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 The pecan






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00047
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: The pecan
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture. State of Florida.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Artcraft Printers
Publication Date: October 1927
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct., 1921)-v. 39, no. 3 (July 1929).
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    The pecan
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 32
Full Text








VOLUME 37 NUMBER 4






THE PECAN













SUPPLEMENT TO
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FEBRUARY, 1927












NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida


Art aft Printers. Tallahassee. Florida
Arteraft Printers, Tallahassee. Florida


I





















CONTENTS


Page
. 3
. 4
. 4


B otan y ......... ... ......... .. ...
P hytography .... ........ .. .. .......... .....
H history of P ecan ....................... ..... ... .. .. ....
Commercial Importance of the Pecan ......................
F ood V alue of the P ecan .............. ...............................
Soils A dapted to the Pecan........................ ....................
Preparation of Soil for Trees......... ................. .......
P ecan P lan tin g .... ...... ............................
C cultivation ... .... ...........
F ertilizers ..... .. ................


.. 12
.. .. 13


P run in g .... ......... ..................... .............. .... ...... ... 15
H arvesting and M marketing .... .... ........ .... ............................ 16
Grading ......... ...... ................. ......... .. 17
P o lish in g ..... .. .......... ........................ ... ...... ....... .... 1 7
Pecan Propagation ... ....... .. ................... ..... ...... 19
Selecting and Planting Nuts ........... ... .......... .......... 20
P ropagating T ools .. . ......................... ........ .... .. ......... 21
W ax, Cloth and Twine. ......... ......... ..................... 21
Selecting Cions and Buds........... .......... ............ ....... 22
Grafting and Grafting Methods... ............. .... .... ...... 23
Budding M ethods ... ........... ........ ............. .. ........ .. 25
The N nursery ... ... ......................... ....... ................ 27
Top W working Pecans ..... .. .. .......... .. . ..... ... ... ..... 27
Pecan Varieties for Growing in Florida.............. .............. 29
Insect Pests . ............... ..... ...................... ..... . ... 31
P ecan D diseases .. ......................... ............. ........... ... 31
Where Pecans are Grown in Florida.. ......... ...... ... ......... 32












THE PECAN


The pecan has been known since the discovery of
America, but the use of this nut as a commercial
crop is only of recent years. It has now become one
of the best known and valued nuts that is grown in
the United States.
BOTANY
The pecan is of the walnut family Juglandaceae,
Genus Hicoria. While it does not usually cross with
the hickory when growing together, it is so closely
allied with it that under some conditions cross pol-
lination takes place. The two may be grafted or
budded together, in Florida the white hickory seem-
ing to work better than other varieties. One objec-
tion to this practice being that the pecan grows faster
than the hickory, and thus the pecan wood is larger
than the hickory at the point of the graft contact.
The staminate flowers are borne on the one-year-
old wood, while the pistillate flowers are on the new
wood. While there is a great excess of pollen pro-
duced, heavy rains or very dry weather at the bloom-
ing period may cause a great shortage in the crop of
nuts. Some varieties bear less pollen than others,
and for this reason it is well, where these varieties
are planted, to mix in a few trees of some variety
that is known to be a heavy bearer of pollen.
"Pecan" is an American Indian word, originally
pacan, and was used by the Indians to designate all
nuts that were so hard as to require a stone to crack
them. This name was appropriated by the French
settlers of the Mississippi basin for one nut in par-
ticular, Hicoria pecan. The word hickory, from
which Hicoria is derived, is also an Indian word,
being derived from powcohicora, the name applied
to the liquid obtained by pounding the kernels and
throwing them into boiling water. This liquid was
used by the Indians with their meats, and sometimes
allowed to ferment for an intoxicating drink. (Stucky
& Kyle).










PHOTOGRAPHY
The pecan is indigenous to the central and south-
ern parts of the United States, one of the largest
native groves being along the banks of the Ohio in
Henderson county, Kentucky. Some of these trees
are 16 feet in circumference and 150 feet high.
Other large native groves are found in Arkansas,
Louisiana and Texas. Outside of this natural belt
the pecan is being grown in many other sections of
the United States, but in the far north and west
different varieties are used, the nuts of which are
smaller.
The greatest development has been in the States
of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia
and Florida. Here the largest nuts with the thinnest
shells are grown. Here also the largest yields are
obtained. The Florida grower is fortunate in being
able to grow the very best varieties.
HISTORY
From fossil remains that have been found it is
thought that the pecan was growing in this country
during the Cretaceous period. It was mentioned by
DeSoto and is said to have been a favorite nut of the
Indians.
For many years it was thought that the pecan
could only be propagated by planting the seed. After
many failures to propagate, by budding or grafting,
a slave on a Louisiana farm was the first to succeed,
and in 1846 grafted 16 trees. So hard did it seem to
graft or bud that little was done until about 1890.
By 1880 the nut had come into such favor that
large quantities were being gathered from the native
groves of Texas and shipped to all parts of the coun-
try. From 1880 to 1890 there were many large
orchards set out in Florida, Georgia, Alabama and
Mississippi, but these were all seedling stock, as the
price of grafted or budded stock was too high to use
for such large orchards. But due to the good work
of Frotscher, Nelson, Pabst, Stuart, Bacon, Buckman
and Girardeau, the use of the propagated tree was
made more popular and today no orchard of any im-
portance is set out to seedling trees. It was now that
the new varieties began to appear, and it is of in-










terest that the Stuart, Pabst, Van Demon and San
Saba, that were among the first-named varieties, are
still regarded as among the best of today.
When it was seen what could be done by grafting,
the idea of top-working the old seedling groves was
born, and it is a matter of record that between 1890
and 1900 many of these old groves were top-worked,
and they are today bearing excellent crops of stand-
ard varieties rather than the small seedlings that
was their natural product. So popular had the nut
become that large orchards were set out in many
States, but these were for the most part set in the
cotton belt. New varieties that are adapted to sec-
tions farther north and west have been developed,
and while the nuts are smaller they are good enough
to warrant their being grown.
In 1901 the first pecan association was organized
at Albany, Ga., and thus began the first organized
work for the betterment of the pecan. The next
twenty years were very important ones for the pecan,
because of the large amount of work that was done
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the State
Agricultural Experiment Stations in working out bet-
ter methods of propagation and methods of control-
ing the insects and diseases that were causing great
loss to the owners of pecan orchards.

COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE PECAN
"The pecan does not rank very high in the United
States in commercial importance when contrasted
with some of the older and more important crops.
But when compared with other nuts its ranking is
exceptional, especially when one takes into consid-
eration the limited time it has been under cultivation.
It is significant that the native pecans are more valu-
able and require less expense to growers to produce
and harvest than any other wild or uncultivated
horticultural crop. In addition, thousands of acres
planted to improved varieties, now coming into bear-
ing, will within the next decade compete strongly
with the native, even on a basis of tonnage. The
commercial status of the pecan may be seen from a
study of the following table, taken from the U. S.
census report for 1920:










TOTAL NUT PRODUCTION IN UNITED STATES
1909 1919
Almonds .. ..... 6,793,539 15,852,965
Pecans ..... ... 9,890,769 31,808,548
Walnuts ... 22,026,524 59,840,470

This table shows that the pecan easily ranks next
to the walnut in commercial importance and that it
is gaining on that important nut." (Stuckey & Kyle.)
Only in very recent years has this nut been put on
the market shelled, and nothing has increased the
sales so much as putting the meats in such a con-
venient form for the consumer.
The makers of candy, cakes and ice cream are the
chief purchasers of pecan meats. Average seedlings
will shell about 50 % meats. The meats dry very fast
when shelled and exposed to air.

FOOD VALUE OF THE PECAN

The pecan meat, being high in fat and easily
digested, is being used to considerable extent as a
meat substitute. How it compares with other nuts
is shown in the following table:
Per Cent Per Cent Calories
Kind of Nut Protein Fat Per Pound
Pecan .... 11.0 71.2 3633
Peanuts ....32.0 47.0 2560
Brazil Nuts 17.0 66.8 3329
Walnuts . ... 27.6 56.3 3105
Almonds ...... 21.0 54.9 3030

One pound of pecan meat is equivalent, in calories,
to-
2.3 pounds of smoked ham
2.3 pounds of flour bread
2.4 pounds of dried beans
3.7 pounds of porterhouse steak
12.3 pounds of Irish potatoes
10.25 pounds of apples
15 pounds of oranges
and the different elements of food in the pecan are
in such proportion that it makes a balanced ration.










SOILS ADAPTED TO THE PECAN


While the pecan will grow on quite a variety of
soils, that which seems best adapted is a well-drained
sandy loam with a clay subsoil. As with all crops,
the better the top soil the better growth the young
trees will make. Because of its long tap-root the
water table should be low. As a rule, where a nat-
ural growth of hickory and other hard woods is
found, the land is adapted to the growing of the
pecan. New ground should not be used if any other
can be used.

PREPARATION OF SOIL FOR TREES

No better preparation can be given the soil, where
the young trees are to be set, than to prepare just as
if a crop of corn or cotton was to be planted. Not
less than sixty days before time to set the trees the
land should be broken deep and then well disked,
so that all vegetable matter will be well worked into
the soil. Old ground is best for the orchard, be-
cause there are no stumps and roots to harbor insects
and diseases, there is less danger in cultivating and
the cultivation would cost less. Work spent in prep-
aration will mean very much to the growth of the
young tree and will repay many times for the labor
spent. Many failures of the young tree to make a
good growth have been due to the very bad practice
of simply digging a hole and setting the tree in it.

PECAN PLANTING

Buying Trees.-Florida has suffered as much from
fraudulent pecan tree agents as any other State.
Seedling trees have been "doctored" and sold to
planters, and varieties have been sold which were
untrue to name. Unfortunately, too few people are
acquainted with the characteristics of a budded or
grafted tree.
Those who are thoroughly acquainted with the
wood, twigs and branches of pecan trees are able to
tell the different varieties at a glance. The color of
the bark, the shape, size and arrangement of the
lenticles, the size and shape of the buds are always










characteristic, and by these marks varieties can be
distinguished. Every planter should acquaint him-
self with the wood characteristics of the varieties.
But, after all, the safest, by far the safest, plan is to
deal directly with honest nurserymen, men of un-
questionable integrity, men who give their business
careful thought and attention.
The best trees for general planting are well-grown
one-year-old trees, from three to five feet high.
Too often but slight attention is given to the plant-
ing of the trees. There is too frequently a disposition
on.the part of the person setting trees of any kind to
do the work as rapidly as possible, without consider-
ation for the future welfare of the plants. Few
realize that time spent in careful, intelligent prep-
aration of the soil and in setting the trees is time well
spent and well paid for in the after-development of
trunk and branch. Better a month spent in prepar-
ing the future home of the young tree than years of
its life spent in an unequal struggle for existence.
More than that, the tree may die outright, and a year
must elapse before it can be replaced. It is gener-
ally stated that the pecan is a slow grower, and yet
trees from twelve to fourteen years old will some-
times measure from thirty-five to fifty-seven inches
in circumference at the base, while under less favor-
able circumstances others will stand still for a period
of six or seven years, or until they have accumulated
sufficient energy to overcome the untoward condi-
tions of their environment.
Distance.-The distance apart at which the tree
should be set will depend in a measure upon the char-
acter of the soil. If rich and moist, the trees should
be set farther apart than on higher, drier soils.
Forty feet is generally believed to be about right for
most Florida lands. Two methods of setting may be
followed, rectangular and hexagonal. The number
of trees which may be set per acre by the rectangu-
lar system are as follows:
40 x 40 ............ ......... 27 trees
40 x 45 .............. ............ 24 trees
40 x 50 ... ...... ...... ....... .. 21 trees
40 x 60 ........ .. ... ....... ... 18 trees
45 x 45 ................................... 21 trees










50 x 50 .......... ................. 17 trees
50 x 60 ......... ........................ 14 trees
50 x 75 ......... ..................... 11 trees
60 x 60 ...................... ........... 12 trees
60 x 75 ..... .. .... .. ...... .. 9 trees
70 x 70 ......... ... ............. 8 trees
70 x 75 ...... ... .... ... .... .. 8 trees
75 x 75 .... ... ...... ......... .. 7 trees
To find the number of trees for any distance not
given in the above table, multiply the distances to-
gether and divide 43,560, the number of square feet
in an acre, by the product. The result will give the
number of trees.
By the hexagonal system, about fifteen per cent
more trees may be set per acre than by the rectan-
gular system. If a double planting is contemplated,
as pecans and peaches, the rectangular system
should be used, and one or more peaches set out in
each rectangular formed by the pecans.
Staking the Ground.-If a good plowman can be
secured, the rows can be run off with a plow, running
both lengthwise and crosswise of the field. Ordi-
narily, however, a true corner may be established
with a carpenter's square, the field staked out around
the outside. For the rectangular system the stakes
can then be set up in the center of the field by meas-
uring or by sighting, or by both. Ordinary building
laths make good stakes.
To stake off the ground by the hexagonal method,
commence on one side of the field and plant stakes
at the desired distance apart where the trees are to
stand. Using two chains or two pieces of wire with
rings at the ends (their length being the same as the
tree distance), the position for the second row of
trees may be easily ascertained. Drop the rings over
two adjoining stakes and stretch them out until they
form an equilateral triangle with the base line. Plant
a stake at the apex to indicate where the tree is to
stand. Set up all the stakes for this second row in
the same manner, then use it as a base line, and so
on across the field.
Planting.-Having set a stake where each tree is
to stand, the planting board should then be brought










into use. This is simply a light board, five or six
inches wide and six feet long, with a notch cut in the
center of one side and an inch hole bored in each
end. In digging the holes for the trees this board is
laid down on the ground with the notch against the
tree stake. Two small wooden stakes are then shoved
into the ground through the holes in the ends, and
the board and tree stake both taken away.
In preparing the tree for planting, all broken or
bruised roots should be cut off immediately behind
the injuries. This is usually done before packing for
shipment if trees are purchased from a nurseryman,
but possibly may be neglected or the ends of roots
become rubbed or ragged in transit. The cuts should
be made with a sharp knife from the underside of
the roots and outward, leaving a smooth, sloping cut.
To trim the roots to the best advantage they should
be held upside down while trimming.
In setting out a pecan tree, a hole 24 inches in
diameter and 30 inches deep is usually large enough,
although wider holes may be dug with advantage,
thereby enabling more pulverized and richer soil to
be put around the roots, which is beneficial to the
new feeding roots as they form. When setting out
the trees, carefully fill in among the roots with pul-
verized top soil or woods earth. Well-rotted manure
or not exceeding one and one-half pounds of com-
mercial fertilizer may be put in the outer sides of
hole, as far as practicable beyond outer ends of lat-
eral roots, while hole is being filled, but by no means
to come in contact with the roots or trunk of tree.
No fertilizer should be put at bottom of hole. Work
and firmly press the dirt among the roots, laying each
root in a natural position. No holes or cavities in
the soil should be left, and soil must be in close con-
tact with all roots, especially the tap-root. The bot-
tom of the hole should be firm, to avoid further set-
tling of the tree. The tree should be set at such a
depth that after a copious watering and the perman-
ent settling of the earth it will be perhaps a little
deeper than it stood in the nursery row. It is very
important that no part of the crown or root be left
uncovered when planted or afterward, and if at any
time it is found that the earth has settled and left










any brownish-red part of the crown or root exposed,
it must again be covered with soil.
The point where the root and crown leave off and
the trunk begins is a very vital portion of the newly-
set tree and must always be underground. Trees
should be carefully examined after the first heavy
rain after planting, and earth thrown to tree if soil
has settled. It is better to plant them an inch or two
deeper than they stood in the nursery row than to
run the risk of having the crown of root exposed. If
tap-roots are inconveniently long, say over 30 inches,
they must be cut off by a sloping cut with a sharp
knife. In the larger size trees it is better to sink a
hole deep enough to receive the root without cutting
shorter than is done before packing. The foolish
theory about a pecan tree not bearing if its tap-root
has been cut has been so thoroughly disproved
that it is not worth discussion. If the tap-root is cut
when the tree is dug, as is often necessary, the cut
quickly heals and a new tap-root (sometimes sev-
eral) will form. After planting is completed, loose
soil should be lightly thrown around the tree to check
evaporation, or it may be mulched with leaves, straw,
etc., in lawns and other places where no crops are
to be planted. The mulching of newly-set trees is
highly recommended. The ground is thereby kept
moist, a slow decaying supply of natural plant food is
provided, and grass and weeds are not so trouble-
some, thus avoiding the necessity of so frequently
stirring the soil immediately around the trees. The
ground around fruit or nut trees should never be al-
lowed to bake or crust, and it is the more important
with newly set trees, particularly the first season.
Never allow the roots of a pecan tree to become
dried out. It is best that the necessary root pruning
be done in the shade and the trees carried to the field
wrapped in a damp blanket, from which they are
removed one by one as required for planting. The
tops should be pruned back slightly to restore the
balance between the roots and the tops, which has
been disturbed in the process of transplanting.
The best time to plant pecan trees is somewhere
between the first of December or the latter part of
November and the first of February. Preference
must be given to the earlier part of this period, as










the ground will have a chance to become firmly
packed and the root wounds will have partially cal-
loused before the growing season begins. Besides.
the early spring season in Florida is usually dry and
recently planted trees do not stand nearly so good a
show as those planted in December and January.

CULTIVATION
Because the pecan grows as a forest tree in some
parts of the country, many people suppose that it can
be left without care and cultivation, left as any other
tree in the fields and woods is left to shift for itself.
But if fruit is required from the tree, no matter
whether planted in the garden or the orchard, it
should be given good care. Too many of our prac-
tices are based upon ideas taken from the native
trees of the woods and fields. But all these trees do
from year to year is bear a few fruits, many of which
are imperfect, in the attempt to reproduce them-
selves. If that is all that is desired of the pecan
tree, well and good; a system of neglect will secure
the result and the insects and fungi will be the chief
beneficiaries of the practice.
One lesson can be learned from the woods. The
ideal soil conditions for the pecan grove is that found
in the forest. The soil there is filled with vegetable
matter and humus; it holds water and plant food.
The aim in the cultivation of the trees should be to
provide and maintain a soil as nearly ideal as that.
Whether anyone would have the temerity to ad-
vocate the cultivation of a pecan orchard along the
lines applied to peach orchards and citrus groves is
seriously doubted. A pecan plantation will begin to
bear in from six to eight years after planting, and
should produce a very fair crop at ten years, after
which it rapidly increases in productivity. But dur-
ing the period when the trees are growing and no
fruit is being produced, cultivation must be given.
This is best done by planting the land between the
tree rows in cotton, peanuts or other field crops, in
vegetables, cowpeas, beggarweed or velvet beans.
The last mentioned crops may be used in making hay.
These are the ideal crops for the pecan orchard. It
would be best to follow a systematic rotation of these










crops, as, for instance, first year peanuts, second year
cotton, or first year crab-grass and beggarweed, sec-
ond year cotton, and third year velvet beans or cow-
peas.
The area grown in these crops should by no means
equal the total area of the field. The tree rows for
a width of four or five feet on each side should not
be planted in crops during the first year. This strip
should, however, be cultivated during the first part
of the season and about the beginning of the rainy
season sowed to beggarweed. The cultivated area
will necessarily become more restricted each year,
and eventually the ground will have to be given up
to the trees.
Then the plan frequently advised is to put the land
in grass and use it for a pasture. But grass is
generally an important item in the cultivation of
neglected pecan orchards. It is synonymous with
neglect and bad treatment. It interferes with the
growth, development and fruiting of the trees, and
this plan is no longer advised by growers.
Instead, it is preferable to cultivate the trees in
spring, continuing the cultivation well up to the rainy
season. Later, in August, a crop of crab-grass and
beggarweed may be removed for hay. By autumn a
considerable additional growth will be formed to
cover the ground in winter and turn back into the
soil to restore and maintain the necessary humus
content of the soil.

FERTILIZERS

On nearly all Florida soils pecan trees are bene-
fited by the application of fertilizers in some form or
other. Large quantities of food materials are taken
from the soil in the growth of the trees and the de-
velopment of the crop.
The greatest demand made on the soil by the tree
is for nitrogen, and this can be met by applying stable
manure, or by growing leguminous crops and turn-
ing them under, as already directed. In the fertiliz-
ing of the pecan this is by all means the best policy.
The potash in the form of sulphate or muriate of
potash and the phosphoric acid in the form of acid
phosphate can be supplied separately.










Formulas.-The requirements of the trees will
differ at different stages of their growth. The needs
of the young trees differ from those of fruiting ones.
For young trees, nitrogen in considerable amounts is
required, while for bearing trees more potash and
phosphoric acid and less nitrogen, relatively, are re-
quired. If complete fertilizers are used, those given
the young trees should analyze about five per cent
phosphoric acid, six per cent potash and four per
cent nitrogen; while one containing six per cent phos-
phoric acid, eight per cent potash and four per cent
nitrogen is about right for bearing trees.
If we assume that acid phosphate analyzes 14 per
cent phosphoric acid, high-grade sulphate of potash
50 per cent potash, cotton seed meal 6.5 per cent
nitrogen, and dried blood 14 per cent nitrogen, the
following amounts of these materials, which may be
mixed at home, will give approximately the above
analysis:
For Young Trees-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent goods) .700 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ....... ...... 225 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal ................. 1,150 pounds
If dried blood is used in place of cotton seed meal,
one-half of the amount, or 575 pounds, will give as
much or slightly more nitrogen than the 1,150 pounds
of cotton seed meal.
For Young Trees-
Acid Phosphate (14 per cent) ....... 850 pounds
H. G. Sulphate Potash ..... .. 300 pounds
Dried Blood .. .... ... .......... 250 pounds
Cotton Seed Meal . ................... 600 pounds

2,000 pounds

Applying the Fertilizer.-The whole of the fer-
tilizer may be applied in spring, just before the
growth starts. On the whole, this is one of the best
times to apply it. In some cases it may be advisable
to apply only half the material at that time, leaving
the other half for application about the first of June.
So far as the nitrogen part of the fertilizer is con-










cerned, this would be good practice, but the potash
and phosphoric acid may well be applied at the be-
ginning of the season's growth.
In applying the fertilizer to young trees, it should
be put on in a circular band about the tree (closer or
farther away, depending on the size of the tree), and
spreading it around on a strip four or five feet wide.
As the trees increase in size, the fertilizer should be
applied over a larger area until, in the case of old
trees, the whole surface should receive an applica-
tion.
PRUNING

For such pruning as is necessary for pecan trees,
a few tools should be provided. These will consist
of a pair of good pruning shears, German solid steel
pruning shears being the best, a pair of Walter's
tree pruners for cutting back long branches, and a
good pruning saw. One of the best pruning saws is
what is known as a Climax pruning saw, or a Pacific
Coast saw is equally as good.
It is not advisable to prune the trees during the
time when growth has just started in spring and the
sap is in active motion. At this time it will be well-
nigh impossible to properly protect the wounds. The
necessary coat of paint will not stick to the wound
when wet with sap from the tree.
While pruning may be done during1 the summer
months, when the tree is in full leaf, all things con-
sidered, the best time to prune is in early spring be-
fore growth starts. There is usually less to be done
on the farm at this season and more time is available
for the work. Wounds made at this time usually
heal quite rapidly.
In cutting all branches the saw should be held
parallel to the part which is to remain, and the
branch should be cut off smoothly close up to the
trunk.
As soon as the branch is removed the wound
should be painted to protect it from decay. For a
protective covering, nothing is better than white lead
paint. A small amount of coloring matter may be
added to it, if desired.
As a general rule, the pecan requires compara-










tively little pruning. At the time of planting, the
young trees should be cut back some distance, par-
ticularly if they are very tall. It is well to have the
main branches from within four or five feet of the
ground. After this, about all the pruning necessary
is to remove dead or injured branches and cut back
those which have a tendency to run up, beyond their
neighbors. For this work, as well as in procuring
grafts or bud-wood from the top of the tree, the tree-
pruner comes into good service.
Top-worked trees frequently require considerable
pruning to get them started so that they will develop
into symmetrical trees.

HARVESTING AND MARKETING
The pecan crop is not so difficult to harvest and
prepare for marketing as a crop of oranges or
peaches for instance, and yet some care must be
taken to put the nuts on the market in inviting shape.
Field Equipment.-The equipment necessary for
harvesting consists of an extension ladder, a step-
ladder, a number of bamboo fishing poles and pick-
ing sacks. The best kind of step-ladder is one having
three legs instead of four. Picking sacks should be
made from ordinary hemp or jute sacks. The sack
should be spread open with a piece of stick, sharp-
pointed at both ends, placed in one side of the mouth,
thus making the opening triangular. Place a pecan
nut in the lower corner of the sack, tie one end of a
piece of stout twine about it as it lies in the corner,
and then tie the other end of the twine to the center
of the stick opposite the mouth. The twine should
be short enough to draw the bottom and top of the
sack close together, leaving an opening through
which the arm may be thrust and the sack slung
over the shoulder.
Picking.-As soon as the greater percentage of
the burrs have opened the crop should be gathered.
It will not do to wait until all have opened, neither
is it advisable to pick the trees over a number of
times. Pick them clean at one picking. The burrs
of those nuts which are fully matured will open; the
burrs of immature ones may not. The latter should
be discarded.










The men should climb the trees and pick the nuts
by hand, using the bamboo poles only for those en-
tirely out of reach. Even this should be done care-
fully, so as not to injure the bearing wood of the
trees. Care in picking good nuts by hand will amply
pay the grower, because the beating and shaking of
the trees will cause a considerable quantity of fruit
to be lost, and a few pounds saved will repay all the
time and trouble. Of course, in very high trees there
is frequently nothing to do but shake and thrash the
crop off the trees. The plan of covering the ground
beneath the trees with a large sheet would work well
and assist in reducing losses. As soon as taken from
the trees the nuts should be spread out under a shed
or in a building to dry. A very convenient plan,
and one which will save space, is to provide a suffi-
cient number of trays, three feet by four feet, and
three inches deep, with half-inch mesh wire bottoms,
and place the nuts in these, two or two and a half
inches deep. Racks can be provided around the
room in which to place these. In from ten days to
two weeks from the time of picking, the nuts should
be cured.
Grading.-The variety should be made the basis
of the grade; that is, each variety should be picked,
packed and marketed by itself. This gives an ex-
cellent opportunity to compare the commercial value
of different kinds of seedling nuts. They may be
graded by passing them through screens.
Polishing.-At the present time practically all of
the common market nuts are both polished and col-
ored. Coloring should not be resorted to, and in the
case of good varieties of nuts polishing should not be
done. In the case of small or mixed lots, however,
polishing is useful in making the nuts more uniform.
It can be accomplished by putting the nuts, with a
little dry sand, in a barrel fixed so that it can be
rotated like a revolving churn and turning over until
the nuts receive the desired polish. The better nuts,
however, should be put on the market just as they
come from the trees. The markings, dots and streaks
on the outside are their trademark and should not be
interfered with.










Packages.-For shipping small quantities of pe-
cans by express, nothing is better than a box. Bar-
rels are best for large shipments. For mail ship-
ments stout pasteboard, wooden or tin boxes or tin
cans make good packages. Frequently shipments are
made in sacks, but the sack does not afford sufficient
protection to the contents and should not be used.
As a rule, the box should be made so that a given
weight will fill it, but this difficulty may be overcome
to a certain extent by putting in a pad of paper or
excelsior-paper being preferable. Fill the pack-
ages on a solid floor, shaking them down well and
putting in all they will hold, placing the pad, if one
has to be used, in the bottom.
On the outside of the packages, before shipping,
should be placed the name of the grower, the variety,
the number of pounds, and the shipping directions.
Small boxes to be shipped by express for the holiday
trade should be wrapped in good quality wrapping
paper before shipping.
Marketing.-The best plan for marketing good
pecan nuts is to build up a private trade. As a mat-
ter of fact, at the present time but very few of the
large, full-meated pecans find their way into the gen-
eral market. They are either taken by seedsmen or
consumed by private customers. In building up a
private trade, advertising has its place, of course.
Advertisements inserted in a magazine or papers,
particularly in those which are published in the
tourist towns of the State, may be found helpful.
The object and aim should be to give each private
customer a package, bright, neat, attractive, and
containing the best quality of nuts. If a certain price
per pound is fixed for a given quantity, then this
should not be varied under any circumstances. Each
year the same quality of nuts should be given to each
customer. It will not do to give large ones one year
and smaller ones the next; this tends to create dis-
satisfaction. In some of the larger cities there are
high-class fruit dealers who handle nothing but
fruits, nuts, etc., of the very highest quality. It is
well to enter into negotiations with such firms.










PECAN PROPAGATION


The pecan may be propagated from seed, by bud-
ding and by grafting.
Formerly they were grown almost entirely from
seed and seedling trees were planted. But now seed-
lings have given place to budded or grafted trees.
Why so? It was announced as a fact not so many
years ago, and there are some who may still maintain
it, that 50 per cent, or some other per cent, of pecans
would come true to seed. But it must be stated as a
fact that neither 50, nor any other per cent, will come
true to seed. We have yet to find a single instance
where the nut of a seedling tree was identical with
that borne by its parent plant. Occasionally they are
better, but the rule is that they generally are vastly
inferior to the fruit produced by the parent plant.
Hence, if an orchard of trees of the same habit of
growth, prolificness, regularity in bearing, uniform
throughout, trees which will produce a crop of nuts
uniform in size, shape, color and quality, is desired,
do not plant seedling trees. Scores of these seedling
trees produce nuts but little larger than chinquapins,
and it is a fact which cannot be gainsaid, that the
seedling pecan, up to the time of fruiting, is an un-
known quantity, after which it is too frequently a
disappointment.
But seeds have their place. From them are grown
the stocks upon which to work desirable varieties.
From seeds may be originated new and desirable
varieties, for it sometimes happens that the seedling
is better than the parent. Seedling trees may be
grown and set'out in orchard form, to be top-worked
afterward. This plan has something to recommend
it. It is less expensive, provided time is not an ob-
ject, for it takes a longer time to get bearing trees
by this plan, and it is open to the further objection
that it is more difficult to secure uniformity in size
and shape of the trees than it is by setting out budded
or grafted trees at first. The objection in the way
of expense, if that be an objection, is best overcome
by planting nuts in nursery rows, grafting the trees
there, and then setting them in the field. By no
means should the nuts be planted where the trees
are to remain. It is too difficult to give them the










necessary care. Besides, they are likely to be de-
stroyed by squirrels or other animals, or the seed-
lings injured through carelessness in cultivation.
Selecting and Planting Nuts.-Nuts to be used in
growing stocks should be fully matured before gath-
ering. Some care should be taken in their selection.
They should be of good size for the variety, and
should be gathered only from healthy, vigorous trees.
Frequently the only object held in view is to get as
many nuts as possible in a pound, without regard to
the tree on which they grew. We believe that this
is in a large degree responsible for the unsatisfactory
growth made by many grafted trees. Those nuts
which mature first are best for planting.
The nuts may be planted in Florida as soon as they
are taken from the trees, placing them in drills three
and a half feet apart and covering them two and a
half or three inches deep. In many cases it may be
necessary and more convenient to stratify the nuts
in damp sand in boxes, first an inch layer of sand,
then a layer of nuts, until the boxes are filled. These
boxes should be placed in a cool, shady place, under
a building, in a cellar, or buried in the earth. It is
a good plan to cover them with wire net to prevent
mice, rats or squirrels from attacking them. In early
spring the boxes should be emptied out and the nuts
planted as directed above.
The seed-bed should be thoroughly prepared,
plowed deeply or subsoiled, well supplied with or-
ganic matter, either from stable manure or from
beggarweed, velvet beans, cowpeas, or some other
leguminous crop on the soil, and turned under.
During the growing season the seed-bed should be
kept well cultivated and free from weeds and grass.
A fertilizer rich in nitrogen should be used. Its com-
position will have to be governed very largely by the
character of the soil and the care and cultivation
given it previously; but for good nursery soils a fer-
tilizer analyzing three per cent nitrogen will give
good results. In a favorable season the tops of the
young trees will be a foot or somewhat more in
height, with a tap-root two feet and a half or so in
length. The following spring and summer many of
the young trees can be worked by grafting or bud-
ding.










Propagating Tools.-The tools necessary for prop-
agating pecans-nursery work and top-ivorking-
are a common budding knife, a budding tool, a graft-
ing iron, a grafting mallet and a fine-toothed saw.
The budding knife should have a thin blade of
good steel, capable or retaining a keen, sharp edge.
The whetstone must be used frequently to keep the
blade sharp to insure the making of smooth, clean
cuts.
At least three budding tools have been invented.
These are known as White's, Galbreath's and Nel-
son's budding tools, respectively. The principle in
each one is that two sharp cutting blades are fixed
parallel to each other to insure uniformity in cutting
annular and veneer-shield or patch buds. White's
budding implement is especially recommended for
use in top-working. The holes along the sides are
used as a gauge for measuring the stock and bud
stick. In the writer's opinion, the one best adapted
for veneer-shield budding, but the blades are just a
little too close together. A very satisfactory knife
for this work may be made from two ordinary bud-
ding knives and a piece of wood three-quarters of
an inch square and four inches long. To opposite
sides of this the blades can be firmly attached with
rivets and by binding with fine wire and twine.
The grafting iron is indispensable in cleft-grafting.
These can be purchased at small cost, or a black-
smith can make an excellent one from an old flat file.
Three or four inches of the file should be flattened
and sharpened for a blade. In the remainder drill
two holes and attach two pieces of wood to form a
handle.
A small-sized carpenter's mallet answers nicely
for a grafting mallet, or a very good one can be made
from a piece of tough wood or a piece of an old
wagon spoke. A leather thong should be attached
to the handle, through which the wrist can be slipped
to carry it when top-working.
The best saw for use in top-working is a carpen-
ter's back-saw. This has a stiff blade, fine teeth, and
leaves a smooth, clean cut.
Waxes, Cloth and Twine.-Good grafting wax
may be made according to either of the following
formulas:


C_










1. Resin 6 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, linseed oil
1 pint.
2. Resin 4 pounds, beeswax 2 pounds, tallow 1
pound.
Melt the ingredients in an iron kettle over a slow
fire, stirring slowly to insure thorough mixing. When
melted, pour into a bucket of cold water. Grease the
hands, remove the wax from the water as soon as it
can be handled and pull until it is a light yellow in
color. Wax not needed for immediate use may be
rolled up in balls, wrapped in oiled, stiff, brown
paper, and put away for further use.
Waxed cloth can be prepared by melting the wax
in a kettle and dropping into it sheets or wide strips
of old calico or cotton cloth. As soon as saturated
with the wax, remove them from the kettle and
stretch on a board. For use tear into strips, one-
quarter or one-half of an inch wide.
Waxed twine is prepared by dropping balls of No.
18 knitting cotton into the melted wax and stirring
them about for four or five minutes, or until the wax
has penetrated them.
Selecting Cions and Buds.-Cions and bud sticks
should be taken from healthy, vigorous trees. Select
the cions from well-matured wood of one year's
growth, though a piece of two-year-old wood at the
base will not matter. The wood is angular, small,
and the internodes long, and the pith large in pro-
portion to the diameter. Either terminal portions of
twigs may be used or portions back of the tip, but
the buds should always be well developed, full and
plump. For this reason grafts should not be cut
from wood far back from the tip of the branch. As
stated already, twigs of the previous season's growth
are generally used, provided the growth is not too
large. Grafts are generally cut about five or six
inches long and should be from one-quarter to three-
eights of an inch in thickness.
It is best that the grafts be cut while still in a
dormant state, and inserted in the stock just before
growth starts. The cions may be kept for a consid-
erable length of time by placing them loosely packed
in damp moss or sawdust, in a box. The box should
be covered over with earth and the cions kept suffi-










ciently moist to prevent drying out. The difference
in the condition of the stock and cion, it should be
understood, is not absolutely necessary, as good re-
sults are frequently obtained without these precau-
tions, but in grafting the pecan a difference in dor-
mancy is extremely desirable, and it is an important
factor in securing good results.
For bud-sticks, well-developed one-year-old
branches, one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in
diameter, and on which the buds are well formed,
or older wood, with plump, full buds, are selected.
Such sticks frequently show three buds at a node,
and if some misfortune should overtake one or two
of these, there is still a chance of success, though the
upper one, being the strongest, is generally the one
which starts, provided it is uninjured and the bud
takes. The degree of maturity of the bud is import-
ant, and care should be exercised that only those
which are plump, full and well-developed are used.
It is easy to distinguish between desirable and unde-
sirable buds.

GRAFTING AND GRAFTING METHODS
Top-working by grafting, or the grafting of nur-
sery stock above ground, should be done in spring
just before growth starts. The preference is for the
latter part of the season, provided there is not too
much work to be done, as the cions have less time to
dry out before the process of uniting with the stock
begins. The work of whip-grafting nursery stock
under ground, just at the crown roots of the seed-
lings, can be started in the latter part of December
and continued until February. For this work the
earth is thrown back from the seedlings, leaving
them standing in a narrow trench. After the cions
are inserted, the ground is placed back about them,
covering them up, leaving only the top bud exposed.
The seedling trees cannot be dug up and bench-
grafted satisfactorily in winter, as is the practice
with apples, pears and other fruits. It can be done,
but the percentage of unions secured is too small to
make it an economical method to follow. The only
satisfactory plan is to graft the seedlings in the nur-
sery row, as described above.










Two methods of grafting are used, cleft-grafting
for top-working and whip-grafting for working both
nursery seedlings and old trees.
Cleft-Grafting.-Having selected the place on the
branch or trunk at which the cion or cions are to be
inserted, the part should be sawed off with a smooth,
clean cut. The end of the stub can then be cut
squarely off at the point desired.
The trunk or branch is then split with the grafting
iron. The cleft should be carefully made, and should
be about one and a half inches in length. In prepar-
ing the cion, a sloping cut is made at the lower end,
about one and a half inches long, cutting into the
pith from a point one-half way up the cut, down to
the lower end. On the opposite side the cut should
not touch the pith, but should be made through the
wood throughout. The cion should be left wider on
the outer side than on the inner to make a tight fit
when inserted. Start the cuts on each side of and
just at the bud.
Having made the cleft, open it with the wedge end
of the grafting iron and place the cion in position in
the cleft-stock. The cambium layers should be in
contact and the cion should be shoved well down
until the whole of the wedge is within the stock. In
large stocks two cions may be inserted, the weaker
of which should be removed if both live. Large
stocks will exert sufficient pressure against the cions
to render tieing unnecessary, but if the stocks are
small the union should be firmly tied with waxed
twine or cloth, and in any case the ends of the cut
stock and the union should be covered smoothly with
grafting-wax. Should there be danger of the stock
exerting too much pressure (as in the case of large
stocks), the cleft should be made well out to one
side of the center.
Whip-Grafting.-Stocks, whether seedling trees or
branches in the tops of old trees, should be less than
an inch in diameter, one-half or five-eights inch being
a nice size.
A sloping cut, an inch or an inch and a half long,
is made at the end of the cion, a corresponding cut
is made on the stock, a small tongue of wood is raised
on each by making a cut with a knife-blade parallel










to the grain of the wood. The tongue is raised a
little on both stock and cion and the two are then
shoved together, with the cambium layers on one or
both sides in contact. They must then be firmly
bound together with twine or cloth, the whole of the
cut surfaces being covered over to the exclusion of
water, air and the germs of decay.
The cion and stocks are preferably chosen of
nearly the same size, but a cion somewhat smaller
than the stock may be used, in which case the cam-
bium layers along one side of the surfaces in contact
must be placed opposite, as already indicated. In
working nursery seedlings by whip-grafting, the
cions should be inserted so that the point of union
will be under the surface of the ground. The earth
should be placed back around the union as soon as
the work is completed. This plan of propagation
will not give satisfactory results except on well-
drained lands.

BUDDING AND METHODS
Budding is preferred to grafting by some propa-
gators, as they are able to secure a larger percentage
of unions than by grafting. Much, however, depends
upon the locality, soil and drainage. By either
method from fifty to seventy-five per cent of success-
ful unions must be considered satisfactory. The
amateur may well be satisfied with 10 per cent.
The season for budding is when the bark will slip
well during the months of July and August. The
season is, however, often extended into September.
Many of the buds inserted late in the season remain
dormant until the following spring.
During the season, from the first of July until Sep-
tember, the atmosphere is moist, the buds are in good
condition, the sap flows freely, and better results are
secured than at any other time. The buds commonly
used are those which have been formed just pre-
viously. They should be carefully selected and only
those fully matured should be used. Oliver (Bulletin
30, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.) recom-
mends the use of dormant buds of last season, but
the method has not met with favor because of the
large amount of wood which must be sacrificed to
secure a few buds.










Annular Budding.-By this method branches or
seedling trees three-quarters of an inch or less in
diameter may be worked. It is preferable that the
stock and bud stick be of the same size, though the
stock may be somewhat smaller. From the stock
remove a ring of bark an inch or so in length. On
the bud-stick select a good bud and remove it by
taking out a ring of bark the same in size as the one
removed from the stock. Place this ring in the place
on the stock prepared for it and bandage securely
in place, using a piece of waxed cloth. The wrap-
per should be brought around the stock, so as to
cover the cut ends. The bud may be covered over
or left exposed.
In ten days or two weeks remove the bandage, and
examine the bud. A plump, full bud at this time is
an indication that the union has taken place.
Veneer-Shield or Patch-Budding.-If this method
is used, it is not essential that the stock and cion be
of the same size, and so far as size alone goes almost
any stock may be used. A rectangular or triangular
piece of bark is removed from the side of the stock.
From the bud stick cut a similar piece of bark with
a bud in its center. Place the bud in place on the
stock and wrap as in annular budding. If the stock
is considerably larger than the budstick, the piece
of bark with bud attached will have to be flattened
out somewhat before inserting.
Lopping.-Frequently buds, particularly those in-
serted late in the season, act as dormant buds and do
not begin growth until the following spring. The
top of stocks budded during June, July and August
should be lopped up to September first. It is always
well to start the buds out before growth ceases for
the season, but stocks budded after the first of Sep-
tember should not be lopped until the following
spring, just before growth begins.
One method of lopping is to cut the stock back to
within five or six inches of the buds, at first. Later,
after the bud has grown to some size, it should be
cut right back to the bud and painted over to prevent
rotting. Lopping may also be performed by cutting
the stock half off two or three inches above the bud
and bending it over. After growth starts in the bud,










it should be removed entirely, thus throwing the full
flow of sap into the bud.

THE NURSERY

The best soil for the pecan industry is a well-
drained, loamy soil, with a clay or sandy-clay sub-
soil. The land should be put in good condition be-
fore the trees or nuts are planted in it. Crops of
beggarweed, velvet beans plowed under, or a good
dressing of well-rotted stable manure will go a long
way toward putting the ground in good shape. The
ground should be plowed deeply and put in the very
best tilth.
Throughout the growing season the ground should
be cultivated frequently. Shallow cultivation to con-
serve moisture and destroy weeds is all that is neces-
sary. It is not possible to grow good trees without
thorough, frequent cultivation.
Fertilizers containing considerable nitrogen should
be used at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre.
One analyzing 3 per cent. phosphoric acid, 3 per
cent. potash and 6 per cent. nitrogen is about right
for nurseries on most Florida soils.
As soon as a block of trees is removed, it is an
excellent plan to sow the ground in one of the legum-
inous crops mentioned above, to help it to recuperate.
The frequent cultivations, so necessary for the
growth of the trees, wear out the humus in the soil.
The legumes will replace this if grown, and plowed
back into the soil, after they are dead and dry.

TOP-WORKING PECAN TREES

By far the greater number of seedling trees in the
State have not fulfilled the expectations of their
planters. The trees are not prolific, or the fruit
which they bear is small and inferior. Such trees,
if in good health and vigor, may be top-worked to
advantage. Seedlings may be planted with the ex-
pectation of top-working them, but this is not recom-
mended.
If the trunks are small, an inch or inch and a half
in diameter, the whole top may be removed at once.
If the trees are medium size the main branches may


1










be worked close to the trunk; and if large, grafts
may be inserted farther up from the trunk. Buds
may be inserted in vigorous branches. The growth
of such branches may be induced by cutting back
the original branch'of the tree in late winter. Lateral
buds will then be forced into growth and by mid-
summer the branches formed from them will be large
enough to bud. The attempt should not be made to
bud or graft over the whole top of a large tree in one
season. Only a few branches should be worked each
year, and in the course of two, three or four years,
depending upon the size of the trees, the old top can
be entirely removed and replaced by a new one of a
good variety.
Both cleft and whip-graft may be used, but the
latter can, of course, only be used on small stocks.
The objection to working very large branches is that
they do not heal readily; two and a half inches is
about the maximum in size. Large wounds should
be painted over with white lead paint to prevent
decay.
For several months after the new top has com-
menced to grow the cions or buds have but a slight
hold upon the stock, and as the growth is usually
very vigorous and the leaf surface great, consider-
able damage is frequently done by strong winds, or
by wind and rain together. To prevent this, the
young shoots may be tied together or fastened to
other portions of the stock. If this be done, care
should be taken that the twine used does not do in-
jury by cutting into the wood. To obviate this, a
piece of burlap should be placed around the branch
beneath the twine, and the twine should be removed
as soon as it has served its purpose. In some cases
the top may be supported by lashing a pole against
the side of the trunk and fastening the grafts to the
upper part of this, or a pole may be driven into the
ground at some distance from the trunk, fastened
against a branch or stub of a branch above and used
in the same way. After the top has grown suffi-
ciently to take care of itself, these posts can, of
course, be removed. Sometimes, after the top has
made considerable growth, and particularly if large
branches are allowed to develop opposite each other,
they are split apart and the whole top ruined. If










this undesirable conformation exists it is best to take
Steps to prevent splitting. A bolt having a stout
washer against the head should be placed through
two branches, as second washer placed on and the
nut screwed up. The bolt will, in the course of a
few years, be entirely covered. By this means the
tree trunks are held firmly together. This same plan
may be used to save branches which have partially
split apart. Sometimes a branch may be inarched
from one large branch to another to serve as a living
brace.
Necessarily, a considerable number of wounds are
made in top-working. Branches are removed en-
tirely, others are cut back to within a foot or so of
the trunk and grafted. Often these fail to unite.
Such stubs should not be left. If branches are
formed on them they should be cut back to the point
where these buds start; if no branches come out from
them they should be cut back to the trunk or large
branch on which they are borne. If left, they pre-
vent the healing of the wound, rot back, and the rot
is carried into and down the trunk of the tree, re-
sulting in a hollow and weakening the trunk. Smooth
cuts should be made, and these should be covered
with white lead paint to prevent decay. A little
lamp black may be added, if desired, to make the
paint nearly the color of pecan bark.

PECAN VARIETIES FOR GROWING IN FLORIDA
Among the larger varieties of pecans, Schley,
Stuart, Success, Frotscher and Pabst are probably
the most suitable for Florida conditions. Of the
smaller ones, Curtis, Moore, Kennedy, Randall and
Moneymaker are recommended ahead of others.
These varieties according to G. H. Blackmon,
pecan culturist of the Florida Experiment Station,
are grown more in this state and promise better and
more profitable crops of nuts than others. His selec-
tions are based on years of experience and observa-
tions and study, both by himself and successful
growers of the State.
Schley is said to be favored by most people, al-
though it is susceptible to scab, the most destructive
disease of the pecan in Florida. If the Schley is










grown, precautions must be taken to control scab,
which includes systematic spraying with bordeaux
mixture and the destruction or early plowing under
of foliage. It is a paper-shell nut.
Stuart, which is not attacked by scab, is popular
and widely grown. The nut is medium to large with
moderately thick shell. The tree produces fair crops
and bears regularly. It is most common in northern
and western counties of the pecan belt.
Success has not proved a complete success in all
areas of the Florida pecan belt. In places it does not
fill out well, while in others it does exceptionally
well. It has not developed scab to any extent. It
doubtless should be planted on the heavier and more
fertile soils of northern and western counties of the
State.
Frotscher has proved a good producer in certain
vicinities, shell is fairly thin, kernel plump, flavor is
fair, moderately productive, has not developed scab
to any extent.
Pabst has proved quite successful in many com-
munities in Florida. Nut is large and rather thick-
shelled, kernel is plump, flavor good. It tends to
scab. Tree is a good producer.
Among the smaller nuts, Curtis has proved suc-
cessful in many areas. Nut is small to medium, thin-
shelled, cracks well, kernel plump, quality high,
flavor excellent; very little scab as yet.
Moore is very popular with many growers. It is a
heavy producer; nuts crack out well, kernel plump,
quality and flavor are good; trees bear early; shows
a tendency to scab.
Kennedy has proved popular and productive in
eastern counties of the pecan belt of Florida. Nut is
medium sized, shell fairly thick but cracks well,
kernel plump, flavor and quality are good; scabs but
little.
Randall is profitable in central and northern coun-
ties. It is prolific, nut medium sized, shell fairly
thick, kernel plump and come out whole, quality and
flavor are good, scabs but little.
Moneymaker is popular with many growers. It
is medium in size, shell is rather thick, kernel mod-
erately plump, flavor and quality are good, good pro-
ducer, free of scab at present.









The variety one selects depends upon local condi-
tions and his or her own personal preference. One
should study soil and climatic conditions and the
characteristics of the trees to be selected from.

INSECT PEST

While it is true that the pecan has fewer insect
pest than many other trees, there are a number of
insects that, unless controlled, will cause a great loss
to the owner of the grove.
In the early life of the tree the bud moth and
twig girdler are the most serious pest. Unless con-
trolled, the young tree will make no growth. Later
these insects do not trouble so much, for the propor-
tion of buds and twigs destroyed is much smaller.
Later, the worst insects are the leaf case bearer,
shuck-worm, pecan weevil, fall web worm and wal-
nut caterpillar. All of these can be controlled by
the use of poison sprays. As soon as any damage is
noticed, specimens should be sent to the State Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and the proper spray
will be advised.

PECAN DISEASES

The pecan is subject to a number of diseases and
some have caused great damage. The diseases do
not attract all of the varieties nor are they as bad in
all sections. For this reason, before planting a new
orchard, the State Agricultural Experiment Station
or some good, reliable nurseryman should be con-
sulted as to the varieties best adapted to the section
to be planted.
Of the several diseases, pecan scab, pecan rosette,
pecan dieback, nursery blight and leaf spot are the
most common. These can be controlled by growing
immune varieties, cultural methods, or spraying if
taken in time and worked in the right way. The
great size of the mature tree makes the job of spray-
ing a much harder one than for other orchard trees.
Only power driven pumps can be relied on to do the
work in the proper manner.













WHERE PECANS ARE GROWN IN FLORIDA


The following table was taken from the Eighteenth Biennial
Report of the Florida Agricultural Department and gives the
record for the years 1924-25:


Non- Value Value
Bearing Bearing Dollars Bushels Dollars


T total . .. ....
Alachua
B aker .... ..... ..
B ay ...... .
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun ..... ...
Charlotte .........
Citrus .. .. .. ...
Clay ..... .. ..
Collier ...
C olum bia ...................
Dade .....
DeSoto
D ixie . .... ..
Duval
Eseam ia ..... ....
F lagler .....................
F franklin ...................
G adsden ................. ....
G la d es ......... .................
Hamilton
H ardee ... .. ...... ....
Hendry .
Hernando ... .....
H highlands ... ....... ..
Hillshorough
Holmes .. ....
Jackson ... .. ...
Jefferson ..... .............
Lafayette .... .....
L ake .. ........ ..
L e e ....... .............
L eon . .... ....
L evy .. .... ......
L liberty .. ....... ..
M adison ....... ...
M anatee ... ... .... ........
M arion ... ...................
onroe ........ .... ...
N assau .............. ...
O kaloosa ......................
Okeechobee ....... ...........
O ra n g e ............................
O sceola ........................
Palmn Bench
Pasco
P in ellas ...........................
P olk .......... .. ......
Putnam .. ... ...........
Sarasota ............
St. Johns ...............
St. Lucie ..
Santa Rosa ........
Sem inole .. ............
S u m ter ...........................
Suwannee .. .............
T aylor ... ......... ........
U nion ..... ... . .
V olusia ...............
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


304,057 115,766 1,181,662
24,156 7,400 12,314
107,241 3,130 348,900
431 540 500
4,409 2,595 38,058
216 1 100

3,464 543 11,035l
.. .. .. . .... .
610 67 390
1,735 7,004 44,720

12,221 3,230 14,519
17 14 690
40 96 878

5,937 11,523 144,738
22,498 7,348 31,189
... ... .... .. .
182 130 4,968
2,061 1,741 8,03()

508 90 465
248 92 1,281
.. ... .... ........ ...

. ...... .. . .. .. .
3,051 1,333 22,059
2,203 10,166 5,296

66,642 28,253 264,382
1,200 674 1,497
375 175 1,425
40 14 313
3,096 6,033 8,391


4 26 64
585 2,588 24,880
.... 1 .S ;6 .... .. a .. I. .
1,860 1,310 36,503
6,903 3,730 31,948

248 347 ..........
900 101 ................


45 96 40
244 14 122
.. 213 120
. . 3 7 ...
1,509 777 13,937


343 124 858
2,457 922 6,161
47 .. ...... 462

3,674 1,312 26,240

7;1 i 4-...
*: .,, . *., ,;, .._.- ,. :


75,395 526,123
19,584 137,088
2,278 15,946

2,5591 17.913
21 14

58S 3,97(;
........ 6i 8 ....... .7

1181 826
671 4.697

3,297 23,079
30 210
166 1,162

9,284 64,988
3,530 24,710
..... .3 1 2" i98
314 2,198
5,595 39,165

,58 406



523 3,661
714 4,998

3.612 "25,284
447] 3,129
90 030
21 147
5,027 35,189


20 140
4,152 29,064

600 4,200
2,330 16,310

382 2,674
59 413


157 1,099
18 116
120 840
3 21
820 5,740

.... 1 1..

594 4,158
1,179 8,253

710 4,970
2,008 14,056

I ,4I -




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