Volume 36 Number 3
Florida Quarterly Bulletin
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
SIPtg. Dept.-Industrial School for Boys
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Florida Quarterly Bulletin
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Ptg. Dept.-Industrial School for Boys
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
Introductory .................. .. ................................. ................. 4
S yn opsis ......................................................................... ....... 5
Personnel of Department of Agriculture .................................... 6
Beans (green) ...................... ............................. ....... ..... 7
C abbag e ................................................. .................. ......... 10
C elery ........................................ ........................ ................. 14
L ettu ce ............................................................. ......... ......... 16
P eppers ................................................................. ........ 19
T om atoes ........................................................ ...................... 21
C u cum b ers .................................................... ...................... 24
Watermelons .......................... ......................................... 27
G reen corn ............................................ .................. .... 29
W hite potatoes ............................................ .... .............. 31
Sw eet potatoes .............................................. ... ..... ......... 34
Lima beans .................................... ......... .................. 37
C antaloupes ....................................................... ................ 39
Eggplant ................................................................. .................. 46
P in eap p les ....................................................... ................... 41
G rap es ............................................................................... ... 43
Peaches .................................... ........ ........ ......... 48
Oranges ....... ................................. ....... .................. 50
Grapefruit ................... ........ ................. 54
Tangerines ................................................ ..................... 57
Straw berries ................................................. .................... 59
B eets ............................................. ...................................... 62
C arrots ........................................................... ............ . .. 63
E n g lish p eas ....................................................... ................ 63
Okra .............. ...... .. .... ... .. .................. 63
O nions ....................... ............................................ ................ 64
Squash ................................................... ................................ 65
Pecans ........................ ............... ................. 66
Sugar cane for syrup .......................... ............ .................... 68
The supply of Handbooks printed in April, 1925, has
been exhausted. The many requests by newcomers and
residents alike for such information as this Handbook
contains have necessitated a reissue. The material of
the first issue has been carefully revised, some altera-
tions and additions having been made toward greater
accuracy and authenticity.
The Cost and Fertilizer items are hardly elastic
enough to apply to conditions equally in every section
of the State. The cost to grow the crop, or to bring the
crop to maturity has been given, and in instances the
cost of packing and selling is also shown. The para-
graph devoted to Fertilizer is merely a suggestion and
not a prescription, and it is recommended that either
the local county agent or the State Experiment Station
be consulted as to formulas for various soils. Except
where indicated the cost, estimates have not included
interest on investment, taxes, selling, packing and
Advantage of a careful recheck by leading authori-
ties was gained, and references to various state and
government bulletins were made to verify the informa-
tion herein presented. For criticism and suggestions
offered on specific products we are particularly indebt-
ed to Mr. E. F. DeBusk, Mr. E. L. Lord, Mr. W. L.
Floyd, all of the University of Florida, Gainesville;
Mr. C. M. Berry, Sanford, Fla.; the Traffic Bureau,
Jacksonville, Fla.; the National Pecan Growers Ex-
change, Albany, Ga.; and others whose opinions were
The farmer is a busy man. The information he
needs should be not only available but immediately ac-
cessible. In this treatise only the most essential
points are covered, these have been treated briefly and
so indexed and abstracted that any commodity or any
special division thereof may be located without search-
ing through pages. If this Handbook fills its mission,
it will answer many questions and solve some of the
perplexing problems encountered by both the amateur
and experienced Florida grower.
Assistant Marketing Commissioner,
Florida State Marketing Bureau.
In this preparation each carlot commodity is treated
separately and embraces the following phases:
I. Varieties most commonly grown in Florida.
2. Sections and shipping points of individual pro-
3. Planting and the amount of seeds or plants re-
quired per-acre basis.
4. Fertilizer formula and quantity per-acre basis.
5. Time required for plants to yield.
6. The average yield per acre.
7. The average cost per acre or unit.
8. The average shipping season.
9. The standard container.
10. Sizes, or number in each container.
11. Arrangement of the product in container.
12. Loading methods.
13. Tariff minimum carload.
14. Months in which the highest prices occur.
15. Market preferences.
16. Florida's competition.
17. Number carloads from Florida Season 1924-25.
18. Miscellaneous remarks.
14. Seasonal Prices.
15. Market preferences.
PERSONNEL OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Miss Ullainee Barnett, Secretary to the Commissioner
Agriculture and Immigration Division.
T. J. Brooks............Chief Clerk, Director Bureau of Immigration
Phil S. Taylor ............ Advertising Editor Bureau of Immigration
J. M Burgess ..................................................... ....................... Clerk
W alter H M oon ................................................. ................... Clerk
B ennett M ayo ............................................................................... Clerk
Miss Anna Belle Wesson ............................................ Stenographer
M rs. Vera Leverett .................................................................... Clerk
Pure Foods and Drugs, Stock Feed, Fertilizer, Citrus Fruit and
Gasoline Inspection Division.
J. H. Pledger ................... Chief Clerk and Supervising Inspector
J. J. Mays ...................................................... Clerk and Bookkeeper
Miss Mary Pigott ................................. ...... Stenographer
Miss Helen Parks .................................. ........ Stenographer
J. B. Wilkerson ............................................... Inspector, Pensacola
D. P. Daniel ..................... ........ ........... Inspector, Marianna
J. B. Brinson .................................................... Inspector, M adison
Wm. McCarrel ............................................. Inspector, Jacksonville
Nat Mayo ................................................................. Inspector, Ocala
A. N. Turnbull .................................................. Inspector, Daytona
J. W Davis ..................................... ..................... Inspector, Ocala
Ellis Woodworth .................................................. Inspector, Tampa
J. B. Taylor .......................................................... Inspector, Tam pa
I. D. Stone .............................................. Inspector, Lakeland
S. W. Clark .............................................. Inspector, Punta Gorda
W. D. Eminisor, Jr. .............................................. Inspector, Miami
Field Note Division.
M iss Bessie Dam on .................................................................. Clerk
Will E. Graham ........................................ Clerk
T. E A ndrew s .......................................... .................................. Clerk
Shell Fish Commission Division.
T. R. H odges ................................................................ Com m issioner
Mrs. Anna Parker ........... ......................................................... Clerk
Miss Elizabeth Rief .................................................... Stenographer
Mrs. Lizzie Lee Leman ............ Shell Fish Clerk and Bookkeeper
R. E Rose .................................................................. State Chem ist
Gordon Hart ........................................................ Assistant Chemist
Dan Dahle ............................................................ Assistant Chemist
B. Jay Owen .......................................................... Assistant Chemist
N B. Davis .......................................................... Assistant Chemist
E. Peck Greene ...................... ...................... Assistant Chemist
Miss Muriel Rose ...................................... Clerk and Stenographer
State Marketing Bureau Division.
L. M. Rhodes ............................................................... Commissioner
M oses Folsom ................................................................... Secretary
Neill Rhodes .......................... Assistant Marketing Commissioner
R. H. von Glahn ................................................... Marketing Agent
E. M Roberts ............................................................. M ultigrapher
Bernice Halloway .. ................................... Assistant Multigrapher
W. L. Jackson ................................. ............. Stenographer
A Florida Product Shipped Every Month in the Year
The Per Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop,
1919-1925 Average Was $2,905,857.
Variety.-The principal varieties grown for commer-
cial purposes in Florida are: Giant Stringless, Ken-
tucky Wonder, Refugee, Valentine, Tennessee Flat Pod,
Wardell Kidney Wax, and New Davis White Wax.
Location.-Principal bean producing counties in Flor-
ida are: Alachua, Broward, Hardee, Hillsborough, Ma-
rion, Okeechobee, Palm Beach and Sumter Counties.
Planting.-About 60 pounds of seed beans will be re-
quired for an acre, ranging 3 pecks to 1 bushel of seed.
Cost for seed string beans about $4.25, pole $1.00.
Planted usually 3 feet by 4 inches apart.
Fertilizer.-Usually 400 to 600 pounds of fertilizer
are used to the acre, running in formula 4-8-5, 5-4-4 to
5-4-5, 5-8-4, 5-7-5, etc.
Maturity.-The average time required is about 8
weeks, the range being from 8 to 10 weeks, about 50 to
85 days from the time seed are planted. Beans planted
in March, for instance, will mature in April, May and
Yield.-Per acre basis the yield will range from 75
to 200 hampers, 125 hampers fair average of the larger
sections. The State's five-year average is 113 hampers.
At Florahome the yield per acre is averaged at 100
hampers, low mark nothing, high mark 297 hampers
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $65 to $90,
fertilizer and rental included. Figures from Marion
County indicate the cost there, per hamper, loaded
shipping point, at 75c to $1.00. It is estimated it will
cost 40c to 50c to grow the commodity, and the picking
and hamper expense will range from 40c to 50c. Figur-
ing 100 hampers as a basis for an acre's yield, it will
cost about $61.00 with rental, preparation, cultivation,
picking, packing and selling expenses allowed, in the
Florahome district. The average net returns have
ranged $2.35 per hamper, a profit of $1.74 per hamper,
$174.00 per acre. The highest net returns on a 10-acre
Putnam County lot was $377.00 per acre, $10.00 per
acre allowed for rental.
Season.-The shipping season of beans is practically
the entire year in Florida, though shipments in carlots
and to larger markets begin in December and continue
Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard con-
tainer, carriers' billing weight 30 pounds. The 7/8-
bushel hamper is very extensively used.
Loading.-Beans in hampers are loaded ends rever-
sed, usually shipped 3 high, 7 wide, 30 long, or about
450 to 500 packages per carload. If beans are shipped
under refrigeration, tariffs permit side loading ends re-
versed. Beans, as a rule, are shipped under refrigera-
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 420 hampers under
ventilation, 350 if shipped under refrigeration.
Seasonal Prices.-The highest average prices are re-
ceived in the months of November, January (latter
part), and February (early part) through March. By
taking three different seasons and comparing periods of
highest and lowest prices common to each, some rather
conservative conclusions may be formed. In the season
of 1921-22 the highest prices were had December 10
to 25, January 25 to February 15, March 1 to April 10.
Lowest prices realized in December 25 to January 25
period, February 15 to 28 and through April 10 to 20
and in May. In 1923-24 the highest period was January
20 through February, March and April 20. The lowest
December through January 20 and in the latter part of
May. In 1924-25 the highest prices were had December
1-20, February 10 to April 10, with the lowest prices in
January, April 15 to May 20, with latter December
Thus the month of March, and through April 10, was
a good period in all seasons. Period January 20 to
February 15 in all seasons was a good one. The period
December 20 to January 25 all three seasons had uni-
formly poor prices. A range of low prices prevailed
from April 15 through May in 1921-22 and 1924-25,
and latter May in 1923-24 was a poor period. February
fluctuated all seasons. These price periods are empha-
sized by Government harvesting figures showing per-
centage gathered by months, about 30% of the crop
harvested in April and only 13% in March.
Market Preferences.-There are distinct preferences
for the Valentine bean. The Red Valentine is a good
seller in most Southern markets. The states of Geor-
gia, North Carolina and in Virginia and Tennessee the
Red Valentine has sold well. Some of the central larger
markets prefer that variety, for instance Detroit.
Southern cities preferring this variety are: Atlanta,
Birmingham, Charlotte, N. C., Gastonia, N. C., Macon,
Ga., Memphis, Tenn., Nashville, Tenn., Raleigh, N. C.,
Richmond, Va., Savannah, Ga., Wheeling, W. Va.,
Winston-Salem, N. C., Lexington, Ky. The Black Valen-
tine is preferable in Chicago, Cincinnatti, Pittsburg,
Dayton, 0., Boston, New Orleans, and will sell well in
Memphis, Cleveland, and while not the best variety for
St. Louis will sell well there. The Black Valentine
ranks second in popularity to the Refugee in New York
City and Philadelphia. The Black Valentine will sell
at a discount in the markets of Atlanta, Richmond, and
many other Southern markets. The Refugee is the
leading variety in New York City, Philadelphia, Balti-
more, Fall River, Mass., Paterson, N. J., and will sell
well in Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, and fairly good in
most Southern markets. The Refugee is not the best
seller in Chicago, and Atlanta, Ga. Chattanooga, Tenn.,
Knoxville, Tenn., and many Virginia cities will take flat
varieties at a premium. Wax beans will sell in most
markets and are usually good sellers in Cleveland,
Grand Rapids, Rochester, Toledo, Montreal; not wanted
in Atlanta, St. Louis.
Several years time may change market preferences.
A new variety may be widely advertised, used for large
acreage by contractors for certain markets or because
of adaptability to soil or climatic conditions. The
varieties mentioned will at present sell as indicated
above. This does not mean, naturally, that only the
preferred variety will sell in the particular market.
Competition.-With Texas stock, also that from
Louisiana and Mississippi, Florida has competition.
The acreage harvested in Florida from November
through June is about equal the total acreage of the
early competitive States that is shipped the same
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the season of 1924-25
2,197 cars of beans.
Miscellaneous.-In Florida the green bean is more
extensively grown. West Florida growers have made
success with the Kentucky Wonder, coming on the mar-
ket in the fall months. Around Citra, in Marion Coun-
ty, the Pearl and Davis Wax are grown. The market
preferences differ slightly in various sections of the
Florida is the Largest Early Section Growing Cabbage.
Produces About One-twentieth the Total
Variety.-The varieties of cabbage planted for com-
mercial purposes in Florida are the Wakefield, Flat
Dutch, with Copenhagen and Danish in few sections.
Pointed types are more generally grown in Florida.
Location.-The principal shipping points of cabbage
in Florida are Bartow, Coleman, Evinston, Ft. Meade,
Leesburg, McIntosh, Micanopy. The counties in general
of Alachua, Hillsborough, Marion, Palm Beach, Polk
and Sumter comprise the larger areas.
Planting.-Planted 36x15 inches apart 11,592 plants
will be needed to set an acre. In instances where the
rows are wider and plants farther apart, from 6,000 to
7,000 plants are used. It will take about one pound of
Fertilizer.-The usual formula for cabbage is 5-6-4,
from half to one ton per acre of balanced fertilizer
needed. If stable manure is available, from 5 to 10 tons
per acre worked in the soil properly before the cabbages
are planted will prove advantageous. If the crop shows
tardy growth when about two-thirds grown, an appli-
cation of 150 pounds sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of
soda is advisable, though if overdone may result in
Maturity.-The average growing season is 90 to 120
days for Jersey Wakefield, average about 100 days
from the time the seed are sown. Succession about 135
days, Savoy 150 days, Copenhagen about 110 days.
Usually planted in October and January.
Yield.-The average Florida yield is 100 to 150 crates
or about 6.75 tons per acre. In the South the general
average will range around 100 crates (barrel crates)
per acre. South Carolina has the highest yield of the
early States, averaging about 8.72 tons per acre.
Cost.-The cost per acre basis will average $75.00 to
$100.00, or 35c to 50c per hamper to grow the crop.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida, beginning
in January, continues through April. The peak move-
ment is usually reached in March.
Container.-The 11/2 bushel hamper is the container
generally used in Florida, weight about 50 pounds. This
container is specified for pointed types of cabbage as
Wakefield, Winningstadt, etc. The crate, however, is
by far the most desirable. It affords a better inspection
of the contents, better ventilation or refrigeration of
the crates than the hamper, is stronger and a more
substantial carrier than the hamper, can be spaced as
desired in cars, whereas the hampers must be tightly
packed, and is not as susceptible to breakage as the
hamper. The 60-pound and 120-pound crate are used
in Florida as the standard crate, the celery crate is also
used in some sections. Southern markets prefer the
crate, and cabbage in hampers in the Southern mar-
kets will sell at a reduction under crates.
Sizes.-The number of heads per crate will range
from 30 to 40 heads. Heads weighing from 1 to 4
pounds are preferable and better sellers.
Arrangement.-In hampers, the first layer is placed
butts down, alternating to top of hamper. Butts and
faces are not joined because of a stain emanating from
the butts that mars the appearance of the cabbages. In
crates the stems are placed out, packages bulged
slightly. In bulk the stems are placed down. In crates
the large and small sizes should be placed in separate
Loading.-Cabbage is usually shipped under refrig-
eration. Barrel crates are loaded tops up lengthwise of
car, if under ventilation they are loaded on side. Hamp-
ers are supposed to be loaded on ends reversed, but this
practice is not usually adopted, shippers claiming the
contents are badly shaken down by this method. Car-
riers permit side or bilge loading. Under refrigeration
crates are given 2 inch space, are double stripped,
loaded 3 or 4 high, 7 wide, 10 long. The number of
hampers per car will range from 420 to 500 hampers
loaded on side. Danish, which is the best variety for
storage and bulk shipments, will run 12 to 14 tons per
car, should be trimmed 2 to 4 close fitting leaves, loaded
3 to 5 feet deep in the car, or to about half the height
Minimum.-Tariff minimum for barrel crates is 200.
For half barrel crates and 11/2-bushel hampers under
refrigeration the minimum is 350, under ventilation
Seasonal Prices.-The highest quotations for cab-
bage are usually had in January, February and early
March. In the 1923-24 season the months of February
(latter part), through March and April, had the high-
est price returns. The lowest market was had in Jan-
uary and early part of February. The frost of January
6, 1924, practically wiped out the growing cabbage in
Alabama, Mississippi and South Carolina, leaving
Texas and Florida uninjured practically. From Febru-
ary 1 to April 15 South Carolina made no shipments
and most of the Florida crop moved at good prices. In
the 1924-25 season the best prices were had in the
period January 10 to February 5, the lowest prices from
February 10 through the rest of season. In the early
part of 1926 prices have been very good on Florida cab-
bage, and held firm through February and March.
Market Preferences.-In an extensive study of cab-
bage types and varieties preferred in the different mar-
kets, the dealers mentioned the Wakefield variety more
than any other. Markets stressing Wakefield in crates:
Atlanta, Boston, Charleston, S. C., Cleveland, Dayton,
O., Detroit, Louisville, Ky., Richmond, Savannah,
Macon, Raleigh, Winston-Salem. The Southern mar-
kets almost without exception want Florida cabbage in
crates. Flat Dutch is the main flat type grown in
Florida, it sells well in Boston and other Northern
points as Grand Rapids, Mich., Fall River, Mass., Bir-
mingham, Ala., Memphis, Tenn. Flat type is not wanted
in Buffalo, Pittsburg, and in other markets round or
pointed types are in better demand.
Competition.-Texas gives Florida the greatest sea-
sonal competition, beginning to ship in December.
South Carolina ships from November to April. New
cabbage is on the market in April from Alabama,
Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.
California also gives competition to Florida cabbage.
For five-year average Florida harvested January
through May 6,074 acres per season, in the same period
a competitive acreage of 16,491 acres was met by
Shipments.-During the season of 1924-25 Florida
shipped 1,898 cars, including boat and express ship-
Miscellaneous.-The principal Florida outlets are
Pittsburg, eastward. Best sellers of domestic cabbage
are heads of 1 to 4 pounds in size, Danish 2 to 6 pounds.
In bulk loading cabbages of less than 2 pounds should
be thrown out. Flat types of cabbage are: The Enk-
huizen, Succession, Flat Dutch and Copenhagen round-
ish in shape. California, Louisiana, South Carolina
and Texas have two crops of cabbage, early in the
spring, second in the winter. After November 1 ship-
ments from New York and Wisconsin are from storage.
About two-thirds of the New York crop and two-fifths
of the Wisconsin crop is stored; New York supplying
about one-fourth of the total carlot movement of cab-
bage, Wisconsin one-eighth. Approximately 40 per cent
of all carlots of cabbage are taken by thirteen cities,
and it has been estimated that from 5 to 25 per cent
of the supply in the larger cities is homegrown.
Florida Now Leads All States in the Production of
Celery. California and New York Rank Second
and Third, Respectively.
Variety.-The principal varieties of celery grown in
Florida are Golden Self-Blanching, Special and Green
Top. The New French strain has not proved satisfac-
tory at Sanford and sells at a discount under other
Location.-The celery industry of Florida may be
said to be centered at Bradenton and Sanford, with ap-
proximately three-fourths the acreage at Sanford.
Planting.-Celery seed is high in price and great care
must be exercised in selection; price ranges as high as
$35.00 per pound. The plants are set 30x3/2 inches
and 60,000 plants will be required for one acre. The
plants should be transplanted when about 5 inches
high. At Sanford the celery is set in single rows, at
Bradenton mostly two rows to the bed.
Fertilizer.-The usual formula is 5-5-5, and about 2
to 4 tons per acre given in 3 or 4 applications. Nitrate
of soda can be supplemented on the basis of 100 to 200
pounds per acre at each application of 5-5-5 while the
crop is growing.
Maturity.-From the seedbed stage to gathering
time, about 6 months will be required.
Yield.-The yield per acre will average in the princi-
pal districts 650 to 750 crates per acre. Florida's yield
per acre 5-year average is double that of California.
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $400.00 to
$600.00 to grow the crop.
Season.-The season proper begins around January
1st and continues through May to June 10. The peak
movement is reached in March.
Container.-The 10-inch crate, dimensions 10x20x22.
Sizes.-Sizes will range from extra large 21/-dozens
to small 10-dozens, per crate. The 4s and 6s are usually
the preferable sizes and are the best sellers.
Arrangement.-Celery is placed in the crates tops
up. A crate of 3s would have 4 layers with 9 stalks in
each layer, 4s would have 5 layers with 10 stalks in
each layer, 6s would have 6 layers with 12 stalks in
each layer. When washed the celery is tied in bunches
of 1 dozen stalks each and often wrapped in oil paper.
Loading.-Crates are loaded in the car on edge with
tops up, running lengthwise the car 16 long, 7 wide, 3
high and double stripped. The usual load per car is
336 crates, the minimum of 350 crates not being loaded
because 336 allows better refrigeration. When the
celery is shipped precooled the minimum is generally
loaded. Celery is always shipped under refrigeration
in carlots, some precooled at Sanford. Leading ship-
pers declare that an initial icing with precooled celery
is more satisfactory than full tank refrigeration en-
route minus the precooling. With precooling the mini-
mum load can be complied with safely.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 350 crates.
Seasonal Prices.- In the season of 1921-22 highest
prices were obtained January 20 to February 10, March
1 to 10, and March 25 to May 1. Lowest February 15
to March 1, and March 10 to 25. In 1923-24 the best
prices were had March 1 through April 10, lowest prices
January 20 to February 25. In the 1924-25 season best
price period was February 10 through March 20, and
April 10 to 25. The lowest prices were realized Jan-
uary 20 to February 10, March 20 to April 10. Thus
March, with few exceptions, was a good month all three
seasons. All April in 1921-22 was good month, first 10
days of April in 1923-24 and the last 20 days in 1924-25
were also good. The last half of February in 1921-22
and the first half of February in 1923-24 were weaker
periods. The January 20 to February 15 period in
1923-24 and 1924-25 was a weak one and the last days
of March in 1921-22 and 1924-25 were also weak.
Market Preferences.-Larger markets expressing a
preference for sizes 4s and 6s are Baltimore, Boston,
Chicago, Cincinnatti, Detroit, New York, Pittsburg
and St. Louis. Other markets, including Southern
points, range in size preference from 21/2-dozens to 8
and 10-dozens. In seasons of high prices or scarcity,
the smaller sizes as 8s are in better demand. Practi-
cally all markets stated their preference for "Golden
Heart" or "Golden Self Blanching."
Competition.-The season in California is slightly
ahead of Florida's in celery, beginning in October
around the 15th, continuing through March. In addi-
tion to California's competition, storage stock also com-
petes with Florida celery.
Shipments.-New York and Chicago are the largest
receiving markets of Florida celery. In 1923, from
January to April 21, New York City received 989 cars
and Chicago received 686 cars of Florida celery. In
the season of 1924-25 Florida shipped 8,143 carloads
Miscellaneous.-Celery has been as little advertised,
perhaps, as any Florida product and it would seem,
therefore, that the potential celery market has been
hardly recognized. Twice as much celery was consumed
in 1923 as in either 1918 or 1919. Miscellaneous
shipments from Florida other than Bradenton and San-
ford sections will range around 275 cars per annum.
It is safe to figure the net value of celery to Florida
growers at $5,000,000.00 according to figures released
from the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Lettuce Crop
Seven-year, 1919-25, Average is $1,644,000. The
Per Crate or Hamper Farm Value Same
Period Basis, $1.23.
Variety.-The varieties of lettuce grown in Florida
are Big Boston, Cream Butter, Romaine and Iceberg.
The principal variety in Florida is the Big Boston, Ice-
berg very little grown, mostly around Winter Garden
and spots in Marion County. The nights in Florida
are hardly cool enough for Iceberg, it is stated by lead-
Location.-Principal sections are Sanford and Man-
atee. The counties of Manatee, Marion, Orange and
Seminole are the leading lettuce producing areas.
Planting.-Plants are set 14x14 to 16x16 inches.
About 30,000 plants will be needed for an acre basis.
Fertilizer.-On the average the fertilizer formal
for lettuce in Florida will run 5 per cent ammonia, 5
per cent phosphoric acid, 5 per cent potash. Two ap-
plications are necessary, the first about two weeks
before the plants are set out, the second about two
weeks after setting the plants. From 1/2 to 21/2 tons
will be required. Stable manure or cottonseed meal
can be used to advantage.
Maturity.-Big Boston and other varieties will ma-
ture within 55 to 60 days from time of planting to har-
vesting. Iceberg variety will mature within 60 to 70
days after the seed are planted.
Yield.-The five-year average yield in Florida is 254
hampers per acre, though at Bradenton and Sanford
600 to 700 crates to the acre are claimed, as high as
700 to 900 crates having been produced.
Cost.-It will cost between $125 and $175, an aver-
age of $150, to produce an acre of lettuce.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins
around Thanksgiving and continues through March.
Two crops are often made at Sanford, setting out and
harvesting taking place in the same fields. Alachua
and Marion counties have been specializing on Iceberg
the last few years, the crop is harvested in March and
Container.-The standard containers in Florida are
the 11/2-bushel hamper and New York crates,
hampers being gradually discarded. Crates are com-
ing. It is practically impossible now to sell Florida Big
Boston lettuce in hampers in the Southern cities in
competition to the papered, iced California crates.
Crates will eventually be the standard lettuce con-
tainer in Florida, particularly for the Iceberg type.
Sizes.-The container will hold 24 to 40 heads of let-
tuce, a range of 2 to 4 dozen.
Arrangement.-In hampers the heads are placed
stems down, faces up, and the order of butts to butts
and faces to faces is maintained in the placing of lettuce
in the container. If the butts are allowed to touch the
heads, a stain emanating from the butts mars the ap-
pearance of the faces. In crates the butts are placed
out or down, arranged so that tops show when the
crate is opened.
Loading.-Lettuce in hampers is loaded on the sides
almost entirely, carriers permit side loading if the ham-
pers are stacked not more than 4 high. The loading
runs 3 high, 7 wide, 30 long, ends reversed. If carriers'
rules are observed, shippers load on side 4 high, 16
long, 7 wide, though 6 high is occasionally loaded. The
usual number of hampers will run from 420 to 610,
400 to 500 an average. If crates are used they must
be loaded on edge and properly braced and stripped.
Lettuce is always shipped under some form of refrig-
eration. Some is precooled at Sanford and Winter
Minimum.-Tariff minimum for 1 /.-bushel hampers
or crates under ice is 350; for hampers of bushel capa-
Seasonal Prices.-The highest prices in 1921-22
were had in latter February and March. Lowest
prices in latter December, through January, early Feb-
ruary and early April. In 1923-24 the highest price
period was November, February, March and early
April, while the lowest period was December and Jan-
uary. In 1924-25 highest prices were had December 1
to 12, January 25 to March 20; lowest prices in effect
December 20 to January 25, and March 20 to 31.
Thus, common to these three seasons, most of Feb-
ruary, particularly the latter part, and March had the
highest prices. And the lowest prices began in Decem-
ber, especially the latter part, and continued through
Market Preferences.-Some of the largest markets
handling Big Boston to advantage are Boston, New
York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Dayton, Fall River,
Paterson, N. J., and Southern markets are Savannah,
Raleigh, Richmond, Wheeling, in crates. Markets ex-
pressing preference for Iceberg, Northern and South-
ern, are Atlanta, Birmingham, Buffalo, Cincinnatti,
Cleveland, Toledo, Augusta, Macon.
Competition.-California's competition is the strong-
est to Florida shipments of lettuce. The competition
from Texas is more pronounced in January through
March, although the usual Texas acreage is slightly
over 1,000 acres.
Shipments.-Florida shipped during the season of
1924-25, 1,561 carloads.
Miscellaneous.-There is some difference in the ship-
ping seasons at Bradenton and Sanford. In 1923, for
instance, the heaviest movement from Seminole Coun-
ty was in December, from Manatee in January. The
first of California's lettuce from the Imperial Valley
moves in December. The first car of precooled lettuce
ever moving from the Imperial Valley was shipped
from El Centro on March 14, 1923. By the last of
March three-fourths of the lettuce movement from the
Imperial Valley is completed, the Los Angeles district
coming in for competition after March. The bulk of
the Imperial Valley lettuce is moved in December, Jan-
uary and February.
The Per Annum Average (1923-24-25) Acreage of
Florida Peppers Was 3,307; Production 1,303,333
Bushels; Yield Per Acre 396 Bushels;
Variety.-The most common varieties for shipping
purposes grown in Florida are the Ruby King and
Location.-Ft. Myers, Manatee, Sanford and Winter
Garden sections, Manatee, Orange, Arcadia and Wau-
chula sections and in general the counties of Broward,
Lee, Palm Beach and Seminole.
Planting.-Peppers are planted 36 by 20 inches
apart, average number required for an acre 9,000 to
Fertilizer.-From 1 to 21/2 tons of fertilizer should
be used on an acre of land, the formula of 4-6-3 is
popular. In addition light applications of nitrate of
soda each month while the plants are bearing will be
Maturity.-The growing season is about 90 to 110
days from plant stage, or about 125 to 150 days from
the time seed are sown.
Yield.-The average yield per acre is from 175 to
200 crates, though as high as 300 crates are known in
Cost.-The average cost per acre of growing peppers
is $100. Average from $75 to $125.
Season.-The shipping season of peppers is rather
prolonged in Florida. Beginning around November
15th, the season drifts through May.
Container.-The standard pepper crate, 1114x14x
22, inside measurements.
Sizes.-The pepper crate will hold from 190 to 270
peppers of the above varieties.
Arrangement.-The only arrangement in the con-
tainer that can be carried out without too much labor
in packing is to alternate the butts and crowns on the
top and bottom layers.
Loading.-The crates are loaded 6 wide, 4 high, 16
long, ranging 360 to 576 crates per carload. Shipper's
average probably range 420 to 448 crates, though 350
to 400 seems the preference in some Florida sections.
They are always shipped under refrigeration.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 420 crates. Iced,
Seasonal Prices.-An analysis of the average prices
in 1921-22 season reveals the highest trend in Decem-
ber through early January then March and early April,
while the lowest trend occurred latter January through
February, then April and May. In 1923-24, the high-
est market was in early December, latter January
through May; the lowest market latter December,
early January and June. In 1924-25, highest prices in
January and February with March and April even
higher; lowest prices in May and June.
So from the above we see that the highest prices of
the three seasons began in January, continuing through
April in 1923-24 and 1924-25, with March and early
April also high in 1921-22, and May in 1923-24. Early
December was good in both 1921-22 and 1923-24, Jan-
uary had fluctuating prices. The lowest prices common
to all three seasons occurred in May and June, except
May in 1923-24. February was a weak month in 1921-
22 as was the latter part of April.
Competition.-Cuban peppers compete with Florida
stock. Also importations from the Bahamas give some
competition. California can be depended upon to have
peppers on the market in competition to Florida offer-
Shipments.-Florida shipped during the season of
1924-25 1,209 cars.
Rank Second in Importance of All Vegetables in the
United States. Second in Shipments From Florida,
Total Express and Carlot, Season of 1924-25.
Variety.-The varieties most commonly grown for
commercial purposes in Florida are Livingston Globe
(comprising 90% of the Florida acreage), Early De-
troit, Stone, Bonny Best, Beauty, Earliana and Florida
Special. The Florida Special and Early Detroit are
favorites in the Ocala section.
Location.-Among the principal shipping points are
the following: Larkin, Manatee, Palmetto, Goulds,
Homestead, Perrine, Pompano, Ocala, Okeechobee. The
East Coast area extends from Boynton to Florida City.
Planting.-In some sections 3,600 plants are used to
set an acre, others as high as 6,000. Set from 2 to 3
feet apart in rows 4 to 6 feet wide. Stakes used are
5 feet in length.
Fertilizer.-From half to one ton per acre will be
necessary, given in three applications. The average
formula runs 5-6-5 or 5-7-5.
Maturity.-From the time the seeds are planted until
the fruit is picked, an average of 100 days will be re-
quired. The Livingston Globe about 114 days. The
growing season from plant stage will range from 60 to
90 days in the best sections.
Yield.-The yield per acre will range from 75 to 200
crates. An average of 160 crates is about correct,
though in principal sections an average of 250 crates
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $80 to $140,
depending upon the amount of fertilizer used, cost of
labor, etc. The cost per crate put on the market is esti-
mated at $1 per crate, about 60c for picking, packing
and marketing. The contract price ranges from 90c to
$1.25 a crate, $10 per acre given in advance.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins De-
cember 15th and runs to June 20th. The East Coast
will move the heaviest portion of the crop by April 1st,
though St. Lucie County in 1924 did not begin ship-
ments until about 10th of April. The Okeechobee sec-
tion will begin in April, around the 15th or 20th and
continue through May. At Palmetto and Bradenton the
season usually winds up about June 1st. Ocala section
will begin in May and continue through June, ordin-
Container.-The 6-basket crate is the standard car-
rier in Florida. Dimensions 10x11x22 inches inside
Sizes-Arrangement.-The various sizes or packs
and the arrangement in the baskets follows:
72s, choice, placed 6 flat, 2 layers, 3 and 3 along sides
of baskets (12 per basket).
84s, choice, placed 6 flat, 3-3, bottom layer; 8 flat, 4-4,
96s, choice, placed 8 flat, 2 layers, 4-4, along sides
108s, fancy, placed 6 flat, 3-3, bottom layer; 12 edged,
4-4-4, top layer.
120s, fancy, placed 8 flat, 4-4 bottom layer; 12 edged,
4-4-4, top layer.
144s, fancy, placed 12 edged, 2 layers, 4-4-4, length-
wise of basket.
180s, choice, placed 15 edged, 2 layers, 5-5-5, length-
wise of basket.
216s, placed 18 edged, 2 layers, 6-6-6, lengthwise of
Loading.-Tomatoes are loaded in cars tops up, 7
rows wide, 4 high, 16 long. The shipper's average will
range around 448 crates, at times loaded 448 to 560
crates; average maximum loading about 500 crates.
Tomatoes are usually shipped in ventilated or dry re-
Minimum.-The tariff minimum on tomatoes is 420
crates per car under ventilation, 350 under refrigera-
Seasonal Prices.-Highest prices in 1921-22 season
came in February, April 25 through June 10; lowest
prices in March, April 1 to 20, and latter June. In
1923-24, the best market was from April 1 through
May, and the lowest from latter January, through
February, March and June. And in 1924-25 the Jan-
uary prices were strong at end of month, highest mar-
kets being January 20 to February 10, March 10 to
April 20; lowest prices January 1 to 20, February 10 to
March 10, April 20 to June 10.
Comparing the three seasons, the best prices com-
mon to all were had in April, generally a good month.
In 1921-22 and 1923-24, May was a peak month yet a
weak month in 1924-25. In 1921-22 February was a
good month and in 1924-25 January 20 through early
February was good. The lowest prices all seasons were
realized in June. March in 1921-22, 1923-24 and first
half of month 1924-25 was one of the weakest months.
Parts of January in 1923-24 and 1924-25 had very
weak prices, as did the latter part of February. In
1921-22 prices had begun to advance by April 20, while
in 1924-25 prices had begun to decline by that date.
Market Preferences.-The Livingston Globe is a pop-
ular variety of Florida tomatoes in Boston, Chicago,
Cleveland, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, St. Louis, De-
troit, Richmond, Wilmington, Wheeling, Augusta. The
Stone is a good variety for Boston, New York City,
Pittsburg, Toledo. The 6-basket carrier is standard
for Florida tomatoes and they are wanted wrapped.
Pittsburg, Chicago and St. Louis have repacked Florida
stock to a great extent the last two or three seasons.
The popular sizes run from 108, 120 to 144, 120s and
144s being preferred on most markets.
Competition.-Competition to Florida tomatoes is
rather pronounced. Mexico, from February through
April, top during February and March, is a competitor
to be reckoned with in the future. Texas, in the months
of November and December, California the entire sea-
son, practically, and the Bahamas are strong competi-
tors with average season production in Florida.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the 1924-25 season
Miscellaneous.-The seven-year (1919-1925) aver-
age per annum valuation of Florida tomatoes is $9,-
053,714, according to Government figures.
The Average Acreage of Florida's Cucumber Crop and
the Average Yield Per Acre is Greater Than That of
Any Competitive State. The Per Annum Value of
the Florida Crop, 1919-1925 Average, was $4,268,142.
Variety.-The principal varieties produced in Florida
are the Davis Perfect and Improved White Spine.
Location.-The most important shipping points in
Florida are: Center Hill, Bushnell, Ocala, Romeo, Wau-
chula, Webster, Williston, Winter Garden. The counties
of Alachua, Hardee, Lee, Levy, Marion, Orange and
Planting.-From 2 to 3 pounds of seed will be suffi-
cient for one acre, about 1,450 plants per acre; hills
5 to 6 feet apart each way.
Fertilizer.-Usually 1,600 pounds of fertilizer will
be required for an acre of cucumbers running in for-
mula 5-4-5 or 5-4-6. Marion County seems to prefer
5-8-6. Half of the amount should be applied ten days
before the seed are sown, remainder ten days before
the first blooms occur. If the crop indicates lack of
growth, 200 pounds to the acre of nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia can be used as a top dressing.
Maturity.-Extra early varieties will mature as early
as 50 days from the time seeds are sown, though the
average will be about 75 to 90 days.
Yield.-In normal seasons the average yield per acre
in leading sections will range from 250 to 275 crates,
though 296 to 300 crates are often produced. The
yield per vine will range from 30 to 60 cucumbers; as
high as 100 to 120 have been gathered.
Cost.-It will cost from $80 to $100 an acre to pro-
duce cucumbers in Florida. Authorities in Marion
County estimate from $75 to $100, in St. Lucie County
about $80 seems the cost.
Season.-Cucumbers are shipped mostly by express
as early as November, running heavier in December
and will continue through March to June. Most of the
carlots are moved in the period March through June.
Container.-The standard container is the square
bushel crate, and the preferable container, though the
bushel hamper is used extensively, especially in small
express shipments and where the hampers are left over
from other crops.
Arrangement.-The product should be arranged
evenly in the containers, ends reversed when necessary
to balance the layers. There are from 4 to 8 dozen in
the crate, average about 6 dozen.
Loading.-Bushel crates are loaded tops up, length-
wise the car, properly braced and stripped, running 5
high, 6 wide, 25 long; and 4 high, 5 wide, 25 long. The
usual number of crates per carload will range from 400
crates up to 572. Cucumbers are almost without ex-
ception shipped under ventilation. Occasionally in
extremely hot weather or when decay is likely, they are
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 420 crates ventila-
tion, 350 under refrigeration.
Seasonal Prices.-To trace the price levels through
several different seasons is an interesting study. In
1921-22 the highest market period was in January,
February, early March; lowest November, December,
latter April through May. In 1923-24, February,
March, April and early May were top months, while
December through early January, latter May and June
were low months. In 1924-25, November, December
through February with limited supplies and March
through April 20 was the best period; lowest prices
beginning around April 20 continued through May.
Glancing at this summary, it is noted supplies were
very scarce all three seasons from latter January,
through February, March and early April and prices
consequently the highest of the season. And common
to 1921-22 and 1924-25 the lowest prices occurred latter
April through May, in 1923-24 latter May and June
(season late accounts for prices varying in May).
Market Preferences.-Markets do not specify parti-
cular types so much as they demand and prefer long
green cucumbers running from 4 to 8 dozen per crate
Competition.-Florida has competition with Mexico,
Cuba, Bahama mostly in the fall months. With Texas
Florida has competition in December. The Florida
season frequently overlaps the season of Alabama and
the Carolinas and an overlap of any appreciable length
of time is usually disastrous to Florida, for instance
the season of 1923-24 demonstrated this condition very
clearly. From the seven closest competitive States
Florida usually has an acreage equal to her own with
which she must compete. If the harvesting is late or un-
duly prolonged, the season will not be profitable.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the season of 1924-
25, 2,087 cars. The season as a whole was a poor one
because several plantings were made account of, the
cold snaps which threw the final crop some six weeks
late and placed it on a level basis with states farther
north. Many cars were left in the fields.
Miscellaneous.-There is naturally a wide difference
in the cost per acre, amount of fertilizer used can make
the price vary greatly, the rainy seasons can increase
labor costs and other elements can force the same fields
to cost more than the preceding seasons. The figures
above regard the conservative averages, there are ex-
tremes upward and downward.
The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Watermelon
Crop Seven-year 1919-25 Average is $2,034,428.
The Per Annum Farm Value Per Car
Same Period $267.00.
Variety.-The leading varieties in Florida are the
Tom Watson, Irish Grey, Thurmond Grey, and Excel,
and various varieties for home use only such as the
Florida Favorite, etc.
Location.-Among the larger shipping points are:
Bowling Green, Graceville, Leesburg, Live Oak, Ocala
and northwest Florida.
Planting.-From 2 to 3 pounds of seed will be re-
quired for planting an acre. Planting distances vary
to some extent, some growers plant as closely as 8 by
10 feet, others 10 by 12 feet, 10 by 10 is a popular
planting distance. It is said Texas growers secure the
greatest returns per acre and their distances average
12 by 12 feet.
Fertilizer.-From 600 to 1,000 pounds to the acre is
necessary to fertilize properly. The usual formula is
Maturity.-The average growing season is 80 days,
or from 70 to 90 days.
Yield.-The average yield will be on the basis of one
carload to every 31/ acres of melons. Best growers
will harvest a carload to every 2 acres.
Cost.-The State average cost per-car basis will
range from $60 to $75. Estimates vary greatly. In
Suwannee County estimates were made at $20 an acre,
while in Marion County $50 an acre was set as a fair
average. From $50 to $75 a car should cover any sec-
tion in Florida.
Season.-The first cars of melons from South Florida
sections begin in early June, some seasons earlier. The
season continues through July 15.
Container.-With the exception of the few early in-
dividual melons shipped by freight and express in cab-
bage or barrel crates, the melons are shipped in bulk
Sizes.-Sizes of Florida melons shipped commercially
range from 16 to 42 pounds, though nothing under 18
pounds should be shipped, and an average of over 34-
36 is unusual. A 32-pound average will have a car ca-
pacity of 924 melons loaded 4 high, 11 wide, 21 long.
A 25-pound average car will have a capacity of about
1,300 melons loaded 4 and 5 deep, 12 wide, 21 long.
Loading.-Watermelons are loaded in bulk, shipped
from Florida without exception in straight cars under
ventilation. An average car of 25 pounds and over
should be loaded only 4 deep, under 25 pounds may be
loaded 5 deep. Melon shippers will be required to use
excelsior as bedding material in Florida this season
(1926). Excelsior runs about 80 pounds to the bale
and about 2 bales will be required to bed one car of
watermelons. A suitable dry bedding material should
be used to serve as a cushion and ventilation for the
melons, and storm paper along the sides of the car is
advisable to prevent bruising and defacing. Many
growers load the doorways with melons parallel to the
ends of the car or perpendicular to the melons loaded
lengthwise the car, this method serves as a brace to the
melons loaded in the ends of car.
Minimum.-The minimum specified by carriers is
Seasonal Prices.-The first melons bring the highest
prices always, hence in May and June the highest mar-
kets are reached. If crops were rather early or very
late for one year the best markets might vary, but al-
ways the first cars of melons bring the highest prices,
and thus May and June are ordinarily the months of
Market Preferences.-Of the Florida watermelons.
the Tom Watson is the preferable variety in most of
the markets, Northern and Southern. Large melons
are in demand and command higher prices.
Competition.-With California during May there is
slight competition, and heavy competition with Texas,
Alabama and Georgia in the months of June and July.
The Carolinas are also in the deal by July. Florida
should have her crop moved by the Fourth of July if
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the Season of 1924-
25 6,668 carloads of watermelons.
Miscellaneous.-The Florida crop should be moved
before the shipments become heavy in Georgia. If the
Florida crop were on the market by June 25th, more
money would be made by the growers. After the Fourth
of July the Market will usually decline from $50 to
$100 per car on Florida melons. The trade feels that
after July Fourth the Florida melons are sun baked,
leftovers, blistered and as the freight is higher than
from Georgia and the melons not as fresh they state,
the price is downward after July Fourth.
In individual melons the total production in 1923 of
the early and late melons was 41,155,000, compared to
70,759,000 in 1922 and 61,660,000 in 1921.
Ranks Low in Carlot Shipments From Florida.
Variety.-The varieties common to Florida shipping
centers are Stowell's Evergreen, Crosby's Early,
Adams Early, Long Island Beauty and Country Gen-
tleman. Field corn is grown in some instances and
shipped for roasting purposes, though the kernels have
a tendency to harden more quickly than the sweet
Location.-The principal localities in Florida are:
Starke and Lawthy, Hampton, Sparr, Anthony. The
counties in general of Alachua, Hillsborough, Orange
and Osceola might be included.
Planting.-If planted in drills from 10 to 18 pounds
of seed will be required. There are about 12,000 stalks
Fertilizer.-Two applications should be given sweet
corn, 200 pounds before planting, 200 pounds about
tasselling time. The fertilizer will run in formula
Maturity.-The early varieties will mature within
70 days, though the average will be around 80 to 90
days. Adams Early, or the extra early sweet varieties,
will be ready for gathering in about 65 days from time
seed are planted.
Yield.-The State average will not be greater than
30 to 40 crates per acre, though some leading counties,
Marion for instance, claim 100 crates per acre.
Cost.-The cost per acre of growing corn will aver-
age $25 to $40 provided the land does not require heavy
Season.-The shipping season beginning in May con-
tinues through July.
Container.-The eggplant and pepper crate is the
most common container used in Florida. On account of
high heating qualities of corn, crates should be used
with as much opening as possible to allow free air pas-
sage. Tariffs specify the bushel crate. In Orange
County the 10-inch celery crate is in demand. Tariff
specifications of the cabbage and green corn half-barrel
crate, inside measurements, 12 11-16 x 12 11-16x22
Sizes.-The average crate will hold 4 to 6 dozen ears.
Arrangement.-Usually the ears are placed ends re-
versed running crosswise the crate.
Loading.-Sweet corn is loaded tops up, lengthwise
the car, ranging 5 high, 6 wide, 20 long to 4 high, 5
wide, 20 long. Crates must be properly braced or strip-
ped and the spacing between crates and rows is very
important. Ample air channels must be allowed, for
green corn is the most difficult commodity shipped from
Florida to properly refrigerate. Body icing is recom-
mended where the practice does not conflict with car-
rier's tariffs. The minimum load should be the- goal
instead of the maximum. Shippers load 320 crates to
various amounts, the average is about 350 crates per
Minimum.-Pepper crates and bushel crates, tariff
minimum 420 under ventilation, refrigeration 350.
Seasonal Prices.-Highest prices are realized dur-
ing May and June.
Competition.-Texas is the main competitor in ship-
ping green corn.
Shipments.-Express shipments and total carlots
would probably range from 100 to 150 carloads per
Miscellaneous.-Green corn matures rapidly, the sea-
son is brief, and the commodity requires prompt and
experienced handling. Full tank refrigeration should
be used. From 1 to 3 tons cracked ice thrown over top
of crates is indispensable to carry green corn to North-
ern markets from Florida. Corn loaded in this man-
ner sells at a premium over corn with only regular
bunker icing. Corn not loaded in this manner usually
shows red ink sales. Pre-cooling in ice-house or regu-
lar establishment is beneficial before loading in the cars
if body icing is not used.
Ranks First Among the Most Important Food Plants
in the United States
Variety.-In the Hastings-Elkton potato belt the
Spaulding Rose is the variety most commonly grown.
In South Florida and certain sections of West Florida
the Bliss Triumph is the favorite.
Location.-The early crop of Bliss Triumph potatoes
iomes from the Okeechobee section. Following, Fed-
eral Point ships the earliest cars from the Hastings
belt. The main crop of Florida comes from Bunnell,
Hastings, Elkton and Federal Point, this territory em-
bracing the area as East Palatka, Spuds, and other out-
Planting.-For planting one acre of Irish potatoes
11 or 12 bushels of seed will be required, 400 to 600
Maturity.-Potatoes on rich soil properly cared for
will mature in 60 to 100 days with average climatic
Yield.-At Hastings the average normal yield per
acre is 45 barrels. In the 1924 crop, the yield was
only 31-33 barrels. In 1925, the yield was not far
from 50 barrels per acre in the Hastings section, some
growers reporting as high as 80 barrels per acre.
Cost.-It will cost from $100 to $125 an acre to grow
Season.-The shipping season at Hastings begins
about March 20 and continues to June 1. The Okee-
chobee Section shipments begin in February and con-
tinue through April. West Florida with Escambia,
Holmes and Santa Rosa Counties will follow the Hast-
Container.-The standard container in Florida is the
barrel of eleven pecks or 165 pounds. The sack is
not used in any section except West Florida, where,
following the custom of Alabama shippers, the sack is
used in shipping Red Bliss.
Sizes.-The U. S. No. 1 round varieties have a
diameter of not less than 17/8 inches, long varieties
1%/ inches. U. S. No. 1 small range in size from 11/ to
17/8 inches. The U. S. No. 2, a diameter of not less than
Loading.-Potato barrels are loaded on the bilge in
most sections, though end loading is specified in tariffs.
The bilge loading affords an easier means of placement.
The average number of barrels per carload is 185,
ranging to 200. Loaded on bilge they are stacked 3
high, 3 wide, 20 long. Potatoes are always shipped
under standard ventilation. Loaded on ends they are
stacked 2 high, 5 wide and 20 long. If sacks are used
they are loaded about 400 sacks per car. A row 3
sacks wide, tops up, is placed along each side of the
car, second layer crosswise the first loaded flat and
binding the two outer sacks; third layer placed flat on
top of second layer, flush against side of car. This
affords space along side the car and in center for ven-
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 30,000 pounds re-
gardless of sacks or barrels.
Seasonal Prices.-The highest prices are realized
with the earliest shipments, the Okeechobee section
tapering into the Hastings shipments. The best prices
on Hastings potatoes are realized during April to May
20. The main belts often suspend digging potatoes
when markets reach low levels and when one state is
supplying most of the new potatoes, markets then im-
Market Preferences.-Three varieties are very popu-
lar: Spaulding Rose, Red Bliss and Cobblers. The
Spaulding Rose is shipped in greater volume from
Florida than any other variety and is generally speak-
ing the most popular. If there is a difference in pref-
erence it may be said that the eastern markets pre-
fer the Spaulding Rose and the central markets, as St.
Louis, Chicago, Cincinnatti, Indianapolis, the Bliss
In the 1925 season, New York received 1,568 cars of
Florida potatoes, next was Philadelphia with 747 cars
and third Chicago with 409.
Competition.--The old crop determines in a measure
the trend of Florida potatoes. The lower valley of
Texas also affords competition. Often the Hastings
crop overlaps the early crop of South Carolina and Ala-
bama, which proves serious as the freight differential
is favorable to these two States compared to Florida,
and new potatoes are obtainable more quickly and
Shipments.-During the 1925 season Florida ship-
ped 5,054 cars of potatoes, figures including all boat,
rail and express shipments.
Miscellaneous.-In general, the price of potatoes is
downward when the production exceeds 4 bushels per
capital, upward when production is not more than 3.2
bushels per capital. The per annum farm value of Flor-
ida's early Irish potato crop, 1919-25 average, is $4,-
781,714. Per annum farm value per bushel, same pe-
riod average, is $2.23, per barrel $6.13.
Florida Markets 40 Per Cent of Its Crop of Sweet Po-
tatoes Within the State. The Average Annual Value
of the Florida Sweet Potato Crop (1919-25 Average)
is $3,204,000. The Average Value Per Acre $111.21.
Variety.-The varieties most commonly grown in
Florida are the Porto Rico, Big Stem Jersey, Triumph
and Norton Yam.
Location.-The counties of Alachua, Columbia, Gads-
den, Jefferson, Sumter and Leon grow the principal
crop of sweets in Florida.
Planting.-Set 30 inches apart each way, 7,000 plants
will be needed for an acre; 14 to 18 inches apart in
drills 30 inches apart, 10,000 to 12,000 plants will be
required. To produce enough slips for an acre, from the
first pulling 6 to 8 bushels of seed are needed; if
two or three pulling are made, 3 to 4 bushels will be
Fertilizer.-In Florida stable manure is used very
largely, 5 to 10 tons per acre producing very good re-
sults. The soil is so varied that a formula will not be
attempted. From 600 to 1,000 pounds of fertilizer per
acre will be needed without the stable manure. The ap-
plication should be made at least a week before setting
Maturity.-From 100 to 120 days will be required for
the potatoes to mature from the time the plants are set.
Usually 6 to 8 weeks will be required for the plants to
reach transplanting stage from the time seed are bed-
Yield.-The average yield for the State is 90 to 100
bushels per acre. In leading sections a yield of 100 to
250 or 300 bushels per acre is not uncommon.
Cost.-The cost on an acre basis will vary, depend-
ing largely upon fertilizer and labor. It is conservative
to estimate $40 to $50 an acre as an average cost.
Season.-Florida shipments begin early in July and
continue through December 15th, banked or storage
stock lasting through the following February. Alabama
opens the Southern season in July with Triumphs, fol-
lowed in about three weeks by North Carolina with the
Yellow Jersey stock. In North Carolina the peak
movement occurs in August. The Southern varieties
are shipped heavily in September, October and Novem-
Container.-In Florida the 100-pound sack is most
commonly used. Results have been fairly satisfactory
because of the comparatively short distance the pota-
toes are shipped. Bulk loading is used in Florida,
though the practice, except for short hauls, should not
be followed. The bushel crate is used somewhat, also
the hamper. Tariffs provide for the bushel hamper
and the 5-peck crate. Bulk loading should not be at-
tempted for distant markets. Government investiga-
tion has shown, on the basis of reports from 76 repre-
sentative dealers in the East, that the barrel is the
most popular container, hamper second, bushel crate
third, bushel basket and the 5-peck crate at the bottom
of the list. In Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin and
Michigan the hamper is the most popular, barrel
second. In the West there is no preference between
the bushel hamper and basket. In the South the sack
and bulk are most popular, then the crate, barrel and
hamper last. In Tennessee hampers are used almost
exclusively. The Gulf Coast States are the principal
users of the sack.
Sizes.-U. S. No. 1 Grade gives 13/, and 31/2 inches
as the minimum and maximum sizes of the diameters
of sweets, the length not less than 4 nor greater than
10 inches, but the length may be less than 4 inches if
the diameter is 21/4 inches or more. U. S. No. 1 Large,
31/2 inches in diameter and up.
Arrangement.-The top layer should be representa-
tive of the pack always. In facing the crates most of
the potatoes should be placed with their longest diame-
ter parallel to the sides of the crate. In hampers, round
stave baskets and barrels, they should be placed mostly
at right angles to the rim of the package.
Loading.-In bulk, false flooring or bedding of pine
needles or substitute material should be used as protec-
tion in cold weather and to prevent bruising. In bushel
baskets loading runs 4 high (36-foot car), 6 wide and
26 long, each cross layer double stripped. From 500 to
600 packages are loaded per car. Hampers, ends
should be reversed and loaded not more than 3 high,
500 to 700 the range, 600 the average in the South.
Cloth top barrels loaded on ends always, ranging 160
to 200 barrels per car. Loaded on bilge the alternating
straight method is better, 2 rows of 3 barrels each plac-
ed end to end across the car, leaving space half the
length of a barrel between the last barrel and the side
of car; second layer is begun by placing one row of 3
barrels on top the first 2 rows, starting from the op-
posite side of car. The plan is continued in alternate
rows. Advantages: Ventilation channels alongside of
the car; and permits the barrels to place better so that
the bilge is not resting directly upon the bilge of the
Minimum.-The carlot minimum is 30,000 pounds.
Seasonal Prices.-The best prices come in early May,
June and July shipments, prices ranging on the first
sales around $10 per barrel and narrowing down to $6
to $8 per barrel as the season advances. Within the
State, the best prices are obtained in July and early Au-
gust, and from the storage or cured stock in February
to April 15th. December to April best demand.
Market Preferences.-In Florida, Georgia and Ala-
bama the Porto Rico sweet potato is the preferable
variety and the best seller. The Nancy Hall is pre-
ferable west of the Mississippi river, Central or North-
ern markets the most popular of Southern varieties
(north of Tennessee and east of the Mississippi river).
In Eastern markets north of Virginia and east of Ohio,
the dry-fleshed Jersey is preferable.
SCompetition.-Florida's chief competition lies with
Alabama and Georgia, also North Carolina in August.
Miscellaneous.-The basis for prices in Florida is per
100 pounds or per bushel of 56 pounds. Out of the 197
cars shipped from Florida in 1923-24, 90 per cent were
Porto Ricos. The total movement of Southern sweet
potatoes is divided as follows: 57 per cent Porto Ricos,
35 per cent Nancy Halls, 5 per cent Triumphs, 3 per
cent others. Over 95 per cent of the crop is harvested
in September, October and November, and half the total
carlot shipments move in these months. Of the 1920
crop, 3.7 per cent total production in Southern States
were shipped in carlots, 19.3 per cent sold in small lots,
37 per cent consumed on farms, 9.5 per cent fed to
livestock, 5.5 per cent reserved for seed, 25 per cent
lost by freezing and other causes. The 11 States of
Southern section produce over 83 per cent of the total
crop, market less than 30 per cent of total carlot ship-
ments. The 4 States of the Northeastern section pro-
duce less than 10 per cent of the total crop, but ship
more than 65 per cent total carlots. In the 11 Southern
States, there is a combined capacity of 1,087 commer-
cial storage houses.
Report of the State Department of Agriculture for
1923-24 Gives Florida a Production of 52,689
Crates Valued at $87,857.
Variety.-Lima beans (so called "butter beans")
are not raised as extensively for shipping purposes as
the green or bush beans. The Fordhook Potato Lima
and for home use the Mottled butter bean are popular
Location.-The heaviest production counties are
Dade, Palm Beach, St. Lucie, Sumter and Marion.
Planting.-Lima bush beans are planted with rows
about 3 feet apart, seed usually 6 to 12 inches apart in
the drills. About 5 pecks will be required for an acre.
Fertilizer.-According to the Department of Agri-
culture, the average acre of beans will require 1,700
pounds bone meal, 300 pounds muriate of potash or
100 pounds nitrate of soda, 400 pounds acid phosphate,
100 pounds muriate of potash.
Maturity.-The lima bean requires a longer period
to reach maturity than the ordinary bush bean. They
will mature within 75 to 85 days from the time seed are
Yield.-The report of the State Department of Agri-
culture for 1923-24 gives Florida an average yield of
135 crates per acre.
Cost.-It will cost approximately $75.00 to grow an
acre of lima beans.
Season.-Lima beans are shipped from Florida most-
ly in the spring months, or from March through May.
There is a fall crop used mostly for home purposes.
Container.-The 7/8-bushel and bushel hampers are
the containers used in Florida. Hampers with tight
staves should not be used, for a space is essential for
ventilation. The 6-basket tomato crate, or nine tomato
baskets filled with lima beans packed in pepper crates,
has been used satisfactorily in some sections.
Sizes.-Arrangement.-There are no established
practices in packing as to sizes or the arrangement of
limas in the container. Pods not well filled out and very
small ones should be thrown out as well as discolored
or diseased pods.
Loading.-Under refrigeration tariffs specify that
the first layer of hampers must be loaded on ends re-
versed and hampers extend from end to end of car,
completely filling the floor space, all other layers to be
loaded in the same manner, tops against tops and bot-
toms against bottoms. An exception permits beans
to be loaded on sides with ends reversed, tops against
tops and bottoms against bottoms, not more than 4
Minimum.-Tariff minimum per carload under re-
frigeration is 350 hampers.
Seasonal Prices.-Prices are affected to some extent
by offerings of green peas and string beans. Ordinarily,
the best prices are had for the first offerings in March
Miscellaneous.-Florida lima bean shipments are
made almost entirely by express with a considerable
amount being shipped in mixed cars under refrigera-
tion. Inasmuch as the crop has scarcely reached car-
lot proportions, carriers have not separated shipments
of lima beans and accurate figures are not available
as to the amount shipped from Florida.
The Per Annum Production Seven-year (1919-25) Aver-
age in Florida is 92,000 Crates, Average Per
Annum Valuation $149,000.
Variety.-The Rocky Ford types are grown in Flor-
ida. The Rocky Ford was developed at Rocky Ford,
Colo., from the old Netted Gem variety. Other varie-
ties produced from the original strains are Salmon-
tinted, Pollock, Burrell Gem, etc. Experiments are
under way in Florida with the Honey Dew and Casaba
Location.-Marion and Sumter counties are the
heaviest producers of Florida cantaloupes. Some of
the principal shipping points are Oxford, Sparr and
Fertilizer.-The usual formula is about 5-8-5. Manure
is good, about 500 pounds per acre applied to the hills
or 1,000 to 2,000 pounds applied to the hills and broad-
casted will be helpful.
Maturity.-From the planting of seed (usually latter
part of January and in February), about 80 days will
be required before harvesting period.
Yield.-The state's average yield per acre is about
85 crates. In the best sections a much higher yield
Cost.-It will cost from $60 to $75 an acre to grow
Season.-About 35% of the Florida cantaloupes are
marketed in May, remainder in June, as an average
Container.-The standard container in Florida is the
"cantaloupe crate," dimensions 12x12x22 inches.
Sizes.-The most common sizes are 36s and 45s. The
"Jumbo pack" usually consists of 36, 33, 27 or 23 can-
taloupes, according to size, but the pack is usually 36.
The "pony pack" has 54 melons, sometimes 45.
Arrangement.-The pack of 45 has 3 rows with 5
melons in each row, packed end to end-never placed
side to side-exactly filling the space of the crate. There
are 3 layers in the crate, or when filled, 3 rows wide
and 3 rows deep. The 54 pack is similar to the 45 ex-
cept that 6 melons are placed in each row instead of 5.
The 36 pack rows are 4 long and packed diagonally.
Loading.-The average number of crates per carload
in Florida is around 360. Tariff regulations provide:
Crates in the first layer must be loaded tops up length-
wise the car with proper space between rows for cir-
culation of cold air, crates extending from end to end
of car completely filling the floor space. Each cross
layer must be securely stripped, strips to be nailed to
the front and back of each crate.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 400 crates.
Seasonal Prices.-The earliest arrivals of cantaloupes
on the market command the highest prices, naturally
competition is then the weakest. May prices are best.
Market Preferences.-Inasmuch as the Florida can-
taloupe is at present largely of one type the preference
would at first glance seem to be for that type, and yet
the acreage and distribution is comparatively so small
that a market preference may be established for a
variety not yet grown in Florida. A sound melon that
is attractive, well packed and properly graded, and ripe
enough to eat is what the market demands. Uniformity
in grade and containers is paramount.
Competition.-Georgia cantaloupes will be in the
market by the latter part of June and from that time
competition is the greatest. California, Georgia, and
Texas shipments are moving in June and by July the
Carolinas are shipping in volume.
Shipments.-Straight carloads from Florda will
range from 25 to 50 cars per annum.
Miscellaneous.-The appearance of any fruit deter-
mines to a very great extent its sales value. If the
cantaloupe is displayed in a damaged crate, if the
melons are decayed or dirty and the pack slack, and the
product ungraded as to size and quality, the more at-
tractive pack will be selected by the buyer every time.
All poorly netted, dirty, misshapen, immature, bruised
or diseased cantaloupes should be discarded at the
The State Department of Agriculture Figures for 1923-
24 Gives the Production of Florida Pineapples at
150,606 Crates Valued at $439,519.
Variety.-The principal varieties in Florida are the
Red Spanish, Smooth Cayenne, Abakka, Pina Blanca,
Porto Rico, Sugar Loaf.
Location.-Location of the pineapple belt in Florida
may be given as follows: A narrow section of high
land about 25 miles long, fronting on the Indian River
in St. Lucie and Martin Counties, and extending from
Ft. Pierce to Stuart.
Planting.-About 14,000 plants will be required to
put out an acre of pineapples.
Yield.-The average yield per acre is 225 to 250
Cost.-The pineapple is a perennial plant, will cost
about $450 an acre the first two years, about $100 an
Season.-The shipping season of Florida pineapples
begins at Stuart about May 20th, continuing through
Container.-The standard container for pineapples is
the crate 101/2x12x33 inches, inside measurements, the
half barrel crate.
Sizes and Arrangement.-The packing sizes and ar-
rangement in the container are as follows:
18s placed from ends, 3 layers, 3 wide, crowns re-
versed each layer.
24s placed from sides, 4 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
30s placed from sides, 5 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
36s placed from sides, 6 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
42s placed from sides, 7 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
48s placed from sides, 6 layers, 4 wide, crowns even,
Ordinarily the 18s, 24s and 30s are fancy grades,
while 36s, 42s and 48s are choice.
Loading.-Crates are loaded in the cars tops up
lengthwise the car, 7 wide, 5 high, 10 long, double strip-
ped. The average number of crates per car is 350, the
range going from 300 to 385 crates to the carload.
Pineapples are usually shipped either under ventilation
or in dry refrigerator equipment.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 300 boxes or
crates. Rate based in cents per crate or box.
Seasonal Prices.-The season is rather brief and
hence it is rather difficult to set aside any part of the
season as being best. The best prices are obtained
usually in May and June.
Competition.-The Cuban, Porto Rican and Califor-
nia pineapples offer competition to Florida stock. The
canned goods from Hawaiian Islands indirectly com-
pete with Florida pines.
Shipments.-In the season of 1924-25 Florida ship-
ped 318 carloads.
Miscellaneous.-From the best authority the history
of the pineapple industry started about 1860, and it
had a very flattering increase until about 1909. Then
the industry tumbled until 1917 almost as fast as it
had developed. A certain wilt caused by a species of
nematode assisted in the decline of the industry. Of
course soil, transportation and markets have each got-
ten a share of the blame for the partial downfall of the
pineapple crop. The industry has gradually advanced
since 1917 from express shipments to over three hun-
dred carloads per annum. With experiments under
headway that show promise of controlling the wilt, it
is believed the industry has a possibility to exceed even
the million box production of long since.
According to the State Department of Agriculture, the
Florida Grape Crop 1923-24 Was 902,348 Pounds
and Valued at $107,160
Variety.-Beacon, R. W. Munson, Carmen, Armalaga,
Concord, Ives and Ellen Scott. It is advisable to con-
sult the State Experiment Station at Gainesville, Fla.,
before selecting commercial varieties to plant.
Location.-Some of the principal grape growing
counties in Florida are Lake, Volusia, St. Johns, Hills-
borough and Franklin. Considerable commercial plant-
ings are under way in Bay, Calhoun, Washington and
other West Florida counties.
Planting.-The rows should be about 10 feet apart
and the plants in the rows from 8 to 12 feet apart. It
will take from 330 to 550 plants per acre.
Fertilizer.-If commercial fertilizer is used, the first
application should be made in the spring when vines
begin to grow. When the fruit is about half developed.
And when the fruit is gathered. About 1,000 pounds
of good commercial fertilizer containing 5% nitrogen,
8% phosphoric acid and 10% potash would be an aver-
age application per-acre basis. Stable manure used in
addition to commercial fertilizers is helpful to a vine-
Maturity.-Will bear second or third season after
planting. Cutting should be made in December, taken
from the mound in February or March, and by Decem-
ber the cuttings may be transplanted in the vineyard.
The vine should produce the second year, and be in full
bearing by the third season.
Yield.-A fair yield for a vineyard at five years
would be 4,000 pounds per acre.
Cost.-It will cost about $200.00 an acre to set a
vineyard. Including the cost of clearing and prepara-
tion of land, approximately $250 per acre.
Season.-The shipment of Florida grapes will begin
in early June and continue through September. The
earliest Florida grapes appear on the market two or
three weeks earlier than California grapes.
Container.-Several types of containers are used in
Florida. The 6-basket crate was one of the first used,
later a 3-basket crate was tried. The 4-basket lug,
commonly known as the California type, has gained
in use the last season in Florida. In the larger
grape-shipping sections outside Florida the Climax
12-quart baskets have been found fairly satisfactory.
In loading this type carlots, baskets with wooden
handles are more rigid and make a more compact load
than those with wire handles. Bushel hampers and
baskets are not satisfactory as grape containers.
Loading.-If grapes are shipped in 6-basket carriers
under refrigeration, the crates must run lengthwise
the car, first layer loaded tops up, properly spaced be-
tween rows, crates extending from end to end of car,
completely filling the floor space. Each cross layer
must be securely stripped. If Climax baskets of 12-
quart size are used they should be loaded 7 high; 4-
quart size 12 high; 2-quart size 15 high. All other
packages to a height of not less than 48 inches nor
more than 60 inches from the bottom of the first layer.
All types of grape packages carry best when loaded by
the straight system with all packages loaded end to
end. If Climax baskets are used, those touching the
bulkhead of car should be loaded crosswise to fill the
vacant spaces, but at no other place should the packages
be so arranged.
Minimum.-Carlot minimum weights have not been
established in Florida to date. If 6-basket carrier is
used, the minimum of 350 crates per carload would
Seasonal Prices.-Naturally, grapes bring the best
prices as do all products, when the supply is scarce. In
the months of June and July, Florida grapes have the
least competition and consequently the best prices in
Market Preferences.-Florida growers have hardly
established a distinct market preference in the market
centers because of several varieties shipped in limited
volume. In the Northern markets, the Concord is a
popular variety. Chicago prefers the standard blue
varieties, Champion, Moore and Concord. New York
City: Concord, Niagara, Delaware and Catawba. Phila-
delphia: The Concord is the most popular grape and
commands a premium over.the Niagara and Delaware
(not a Catawba market). Boston: The Delaware and
Concord. In Baltimore and Washington: The Niagara
and Delaware. In Cleveland and Buffalo: The Dela-
ware and Catawba. In Minneapolis, St. Paul, Cincin-
natti, Columbus and Indianapolis: The Champion,
Moore and Concord. Generally speaking, the Concord
is the favorite variety in most Southern markets.
Competition.-In Florida markets, California grapes
furnish the most serious competition. Shipments to
Northern markets from Florida must meet in addition
to local supplies there, competition with the early
grapes from California. The main grape-producing
states market their crops in September and October, by
which time the Florida crop can and should be
Shipments.-Grape shipments from Florida have not
so far been tabulated separately from other commodi-
ties and accurate Florida shipments are not available.
Production figures would indicate a total carlot move-
ment, including express, of less than 50 cars.
The Three-year Average Acreage (1923-25) Was 1,510
Acres Per Annum, Producing an Average of
470,666 Bushels Per Annum, Valued at an
Average of $1,004,666 Annually.
Variety.-The Black Beauty is the variety generally
grown in Florida. Other varieties are Florida High-
bush (mostly on high land), New York Improved Spine-
less and Early Long Purple.
Location.-Lee county leads all others in the pro-
duction of Florida eggplant, St. Lucie, Hardee and Lake
next in order. Some of the larger shipping points are
Ft. Myers, Wauchula, Bowling Green and Ft. Pierce.
Planting.-Six ounces of seed in the seedbed will be
sufficient for an acre; set 3 feet apart in rows 5 feet
apart about 3,000 plants per acre will be required.
Fertilizer.-From 1 to 2 tons of fertilizer per acre
will be needed, running about 5-5-5 used in two or more
applications. About 400 pounds when plants are set,
1,000 pounds in two weeks and continued two or three
Maturity.-It will take about 4 months for the egg-
plants to mature from the setting of plants.
Yield.-The State's average of about 312 bushels per
acre is considered low by the leading sections where 350
crates would be considered low yield with 750 crates
per acre possible.
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $125 to
$150 per acre to grow eggplant.
Season.-Eggplants are shipped from Florida from
November through May.
Container.-The standard container is the eggplant
or pepper crate, dimensions 111/x14x22 inches.
Sizes.-Eggplant sizes run from 24s to 60s.
Arrangement.-Eggplants are packed in crates with
butts against the end of crate, stems and ends reversed
in each row, packed 48s 2-2 (4 layers of 12 each); 36s
2-1 (4 layers of 9 each); 30s 2-1 (4 layers: 8 in 1-3, 7
in 2-4); 24s 2-1 (4 layers of 6 each).
Loading.-Ordinarily loaded tops up lengthwise the
car, each cross layer securely stripped, 6 wide, 4 high,
16 long. Average number of crates per car 400 to 420,
ranging from 350 to 458. Usually shipped in mixed
cars under refrigeration.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 350 crates under re-
frigeration, but inasmuch as 420 crates (the tariff
minimum under ventilation) are permitted under the
ventilation rate when shipped under refrigeration, this
number is usually shipped.
Seasonal Prices.-Beginning with 1921-22 the high-
est prices were realized in the period of latter January
through February and early March; lowest prices in
early December, around the holidays, latter March,
through April and May. In 1923-24, the entire season
was good and without any serious slumps; February,
March, April and May were top months while January,
early February and June were the lowest priced
months. In 1924-25 the best prices resulted in January,
February, March to April 10; the lowest prices April
10 through May.
Selecting for the three seasons months of high and
low prices, it is seen the highest prices were had in
February and March as a rule. In 1923-24 prices were
also good in April and May. Latter January was good
in 1921-22 and all of January in 1924-25. The lowest
prices began in December all three seasons. In 1921-22
and 1924-25 the period April through May was one of
Market Preferences.-By markets it will be seen
that the dark or purple color, wrapped, medium sized
eggplants are in preference. Baltimore (28s-30s);
Boston (medium, wrapped, 24s-36s); Buffalo (wrap-
ped 24s-36s); Chicago (medium to large, purple, wrap-
ped); Cincinnatti (36s-48s); Cleveland (24s-32s, dark
purple); Detroit (24s-36s wrapped); Fall River, Mass.
(medium sizes, black); New York (24s-30s, dark pur-
ple, wrapped); Philadelphia (medium sizes, wrapped);
Pittsburg (24-36s, dark color, wrapped); St. Louis
(36s-48s, medium to large sizes).
Shipments.-Total carlot shipments from the state
will run around 150 cars year.
The Per Annum Value of Florida Peaches Seven-year
(1919-25) Average Was $317,714. Production
Average Same Period Was 131,428 Bushels.
Variety.-Some of the Florida varieties are Jewel
(East and South Florida), Waldo; the Carmen Elberta
(West Florida); and the Florida Gem, Pallas, Angel.
Location.-Principal peach producing counties in
Florida are: Putnam, Escambia, Volusia and Lake.
Some of the shipping points are: Crescent City, Edgar,
Seville, DeLand, Umatilla, Lake Geneva.
Planting.-If peach trees are set alone in the field,
they are usually set about 15x20 feet. It will take
about 150 trees to the acre.
Fertilizer.-Truck and cover crops grown in the
orchard for the first two or three years is advisable.
After the trees are planted they should have about 2
pounds of balanced fertilizer scattered around each
tree, 4 pounds the second year scattered around the
tree beginning about one foot from the tree, the third
year 4 or 5 pounds of fertilizer scattered broadcast
around each tree and extending as far from the tree
as the branches do.
Maturity.-Trees set in the orchard will bear some
the second year, heavier the third year and should be
in full bearing in the fourth year.
Yield.-The yield per tree is on the average about
two-thirds of a bushel, or about 100 bushels per acre.
Cost.-To set an acre of peaches will cost around
$100.00 the first year.
Season.-Florida peaches are on the market in May
Container.-Florida uses the 6-basket (6 baskets
of 4 quarts each) carrier more than any other for
peaches. The baskets in the crate are placed in two
tiers of 3 baskets each with a dividing tray in the crate.
Georgia also used the 6-basket crate, for perhaps 25
years, but it is being replaced to some extent by the
round stave basket.
Sizes.-The 6-basket crate will range from 108 to
306 peaches. The standard pack for Georgia peaches,
showing the sizes and arrangement, is given:
108s, 2-1 pack, bottom layer 6, middle layer 6, top
138s, 2-1 pack, bottom layer 8, middle layer 7, top
162s, 2-1 pack, bottom layer 9, middle layer 9, top
180s, 2-2 pack, bottom layer 10, middle layer 10, top
204s, 2-2 pack, bottom layer 10, middle layer 12, top
258s, 3-2 pack, bottom layer 13, middle layer 15, top
306s, 3-3 pack, bottom layer 15, middle layer 18, top
Loading.-Crates should be loaded tops up, properly
spaced between rows, crates extending from end to
end of car, each layer securely stripped. The carriers
should be loaded 7 rows wide, 4 layers high and 17 long.
Shippers load from 448 to 476 crates to the car (6-
Minimum.-Tariff minimum on the 6-basket carrier
is 350 crates refrigeration.
Seasonal Prices.-The Florida crop is a rather short
one. The earliest peaches to the market bring the best
prices, consequently May is the best month for local
Competition.-Georgia peaches are strong competi-
tors to the Florida peaches and Georgia has peaches in
Florida markets in June.
Shipments.-A few carlots of peaches have been
made from Florida, but the shipments move mostly by
express in local lots. Carriers have not reported peaches
in carlots separately in Florida and accurate shipment
information is not available.
The Five Most Important Countries in the Order of
Their Production Are United States, Spain, Italy,
Variety.-The principal varieties grown in Florida
are the Parson Brown, as the earliest; Valencia, as the
latest; and the following: Pineapple, King, Lue Gim
Gong, Washington Navel, Ruby and Homosassa. About
two-thirds the California crop are Navels, one-third
Location.-The location of the citrus fruit area in
Florida is rather broad. It might be compared to a
trapezoid whose laterals extend from Florida City to
St. Augustine, St. Augustine to Cedar Keys, Cedar
Keys to Sanibel Island, and from there to Florida City.
Trees.-The number of orange trees per acre will av-
erage 64 in checked rows. Planting distance 25x25 feet,
or 30x30 feet.
Fertilizer.-There is a wide variation in citrus for-
mulas, ranging 2-8-10, 3-8-3 to 10, and 4-8-3 to 8.
Maturity.-The average date at which the bloom dis-
appears and the fruit is set is March 20 to April 1. The
growing season from this period until the fruit is pick-
ed can be quickly ascertained from the following table:
The Homosassa ripens Nov. 25, remaining on trees until
Jan. 15. The King ripens February 1 to April 30. The
Lue Gim Gong ripens in March, remaining on trees
until April-June. The Ruby, December 15, on trees to
March, shows blood February 10. Parson Brown ripens
October 20, on trees until March. Pineapple, December
10, on trees to March. Valencia ripens March 10 to June.
The Washington Navel, October 20, to January. In
general, 6 to 8 months will-be required from the bloom
stage to time fruit is ready to pick.
Yield.-The average yield per tree is 1.9 boxes,
about 125 to 135 boxes per acre. This average includes
young bearing trees and neglected groves. The aver-
age of groves in good bearing and properly cared for
will be around 5 boxes per tree.
Cost.-The cost per box on the tree ranges from 55c
to 92c, an average of 72c. The cost of picking, hauling,
packing, including container and loading is from 85c to
91c per box. In normal seasons the standard charges
are: picking 8c, hauling 8c, packing and loading 75c,
selling about 18c, total cost f.o.b. shipping point $1.09
box. The average cost per box of graded, packed
oranges loaded in the car will normally range $1.60 to
$1.75 per box, and this season around $1.95 box. Prof.
E. F. DeBusk, Gainesville, Fla., figures the production
cost per acre of 7-year trees, including cultivation,
spraying, fertilizer and miscellaneous at $222.24.
Season.-The shipping season lasts about 7 months,
beginning in October and continuing through May with
scattering shipments through June. Season in general
is considered Sept. 15 to July 1.
Container.-The bulge pack is used in Florida,
Sizes.-Arrangement.-The sizes of oranges and the
arrangement in the crates are as follows:
80s, diameter 41/4 inches, 4 layers, 10 each.
96s, diameter 4 inches, 4 layers, 12 each.
112s, diameter 31/ inches, 4 layers, 14 each.
126s, diameter 31/4 inches, 5 layers, 13 each, 1-3-5, 12
each, 2 and 4.
150s, diameter 3 inches, 5 layers, 15 each.
176s, diameter 27/8 inches, 5 layers, 18 each, 1-3-5, 17
each, 2 and 4.
200s, diameter 23/4 inches, 5 layers, 20 each.
216s, diameter 21/2 inches, 6 layers, 18 each.
252s, diameter 28/8 inches, 6 layers, 21 each
288s, diameter, 21/4 inches, 6 layers, 24 each.
324s, diameter 2 inches, 6 layers, 27 each.
The most popular sizes are those ranging from 126s
Loading.-Oranges are loaded in the cars crates on
end, 2 stacks high, 6 rows wide with the three rows
along each side of car having the bulge or top of crates
facing the center or opposite side of car and usually 30
boxes long. Crates are spaced and securely stripped,
bottom layer double stripped and top layer usually
single stripped. The average number of boxes per car
is 360, range from 360 to 432 boxes per car. Usually
dry refrigerator equipment. In the old days the pre-
vailing opinion has been that citrus did not need re-
frigeration, though of late this opinion has lessened.
Oranges under refrigeration are increasing. When de-
cay is apparent or evident, and during the warmer
periods of the season oranges are shipped under ice.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 300 boxes. An
average of 80 pounds per box is estimated on oranges,
a tariff minimum of 24,000 pounds per carload. In bulk,
rate in cents per 100 pounds.
Seasonal Prices.-Highest prices begin with the ear-
liest sound fruit, immediately preceding the holidays,
and late in the season when supplies are more nearly
exhausted. There is always a lull following the heavy
Christmas shipments lasting usually until January 10.
At the close of the season prices improve, and ordinarily
the months of October, November and early December
are the best ones.
Market Preferences.-The California crop of oranges
is largely of two varieties, the Washington Navel and
the Valencia. At the 1916 Citrus Seminar at Gaines-
ville, Fla., a committee of prominent growers and nur-
serymen was appointed to recommend a few selected
varieties of oranges and the following were chosen:
Parson Brown, Homosassa, Valencia, Pineapple, Lue
Gim Gong. In determining market preference for
oranges two factors must be considered: What the
trade wants and what can be most profitably grown.
Thus in the elimination of varieties the preferred sorts
will result. First of all, the trade demands not only a
fruit of the finest edible qualities, but also a fruit that
is of itself fancy bright and attractive, well graded and
Competition.-The main competition is with Cali-
fornia, although Porto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Honduras,
Japan and Italy, give us a share of competition though
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the Season of 1924-
25 total all express, rail and boat shipments 26,209
carloads. From Jan. 15 to April 29, 1924, Florida ship-
ped about 15,900 cars of oranges, of which 14,616 were
sent to some 300 cities in the United States and Canada,
mostly to the South and Northeast with less than 2 per
cent west of the Mississippi river. In the season 1924-
25, from Oct. 22 to April 15, 1925, 23,525 carloads were
shipped, a total of 583 cities being shown in destination
records. Of destinations of 19,239 cars, approximately
58% went to the eastern and northeastern states, 18%
to middlewestern and northern states, 22% to southern
and southeastern states and a little less than 2% to
Canada and states west of the Mississippi river.
Miscellaneous.-Of the 1923-24 crop New York alone
took about one-fifth of Florida's total output. At the
following points precooling plants are operated: Bear-
dall, Brissons, Arcadia, Florence Villa, Kissimmee,
Miami, Mt. Dora, Oak Hill, Orlando, Winter Garden
and Winter Park.
The Average Annual Exportation of American Grape-
fruit for the Three-year Period Ending June 30,
1924, Was 233,000 Boxes, of Which Canada
Took All Except 11.2%.
Variety.-The varieties of grapefruit in Florida are:
Duncan, McCarty, Marsh Seedless, Silver Cluster,
Triumph and Walters.
Location.-A triangle with the base running from
St. Augustine to Cedar Keys with the apex at Miami
would with the exception of Lee County include the
principal grapefruit producing area in Florida.
Trees.-There is an average of 49 grapefruit trees
to the acre in Florida. Planting distance 30x30 feet.
Fertilizer.-The area is so widespread in Florida and
the soil so varied that a definite certain formula cannot
be prescribed to apply to even a portion of the acre-
age. However, the following are leading formulas in
the State: Range of 2-8-0, 3-8-3 to 3-8-10, 4-8-3 to
Maturity.-The average growing season or time at
which the bloom disappears, to the picking or harvest-
ing period, is about 8 months. Some of the earlier
varieties will yield within 7 months. The Triumph
fruits ripen November 1, will remain on trees until
January. Silver Cluster December 1, will remain on
trees until April. Marsh Seedless February 1, will re-
main on trees until May. McCarty February 1, on
trees until June. Duncan December 20, picking con-
tinues until April. The Walters November 10, picking
continues until April. Trees in good soil and well cared
for will come into bearing about the fourth or fifth
year with usually a quarter or half box per tree. Trees
will usually reach full production about the tenth year.
Yield.-The yield per tree State's average is about 2
boxes, or about 100 boxes per acre. This yield is an
average and includes the poorest as well as the best
groves. The best groves will produce a much higher
yield per acre than the figure given.
Cost.-It will take about 85c to 90c a box to pick,
haul, pack and load fruit in cars. From the best
authority at Gainesville figures indicate that it will cost
on an average in Florida 52c per box to produce grape-
fruit on the tree, about 25% less than oranges. Total
cost per box packed and loaded cars from $1.40 to $1.60.
The cost of planting and caring for a Florida grove
until bearing age will range from $225.00 to $275.00
per acre. The annual cost of maintaining a grove after
it reaches bearing age is estimated by experts to range
from $75.00 to $150.00 per acre.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins about
October 15, though express and few carlot shipments
begin as early as Sept. 15. The season will continue
late, running through April.
Container.-Bulge pack, crate 12x12x24, estimated
carrier weight of 80 pounds each.
Sizes-Arrangement.-The various sizes per box and
the arrangement of the pack as follows:
28s diameter 6 inches 3 layers, 5 fruits in 1 and 3, 4
fruits in layer 2.
36s diameter 51/ inches 4 layers, 5 fruits in 1 and 3, 4
fruits in 2 and 4.
46s diameter 5 inches 5 layers, 5 fruits in 1-3-5, 4 fruits
in 2 and 4.
54s diameter 43/4 inches 6 layers, 4 fruits in 1-3-5, 5
fruits in 2-4-6.
64s diameter 41/ inches 4 layers, 8 fruits each.
70s diameter 41% inches 5 layers, 9 fruits in 1-3-5, 4
fruits in 2 and 4.
80s diameter 41/8 inches 4 layers, 10 fruits each.
96s diameter 4 inches 4 layers, 12 fruits each.
The most popular sizes are the 54s, 64s, and 70s.
Loading.-Boxes are loaded on end 2 high, 6 wide,
28-30 long, tops facing the center of car from each side.
The third layer, if any, must be placed on sides length-
wise the car. The usual boxes per car 28 long 336, 30
long 360, ranging from 360 to 432 boxes to the carload.
The fruit is usually shipped in dry refrigerator cars or
ventilator cars, although there is a great increase every
season in the number of cars of citrus shipped under
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 24,000 pounds or 300
boxes at the estimated weight of 80 pounds per box.
In bulk the weight minimum is the same, rate figured
in cents per 100 pounds.
Seasonal Prices.-The highest prices on grapefruit
are realized with the first shipments in October, then
in November and early December.
Market Preferences.-Grapefruit varieties are not
as distinct in their characteristics as oranges. Florida's
competition with California grapefruit is negligible
compared to the orange competition. So the leading
Florida varieties are those preferred in the terminal
markets. The trade requires fancy fruit, properly
graded and attractively packed.
Competition.-There is competition to Florida grape-
fruit from Arizona, California, Texas, Porto Rico and
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the season of 1924-25
20,814 cars of grapefruit.
Miscellaneous.-There is not too much grapefruit if
it were properly distributed. If all the United States and
Porto Rican grapefruit were consumed by only the
United States and Canada, there would be 3 1-3 grape-
fruit per annum per capital or 1 grapefruit every 109
days. According to Government figures just released,
the per capital consumption of grapefruit in the United
States is 6.5 pounds compared to only 2.5 pounds per
capital in Canada. Florida grapefruit enjoys a rather
wide distribution. From Jan. 15 to April 29 some
8,433 cars of grapefruit were distributed among 473
points, about 16% went to States west of the Missis-
sippi river, and practically every State received Florida
grapefruit. In the 1924-25 season, final destinations
were obtained on 14,228 carloads of Florida grapefruit
and these cars were distributed among 405 cities. Most
of the Canadian larger markets received grapefruit
from Florida. Florida can give some better distribu-
tion to grapefruit than oranges because California's
production will hardly go higher than 500 cars per an-
num. The United States supplies 94% of Canada's
Rank Third in Florida Fruit Shipments.
Variety.-The Dancy is generally used the entire
citrus section, practically the only variety grown com-
mercially in Florida.
Location.-The location is comparable with that of
grapefruit and oranges. Seasons of 1923-24 and 1924-25,
the three leading counties in shipments were Polk,
Orange and Volusia; the heaviest individual shipping
stations were Orlando, DeLand and Winter Haven.
Trees.-The average number of trees per acre is 66.
Set about the same distances as oranges 25x25 feet.
Maturity.-Eight months are required for tangerines
to mature. The bloom disappears and the fruit is set
March 20th to April 1st, the Dancy ripens November
25th to December 25th, remaining on trees until about
Yield.-The yield per tree is 1.7 boxes on the average.
Number boxes per acre will range 110 to 115, State's
average, including all bearing groves.
Cost.-The average cost per box on the tree, accord-
ing to the best authority on the question, is 81c. Tan-
gerines will cost about 10% more on the tree than
oranges. Picking 20c, hauling 8-12, packing 90c. Cost
f.o.b. shipping point unsold $1.18. Total cost loaded
cars will range $1.85 to $2.00 per box.
Season.-Tangerines are ready for shipment about
Thanksgiving, lasting about three months as an aver-
age season. Through the months of November, Decem-
ber, January, February.
Container.-The standard container in Florida is the
strap or box, usually spoken of in terms of half strap,
Sizes-Arrangement.-The various sizes of tangerines
and the arrangement in the crates are as follows: (Half
48s 33/4 inches diameter 2 layers of 12 each (one side).
60s 31/2 inches diameter 3 layers of 10 each.
76s 31/4 inches diameter 3 layers of 13 each in 1 and 3,
12 in 2.
90s 3 inches diameter 3 layers of 15 each.
106s 27/8 inches diameter 3 layers of 18 each in 1 and 3,
17 in 2.
120s 28/4 inches diameter 3 layers of 20 each.
144s 25/8 inches diameter 4 layers of 18 each.
168s 21/2 inches diameter 4 layers of 21 each.
196s 23/8 inches diameter 4 layers of 25 each in 1 and
3, 24 in 2 and 4.
216s 21/4 inches diameter 4 layers of 27 each.
224s 21/8 inches diameter 4 layers of 28 each (252 size
for small fruit).
The most popular sizes and best sellers are 144s,
168s and 196s.
Loading.-Tangerines are loaded in cars, half straps,
on ends, 12 wide, 2 high, 30 long, double stripped, tops
facing the center of car (6 rows from each side.) The
usual number of half straps per carload will range 720.
The usual custom is 12 wide, 2 high, 30 long in order to
have the stacks shorter. Tangerines are usually ship-
ped in refrigerator cars, iced at times, at other times
dry refrigerator equipment used. Precooling of citrus
is considered essential in many sections.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 600 or double the
minimum of 300 on grapefruit and oranges. If the half
strap is used an estimated weight of 40 pounds is con-
sidered by carriers and one-half the regular charge on
oranges is assessed, or if the two half straps are united
the regular weight of 80 pounds is estimated and regu-
lar minimum applying on oranges is in effect. Precooled
fruit carries a minimum of 360 boxes.
Seasonal Prices.-The highest prices on tangerines
are realized in the December holiday trade and the
early stock coming in before Thanksgiving.
Competition.-California is the source of the great-
Shipments.-In the season of 1924-25 Florida shipped
Miscellaneous.-In general the above can be applied
to Satsumas, except the location. The Satsuma is pro-
duced largely in north and northwest Florida. Satsumas
are set closer together, usually 20x20 feet or 15x20
feet apart. Satsuma varieties (Owari and Ikeda) ma-
ture from October to November.
The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Strawberry
Crop Seven-year (1919-25) Average is $1,066,142.
The Per Annum Farm Value Per Quart Same
Seven-year Average is 27 Cents.
Variety.-For commercial purposes the varieties of
strawberries planted in Florida are the Missionary and
Klondyke, with the Missionary far ahead of all other
varieties in preference.
Location.-The larger and more important shipping
points of berries in Florida are: Plant City, Starke,
Hampton, Lawtey, Kissimmee, Wauchula, Kathleen,
Dover, Lakeland, Galloway. The counties of: Bradford,
Dade, Hardee, Hillsborough, Osceola, Polk.
Planting.-Strawberry plants are usually set 14
inches apart in rows that are from 30 to 36 inches
apart, single row system. Plants should be set if not
every year, at least every two years. From 12,000 to
15,000 plants will be required for an acre.
Fertilizer.-Five tons of stable manure thoroughly
mixed into the soil before planting can be well used.
About 1,500 pounds of commercial fertilizer will be
needed to the acre, and should be applied in three ap-
plications. The first application before setting, second
in six weeks, third when the first crop is setting. And
with the third application 100 pounds nitrate of soda
can be included to good advantage.
Maturity.-Strawberry plants are set in the fall,
usually September and October. They will come into
bearing within three months. Proper ripeness for
picking will depend on the distance the berries will be
shipped, but usually from three-fourths to full red color
indicates the proper stage for harvesting.
Yield.-A seven-year average yield for Florida straw-
berries (1919-25)), gives 1,888 quarts per acre. In
the best sections 2,500 to 3,000 quarts are not uncom-
mon for an acre's yield.
Cost.-If new plants are used each year, and the
average amount of commercial fertilizer is used, an
acre of strawberries will cost from $175 to $250. In
the sections specializing on berries the higher figure
seems the nearest to the actual cost. It will cost from
10 to 12c per quart to grow strawberries in the field
or from 12 to 15c per quart to produce, harvest, deliver,
and pay all overhead expenses.
Season.-In December there are express shipments
of strawberries from Florida. However the season
proper begins in January and continues through April.
Container.-Most of the strawberry shipments by ex-
press from Florida move in special pony refrigerators
of 32-qt., 64-qt., and 80-qt. capacity, the 80-qt. being
the one most used. For short distances by express
where refrigeration of any kind is not considered nec-
essary the 32-quart crate is used.
Arrangement.-The arrangement of strawberries in
the fillers is a very important step in marketing them.
Too little attention has been given this feature, and
what attention has been given has been largely in the
leading sections. Not only should the top layer consist
of firm, attractively placed berries, but the entire pack
should be as good as the top tier. The berries are plac-
ed caps on in the quart baskets, the following being the
methods employed in arranging the top layer: In the
top layer the berries are all pointed one way; toy layer
stems are placed down and tips up in the fillers; the
top layer the berries are all pointed one way; top layer
against the sides of the basket all around, points
toward the center of the basket. Neither a slack pack
nor one so tight that the berries will be bruised or
crushed, should be tolerated by the field or packing
Loading.-Strawberries in carlots should be shipped
under refrigeration always regardless of the distance.
The 32-quart crate is ordinarily placed lengthwise the
car, stacked 16 crates long, 6 crates wide, 96 crates in
the bottom tier of the car. From 150 to 200 crates are
loaded in the same manner with the stacks beginning
at the ends of the car and running toward the center of
the car. The average is apparently low, which is ac-
counted for in the ample spacing between rows and
tiers for cold air channels and proper refrigeration.
Minimum.-Under refrigeration the tariff minimum
for 32-quart crates is 175.
Seasonal Prices.-The highest prices of course are
paid for the first berries, prices ranging in dollars-
per-quart. In 1921-22 the entire season was re-
markably good without any sharp declines from
January to April 15. The 1923-24 highest prices
were had in early December, good in January and Feb-
ruary, and March. April was the weak month, and the
holidays were weaker. In 1924-25, the highest price
period was from December to January 10, February
20 through March 20. Lowest prices this season oc-
curred January 10 to February 20, March 20 through
Comparing price fluctuations of the three seasons the
highest prices all seasons were in December except
around the holidays, continuing good in January. In
1921-22 January through April 15 prices were uniform.
March all seasons was good month as was the latter
part of February. The lowest prices occurred around
the holidays and during the latter part of April.
Market Preferences.-Klondykes and Missionaries
are preferable on most of the larger Northern markets.
Competition.-In Louisiana we have the greatest
competition, which State begins to ship in a small way
in February, shipments increase in March and reach
the peak in April. By March there are scattering ship-
ments from Alabama, Texas and Mississippi in addition
to those from Florida and Louisiana.
Shipments.-In the season of 1924-25 according to
carriers records, Florida shipped some 883 carloads of
Miscellaneous.-More than half the Florida crop is
harvested in February and March. Plant City, Florida
is the largest winter producer of strawberries in Amer-
ica. At times the Florida f.o.b. prices are equal to those
at destination. In 1918 Florida shipped 79 cars of
berries, compared to 1,035 cars in 1923. The Govern-
ment Statistician reported the Florida 1925 crop at
6,023,000 quarts valued at $1,625,000.
Express and Local Freight Shipments.
Beets.-The principal varieties of beets produced
in Florida are Crosby's Egyptian, Extra Early Eclipse,
Crimson Globe and Detroit Dark Red. From the time
seed are planted 60 to 65 days will be required for beets
to mature. Plants are set in rows, 12 and 14 inches
apart, plants about 4 inches apart, or 12x4 to 14x4. Ap-
proximately 100,000 plants will be required to set an
acre. From ll1 to 2 tons of fertilizer will be needed to
the acre, 3 applications made. The first application made
10 days before setting the plants in the field. The for-
mula of 6-6-5 is generally used. The principal container
in Florida is the 10-inch celery crate. Tariff specifies
the cabbage barrel crate, dimensions 12x18x33 inches
inside measurements for beets, also the bushel hamper
for beets tops on. The average number per carload
will range 336 to 350, and beets should be shipped under
refrigeration. The minimum per carload is 350 refrig-
eration, 420 ventilation. Beets have been seldom ship-
ped from Florida in carlots, though they would be on a
large scale if interior, body icing were permitted by
the carriers. New York City is perhaps as good aver-
age outlet and market as any other.
Carrots.-Leading varieties of carrots in Florida
are Scarlet Horn and Danvers Half Long. About 120
days will be required to mature the roots from the
time seeds are planted. Carrots are not grown exten-
sively in Florida, seldom in carlots. Most of the stock
used by Florida dealers is imported from other States.
Along the East Coast of Florida the carlots sold there
are mostly imported. The product is not yet properly
graded in Florida and until the leading trucking centers
specialize on this product, it will not be sold as well as
the product from other States properly graded. The
bushel crate is the usual container. The bushel hamper,
bushel crate, stave and open barrel are mentioned in
tariffs. If shipped in carlots, should move under re-
English Peas.-The Alaska Extra Early is the
quickest grower and most popular variety of English
peas produced in Florida. The Thomas Laxton and
Florida McNeil are favorites in some sections. The
Laxtonians are very large in size. Principal producing
counties in Florida are Marion, Sumter, Hardee, Hills-
borough, Palm Beach, Union. Shipping points are
Bushnell, Center Hill, Wauchula, Plant City, Lake But-
ler, Alachua, etc. About 2 bushels of seed per acre will
be required for sowing. The rows are usually 4 feet
apart, 1 seed every inch in the rows. From 500 to 800
pounds of fertilizer will be necessary for one acre with
stable manure added. Peas will mature within 60 to
70 days after the seeds are planted. Shipped from
Florida in carlots, but mostly by express. The 7/8-bushel
and bushel hampers are the containers used in Florida
for peas. Most of the Florida varieties of peas sell well
in the larger markets, most dealers specify "tele-
phones" as the kind they want. January, February
and March are the heaviest harvesting months for
Florida green peas. In April and May competition is
greatest with California and Mexico principally, also
Mississippi, North and South Carolina.
A seven year (1919-25) average gives Florida an an-
nual acreage of 1,031 acres, total per annum farm
valuation of the crop $149,428, per unit (hamper) val-
uation $2.89. It will cost about $75 per acre to grow
Okra.-Perkins Mammoth Podded okra is the best
variety grown in Florida for shipping purposes. Other
varieties grown are the Long Green, White Velvet,
Dwarf Prolific (lowland). Under normal conditions
okra will mature in about 60 days from the time seeds
are planted. Okra should be thinned to 12-inch stand,
rows 3 feet apart. From 600 to 800 pounds of fertilizer
will be required for thin land, or stable manure without
any fertilizer is sufficient. The bushel hamper is the
usual container, especially to Southern markets, al-
though the 6-basket crate and other containers are
used to Northern markets. Okra from Florida is ship-
ped almost entirely by express, or in mixed cars.
Onions.-In Florida the Crystal Wax, White Ber-
muda and Australian Brown compose the leading varie-
ties. Onions are set 4 to 6 inches apart in drills or
rows from 12 to 15 inches apart. About 90,000 plants
will be needed to set an acre, or from 8 to 12 bushels of
onion sets. Sets are not very extensively grown in
Florida, can be obtained from Texas dealers. Usually
2,000 pounds of fertilizer will be needed for one acre,
and in addition 4 to 10 loads of well-rotted stable ma-
nure. The formula will average 6-5-5 and 3 applications
should be made. Poultry manure is excellent for fer-
tilizing onions. For increasing the size of the onions,
200 pounds nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia
scattered broadcast between the rows will be very
beneficial. The State average yield is only 119 crates,
though 400 to 500 crates on the best land is not an un-
common production. The best prices in Florida are
usually had in March, April and early May. The bushel
crate is almost exclusively used, although the hamper
and 100-pound sack are used at times. The average
wholesale price in Florida, Jacksonville in particular,
for White Bermudas through March, April and May
will average $1.75 per crate for fancy Number Ones.
Yellow onions will require about 125 days to mature
from the time seed are sown, white onions about 120-
days. Onions with tops on as shallots for express or
local shipments are sent in bushel crates, bushel ham-
pers and barrels, cabbage and celery crates. The mini-
mum carload in bushel crates and hampers is 400, bar-
rels 200. Competition is had with importations from
Egypt, Holland and Spain. With the United States
onions, California and Texas onions afford the greatest
competition to Florida stock. Louisiana supplies the
greatest competition on shallots, in fact Florida has
not undertaken any considerable acreage because of
the comparative monopoly that Louisiana has on the
shallot industry, particularly in the middle or central
cities. They are shipped almost exclusively in barrels
with 3 layers cracked ice, one layer in center, other
layers half way to ends.
Squash.-Varieties usually grown in Florida are
Cocozelle, Early Yellow Bush, White Bush. Early
Crookneck Squash will produce in about 60 days and
occasionally as early as 45 days from the time seed are
planted. From 800 to 1,200 pounds of fertilizer to the
acre will be needed, all applied before planting except
on very thin ground. The earlier varieties are set in
checks 4x4 feet, later varieties in checks 6x8 feet,
planted usually 4 and 5 seeds to the hill. About 2
pounds of seed will be required per acre. Yellow
squash is preferable in the Southern markets. Con-
tainers used most generally, are bushel hamper, the
eggplant or pepper crate and the cucumber (square
bushel) crate. The yield per acre will average 150 to
300 boxes in good sections. The tariff minimum on
bushel crates 400, cabbage barrel crates 200. There
is limited demand for squash. In response to a ques-
tionnaire distributed in the larger markets by the State
Marketing Bureau, the following express a preference
for white squash wrapped: Chicago, Cincinnatti, New
York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Southern mar-
kets of Memphis, New Orleans, Charleston, Richmond,
Wilmington. Many of the Southern markets, however,
prefer the yellow, for instance Atlanta, Birmingham,
Augusta, Savannah, Montgomery, Macon.
The Seven-year Average (1919-25) Annual Production
of Florida Pecans is 995,428 Pounds, Valued at
$283,571 Per Annum.
Variety.-Florida varieties are: Schley, Stuart,
Frotscher, Moneymaker, Curtis, Van Deman, Delmas,
Success, Russell, Moore, President.
Location.-By counties the heaviest producing areas
are Jefferson, Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Leon and
Planting.-Nursery trees are usually planted in their
permanent location in December and January, being
from two to three years old when planted. About 12
trees to the acre will be required, set 60 feet apart each
Fertilizer.-In planting the tree from 2 to 4 pounds
of well balanced fertilizer should be used, bone meal
or sheep manure has been recommended in some sec-
tions. About February of the second year an applica-
tion of guano analyzing from 5-6-4 to 4-8-4 should be
used. About 6 pounds should be used to the tree and
the amount increased 2 pounds each year thereafter. It
is recommended that the county agent be consulted for
special formula for the particular soil under considera-
Maturity.-Pecan trees will bear a few nuts under
favorable conditions by the end of the third or fourth
year after transplanting to the orchard. As a general
rule, commercial returns are not being realized in less
than 10 or 12 years from planting time. From that age
the increase is continuous for 40 or 50 years.
Yield.-According to reliable reports single trees
have produced as high as 400 pounds, and 100 pounds
per tree is not an uncommon yield. Including all young
trees and neglected orchards in the number of bearing
trees the state's average would possibly not be more
than 5 or 10 pounds per tree.
Cost.-For trees, labor and material the pecan grove
will cost the first year about $50 to $75 an acre. To
bring a grove to 5 years of age will cost approximately
$250 to $300 an acre.
Season.-The Florida pecan crop is moved mostly in
the months of November and December, harvested
mostly in October.
Container.-In express or local lot shipments, pecans
are shipped in double sacks usually, holding about 100
pounds each. In carlots, barrels are used some, though
the most desirable container at present is the 50-lb.
wire bound wood veneer box.
Sizes.-The larger sizes of pecans grown in Florida
are Delmas, Frotscher, Randall, Pabst, Success, Van
Deman. The medium to large sizes are Stuarts, Sch-
leys. The Curtis and Moore are below medium in size.
The Moneymaker and President medium in size.
Loading.-Pecans in barrels are stacked on ends, load
should be tight and compact and well braced to prevent
shifting in transit. Barrels are difficult to pack close
together and the 50-lb. box has been more acceptable to
the trade, it packs well in the car and also the ware-
house and is easily handled.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 30,000 pounds per
Seasonal Prices.-Florida pecans bring the best re-
turns as a rule in November and they should be on the
retailer's shelves before the Christmas holidays. After
December 15th and especially after the holidays, the
demand falls off considerably and even as early as De-
cember 1 conditional orders are cancelled. Early har-
vesting is very important in the pecan industry.
Market Preferences.-The highest prices are paid
for Schleys, Van Demans, Stuarts, Frotschers, Success
and nuts of this size and quality. For cracked meats
nuts of a size that will run from 550 to 650 and even
700 halves to the pound are preferred.
Competition.-Georgia pecans afford the greatest
competition to Florida nuts. Quite a large supply of
pecan meats are imported into Florida for candy kitch-
ens and similar trade.
Miscellaneous.-The 1925 U. S. Agricultural Census
for Florida places the number of bearing pecan trees in
Florida at 232,986, non-bearing 436,811. In 1924-25 and
1925-26 many trees have been planted not included in
these figures. The acreage would range from 40,000
to 45,000 acres.
SUGAR CANE FOR SYRUP
The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida Sugar Cane for
Syrup Seven-year (1919-25) Average is $3,447,285.
The Per Gallon Farm Value Same
Period Was 88.2c.
Variety.-Red or Purple, Green, Ribbon, Japanese
cane. The D-74 is grown in Florida but not to as great
extent as the other varieties.
Location.-Alachua, Gadsden, Jackson, Madison and
Marion are the heaviest syrup producing counties in
Planting.-It will take about 3 tons of seed cane per
acre, planted in 5-foot rows about 2,000 canes, in 41/2--
foot rows about 2,500 canes of 3 to 4-foot lengths.
Fertilizer.-From 500 to 1,500 pounds of fertilizer
per acre will be necessary, running about 4% ammonia,
4%phosphoric acid and about 5% potash.
Maturity.-Cane should be bedded in November, it is
transplanted in the spring months and planting should
be completed by March 15. Harvested in the fall months
from October to December.
Yield.-As a state's average the yield per acre is
about 113 gallons. The best sections however will pro-
duce from 300 to 400 gallons per acre. Well fertilized
lands will produce 20 tons of cane per acre, but the
average yield is about 6 tons. With good mills from
60 to 75 per cent of the weight of the cane will be had
in juice, approximately one-seventh the juice may be
taken as the syrup volume, running about 20 gallons
of syrup to each ton of cane. It will take about 71/2 gal-
lons of juice to make one gallon of syrup.
Cost.-The cost of seed cane will run about $60 per
acre; digging and cultivating about $20; fertilizer (half
ton) $20; cutting, hauling and making up from $25 to
$50; and the total cost per acre will be from $125 to
Season.-The shipping season of syrup in Florida fol-
lows harvesting in the months of October, November,
and will continue through February.
Container.-The containers of from one-pint to one-
gallon capacity are used, as the five-gallon and larger
sizes are difficult to sell in quantity. Quite a bit of
syrup is put up in glass containers. The barrel, how-
ever, is used for the bulk of the crop in Florida. Barrel
capacity is 30 gallons of 12 pounds per gallon including
the barrel. Syrup weighs 111/4 pounds per gallon.
Sizes.-If the cane is shipped bulk, it is loaded bunch-
ed with 10 to 12 stalks to the bundle, loaded with stalks
running lengthwise the car.
Loading.-Syrup in tin or glass containers should
first of all be cased so as to avoid breakage and leakage.
In loading carlots of syrup in barrels, the barrels should
be loaded on ends with compact load across and along
the car. Usually only one tier is made, barrels well
braced by timbers at doorways, top and bottom. In
the opening of the doorways proper additional bracing
is put to prevent load shifting in transit. While some
shipments are made without the bracing, it is recom-
Minimum.-The carlot minimum in 30,000 pounds.
Seasonal Prices.-Florida received better prices for
syrup in 1919 than in many seasons. Price per gallon,
farm value, in 1924 and 1925 was $1.00 or better. De-
mand is good in the fall months and again in the spring
months when the surplus has been removed.
Competition.-Georgia supplies the strongest com-
petition to Florida syrup. Alabama and Louisiana
syrup is distributed in the same territory as Florida
Shipments.-Actual carlot shipments are not avail-
able. Probably 50,000 or 60,000 barrels are shipped from
the state annually.