAL CULTURE


II. Narrative or Descriptive Speech
The main object in a speech of this type is to interest
or amuse the audience. Information is given, it is true,
and explanations, but these are of general rather than
practical interest. This is the kind of speech which one
may be called upon to make before a literary society or
reading club. It may be a speech of personal reminiscence,
relating to one's own experiences, or it may take the form
of a sketch of some well-known character in history or
literature, or even the discussion of some book.
Introduction.-The introduction should be quite in-
formal. One may use an amusing story, or a quotation,
or one may turn to profit a remark made by some previous
speaker, if opportunity offers. In the sketch on a char-
acter in literature or history, an effective introduction can
be made by giving in a sentence or two some fact which will
sum up his personality. For example, a talk on Sam Slick
might be prefaced in the following manner:
"Sam Slick-or, to give him his proper name, Judge
Haliburton-has been called 'a statesman in motley.' His
character was a strange mixture of thoughtfulness and
serious purpose on the one hand, and jovial, careless humor
on the other. He had a serious message for his day and
generation, but in order to deliver it he put on the jester's
cap and bells. The sayings of Sam Slick, the shrewd yankee
pedler, are full of mature wisdom. This character which
Haliburton created and which in return made him immortal,
is the ancestor of all village philosophers who have since
taught the world by making it laugh."
In "The Romance of Oil" the following rather striking
contrast may be used:
"Sixty or seventy years ago fuel oil was a waste product.
In 1859, Colonel Drake, while sinking a well for brine, was
hampered by large quantities of petroleum which flooded
his workings. Realizing its possible value he began to put
it into barrels, and in a short time it became the important
product, and gave to the place its name-Oil Creek, Penn-
sylvania. Since then oil has become one of the necessities







46 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

of modern industry. It has, moreover, provided the Eng-
lish language with a new phrase, 'to strike oil,' or, as de-
fined in Webster, to make a lucky hit financially."
There is not any great difference between the introduc-
tion of the second and that of the first type of speech. In
general the narrative or descriptive speech requires an in-
troduction which will put the audience at their ease, where-
as the informative speech requires one that will set them
thinking; but within this general range there are many var-
iations. Each subject has its own problem for the speaker.

Developing the Body of the Speech
The suggestions given under Type I apply in a general
sense to this kind of speech also. There is this difference
in the method of attack, that whereas in the informative
speech clearness and logical order are all-important, in the
second there is another equally vital purpose, namely, the
giving of pleasure. For this reason one should steer clear
of detailed explanations, lists of dates, or figures and sta-
tistics, which are generally dry, particularly to people who
are on pleasure bent. There is a Spanish phrase which
runs: "Mix useful with agreeable." This is not a bad
precept to follow in the preparation of any speech, but it
applies particularly to the kind we are discussing. A bi-
ographical sketch is frequently very dull, consisting of a
lifeless catalogue of dates and facts; on the other hand it
may be made most interesting, if these facts are varied
with personal and human touches, revealing the character
of the man and enabling the audience to recreate him as a
living human being. Here are some headings for the
speech on "Sam Slick."
I. Sam Slick is an international character.
Belongs to all countries-like Don Quixote, Pick-
wick, etc.
Number of editions of book-125 at least.
Fame on the continent, etc.
II. Life of Haliburton.
Early years.







RURAL CULTURE


His failure as a politician-Reasons.
Friendship with Joe Howe and doings of "The
Club."
Last years in England.
III. Appearance and personality.
IV. Quotations from Sam Slick.
V. Why the book has survived.

"The romance of Oil" furnishes an interesting narrative
for a speech. You could first describe the finding of oil,
then mention the various stages of its development, and
finally its importance in modern life. This subject can,
of course, also be treated as an informative speech.

HI. The Speech Persuading to Action
Persuasion seems to be the peculiar province of the
speaker. The salesman interviewing a "prospect," the lec-
turer conducting an agricultural campaign, the member
of parliament addressing his constituents, the lawyer de-
fending his client, the minister exhorting his congregation,
are all speaking in order to persuade to action-or to belief
which will result in action. There are two kinds of per-
suasion: one that calls for direct action; the other that
seeks to convince people of some truth. One cannot al-
ways separate or define these two kinds of persuasion. It
will suffice, however, to have the reader understand that
in this section we are treating of speeches which persuade,
directly or indirectly, to action, whereas in the section on
debating those forms of speech are covered, the aim of
which is chiefly to convince.
One may find plenty of material for study on the edi-
torial pages of the newspapers. The reader is also referred
to the lists of subjects already given, which may be easily
adapted to speeches of persuasion. Thus "The Advantages
of Tree Planting may be made a direct appeal to farmers
to plant trees wherever possible.
We give one or two subjects as illustrations of the third
type:







48 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Why a Young Farmer should go to an Agricultural Col-
lege.
A Community Hall Should Be Built in This Section.
A Speech Recommending the Formation of a Reading
Club.
A Plea for Co-operation among Farmers.
A Nursing Service for County Districts.

Sketching a Plan of Attack

When a man wishes to persuade a number of people to
do something-or to convince them of the necessity of doing
it-he must consider the psychology of his audience and
plan his attack accordingly. In order to move his hear-
ers to action he must appeal to the emotions or desires
which are likely to be strongest in their minds. Such com-
pelling motives are too many and too varied to be even
enumerated here; We can merely take some of the com-
monest motives for illustrations. These are: (1) The de-
sire for financial improvement; (2) the desire for social
improvement; (3) the sense of responsibility; (4) sympathy.
In preparing a speech on this sort of topic, it is a good
plan to ask yourself which of these motives is likely to be
strongest in your audience. Suppose, for the sake of ex-
ample, that you are trying to interest a group of young
farmers in the Agricultural College. If your audience is
composed chiefly of young men you will emphasize the first
two motives, the desire for financial and for social improve-
ment; on the other hand, if your audience has a large pro-
portion of the older men and the fathers of families, the
last two motives will be equally strong.
We will suppose that you are to have an audience com-
posed chiefly of young farmers and that you are going to
concentrate on the first two motives. You now collect as
strong proof as you can, in the shape of facts, figures, the
testimony of others, etc. Your outline will be something
like this:







RURAL CULTURE


A course at the Agricultural College will be profitable
to you in many ways.

(I) It will help you to farm more profitably.
Farming has become a science-new problems, new
methods, new machinery, changed conditions,
etc., etc.
A course at an agricultural college shows one
where to get the latest information and how to
use it.
Illustrations-Testimony of college graduates who
are farming.

(II) It will give you more varied interests in life.
The social activities of a college are a training in
organization, etc.
This training will not only make your own life
more interesting but will benefit the whole com-
munity.
Egs.-Dramatics and literary societies-agricul-
tural clubs, athletics-Y. M. C. A., etc., etc.
(III) It will provide you with another means of liveli-
hood.
Should conditions force you to leave the farm, you
can earn a living and still keep in touch with
agriculture.
Illustrations-Many men who have started in pro-
fessional agriculture and are now farming.
Quote actual cases.
(IV) Education is becoming more and more necessary
for every kind of occupation.
Proof-Refer to the increasing numbers of tech-
nical schools all over the world-the overcrowd-
ing of schools and colleges-the large equip-
ments and grants of money, etc., etc. Quote ed-
ucationists.
"Every calling has become a study in itself."







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


(V) The agricultural college gives you the kind of edu-
cation you need, comparatively cheaply.
Proof-Costs of courses, board, etc.-compare to
other universities.

It will be seen that in this plan the motives which would
have the most direct and practical appeal to the farm boy
are placed in the most effective positions-first and last.
Let us now consider the other topics briefly. The per-
son advocating the building of a community hall should, of
course, be well posted on the costs of the undertaking, up-
keep, running expenses, etc. He should be ready with sug-
gestions as to the ways in which the hall might be useful
and should have, if possible, some plans of suitable build-
ings. All these details constitute his auxiliary forces. His
appeal, however, will be directed to one or other of the
compelling motives. What are they in this case? The de-
sire for social improvement, for one. The sense of respon-
sibility also, of which community spirit is only a special
form. It is for the speaker himself to decide which of
these will be the main, and which the secondary motive.
In advocating the forming of a reading club we shall
appeal to the second motive, the desire for social improve-
ment; but it is quite obvious that the main motive will be
the desire for culture, or intellectual improvement, a very
powerful impulse with many people, and one quite separate
and distinct from the desire for social improvement.
In speaking on Co-operation one first appeals to the
desire for financial gain and secondly to the third motive,
responsibility for the community; whereas in the last, the
whole speech would be based on two motives, responsibility
and sympathy, with the last probably the dominant motive.

IV. The Occasional Speech

By this we mean a speech delivered on some special oc-
casion. Such courses are as varied as the occasions which
call them forth. They may be solemn and impressive, as







RURAL CULTURE


in the dedication of a church or the erection of a monument,
they may be informative, as in a speech introducing some
great man whose work is not known to the general public,
or they may be amusing as in the best after-dinner speeches.
On the whole, however, the purpose of such speeches is
either to impress or to entertain.

We may omit any discussion of speeches of dedication
since only experienced speakers will be called upon to make
them. We shall, however, say something about the speech
of introduction and the after-dinner speech.

Speech of Introduction

It usually falls to the lot of the chairman to introduce
speakers who are taking part in the program. The speech
of introduction is not easy. While it should be brief, the
words which are said must be appropriate to the occasion
and must accomplish their purpose. There are three es-
sentials: First, that the visiting speaker be made to feel
at ease; second, that the audience be told something about
him and his work; third, that they be prepared for the sub-
ject on which he is to speak. We mention these in what
is properly the order of their importance. For the success
of the evening it is absolutely necessary to give the speaker,
particularly if he is not known to the audience, all the en-
couragement that one can. A gloomy or bored chairman
can, with a few well-chosen words, dry up the springs of
inspiration in the most well-intentioned speaker. There-
fore, we place this as the first essential,, that the speech
of introduction contain some simple and genuine expression
of welcome to the speaker. With respect to the second es-
sential, the chairman should be warned in plenty of time,
so that he can find out something about the speaker. If
at all possible, the chairman and the speaker should meet
beforehand and become acquainted. Let us emphasize the
necessity of having the chairman posted on the necessary
details. He must not say much, but what he does say
must create a bond of sympathy and understanding be-







52 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

tween the speaker and audience; otherwise he had bet-
ter say nothing.
We mention a third requisite, namely, that the intro-
ductory speech should prepare the audience for the topic
on which the address is to be given. As a rule it will be
sufficient to state clearly the subject of the speech. The
explanations will be given by the speaker himself. Let us
avoid the mistake of the chairman who laboriously read up
the subjects and in a long introductory address succeeded in
stealing the best of the speaker's "ammunition" and effectu-
ally spoiling his speech. After all, the function of the
chairman is not to display his own knowledge but to enable
others to display theirs.


V. The AfteroDinner Speech

This type of speech is one that presents great difficul-
ties for most people. Even with considerable experience it
is not always easy. An after-dinner speech should be
spontaneous, that is, it should not show too careful prepara-
tion; it should be easy and witty, and yet contain some
point, it should seem to spring naturally out of the mood
of the moment and the occasion. There are some gifted
people who can make a speech answering all these require-
ments, and make it, too with very slight preparation, but
most of us are not so constituted. We require a fairly def-
inite plan of attack and must spend some time beforehand
thinking over what we are going to say. In order to help
people in this situation we give a few suggestions as to the
shape into which an after-dinner speech may be cast:

(1) The opening remarks should be timely and orig-
inal. In beginning, the speaker may refer to the reason
for giving the banquet, or he may tell a story which suits
the occasion. A favorite introduction is a humorous ref-
erence to the speaker's feelings on rising. We quote a
good example of such a reference, made on one occasion
by Lord Justice Bowen:







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"There is one moment in the career of the prophet Dan-
iel which at such times as this I am always inclined to envy.
In the lions' den he had the consolation of knowing that
when the great banquet was over it was not he who would
have to return thanks."
Humorists have made fun of the introductory story,
but, after all, it is the sort of thing that people like to listen
to after a heavy dinner. An appropriate anecdote which
is fairly new breaks the ice more effectually than anything
else.
(2) The speech should contain a point, that is to say, it
should be built around some central idea that is worthy
of reflection. A mere series of unconnected stories becomes
very wearisome. The central thought, however, should not
be too profound; in a word, not such as to impair the di-
gestion of the audience. Moreover, it should on no account
deal with any controversial matter. Mr. Sydney F. Wicks
has laid down the maxim that in an after-dinner speech
"there should never be more than one point, one quotation,
one story." He adds that there should never be less than
one point.
(3) The speech should contain references to experiences
which are common to all. There is nothing which puts an
audience into a better frame of mind than allusions to ex-
periences which they recognize as their own.







54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

HOW TO OUTLINE


There are two systems of outlining in general use, the
brace system and the exponential system.
The brace system is a combination of diagraming and
wording. The exponential system is a system of number-
ing and wording. A single illustration is here presented
using the same subject:

By Diagram


Exegesis of Term: A perennial
Definition woody plant having a single self-
supporting stem or trunk.


Kingdom Vegetable

Oak
Gum
Elm
Species Poplar
Explication Hickory
etc.
STrunk
Limbs
Parts Foliage
Bark
Roots
Fruit
Uses Building
Fuel
Ornament


Tree








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By Exponents. %s Trees
1. Definition: Exegesis of term: A perennial woody plant
having a single self-supporting stem or trunk.
2. Explication:
1. Kingdom: Vegetable
2. Species
1. Oak
2. Gum
3. Elm
4. Poplar
5. Hickory, etc.
3. Parts
1. Trunk
2. Limbs
3. Foliage
4. Bark
5. Roots
4. Uses
1. Fruit
2. Building
3. Fuel
4. Ornament
This outline could be extended indefinitely. Enough is
shown here to compare the two systems of outlining. It is easy
to see that the diagram method has its limitations. When an
outline extends over several pages it falls down and the num-
erical or exponential system can be extended indefinitely.
The main thing to remember is to coordinate subject
matter. Say all you have to say under each heading and
do not mix the superordinate with the subordiate parts of
the theme. Nor should you ever go back to a part of the
discussion after having left it. Logical sequence is the aim
in making an outline. No one can be an effective speaker
or writer unless he observes this principle in the discus-
sion of a subject.
A definition is an explanation of the term used-expli-
cation is the process of explaining or unfolding the theme
to the audience or the reader.








56 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER IV.

PARLIAMENTARY RULES


Motions
The following outline gives the rules of procedure cov-
ering the main points of a parliamentary procedure:
1. A motion to adjourn
1. Undebatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Cannot be reconsidered
5. Simple majority sufficient to determine
8. Must be recorded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
2. A motion to determine time to which to adjourn
1. Undebatable if another question is before the house
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
3. A question of personal privilege
1. Takes precedence of all other questions except mo-
tion to adjourn
2. May not interrupt a call of yeas and nays
3. May be taken up after the previous question has
been ordered. (Page 285 Rule 9 Cong. 1927)
4. May be raised in Committee of the Whole as to
matter occurring in that committee
5. Does not require motion to introduce subject, but
is in a question of general privileges
4. Motion to amend
1. Debatable








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2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended.
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority only necessary
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
5. Motion to amend an amendment
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority all needed
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
6. Motion to amend the rules
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds vote unless special rule to the
contrary has been adopted
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
7. Motion to appeal from Speaker's decision
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. In order at any time though another has the floor
8. Call to order
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority all that is necessary








58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

6. Does not require second
7. In order at any time though another has the floor

9. Motion to close debate
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor

10. Motion to Commit
1. Debatable
2. Opens the main question to debate
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
11. Motion to extend limits of debate
1. Undebatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor

12. Leave to continue after indecorum (contrary to recog-
nized rules of decorum)
1. Undebatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. .Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor








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13. Motion to lay on the table
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. An affirmative vote cannot be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
14. Motion to limit debate
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
15. Objection to consideration of question
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds
6. Does not require a second
7. In order at any time though another has the floor
16. Motion for the order of the day
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Does not require a second
7. In order at any time though another has the floor
17. Motion to postpone
1. To a definite time:
1. Limited debate to propriety of postponement
2. Does not allow reference to main question








60 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rules
3. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
2. Indefinitely:
1. Debatable
2. Open main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
18. Motion for previous question
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Two-thirds required
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
19. Questions touching priority of business
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
20. Question of privilege
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor








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21. Reading papers
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor

22. Motion to reconsider a debatable question
1. Debatable
2. Opens the main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Cannot be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. May be moved and entered on the record when an-
other is on the floor, but the business before the
house may not be put aside. The motion must be
made by one who voted on the prevailing side and
on the same day as the original vote was taken.
23. Motion to reconsider undebatable question
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Cannot be reconsidered
5. Majority sufficient
6. Must be seconded
7. (See 7 above)
24. Motion to refer a question
1. Debatable
2. Opens the main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rule
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor








62 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

25. Motion that Committee do now rise
1. Undebatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Cannot be reconsidered
5. Majority rules
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
26. Question whether subject shall be discussed
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds
6. Does not require second
7. In order even if another has the floor
27. Motion to make subject a special order,
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. May be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
28. To Substitute-in the nature of an amendment
1. Debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Can be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rules
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
29. Motion to suspend rules
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended








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4. Cannot be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds vote
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
30. Motion to take from table
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Affirmative vote cannot be reconsidered
5. Majority rules
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
31. To take up question out of its proper order
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Requires two-thirds vote
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
32. Motion to withdraw motion
1. Not debatable
2. Does not allow reference to main question
3. Cannot be amended
4. Can be reconsidered
5. Majority rules
6. Must be seconded
7. Not in order when another has the floor
33. Question of precedence
1. Fixing the time to which adjournment may be
made; ranks first.
2. To adjourn without limitation; second
3. For order of day; third
4. To lay on table; fourth
5. For previous question; fifth
6. To postpone definitely; sixth
7. To commit; seventh
8. To amend; eighth








64 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

9. To postpone indefinitely; ninth

34. Form in which questions may be put
1. On motion to strike out words: "Shall the words
stand part of the motion," unless a majority sus-
tains the words they are struck out.
2. On motion for the previous question, the form to be
observed is, "Shall the main question be now put?"
This, if carried, ends debate.
3. On an appeal from the Chair's decision: "Shall the
decision be sustained as the ruling of the house?"
The chair is generally sustained.
4. On motion for Orders of the Day: "Will the house
now proceed to the Orders of the Day?" This, if
carried, supercedes intervening motions.
5. When an objection is raised to considering question:
"Shall the question be considered?" Objection may
be made by any member before debate has com-
menced, but not subsequently.
Motion to reconsider, if made in proper form, when an-
other question has the floor, may be "called up by the
mover, when that question is disposed of, in any way, for
the time being; and it then takes precedence of all other
questions, except motions to adjourn, or to fix the time to
which 'this house upon its rising shall adjourn.' "
When the yeas and nays are called for and the house
has ordered the vote to be taken in that way, the question
may be put thus: "As many as are in favor of .. . will
answer aye; those opposed will answer no, when their names
are called."
When in a division it shall appear that a member has
been counted on the side against which he intended to vote,
an amendment may be made by order of the presiding of-
ficer, who shall ask the wrongly voting member "on which
side he intended to give his voice." This can only be done
upon the representation of the member concerned, and his
answer to the question is final in the disposition of his vote,
which will be recorded accordingly.








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A SUGGESTION FOR

CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS


ARTICLE I.-NAME.

Section 1. This association shall be called the Society of

ARTICLE II.-OFFICERS.

Section 2. The officers of the Society shall be: President, two Vice-
Presidents, Secretary, Treasurer, and Critic.
Section 3. The officers of this society shall be elected every six
months. No person shall be eligible for the same office
during two consecutive terms.
Section 4. If a vacancy occurs in any office, the society shall, at the
next meeting elect a person to fill such office.

ARTICLE III.-DUTIES OF OFFICERS

Section 5. The duty of the President shall be to preside at meetings
of the society whenever possible, and to see that the
rules of the society are carried out.
Section 6. The duties of the 1st and 2nd Vice-Presidents shall be to
perform the duties of the President in the absence of
that officer.
Section 7. The duties of the Secretary shall be: To take minutes of
all meetings of the society; to do all correspondence of the
society not otherwise provided for.
Section 8. The duties of the Treasurer shall be to take charge of all
moneys belonging to the society, and to keep account of
all receipts and expenditures in a book kept for that
purpose.
Section 9. The duties of the Critic shall be to be present at all meet-
ings, criticize the speeches made and offer suggestions
for their improvement.

ARTICLE IV.-MEMBERSHIP.

Section 10. Any person resident of the district of may become
an active member of this society, on being proposed, sec-
onded, and duly elected by a majority of the votes cast,
and on payment of the regular membership fee.
Section 11. Any person may become an honorary member of this so-
ciety by election, provided three votes do not appear








66 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

against him. He shall be entitled to all the privileges
of membership, except voting and holding office.
ARTICLE V.-EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Section 12. At the first meeting of his term the President shall ap-
point two persons, who together with himself shall act as
an Executive Committee. Their duty shall be to arrange
programs, and select questions for debate. The Com-
mittee shall have full power to place active members on
the program as it may see fit.

ByLaws
1. The regular meetings shall be held at (place) on (day) of each
second week, at _----.. o'clock.
2. The number of members constituting a quorum shall be ..-----.---
If less than this number are present, the chairman shall adjourn the
meeting without transacting any business.
3. The Order of Business for regular meetings shall be: Reading
of Minutes of Last Meeting; Reports of Committees-new business-
National Anthem.
4. The annual membership fee shall be $_.---- to be paid to the
Treasurer not later than ---- in each year.
5. Any member failing to pay his fee within the specified time
shall forfeit his privileges of membership until the fee be paid.
6. The rules of debate are: ...__---.---.----. etc., etc.
There is really no hard and fast line between constitution
and by-laws. Some societies put everything in the former. As
a general principle, however, it is better to make the con-
stitution cover rules which are not likely to be altered; by-
laws, on the other hand, are less rigid, and include matters
upon which opinion may change.
Different communities should select their best debaters
and meet for battle once a year.







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CHAPTER V.

ORDER OF BUSINESS AND PROCEDURE
FLORIDA STATE SENATE, 1929


The daily order of business shall be as follows:
First: Roll Call.
Second: Prayer by Chaplain.
Third: Reading of the Journal.
Fourth: Correction and approval of the Journal.
Fifth: Reports of Committees.
Sixth: Introduction of resolutions and considera-
tion of Senate Resolutions.
Seventh: Introduction of Bills and Joint Resolu-
tions.
Eighth: Consideration of other Resolutions.
Ninth: Messages from the Governor.
Tenth: Messages from the House of Representa-
tives.
Eleventh: Orders of the day.
Twelfth: Consideration of Bills and Joint Resolu-
tions on third reading.
Thirteenth: Consideration of Bills and Joint Reso-
lutions on second reading.
Fourteenth: Miscellaneous business.
Fifteenth: Petitions and Memorials.


RULES AND PROCEDURE OF THE SENATE
OF FLORIDA
Regular Session of 1929


Rule I. o- Duties of the President
1. The President shall take the chair on every Legisla-
tive day at the hour to which the Senate shall have adjourn-
ed at the last sitting, immediately call the Senate to order







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and on the appearance of a quorum cause the Journal of the
proceedings of the last day's sitting to be read.
2. He shall preserve order and decorum and in case of
disturbance or disorderly conduct in the lobby, may cause
the same to be cleared.
3. He shall have the general control, except as pro-
vided by rule or law, of the Senate Chamber and of the
corridors and passages and of the unappropriated rooms in
that part of the Capitol assigned to the use of the Senate,
until further ordered.
4. He shall sign all addresses, writs, warrants and sub-
poenas of or issued by order of, the Senate; and decide the
questions of order subject to an appeal by any Senator, on
which appeal no Senator shall speak more than once, un-
less by permission of the Senate. He may speak to points
of order in preference to other Senators.
5. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it
sitting; and shall put questions in this form, to-wit: "As
many as are in favor (as the question may be), say I;" and
after the affirmative voice is expressed, "As many as are
opposed, say No;" if he doubts, or if a division is called for,
the Senate shall divide, those in the affirmative of the ques-
tion shall rise first from their seats, and then those in the
negative, and the Secretary shall count the votes; if he still
doubts, or a count required by at least five Senators, he
shall name one from each side of the question to tell the
Senators in the affirmative and negative; which being re-
ported he shall rise and state the decision.
'o. He shall have the right to name any Senator to per-
form the duties of the chair but said substitution shall not
extend beyond an adjournment; provided, however, that in
case of his illness, absence or other inability to discharge
his duties, the President pro tem. shall discharge the duties
in all respects as the President himself might do.

Rule H. Of the Senators
1. Every Senator shall be present within the Chamber
of the Senate during its sittings, unless excused or neces-
sarily prevented; and shall vote on each question put, unless







RURAL CULTURE


he has a direct, personal, or pecuniary interest, in the
event of such question, or is excused from voting by the
Senate. Pairs shall be announced by the Secretary after
the completion of the roll call, from a written statement
sent to the desk by one Senator of the pair announcing how
he and the Senator with whom he is paired would vote
were they both voting.

Rule HI. .% Questions of Privilege
1. Questions of Privilege shall be: First, Those affect-
ing the rights of the Senate collectively, its safety, dignity,
and the integrity of its proceedings; second, the rights,
reputation and conduct of Senators individually, in their
representative capacity only; and shall have precedence of
all other questions, except motions to adjourn.

Rule IV. Committees
1. Unless otherwise specially ordered by the Senate,
the President shall appoint, at the commencement of the
session, the following standing committees, viz:
On Audit and control of Legislative Expenditures, to
consist of seven members.
On Rules and Procedure, to consist of five members.
On Capitol, State Buildings and Grounds to consist of
five members.
On Miscellaneous Legislation, to consist of seven mem-
bers.
On Pensions, to consist of five members.
On Banking, to consist of five members.
On Public Utilities, to consist of five members.
On Military Affairs, to consist of five members.
On Public Printing, to consist of five members.
On Corporations, to consist of five members.
On State Institutions, to consist of five members.
On Mining and Mineral Resources, to consist of five
members.
On County Organizations, to consist of five members.







70 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

On Privileges and Elections, to consist of five members.
On Constitutional Amendments, to consist of five mem-
bers.
On Insurance, to consist of five members.
On Game and Fisheries, to consist of seven members.
On Cities and Towns, to consist of five members.
On Prisons and Convicts, to consist of five members.
On Education, to consist of seven members.
On Temperence, to consist of five members.
On Public Roads and Highways, to consist of seventeen
members.
On Drainage, to consist of five members.
On Commerce and Navigation, to consist of seven mem-
bers.
On Organized Labor, to consist of five members.
On Finance and Taxation, to consist of nine members.
On Claims, to consist of five members.
On Public Health, to consist of five members.
On Engrossed Bills, to consist of seven members.
On Enrolled Bills, to consist of five members.
On Judiciary "A," to consist of nine members.
On Judiciary "B," to consist of nine members.
On Judiciary "C," to consist of nine members.
On Executive Communication, to consist of five mem-
bers.
On Appropriation, to consist of eleven members.
On Agriculture, to consist of seven members.
On Attaches, to consist of three members.
On Forestry, to consist of five members.
On Citrus Fruits, to consist of five members.
On Building and Loan to consist of five members.
2. He shall also appoint all Select and Conference Com-
mittees, which shall be ordered by the Senate from time
to time.
3. The first named member of the committee shall be
the chairman; and in his absence, or being excused by the
Senate, the next named member, and so on, as often as the
case may happen.







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4. No committee, except the Committee on Rules and
Procedure, shall sit during the meeting of the Senate, with-
out special leave.
5. The Committee on Engrossed Bills is authorized to
employ, from time to time, such clerical assistance as may
be required to properly engross and verify bills so en-
grossed.
6. The Committee on Enrolled Bills is authorized to
employ, from time to time, such clerical assistance as may
be required to properly enroll and verify bills so enrolled.
7. All applications to the Senate for clerical assistance
to any committee, except the Committee on Engrossed and
Enrolled Bills, shall be referred to the Committee on At-
taches for investigation, and if approved by said commit-
tee to be reported to the Committee on Audit and Control
of Legislative Expenses.
8. The chairman of any committee which has been au-
thorized to appoint a clerk shall, as soon as the appointment
is made, certify the appointment and the name of the Clerk
with the date of appointment to the Chairman of the Com-
mittee on Audit and Control of Legislative Expenses, and
the compensation of such clerk shall begin on the date that
such certificate is filed with the chairman of the latter com-
mittee. All expenses incurred by any special committee
shall be certified, with the items thereof, under oath, to the
Chairman of the Committee on Audit and Control of Legis-
lative Expenses, who shall keep on file all certificates made
to him under this rule.
9. All employees and attaches of the Senate shall re-
main in attendance at all times while the body is in session
and, when not in session shall observe the same hours of
employment as regular capitol employees.

Rule V. s Introduction of Bills and
Joint Resolutions
1. Every bill, memorial and resolution shall be sent, en-
dorsed with the name of the Senator introducing it, to the
Secretary to be, by the President referred and the title and







72 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

reference thereof shall be entered on the Journal. Every
bill and joint resolution to be presented fairly written with-
out any erasure or interlineation or the President may re-
fuse it, and the title shall also be placed on the outside
cover under the number of the bill or joint resolution. All
bills, local or general, shall be introduced in triplicate (the
original and two copies) and the bill clerk shall keep a file
for original bills and a separate file for duplicate bills.
The triplicate copy of every bill shall be delivered to the
Sergeant-at-Arms, who shall keep the same in a file in his
office for the use and benefit of the Press and the Public.
No original bill nor duplicate bill shall be allowed to be
taken from the Clerk's file by anyone other than by a Sen-
ator or by the proper committee to whom the bill has been
referred, and in either event the bill clerk shall take the
receipt of the Senator or of the committee to whom any
original bill is given. Each original bill introduced shall
be accompanied by two copies of the title.
2. When a bill, resolution or memorial is introduced "by
request" these words shall be entered upon the Journal.

Rule VI. o Calendars and Reports
of Committees
1. There shall be three calendars of business.
(a) A general calendar on which shall be placed all bills
and joint resolutions of a general nature, which shall be
taken upon their various readings only in regular order,
unless otherwise provided by the Committee on Rules and
Procedure from time to time by reports, and approved by
the Senate, or by the Senate on its own motion.
(b) A special calendar on which shall be placed all bills
and joint resolutions of a local nature, which bills and joint
resolutions shall be taken up on their various readings only
in regular order, at such time as may be from time to time
designated by the Committee on Rules and Procedure and
approved by the Senate.
(c) A calendar to be known as House Calendar, which
Calendar shall commence at such time as may be designated







RURAL CULTURE


by the Committee on Rules and Procedure with the ap-
proval of the Senate, after the establishment of which all
House bills and House joint resolutions certified by the
House shall be placed thereon and shall be considered at
such times as shall be designated by the Committee on
Rules and Procedure and approved by the Senate, or by
the Senate on its own motion.
2. All reports of committees on bills and joint resolu-
tions shall be delivered to the Secretary for reference to
the proper Calendar under the direction of the President
in accordance with the foregoing clause, and the titles or
subjects thereof shall be entered on the Journal and printed
in the record, together with the fact that the same was
reported favorably or unfavorably as the case may be.
3. That bills and joint resolutions reported adversely
shall be laid on the table, unless the committee reporting a
bill or resolution at the time, or any Senator at any time
thereafter shall request its reference to the Calendar, when
it shall be referred, as provided in Clause One of this Rule,
and when such bill or resolution is reached on the second
reading it shall be the duty of the chairman of such com-
mittee to move the indefinite postponement of the Bill or
Joint Resolution, and in such case the entry in the Journal
shall be Mr. .-........--...---.... ---- .....-------. ...., Chairman of
the Committee on ......................--- -----.......-- .... as re-
quired by the Rules moved that -......................---.... Bill
Number --.....-...........-....... be indefinitely postponed.
4. The chairman of each committee shall notify, in
writing, immediately the introducer of each bill or joint
resolution of any unfavorable report thereon by his com-
mittee.
5. Every bill and resolution referred to a committee
shall be reported back to the Senate within five days from
the day of its commitment, unless otherwise ordered by
the Senate. Provided, the Senate may recall a bill or joint
resolution from a committee at any time and have same
placed on the Senate Calendar.
6. Every committee reporting on a bill or joint resolu-
tion shall report in duplicate.







74 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

7. Presentation of reports of committees of conference
shall always be in order, except when the Journal is being
read, while the roll is being called, or the Senate is dividing
on any proposition; and there shall accompany every such
report a detailed statement sufficiently explicit to inform
the Senate of the effect of such amendments or proposi-
tions will have upon the measure to which they relate.

Rule VI. % Decorum and Debate
1. When any Senator desires to speak or deliver any
matter to the Senate, he shall rise at his desk and respect-
fully address himself to "Mr. President" and, on being
recognized, may address the Senate from any place on the
floor, and shall confine himself to the question under de-
bate, avoiding personalities.
2. When two or more members rise at once, the Pres-
ident shall name the Senator who is first to speak.
3. If any Senator, in speaking or otherwise transgress
the rules of the Senate, the President shall, or any Senator
may, call him to order; in which case he shall immediately
sit down, unless permitted, on motion of another Senator,
to explain, and the Senate shall, if appealed to, decide on
the case without debate; if the decision is in favor of the
Senator called to order, he shall be at liberty to proceed,
but not otherwise; and if the case require it, he shall be
liable to censure or such punishment as the Senate may
deem proper.
4. No Senator shall speak more than once on one ques-
tion, to the prevention of any other who has not spoken and
is desirous to speak, nor more than twice without obtaining
leave of the Senate; nor for any longer period of time than
thirty minutes, without yielding the floor, except on ex-
pressed permission of the Senate.
5. While the President is putting a question no mem-
ber shall walk out across the hall, nor, when a Senator is
speaking, pass between him and the Chair; and during the
session of the Senate no Senator shall wear his hat, or re-
main by the Clerk's desk during the calling of the roll or







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the counting of the ballots, or smoke upon the floor of the
Senate; and the Sergeant-at-Arms is charged with the strict
enforcement of this clause.
6. No Senator speaking shall be interrupted by another
but by rising to call order, or a question of privilege.
7. After a question is put to vote no Senator shall speak
to it.

Rule VIII. % On the Calls of the Roll
of the Senate
1. Upon every roll call the names of the Senators shall
be called alphabetically by surname, except where two or
more have the same surname, in which case the number of
the Senatorial District shall be added. The President's
name shall be called at the end of the roll call.
2. In all calls of the Senate the doors shall be closed, the
names of the Senators shall be called by the Secretary, and
the absentees noted, and those for whom no sufficient ex-
cuse is made, may, by order of a majority of those present,
be sent for and arrested, wherever they may be found, by
officers to be appointed by the President for that purpose,
and their attendance secured and retained; and the Senate
shall determine upon what condition they shall be dis-
charged.
3. On the demand of any Senator, or at the suggestion
of the President, the names of Senators sufficient to make
a quorum in the hall of the Senate but do not vote shall be
noted by the Secretary and recorded in the Journal, and
reported to the President with the names of the Senators
voting, and be counted and announced in determining the
presence of a quorum to do business.

Rule IX. On Motions, Their Precedence, Etc.
1. Every motion made to the Senate and entertained
by the President shall be reduced to writing on the demand
of any member, and shall be entered on the Journal with
the name of the Senator making it unless it is withdrawn
the same day.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


2. When a motion has been made, the President shall
state it, or (if it be in writing) cause it to be read aloud by
the Secretary before being debated, and it shall then be in
possession of the Senate, and may be withdrawn at any
time before a decision or amendment.
3. When any motion or proposition is made, the ques-
tion "Will the Senate Now Consider it?" shall not be put
unless demanded by a member.
4. When a question is pending no motion shall be re-
ceived but
(a) To adjourn
(b) To suspend the rules.
(c) To adjourn to a time certain.
(d) To take a recess.
(e) To proceed to the consideration of the Executive
business.
(f) To lay on the table.
(g) To postpone to a certain day.
(h) To commit.
(i) To amend or to substitute.
(j ) To postpone indefinitely.
Which several motions shall have precedence as they
stand arranged; and the motions relative to adjournment,
to take a recess, to proceed to the consideration of Execu-
tive business, to lay on the table, shall be decided without
debate; provided, however, that the introducer of the res-
olution, bill or motion, shall be allowed to speak for five
minutes, when he desires to discuss the same, or he may
divide his time with or may waive his right in favor of some
Senator, before a motion to lay on the table shall be put.
5. When a substitute is offered and taken up for con-
sideration it shall be subject to amendment in the same
manner as the original proposition; and the effect of re-
jection of the substitute as amended, shall be to reinstate
the original for consideration. If a secondary matter be
laid on the table, it shall not operate to carry the original
matter with it.







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6. The hour at which the Senate adjourns shall be en-
tered on the Journal.
7. On the demand of any Senator, before the question
is put, the question shall be divided if it include proposi-
tions so distinct in substance that one being taken away,
a substantive proposition shall remain.
8. Pending a motion to suspend the rules, the Presi-
dent may entertain one motion that the Senate adjourn,
but after the result thereon is announced he shall not en-
tertain any other dilatory motion until the vote is taken
on suspension. A motion to suspend the rules shall be de-
cided without debate; Provided, however, that the mover
shall be allowed to speak for one minute on explaining the
reason for said motion.

Rule X. %. Reconsideration
1. When a question has been decided by the Senate,
any Senator voting with the prevailing side may, on the
same day or on the next day of the session thereafter,
move a reconsideration thereof, and such motion (except
during the last seven calendar days of the session), shall
be placed first in the order of the day for the day succeed-
ing that on which the motion was made, and if the Senate
shall refuse to consider, or upon reconsideration shall con-
firm its first decision, no further motion to reconsider shall
be in order, unless by unanimous consent.

Rule XI. % On Amendments
1. When a motion or proposition is under considera-
tion a motion to amend and a motion to amend that amend-
ment shall be in order, and it shall also be in order to
offer a further amendment by way of substitute to which
one amendment may be offered, but which shall not be
voted on until the original matter is perfected, but either
may be withdrawn before amendment or decision is had
thereon.
2. A motion to strike out the enacting clause of a bill
shall have precedence of a motion to amend, and, if car-
ried, shall be considered equivalent to its rejection.







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


3. No bill or joint resolution shall be amended except on
second reading, or by unanimous consent.
4. A motion to strike out and insert is indivisable,
but a motion to strike out being lost shall neither pre-
clude amendment nor motion to strike out and insert;
and no motion or proposition on a subject different from
that under consideration shall be admitted under color of
amendment.

Rule XH. %. Order of Business and Procedure
1. The daily order of business shall be as follows:
First: Roll Call.
Second: Prayer by Chaplain.
Third: Reading of Journal.
Fourth: Correction and approval of the Journal.
Fifth: Reports of Committees.
Sixth: Introduction of resolutions and consideration
of Senate resolutions.
Seventh: Introduction of bills and joint resolutions.
Eighth: Consideration of other resolutions.
Ninth: Message from the Governor.
Tenth: Messages from the House of Representatives.
Eleventh: Orders of the day.
Twelfth: Consideration of bills and joint resolutions
on third reading.
Thirteenth: Consideration of bills and joint resolu-
tions on second reading.
Fourteenth: Miscellaneous business.
Fifteenth: Petitions and memorials.
2. Business on the President's table shall be disposed
of as follows:
Messages from the Governor shall be referred to the
appropriate committee without debate. Reports and com-
munications from the heads of departments, and other com-
munications addressed to the Senate, and bills, resolutions
and messages from the House may be referred to the ap-
propriate committee in the same manner and with the same
right of correction as bills presented by Senators; but Sen-







RURAL CULTURE


ate bills with House Amendments may be at once disposed
of as the Senate may determine; and House bills and House
joint resolutions substantially the same as Senate bills and
Senate joint resolutions favorably reported by a committee
of the Senate may be substituted for such Senate bill or
joint resolution on motion of any Senator.
3. The unfinished business in which the Senate was en-
gaged at the time of the last adjournment shall have the
preference in the orders of the day after motions to re-
consider have been disposed of.
4. No bill or joint resolution shall be introduced by a
member without special leave, except under the regular
order of business, and all bills and joint resolutions when
so introduced shall be committed before they are passed
to second reading.
5. Any bill or resolution shall be read in full at the re-
quest of any Senator, unless objections be made, when the
question shall be determined by the Senate without debate.
6. No bill or joint resolution shall pass to be engrossed
without two several readings on two separate days.
7. All bills and joint resolutions after a second reading
shall be committed to the Standing Committee on En-
grossed Bills, whose duty it shall be to strictly examine
the same, and if found by them to be correctly engrossed,
they shall so endorse on the same; Provided, That any bill
or joint resolution which has passed second reading with-
out amendment shall be placed on the Calendar of Bills
on third reading without reference to said committee, un-
less the Senate shall order otherwise; and such bill or joint
resolution shall be considered as engrossed.
8. No engrossed bills or joint resolutions shall be
amended without the unanimous consent of the members
present, and when so amended shall be re-engrossed unless
it is otherwise ordered by the Senate, and shall not lose its
place on the calendar.
9. All resolutions requiring the concurrence of the
House of Representatives shall be read to the Senate and lie







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


over one day before final action thereon, unless otherwise
ordered by the Senate.
10. All orders or resolutions requiring information
from the Governor, Cabinet Officers, or action of Commit-
tee shall be read to the Senate and acted upon as in case of
motions, and shall be spread upon the Journals of the
Senate.
11. Messages shall be sent to the House of Representa-
tives by the Secretary, who shall previously endorse the
final determination of the Senate thereon.
12. Whenever the Senator who introduced any bill or
resolution is absent from the chamber when such bill or
resolution is reached in its regular order on any of its
readings, such bill or resolution shall be temporarily passed
until the return of said Senator, when he shall have the
privilege of calling up said bill or resolution out of its
regular order on the calendar.

Rule XIH. s Change or Suspension of Rules
1. No rule shall be changed or suspended except by a
vote of two-thirds of the members voting, a quorum being
present.

Rule XIV. s% Of Admission to the Floor
1. No person not a member of the Senate shall be ad-
mitted inside of the bar of the Senate while the Senate is in
session except the Senators, Governor, his Cabinet officers,
ex-Governors, U. S. Senators, Members of the House of
Representatives of the United States and of this State, and
Judges of the Supreme Court, Circuit Court and Federal
Courts of Florida.
The President of the Senate, upon the written suggestion
of any member of the Senate, may invite any person to
the floor of the Senate, but not within the Bar of the
Senate, and the person so invited shall be admitted to his
seat in the place provided for such persons only by pre-
senting a card to the Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate, which







RURAL CULTURE


card shall be signed by the President of the Senate and
shall be in substantially the following language:
Senate Chamber of Florida
Courtesy Card
This entitles ......----.....................-- --.. ................... to the
courtesies of the Senate Chamber floor, but not within the
bar, until revoked.
........................................, President
If any member of the Senate shall object to the courtesy
of the floor being so extended, a vote of the Senate shall be
necessary but no record of such vote shall be made in the
Journal.
2. That the President shall admit to the floor, under
such regulations as he may prescribe, stenographers and
reporters wishing to take down the debates and proceedings
unless otherwise ordered by the Senate.
3. The provisions of this rule shall not be subject to
waiver except under unanimous consent.

Rule XV. ; Pay of Witnesses
The rules of paying witnesses subpoenaed to appear be-
fore the Senate or either of its committees shall be as fol-
lows: For each day a witness shall attend, the sum of
Three Dollars and Fifty Cents; for each mile he shall
travel in coming to and going from the place of examina-
tion the sum of five cents each way, but nothing shall be
paid for travel when the witness has been summoned at the
place of trial.
Rule XVI. Messages
Messages received from the House and the Governor
giving notice of Bills passed or approved, shall be entered
in the Journal of the Day's proceedings.
Rule XVII.
No bill, order, resolution, or other matter for the use of
the Senate, shall be printed without special order of the
Senate.







82 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Rule XVIII.
The Senate shall meet daily except Sundays. The hour
for convening for the morning session shall be 11:00 A. M.,
and the hour for adjournment for said morning session
shall be 1 P. M. When the Senate shall determine to hold
morning and afternoon sessions, the hour for convening
for the afternoon session shall be 4:00 P. M., and the hour
for adjournment shall be 3:30 P. M.

Rule XIX.
The Secretary of the Senate and the Sergeant-at-Arms
shall be under the supervision of the President of the
Senate.
The Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms, doorkeeper, janitor,
and pages shall be under the supervision of the Sergeant-
at-Arms.
The Enrolling Secretary and all clerical assistants em-
ployed in the enrolling and verifying of enrolled bills shall
be under the supervision of the chairman of the Committee
on Enrolled Bills.
The Engrossing Secretary and all clerical assistants em-
ployed in the engrossing and verifying of engrossed bills
shall be under the supervision of the chairman of the Com-
mittee on Engrossed Bills.
The stenographers and all other attaches, except as oth-
erwise provided by the Senate, shall be under the super-
vision of the chairman of the Committee on Attaches.

Rule XX. : Jefferson's Manual
The rules of parliamentary practice comprised in Jeffer-
son's Manual shall govern the Senate in all cases to which
they are applicable, and in which they are not inconsistent
with the Standing Rules and Orders of the Senate, or the
Joint Rules of the Senate and House of Representatives.
Rule XXI. %, Of the Journal
It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary of the
Senate to bind together one copy of the Journals of each







RURAL CULTURE


day, after they shall have been approved by the Senate, and
prepare an index upon forms to be furnished by the At-
torney General's office, and said Journal shall be the
official one of the Senate; that such index shall be plainly
written or typed, and the Recording Secretary shall have
twelve days after the Senate adjourns for completing the
index.

Rule XXII.
There shall be a Sergeant-at-Arms and one Assistant
Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate and it shall be the duty
of said officers to attend the Senate during its sittings, to
maintain order under the direction of the President or other
presiding officer in the Chair; to execute the commands
of the President of the Senate and of the Senate, and all
processes issued by authority thereof, directed to him; to
have charge of all property of the Senate and to disburse
the expendible materials of the Senate to members of the
Senate for their official use; to cause to be printed daily
sufficient number of journals and calendars of the Senate
to supply the demands of the Senate and its members and
to comply with any order or resolution of the Senate; to
have charge of the Pages of the Senate and of the Door-
keeper and Janitor of the Senate; to have general charge
of the gallery of the Senate provided for the public and
maintain order therein; to provide drinking water for the
comfort of the members of the Senate and ice for the same
when necessary; to make requisition on the State Print-
ery for all materials in the form of blanks and printed
stationery which may be required by the Senate and
distribute the same on request of the members; to pur-
chase for the use of the Senate, unless otherwise ordered,
all articles which shall be ordered by the Senate to be pro-
vided for the use of the Senate which are to be purchased,
and rent or otherwise secure any articles which are to be
rented or provided and so ordered by the Senate and to
perform any special duty which may be required by order
or resolution of the Senate, or the President of the Senate
in the exercise of his lawful authority.







84 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Rules Governing Executive Session
Rule 1. Where nominations shall be made by the Gov-
ernor to the Senate, they shall, unless otherwise ordered by
the Senate, lie over for action until the day succeeding the
day upon which they were made; and the final question on
every nomination shall be: "Will the Senate advise and
consent to this nomination?" Which question shall not be
put on the day on which the nomination is received.
Rule 2. Nominations neither approved nor rejected
during the session at which they are made, shall not be
acted upon at any succeeding session without again being
made by the Governor; and if the Senate shall adjourn sine
die, all nominations pending and not finally acted upon at
the time of taking such adjournment, shall be returned to
the Governor and shall not be acted upon afterwards, unless
again submitted to the Senate by the Governor, and all
motions pending to reconsider a vote upon nomination shall
fail on such adjournment.
Rule 3. All information or remarks concerning the
character or qualifications, or the vote upon the confirma-
tion of any person nominated by the Governor to office,
shall be kept a secret; but the fact that a nomination has
been made shall not be regarded as a secret after time has
expired when a motion to reconsider may be made, and it
shall be considered a breech of privilege for any Senator
to break this rule.
Rule 4. When acting on executive business the Cham-
ber shall be cleared of all persons except the Secretary of
the Senate, who shall be sworn to keep the secrets of the
Senate.
Rule 5. The legislative proceedings and executive pro-
ceedings of the Senate shall be kept in separate books.
Rule 6. Nominations approved or definitely acted upon
by the Senate shall not be returned by the Secretary of the
Senate to the Governor until the expiration of the time
limited for making a motion to reconsider the same, or
while a motion to reconsider is pending, unless otherwise
ordered by the Senate.







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Rule 7. No transcript of the executive records shall be
furnished unless by special order of the Senate.
Rule 8. All confidential communications made by the
Governor shall be by the members and officers of the
Senate kept secret.
Rule 9. Communications from the Governor as to the
suspension or removal of officers shall be considered in
executive session, and, unless otherwise ordered, shall lie
over for action to the executive session next succeeding
that at which they are laid before the Senate.
Rule 10. Violation of the above rules as to the secrecy
of the proceedings of executive sessions shall be considered
by the Senate as sufficient grounds for the unseating of
the offending Senator.
The final question on every suspension or removal of
officers shall be, "Will the Senate consent to the suspension
and removal of said officer?" or, "Will the Senate, upon
the recommendation of the Governor, remove said officer?"
as the case may require.

Joint Rules
Rule 1. While bills and joint resolutions are on their
passage between the two houses they shall be on paper
and under the signature of the Secretary or Clerk of each
House respectively.
Rule 2. After a bill or joint resolution shall have passed
both houses it shall be duly enrolled as provided by Chap-
ter 7346, Acts of 1917, by the Enrolling Clerk of the House
of Representatives or Enrolling Secretary of the Senate,
as the bill may have originated in the one or the other
House, before it shall be presented to the Governor of the
State or filed with the Secretary of State.
Rule 3. When a bill or joint resolution is enrolled it
shall be examined by the Standing Committees of the Sen-
ate and the House of Representatives on Enrolled Bills,
acting conjointly, who shall carefully compare the enroll-
ment with the engrossed bill or joint resolution as passed
by the two Houses, and correcting any errors that may be







86 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

discovered in the enrolled bill or joint resolution, make
their report forthwith to their respective Houses.
Rule 4. After examination and report, each bill and
joint resolution shall be submitted to the introducer for his
inspection, upon his request, and thereafter shall be signed
in the respective Houses, first by the Speaker of the House
of Representatives, and the Clerk thereof, then by the
President of the Senate and Secretary thereof.
Rule 5. That the Committee of the Senate on Enrolled
Bills and the Committee of the House on Enrolled Bills
shall constitute a Joint Committee on Enrolled Bills.
Rule 6. After a bill shall have been thus signed in each
House, it shall be presented by the said Committee to the
Governor of the State for his approval, it being first en-
dorsed on the back thereof certifying in which House the
same originated which endorsement shall be signed by the
Secretary or Clerk as the case may be of the House in
which it did originate entered on the Journal of each
House. The same committee shall report the day of pre-
sentation to the Governor, which time shall also be carefully
entered on the Journal of each House.
Rule 7. All orders, resolutions and votes which are to
be presented to the Governor of the State for his approval
shall also in the same manner be previously enrolled, ex-
amined and signed, and shall be presented in the same
manner and by the same committee as provided in cases of
bills.
Rule 8. Before being put upon its passage, every resolu-
tion in either house, to which the concurrence of the other
may be necessary (except a question of adjournment) shall
receive two readings, which (unless two-thirds of the mem-
bers present decide otherwise) shall be upon two different
days; and the Clerk upon proceeding thereto shall an-
nounce whether the same be the first or second of such
readings; and all such resolutions upon their passage shall
be certified, of course, and without the necessity of any
motion or vote to that effect by the Clerk or Secretary re-








RURAL CULTURE 87

spectively of the House so passing said resolution to the
other.
Rule 9. Joint Resolutions shall, prior to their passage,
receive three readings, which (unless two-thirds of the
members present shall decide otherwise) shall be upon three
different days; and the Clerk upon proceeding thereto,
shall announce whether the same be the first, second or
third reading; and upon their passage, such resolutions
shall be certified by the House so passing the same to the
other in like manner to that prescribed in joint rule num-
ber eight for concurrent resolutions.








88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

CHAPTER VI.

STAGES OF A BILL BEFORE THE HOUSE
OF CONGRESS
From Rules of the House of Congress, 1927
1. Introduction: By a Member by laying the bill on
the Clerk's table informally. A member sometimes intro-
duces a petition only, leaving to the committee the drawing
of a bill, such a petition referred to a committee having
jurisdiction of the subject giving authority to report a bill.
Sometimes communications addressed to the House from
the executive departments or from other sources are re-
ferred to committees by the Speaker and give authority
for the committees to originate bills. Messages from the
President also are referred by the Speaker or the House
and give jurisdiction to the committee receiving them to
originate bills.
2. Reference to a standing or Select committee: Pub-
lic bills are referred under direction of the Speaker; private
bills are indorsed with the names of the committees to
which they go under the rule by the Members introducing
them. Senate bills are referred under direction of the
Speaker. A bill is numbered and printed when referred.
3. Reported from the committee: Committees hav-
ing leave to report at any time make their reports from
the floor; other committees make their reports by laying
them on the Clerk's table informally. The bill and the
report are printed when reported.
4. Placed on the Calendar: Occasionally a privileged
bill is considered when reported; but usually it is placed
with the unprivileged bills on the Calendar where it be-
longs under the rule by direction of the Speaker.
5. Consideration in Committee of the Whole: Public
bills which do not raise revenue or make or authorize ap-
propriations of money or property do not go through this
stage. All other bills are considered in Committee of the
Whole. The stages of consideration in Committee of the








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Whole are: General debate; reading for amendment under
the five-minute rule; order to lay aside with a favorable
recommendation, or to rise and report; reporting of to the
House.
6. Reading a second time in the House: Bills not re-
quiring consideration in Committee of the Whole are read
a second time in full, after which they are open to debate
and amendment in any part. Bills considered in Commit-
tee of the Whole are read a second time in full in that com-
mittee and when reported out, with or without amend-
ments, are not read in full again, but are subject to further
debate or amendment in the House, unless the previous
question is ordered at once.
7. Engrossment and third reading: The question on
House bills is taken on ordering the engrossment and third
reading at one vote. If decided in the affirmative, the
reading a third time usually takes place at once, by title.
But any Member may demand the reading in full of the
engrossed copy, in which case the bill is laid aside until it
can be engrossed. Senate bills come to the House in en-
grossed form, and the question is put on third reading
alone. When the question on engrossment and third read-
ing of a House bill or third reading of a Senate bill is de-
cided in the negative, the bill is lost as much as if defeated
on the final passage. The question on engrossment and
third reading is not made from the floor, but is put by the
Speaker as a matter of course.
8. Passage: The question on the passage of a bill is
put by the Speaker as a matter of course, without awaiting
a motion from the floor.
9. Transmission to the Senate by Message.
10. Consideration by the Senate: In the Senate, House
bills are usually referred to committees for consideration
and report, after which they have their several readings,
with opportunities for debate and amendment. The same
procedure takes place in the House as to bills sent from the
Senate.








90 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

11. Return of, from the Senate without amendment:
If the Senate passes a House bill without amendment it
returns it to the House, where it is at once enrolled on
parchment for signature. A bill thus passed without
amendment goes into possession of the Clerk, and is not
laid before the House prior to enrollment. If the Senate
rejects a House bill the House is informed. Similar pro-
cedure occurs when the House passes a Senate bill with-
out amendment.
12. Return of, from the Senate with amendments: House
bills returned with Senate amendments go to the Speaker's
table. If any Senate amendment requires consideration
in Committee of the Whole the bill is referred by the Speak-
er informally to the standing committee having jurisdic-
tion, and when that committee reports the bill with recom-
mendations it is referred to Committee of the Whole House
on the state of the Union, to be there considered and re-
ported to the House itself. When no Senate amendment
requires consideration in Committee of the Whole the bills
come before the House directly from the Speaker's table.
13. Consideration of Senate amendments by the House:
When a bill with Senate amendments comes before the
House, the House takes up each amendment by itself, and
may vote to agree to it, agree to it with an amendment, or
disagree to it. If it disagrees it may ask a conference
with the Senate or may send notice of its disagreement,
leaving it to the Senate to recede or insist and ask the
conference.
14. Settlement of difference by conference: When dis-
agreements are referred to conference, the managers em-
body their settlement in a report, which is acted on by each
House as a whole. When this report is agreed to the bill
is finally passed, and is at once enrolled for signature.
15. Enrolled on parchment: The House in which a bill
originates enrolls it.
16. Examination by the Committee on Enrolled Bills:
While the Committee on Enrolled Bills is described as a








RURAL CULTURE


joint committee, each branch acts independently. The
chairman of each branch affixes to the bills examined a
certificate that the bill has been found truly enrolled.

17. Signing by the Speaker and President of the Senate:
The enrolled bill is first laid before the House of Repre-
sentatives and signed by the Speaker, whether it be a House
or Senate bill, after which it is transmitted to the Senate
and signed by the president of that body.
18. Transmittal to the President of the United States:
The Chairman of the Committee on Enrolled Bills for each
House carries the bills from his House to the President. In
the House of Representatives a report of the bills taken
to the President each day is made to the House and en-
tered on its Journal.
19. Approval by the President: If the President ap-
proves he does so with his signature.
20. Disapproval by the President: When the President
disapproves a bill he returns it to the House in which it
originated, with a message stating that he disapproves,
and giving his reasons therefore.
21. Action on, when returned disapproved: The House
to which a disapproved bill is returned has the message
read and spread on its Journal. It may then consider at
once the question of passing the bill notwithstanding the
President's objections, or may postpone to a day certain,
or refer to a committee for examination. The vote on
passing the bill, notwithstanding the President's objections,
must be carried by two-thirds. If the bill fails to pass in
the house to which it is returned it remains there; but if
it passes it is sent to the other House for action.
22. Filing with the Secretary of State: When approved
by the President a bill is deposited in the office of the Sec-
retary of State; and when the two Houses have passed a
bill, notwithstanding the President's objections, the pre-
siding officer of the House which acts on it last transmits
it to the Secretary of State.








DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


ROUTING A BILL THROUGH CONGRESS
By FRED E. KUNKEL
in "The Office Economist"


The Legislative Course from the Congressman's
Desk to the White House Signature
The business of legislation is a highly specialized bus-
iness. Many hundreds of typists, stenographers, office
boys, and highly paid executives are involved in this daily
grind of bill-making while Congress is in session. Hun-
dreds of filing cabinets are used to file away correspond-
ence memos, and whatnots concerning the origin and final
passage of a bill in Congress. Examining this vast bus-
iness machine which turns out bills and more bills, we find
a smoothly oiled routine and withal a gigantic battle of
wits, executive grandeur and oratorical sovereignty.
Just how does a bill originate in Congress?
Well, any member of Congress has the right to intro-
duce any kind of a bill he wants to, but if it is without
merit it won't travel very far along the route before it is
pigeon-holed. If the bill has merit it generally gets a
show, but in its peregrination it may get hung up any-
where enroute and it frequently does. Every bill of any
importance is referred to a Committee, of which there are
20 in the Senate and 45 in the House. A bill is either
private or public-private if it relates to an individual, and
public if general in its nature.
A lot of bills, while referred to Committees are never
reported out, many of them being killed at Committee
hearings. The public at large is a powerful curb on any
and all legislation and business interests generally find
many ways of killing a bill that they think is going to
injuriously affect business.
The first chance to kill odious or unwise legislation is in
the committee rooms at the hearings and by the well-
known lobbyist who hobnobs with Senators and Congress-








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men and plants his seeds of distrust into listening ears.
The next chance to kill the bill is on the floor of the House
or Senate through a party leader or some notable orator of
the day, and then if it passes in the House, there is always
a chance to kill it in the same way in the Senate, and vice
versa. And finally if all these means fail, there is still the
President's veto power. So that under this plan of checks
and balances, there is very little chance of getting any-
thing through the Congressional mill which is not wanted
by the people of the United States in Congress assembled
through the electoral vote, and last, but not least, putting
a bill through Congress against this public opinion is usu-
ally reflected in the next elections.
Just where is a bill born and what happens to it in its
swaddling clothes?
Well, it first gets official notice when it is dropped by
the secretary of some Senator or Congressman into the
official reception basket which is to be found on the Speak-
er's desk of the House, or on that of the President of the
Senate, from where it is sent to the Bill Clerk, via the office
boy or page, where it is given a serial number (H. R. 1716
or S. 1612), after it is first carefully scanned to see that
it is according to Mr. Hoyle or recognized parliamentary
procedure as prescribed in the rules and regulations of both
Houses of Congress.
After it is given a reference number of the Bill Clerk
and is thoroughly indexed it goes over to the Government
Printing Office where it is printed in the number of copies
desired. The bills are all thoroughly indexed alphabetically
and by number for quick reference in case any one should
call up about it, and a host of calls come in every hour
of the day about this bill and that and one man keeps busy
answering questions, for it is his job to know all about
each bill and he keeps tab on whatever it is.
After the bill is printed and comes back to the Bill
Clerk's office, it is then referred to the Committee where
the Senate or House had directed it be sent at the time
the bill was read. Each bill is briefed and appears in the








96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

crossed out, and a star shows where the amendment stops.
It generally takes a clever lawyer to figure this all out, but
it has been known to be done by experts at cross word
puzzles with somewhat less mental effort.
If the bill passes both Houses it is then signed by the
Clerk of the Senate, from where it goes to the Speaker of
the House, who signs it, and from thence it goes to the
President through the Committee on Enrolled Bills.
If Congress adjourns and the President does not sign
a bill it has the same effect as a veto and is called the
"pocket veto," a matter about which there has been much
dispute lately. If Congress is in session, the President
must either sign or veto it. If he does neither it becomes
a law within the time limit. He has ten days exclusive
of Sunday and holidays in which to sign the bill. The
time runs from the day the President receives the bill,
which is included in the ten-day interval. Usually on the
last day of the session of Congress the President drops
over to the Capitol to his private office and remains in the
Presidential Room until Congress adjourns, and he there
receives and signs bills which he approves, others he takes
back with him to the White House for consideration, but
once the Senate and House have voted adjournment,
the President can no longer receive a bill legally, and all
bill-making stops promptly with the sound of the gong in
the marble halls in Congress which signals adjournment.
Sometimes similar bills originate in both House and
Senate at the same time. This helps to expedite action.
If the Senate should pass the bill before the House gets
to it, and the bill is identical, the House will then table its
bill and they will pass the Senate bill in lieu of the House
bill as a short cut and by consent vote.
Legislation takes the form of either a bill or a resolution.
Sometimes it is better to put intended projected legislation
into a bill, and at other times into a resolution. A reso-
lution in the Senate need only pass the Senate. The same
is true in the House. A bill must pass both Houses and be
signed by the President. A joint resolution need only pass
both houses. Joint resolutions are either House Joint or







RURAL CULTURE 97

Senate Joint, or Concurrent resolutions. A concurrent
resolution cannot carry money, however. A resolution in
either House can be passed without the approval of any
other body. A House or Senate Resolution just refers the
matter to the House or Senate. A House Joint or Senate
Joint Resolution requires the concurrence of both bodies.
"The whole system is built up on the check and balance
plan," says Congressman Clyde Kelly, who has probably
introduced as many bills as any man in Congress. "Its
main purpose is to prevent hasty legislation. In some par-
ticulars it has become a handicap to legislation of all kinds.
One thing is certain, however, when a bill runs the gauntlet
provided for in the rules of Congress, it is a measure hav-
ing tremendous popular support."







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


CHAPTER VII.

ORATORS


The orator has been behind every great epoch of his-
tory. Bright sparks from brilliant minds have been struck
from the forge of human experience and beacon lights of
intellect have shown along the pathway of the race all
down the ages.
One might as well be an Egyptian mummy in the tomb
of a Pharaoh on the banks of the Nile as to live the life of
this age and take no interest in the questions that have
stirred mankind from the dawn of history to the present.
The world's great orations constitute the encyclopaedia
of man's best efforts in language-the cream of histrionic
literature. He who holds communion with the world's
great orators is in company with the brightest intellects
working under the loftiest inspirations in every great
crisis in human events.
The orator holds the front of the stage, the platform,
the parliament, the congress, the pulpit, the convention,
the forum and the bar.
He plays a leading part in revolutions, jurisprudence,
politics, liberty, religion, philosophy, law, epics, economics
and social service.
In oratory sublimity reaches its highest excellence and
profoundity its most effective depths of reasoning.
The most powerful of all arts in moving mankind is
oratory.
The more gems of oratory you commit to memory the
better equipped you will be for public speaking.









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DO'S FOR PUBLIC SPEAKING

GRENVILLE KLEISER
formerly professor of Public speaking at Yale University,
has issued the following list:


Be prepared.
Stand up promptly.
Begin slowly.
Speak distinctly.
Address all your hearers.
Be uniformly courteous.
Prune your sentences.
Cultivate mental alertness.
Conceal your method.
Be scrupulously clear.
Feel sure of yourself.
Look your audience in the eyes.
Be direct.
Favor your deep tones.
Speak deliberately.
Get to your facts.
Be modest.


Cultivate earnestness.
Observe your pauses.
Suit the action to the word.
Be yourself at your best.
Speak fluently.
Use your abdominal muscles.
Make your speaking attractive.
Be conversational.
Conciliate your opponent.
Rouse yourself.
Be logical.
Open your mouth.
Speak authoritatively.
Cultivate brevity.
Cultivate sincerity.
Cultivate tact.
End swiftly.


ANCIENT AND MODERN ELOQUENCE

At the revival of letters in modern Europe, Eloquence,
together with her sister, Muses, awoke, and shook the
poppies from her brow. But their torpors still tingled in
her veins. In the interval her voice was gone; her favorite
languages were extinct; her organs were no longer attuned
to harmony, and her hearers could no longer understand
her speech. The discordant jargon of feudal anarchy had
banished the musical dialects, in which she had always
delighted. The theatres of her former triumph were either
deserted, or they were filled with the dabblers of sophistry
and chicane. She shrunk intuitively from the former, for
the last object she remembered to have seen there was
the head of her darling Cicero planted upon the rostrum.
She ascended the tribunals of justice; there she found
her child, Persuasion, manacled and pinioned by the letter
of the law; there she beheld an image of herself, stammer-
ing in barbarous Latin, and staggering under the lumber of







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


a thousand volumes. Her heart fainted within her. She
lost all confidence in herself. Together with all her ir-
resistable powers, she lost proportionably the consideration
of the world, until, instead of comprising the whole system
of public education, she found herself excluded from the
circle of science and declared an outlaw from the realms
of learning.
She was not however doomed to eternal silence. With
the progress of freedom and of liberal science in various
parts of modern Europe, she obtained access to mingle in
the deliberations of her parliaments. With labor and dif-
ficulty she learned their languages, and lent her aid in
giving them form and polish. But she has never recovered
the graces of her former beauty, nor the energies of her
ancient vigor.
JOHN QJINCY ADAMS


ORATORY


Oratory offers the acme of human delight; it offers the
nectar that Jupiter sips; it offers the draft that intoxicates
the gods, the divine felicity of lifting up and swaying man-
kind. There is nothing greater on this earth. 'Tis the
breath of the Eternal-the kiss of the Immortal.
Oratory is far above houses and lands, offices and em-
oluments, possessions and power. While it may secure all
of these it must not for a moment be classed with them.
These things offer nothing that is worthy of a high am-
bition. Enjoyed to their fullest, they leave you hard,
wrinkled and miserable. Get all they can give and the
hand will be empty, the mind hungry and the soul shriveled.
Oratory is an individual accomplishment, and no vicis-
situdes of fortune can wrest it from the owner. It points
the martyr's path to the future; it guides the reaper's hand
in the present, and it turns the face of ambition toward the
delectable hills of achievement. One great speech made
to an intelligent audience in favor of the rights of man








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will compensate for a life of labor, will crown a career with
glory, and give a joy that is born of the divinities. There
is no true orator who is not also a hero.
JOHN P. ALTGELD


WASHINGTON'S COUNTRY
(Delivered at the centennial celebration of Washington's inauguration,
New York, April 30, 1889)

Blot out from the page of history the names of all the
great actors of his time in the drama of nations, and pre-
serve the name of Washington, and the country would be
renowned.
We stand today upon the dividing line between the first
and second century of constitutional government. There
are no clouds overhead and no convulsions under our feet.
We reverently return thanks to Almighty God for the past,
and with confident and hopeful promise march upon sure
ground toward the future. The simple facts of these hun-
dred years paralyze the imagination, and we contemplate
the vast accumulations of the century with awe and pride.
Our population has grown from four to sixty-five millions.
Its centre, moving westward five hundred miles since 1789,
is eloquent with the founding of cities and the birth of
States. New settlements clearing the forests and subduing
the prairies and adding four millions to the few thousands
of farms which were the support of Washington's republic,
create one of the great granaries of the world and open
exhaustless reservoirs of national wealth.
The flower of the youth of the nations of continental
Europe are conscripted from productive industries and
drilling in camps. Vast armies stand in battle array along
the frontiers, and a Kaiser's whim or a minister's mistake
may precipitate the most destructive war of modern times.
Both monarchial and republican governments are seeking
safety in the repression and suppression of opposition and
criticism. The volcanic forces of democratic aspiration and
socialistic revolt are rapidly increasing and threaten peace







DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


and security. We turn from these gathering storms to
the British Isles and find their people in the throes of a
political crisis involving the form and substance of their
government, and their statesmen far from confident that
the enfranchised and unprepared masses will wisely use
their power.
But for us no army exhausts our resources nor con-
sumes our youth. Our navy must needs increase in order
that the protecting flag may follow the expanding com-
merce, which is to successfully compete in all the markets
of the world. The sun of our destiny is still rising, and its
rays illuminate vast territories as yet unoccupied and un-
developed, and which are to be the happy homes of millions
of people. The questions which affect the powers of gov-
ernment and the expansion or limitation of the authority
of the Federal Constitution are so completely settled and so
unanimously approved, that our political divisions produce
only the healthy antagonism of parties which is necessary
for the preservation of liberty.
Our institutions furnish the full equipment of shield and
spear for the battles of freedom, and absolute protection
against every danger which threatens the welfare of the
people will always be found in the intelligence which ap-
preciates their value, and the courage and morality with
which their powers are exercised. The spirit of Washing-
ton fills the executive office. Presidents may not rise to
the full measure of his greatness, but they must not fall
below his standard of public duty and obligation. His life
and character, conscientiously studied and thoroughly un-
derstood by coming generations, will be for them a liberal
education for private life and public station, for citizen-
ship and patriotism, for love and devotion to Union and
Liberty. With their inspiring past and splendid present
the people of these United States, heirs of a hundred years
marvelously rich in all which adds to the glory and great-
ness of a nation, with an abiding trust in the stability
and elasticity of their Constitution and an abounding faith
in themselves, hail the coming century with hope and joy.
CHAUNCY M. DEPEW




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