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Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
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 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Alternate Title: Useful knowledge for Florida darmers
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida. Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: T. J. Appleyard, Inc.
Publication Date: July 1926
Frequency: quarterly
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Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Statistics   ( lcsh )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct., 1921)-v. 39, no. 3 (July 1929).
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
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    Preface
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text





USEFUL

KNOWLEDGE

FOR


FLORIDA

FARMERS

Florida Quarterly Bulletin
of the
Department of Agriculture
JULY, 1926




NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for In Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."
T. J. APPLEYARD, INC., TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


VOLUME 36


NUMBER 3
























Preface

We hope that the contents of this issue of our Quarterly
will commend it to the farmers of the State as containing
worth-while knowledge.
We have drawn liberally from various sources and
given full credit in every instance to the author and
publisher. We wish to thank all to whom we are indebted.












Table of Contents
PAGES
"Southward, the Course of Empire Wends Its
W ay .. ......... .... ........ .. 5-6
The Future of Agricultural Colleges ............ 7-13
Intermediate Credit Banks Make Good. ......... 14-18
International Trade War Is On .......... ..... 19-21
Whole World Contributes to Florida Plant Life... 22-25
Citrus Fruit-Their Origin, Distribution and Uses 26-28
Raspberry Suitable for Florida Found.......... 28
The Story of the Burbank Potato ........... 29-30
U. S. Department of Agriculture ................ 31-33
Florida Crops ............. ......... 34
Fiber for Binder Twine from Texas ............. 35-36
Our Diminishing Timber Resources ........ .... 37-38
Lumber and Naval Stores Production of Florida
Is Threatened, Figures Reveal ........... .. 39-42
Citrus Industry of Florida ..................... 43-45
Drainage in the United States. ........ ...... 46-47
Each Florida Soil Type Has Its Own Set of Crops 48-52
Florida Truck Crop Table .... ................ 53-57
Facts and Figures on Central Florida's General
Truck Crops ........ .. .. ... .. .. 58
Record Power Production of Public Utility Power
Plants in 1925..... .................. 59-61
Conspicuous Increase in Production and Sales of
Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals 62-65
Number and Distribution of Inhabitants of the
United States ..... ........ ........... 65
Area of the United States and Outlying Possessions,
1790-1920 ... ............. ...... ...... 66
Population of the United States and Outlying Pos-
sessions, 1920 and 1910.. .. .. .... . 67
Population of the United States, Exclusive of Out-
lying Possessions, 1790-1920 ................ 68
Progress of Ice Cream Industry ....... ..... .. 68


A 71









TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued.
PAGES
Farm Tenancy on the Increase ................. 69-71
1925 Farm Census ........................... 72-75
Actinism ................................... 76-78
Distribution of Area and Population of the Earth. 79-82
Weights and Measures ........................ 83-89
Epoch-Making Inventions and Discoveries........ 90-92
World's High Mountains ....................... 93
World's Inland Seas ........................... 93
Data of States and Territories .................. 94-95
Seven Wonders of the World ...... ........... 96-98
The Universe Our Home ...................... 99-100
Supplementary Bulletins .................... .101-102












Southward, The Course of

Empire Wends its Way

THE United States Department of Agriculture in a
press release giving figures as to the "gross value
of all crops" as of December 1st, 1925, presents in
a striking manner the tremendously important position in
the agriculture of the United States occupied by the South-
east, as well as the very favorable situation prevailing
here in these Southern States at the present time.
For instance, we note that of the total crop. values of
the whole country for the year 1925, the South, exclusive
of her millions of dollars worth of farm forest products,
produced upward of 35 per cent. of the grand total. Of
the Southeastern States, crop values in North Carolina,
given as being $318,661,000, stands at the head of the list,
with Georgia as a close second.
When the Southeast is compared to other sections of the
country it is interesting to note that the value of the crops
of the Southern Ruralist territory, Virginia, West Vir-
ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and
Louisiana, is greater by $63,072,000 than that of the en-
tire New England States, plus Ohio, Indiana and Illinois
combined.
In connection with these figures, which rather clearly
reveal the relative position of the South as compared to
other regions of the country, income tax returns as tabu-
lated in the annual report of the Commissioner of Internal
Revenue are interesting and are of value also in arriving
at a clear conception of just what the situation actually is
here in the Southeastern territory. For instance, each of
the states, Georgia, Florida, Virginia, North Carolina,
Kentucky and Tennessee paid more income tax by from
one to five million dollars than the great agricultural state
of Iowa. The states of Georgia and Florida alone paid
approximately the same amount of income tax as Iowa
and Kansas. The tax returns on automobiles, tires, parts,
etc., show that where Georgia paid $30,997, and Alabama
$16,926, the great state of Kansas paid only $8,674. Inas-
much as amusement taxes also go to indicate the prosperity








6 SOUTHWARD, THE EMPIRE WENDS

of a section, it is interesting to note that where the patrons
of theatres in Georgia paid $218,000 in amusement taxes,
those in Kansas paid $135,000 in similar taxes.
"Sixty years, according to the 'Commerce Monthly,' is
a short time for a change so sweeping as the transforma-
tion of the old South of antebellum days into the new
South of 1925.
"'The steps by which this change has been wrought form
an absorbing story. After overcoming the difficulties of
the reconstruction period, the South has far surpassed its
former wealth. In place of a South struggling under the
handicap of dependence upon agriculture with cotton as
the sole crop, there has now evolved a region of balanced
development.
"The new South, however, is only returning to the
course which it was pursuing in Revolutionary days and
in which it ranked as the equal or superior of other
sections.
"It took almost forty years for the South to earn back
the wealth which was destroyed by four years of warfare.
By 1900 per capital wealth exceeded that of 1660. At
present the estimated value of all property in the Southern
States is somewhat over 22 per cent. of the national wealth,
but the notable fact is that the rate of increase is higher
in this section than in the remaining states. While bank
deposits in the entire country have increased twenty-fold
in a half century, deposits in Southern banks have been
multiplied by forty."
And the Magazine of Wall Street arises to add this:
"Paraphrase the old line into 'Southward the course
of Empire wends its way,' and you have the truth about
the United States to-day.
"One general prejudice must be corrected. The human
race thrives naturally in warmer climates. Two-thirds of
mankind live in the warmer countries. If Northern
Europe and Northern United States have had dense popu-
lations, it has been due primarily to the earlier exploita-
tion of coal, iron and water-power. Once the warmer
climates exploit these, however (and they have the greater
water supply) the course of Empire will again wend its
way to softer climes. Contrary to general impression these
climates do not make for inertia; thus, industry, art, cul-
ture originated in India, Egypt, Mesopotamia. Modern
industry will likewise be enthroned in the warmer climates.
Hence, the undeniable potentialities for our own South."
And this is all about us!-C. A. Cobb, Editor Southern
Ruralist.











The Future of Agricultural

Colleges
Farming's Acute Issues Are Now Commercial, Not Agricultural
By Dr. William Oxley Thompson, President Emeritus, Ohio State
University, in The Country Gentleman
AFTER the Civil War, when the colleges of agricul-
ture and mechanic arts began their history, the
chief question was that of maintaining soil fertility,
developing animal husbandry, and the maintenance of
conditions that would make possible high-grade production.
That is to say, the country then felt that our great
problem was production-that and the maintenance of
such conditions as would avoid the rapid depreciation and
deterioration of the land. Every Congressman who spoke
upon the subject when it was considered in Congress had
that in mind.
Accordingly, the College of Agriculture at the opening
stressed the great question of production, meaning by that
soil fertility, animal husbandry and the development of
those things that made for large possibilities in maintain-
ing a rich country.
That continued for a generation. We practically solved
that question. The colleges of agriculture soon had the
assistance of the experiment stations, and these experi-
ment stations now for half a century have been dealing
with the problems of plant production, animal breeding
and feeding and other similar questions.
These stations, through their published researches and
bulletins, have demonstrated to the country that the agri-
cultural interests as represented in the agricultural col-
leges and stations are prepared to give the country at any
time a program of production that will meet anything in
the immediate future.
A NEW DAY

In the meantime there have come along new features,
like the introduction of alfalfa, widespread over the coun-
try, which has made a wonderful change in feed produc-
tion. It has also modified other processes.








8. FUTURE OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES

Similar things have developed elsewhere. The shift in
animal production to the dairy type of cow, because of
the increase in population, is one of those inevitable
things. The mass feeding of cattle on the ranges of Texas
and the Rocky Mountains is disappearing rapidly. We
have therefore come to a new method of beef production
in this country.
The second large phase of the agricultural movement
found expression in the agricultural extension measures,
chiefly in the Smith-Lever extension bill. Prior to this
time the experiment stations had issued both scientific
and popular bulletins. These popular bulletins were in-
tended to reach the masses of the rural population and to
be read as a matter of popular interest and instruction.
A little later the organized movement in agricultural
extension came about chiefly through the fact that Con-
gress had experimented with certain appropriations in
the South for control of the boll weevil.
Dr. Seaman A. Knapp was one of the pioneers in this
movement and developed so much popular interest in
questions of agricultural control and the necessity of
co-operation by the farmers that the idea soon took root
and found the enthusiastic support of A. F. Lever, of
South Carolina, perhaps the most intelligent and most
ardent man in Congress at that time in the discussion of
agricultural appropriations.
Someone soon developed the slogan to carry the college
back to the farmer. It was proposed to extend the teach-
ing of the colleges of agriculture and of the stations by
carrying to the individual farmer the net results of experi-
ments and researches and teachings in these institutions.
For a generation we had been sending the boys and girls
to college. Now we proposed to send the agricultural col-
leges at least back to the farm for the benefit of parents.
About this time the farmers' institutes of long standing
took on a new activity and there came about the farmers'
week at practically every college of agriculture, where the
attendance rises, as in Ohio, to between 5,000 and 6,000
farmers and their wives who for a week come to the col-
lege and get into immediate contact with the classroom
methods, the laboratory methods and the experiment
methods in vogue.
During this week the lectures and instructions are
given by the faculty of the college of agriculture, with a









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


considerable interchange between the colleges of men who
are apt in instruction to the ordinary, average farmer.
This movement of extension has grown until the county-
agent movement and the specialized assistance granted
him through the colleges has covered the entire country.
Not every county has a county agent, but the aim is to
have it so.
In addition to this movement, there was the home-
demonstration work, which the women in home econom-
ics organized for the purpose of carrying to the farmers'
homes the results of teaching and study in the problems
of the kitchen and rural home.
This conception has been enlarged until the more com-
prehensive title of rural life, including the construction
of homes, their arrangement, the equipment, the introduc-
tion of labor-saving devices and the assistance of the lands-
cape gardener, has marked a very distinct forward move-
ment which has to do with the general improvement of
rural life conditions.
The college of agriculture has therefore aroused in the
country a movement which it cannot stop and which no-
body can control and which no one would be willing to
destroy.
Now, the third movement characteristic of the time has
been the shift from production on one hand and idealism
in rural conditions on the other, to the keen question of
marketing the products of the farmer.

BUSINESS FARMERS

This came out through the study of transportation
problems, problems of salesmanship, problems of co-opera-
tive selling and co-operative buying, and in general a
movement to bring to the farmer himself a little larger
percentage of the ultimate consumer's money.
The dairy and fruit interests were among the first to
bring this issue to an acute stage. The large acreage in
the Corn Belt and the widespread wheat-growing belt in
the far Northwest, with their large areas, where slightly
different issues made transportation the most acute of all
the farmer's problems, were likewise affected by this
movement.
Accordingly, the college of agriculture has reorganized
its curriculum so as to bring into every agricultural course








10 FUTURE OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES

opportunity for the study of fundamental economics,
specialized courses in finance, transportation, accounting
and farm management.
In the earlier day, as already intimated, this curriculum
concerned itself chiefly with questions of scientific study
of the conditions of production. The college is now con-
cerning itself chiefly with the question of marketing. The
same thing is in a way paralleled by the reorganization of
the curriculum in home economics to fit the needs of the
time.
It may be well to note that production is chiefly, if not
entirely, a question of investment. The ultimate con-
sumption is not an agricultural issue nor a question of
profits. All the money and profits that accumulate in any
business come between the point of production and the
point of consumption. The economic doctrine of exchange
or distribution provides a great area in which all business
transactions provide opportunity for clipping off profits
and accumulating wealth.
It is obvious, therefore, that the farmer, as a business
man, has come into prominence, and the country is recog-
nizing that the acute issues in agriculture to-day are not
agricultural issues but commercial. Accordingly, the
courses of study in colleges, the programs in farmers' con-
ventions and all the discussions now are not whether we
can make two blades of grass grow where one grew before,
but whether, having grown the grass, we can do anything
with it.
The result of this reorganization has been that the
agricultural college faculty now includes economists of
competent rank, students of transportation, students of
farm management and students of international trade.
The most intelligent groups of farmers in the country
recognize clearly that our civilization has come to the
basis of world markets'.
This has brought to view the fact that the agricultural
or rural problem is just as much the city man's problem
as it is the farmer's problem.
In the meantime there has been a very grave concern in
the United States Congress and the Legislatures as to aid
for agriculture. One may recognize political motives here
and there. But, in spite of all these, there is a deep under-
lying conviction that somehow legislative acts should im-









.FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


prove the fundamental conditions under which agricul-
ture operates.

THE TENANCY PROBLEM

There is a deep-seated feeling that somehow the pro-
cesses have been lacking in the kind of direction and con-
trol necessary to the desired prosperity of the producing
classes. It is essentially the labor problem in another form,
but involving precisely the issues as to whether the pro-
ducing farmer can maintain a standard of living in
harmony with American ideals.
Careful observers note a strong tendency toward tenancy
as against ownership.
The colleges have been quick to see that permanent
rural conditions of high character cannot be secured and
maintained where the population is a tenant population,
living under short leases, uncertain tenure and equally
uncertain economic conditions. Whether the country
will be able in the future to develop a system of long
tenure is one of the questions to which the colleges must
give increasing attention.
The statement is sometimes made that our farmers may
ultimately develop into a race of peasants. Some of my
observations of European agriculture during the closing
years of the World War may illustrate the situation.
At that time I visited a number of French and English
estates. In one instance, in France, the farm had been in
the same family since 1760, and in another, in England,
the home of the owner of the estate had been continuously
occupied since about 1345.
EBB AND FLOW OF STUDENTS

On these estates there were from fifty to seventy-five
people employed as tenant farmers, who had no thought
that they or their descendants would ever occupy any
other position.
The whole course of activities of these tenants was under
the care of the owner of the estate. He was responsible
for them. It was all administered so as to make them
satisfied with their condition, or at least to stir ulp no
hope or ambition of improving or changing that condition.
In this country that situation is impossible because our
youth are educated to an extent not thought of in the








12 FUTURE OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES

European countries. With this training the boy gives free
play to his ambitions. That will take him out of the shop
or off the farm or to any place his ambition may lead him
or his preparations may call him.
He wants to get on the team; he wants to get in the
game. He comes in as a farmer member of the Legislature
and the next thing you know he will get on some board
or directorate. No peasant would ever think of that.
Meanwhile, to return again to the colleges, the patron-
age of students constitutes an interesting study, if we put
under observation fifty years of time.
The student body grew steadily, but not rapidly, for a
number of years. Along in the late nineties and the early
part of the twentieth century there was a more rapid in-
crease in the numbers of students.
Then came the World War and the slump in prices after
the war, with the result that students steadily declined in
numbers all over the country, chiefly due, in the opinion
of careful observers, to the uncertainty which the future
held out to the man in agriculture.
Also the steady increase of the city call has produced
the feeling that perhaps some other type of education
would more promptly provide the equipment needed for
a successful life career.
The students have felt the force of the frequently an-
nounced condition of farm tenancy, as previously men-
tioned. The great majority of these students are without
capital and without any assurance that they can afford
to invest their lives where the financial solution will be
impossible. These boys and girls are not out of sympathy
with wholesome farm conditions, but they are conservative
about placing themselves under financial obligations for a
long period of years.
The immediate returns for their services in the indus-
tries of the city make a pretty inviting call.

A SOURCE OF LEADERS

There is now, however, a slight revival of interest and
a slight increase in the roll of the college of agriculture.
The future of this type of education will probably be
substantial and abiding. It is worthy of note, however,
that throughout the country the newly organized college of
commerce and business administration is showing the








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


keenest center of interest. This, in my opinion, is due to
the increased importance of commerce in our modern
civilization.
What will be the future of the agricultural college in
relation to these problems we have been discussing above ?
The college of agriculture will continue to be the source
from which the agricultural leaders of the future must
come. There will be an occasional exception.
The strong basis of encouragement lies in the fact that
these boys and girls in the modern land-grant college or
university mingle freely with their brothers and cousins
who are taking different courses, and come to understand
their point of view.
This widespread effect of higher education upon both
city and country youth will always be productive of a
better understanding between the different groups of in-
terests as represented in production, distribution and in
general between the great city interests and the rural areas.

LOOKING INTO THE 'FUTURE

The country has reached the stage where no greater
disaster could befall it than to have a serious decline in
rural education or a decline in the interest in the agricul-
tural college. We may safely assume that those who have
had education in agriculture will be advocates of such an
adjustment of this type of education in the future as will
meet the needs of agriculture and of the country at large.
The time will probably arrive when colleges and univer-
sities devoting themselves to the more theoretical features
of education, in which they emphasize the importance of
liberal culture and professional training, will understand
and appreciate the place of the college of agriculture.
This stage has already arrived in the Central and Middle
West and throughout a good portion of the South. It may
never migrate across the Alleghany Mountains, but it is
certain to have a controlling influence in the great Mis-
sissippi Valley, which constitutes the agricultural store
house of the nation.










Intermediate Credit Banks Make

Good
By Edwy B. Reid, Washington, D. C., in Southern Ruralist
HE farmers of Georgia, the Carolinas and Florida
have been extended more agricultural production
and marketing credit through the Intermediate
Credit Bank of Columbia than has been made available
through the banks of any of the other eleven districts.
This is accounted for in two ways; because of the strong
co-operative marketing organizations properly organized
and well managed, and the fact that there are forty agri-
cultural credit corporations in the district covered by the
Columbia Intermediate Credit Bank. In fact, 13 more of
these credit corporations are now in process of forming,
which will put this district far in the lead. The farmers
have loans amounting to nearly $15,000,000 which have
been advanced by the Columbia Bank, $10,400,000 of which
has gone directly to the co-operative marketing associa-
tions, and $4,184,000 to the agricultural credit corpora-
tions or commercial banks that have rediscounted agricul-
tural paper; that is, paper which represents loans to
farmers for production or marketing purposes.
The Columbia Bank is of course only one of twelve
which were established at the time of the passage of the
Intermediate Act in 1923. Each of these banks is housed
with the Federal Land Bank and officered by practically
the same personnel. These twelve Intermediate Credit
Banks have loans outstanding amounting to $81,000,000.
They do not have a long history. They are the outgrowth
of the legislation passed by the Sixty-seventh Congress
following the agricultural depression of 1920. At that
time many banks, particularly in rural sections, had be-
come so clogged or choked with slow moving agricultural
paper that some method had to be devised which would
take care of agricultural loans which run not with the
short turnover of intermediate or commercial banks, but
over a longer period commensurate with the business of
agriculture. To do this the Intermediate Credit Banks
were given two major functions: (1) to furnish credit to
the individual farmer at a reasonable rate of interest and








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


for a sufficient length of time to harvest and market his
crops in an orderly manner, or to establish a herd of live
stock and repay the loan from the sale of the product or
increase, such as live stock; and, (2) to furnish adequate
and disinterested financing to co-operative associations
composed of persons engaged in producing, or producing
and marketing staple agricultural products, in the shape
of direct loans or advances to such co-operative associa-
tions on security of warehouse receipts covering such
products in storage.
Of the four states, Georgia has the largest number of
agricultural credit corporations, and four or five more are
in process of forming. Two corporations, the Farmers'
Agricultural Credit Association of Fort Valley, and the
Middle Georgia Agricultural Credit Corporation of Macon,
each having approximately $27,000 capital, do a business
over several counties. The majority of the stock is owned
by the borrowers, but a portion is held by banks and other
business interests. They serve farmers irrespective of
whether they are members of a co-operative marketing
association or not. Naturally since they operate in a truck-
ing section much of the aid goes to truck growers. How-
ever, many loans are made to peach growers, who, in ad-
dition to the usual security in many instances insure their
crops at a cost of five to seven per cent., and offer, this
insurance as additional collateral.
The corporations owned by members of the Georgia
Cotton Growers' Co-operative Association, the GrQwers'
Finance Corporation of Atlanta and the Agricultural
Finance Corporation of Lawrenceville, have obtained from
the Intermediate Credit Bank approximately $1,500,000.
This, of course, is loaned to members of the Cotton Asso-
ciation on crop mortgages, bill of sale over live stock, and
so forth, executed by the grower and accepted by the cot-
ton growers' association, accompanying the note. Two sep-
arate corporations known as the Georgia Agricultural
Credit Corporations of Albany and Athens, and also the
South Georgia Agricultural Credit Corporation of Cor-
dele, are independently owned and are not connected with
other banking institutions. However, they make no restric-
tions in their loans as to whether they advance only to
members of a co-operative association or non-members.
Eleven other corporations operating in the State have
obtained $1,224,000 from the Federal Intermediate Credit








16 INTERMEDIATE CREDIT BANKS


Bank. These corporations are mainly owned and operated
by borrowers who are not members of co-operative associa-
tions. The stocks are owned by the borrowers and banks
and in some instances they are subsidiaries to banks. They
require the usual mortgage on growing crops, live stock,
and so forth, and in some instances real estate mortgages
as additional security.
The total number of people accommodated through
these agricultural credit corporations, not counting those
which are set by the co-operatives to loan to co-operative
members, is 4,870, and to those who are members of the
cotton and peanut associations total 50,000. Commenting
upon the situation in Georgia, J. Downs Bell, manager of
the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Columbia, says,
"General conditions in this State, especially in the south-
ern part, have been much improved since the organization
of this bank. We find that farmers there are diversifying
to a greater extent than in any other section of our dis-
trict. We are building the Federal Intermediate Credit
Bank in such a way that it will be the permanent institu-
tion which Congress intended it should be. Therefore we
are giving very careful thought to the paper which we
rediscount, taking every desirable precaution to protect
the bank and the investors in the bonds from whom we get
our money, yet at the same time rendering the maximum
service to agriculture.
"Regardless of the financial statement of the borrowers
all of the rediscounts made are secured by crop mortgages,
and in many cases a mortgage is required over the live
stock. We have found it necessary in quite a few instances
to require additional collateral such as a second lien,
especially where the Federal Land Bank has a prior claim.
We also put a limit on the advances made on certain crops.
On cotton, $20 to $25 per acre is the maximum, and on
tobacco, $40. We do not look with particular favor, how-
ever, on borrowers who cannot show in their financial
statement that they have sufficient feed crops to supply
the needs of the farm.
"In accommodating truck farmers, of course, we have
adopted a wider range of credit, since there is a consider-
able difference in the cost of production of the various
vegetables. Our advances range from $40 to $150 per acre.
In rediscounting loans on perishable products, we insist
that these products be handled through some reputable








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


selling organization, and in addition to crop insurance we
require a farmer to give an assignment on the selling
organization authorizing it to pay over to us out of the
proceeds of the sale of his crop, the amount of his loan.
This assignment must also be accepted by the selling or-
ganization. Thus far, all of the agricultural credit corpora-
tions handling perishable products have been organized by
the growers and affiliated with some reputable marketing
association. One of the largest is the corporation organized
by the Hastings Potato Growers' Association of Hastings,
Florida. All of these loans are not only secured by crop
mortgages, but by endorsement of the agricultural credit
corporation, and further by the Hastings Potato Growers'
Co-operative Association, which carries the liability of the
full membership.
"We have met the situation, created by the Cotton
Growers' Co-operative Association requiring in its by-laws
that loans should be made only to its members, by having
the farmers give assignments authorizing the association
to pay over to the agricultural credit corporation the
amount of their loans out of their advances. Since the
cotton association advances practically 60 per cent. of the
value of the cotton, unless the farmer made an excep-
tionally good crop his first advance will not entirely
liquidate his loan. The remaining 40 per cent. is distri-
buted over three or four different payments, depending
largely upon marketing conditions, and these payments
are then applied to the credit of the various borrowers.
Consequently it is almost impossible not to have some past
due paper among the borrowers who are members of the
associations. We, therefore, require at the end of the year
that a renewal note for the balance be taken with a state-
ment from the association showing the number of pounds
and the amounts advanced. This gives us sufficient in-
formation as to the condition of our collateral in carrying
the balance over until disbursements from the association
liquidate the loan."
President Howard C. Arnold emphasizes the idea that
the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank is a business and
not an eleemosynary institution. Its purpose is to serve
agriculture through making available a form of credit
which takes on after the local commercial banks leave off,
and yet which does not run long enough to warrant the
placing of a mortgage against the farm lands through the








18 INTERMEDIATE CREDIT BANKS

Federal Land Bank. "We do not charge eight or ten per
cent, interest. Our margin of so-called 'profit' is limited
to one per cent., and the small amount that is left over
after paying for the expense of operating the bank goes
to pay back to the Federal Government money which it
invested to start these banks. Congress had in mind keep-
ing the interest on money borrowed for crop production
and marketing purposes down to as low a level as feasible,
so it also indicated the maximum charge which local banks
or agricultural credit corporations can collect above the
rate charged by the Intermediate Credit Bank. This maxi-
mum is one and one-half per cent. At this time our dis-
count rate is five and one-fourth per cent., so that the
money should not be costing the farmer more than six
and three-fourths per cent. By thus drawing the line so
closely in the matter of charges, Congress has made it
imperative that the risks accepted be in keeping with the
low rate of interest, or very good indeed."
Manager Bell, whose duties call him into the field much
of the time, says that the Columbia Bank has adhered very
closely to the policy of investigating the officers of a pro-
posed corporation before extending any line of rediscount
credit. "We have looked very carefully into the matter of
satisfying ourselves that the organization being formed
was not for the purpose of financing some 'lien merchant'
rather than the farmers. We have been exceedingly care-
ful that the farmer received the money first hand, and had
the full use of it. This is one of the most important parts
in production credits, because if the farmer does not have
the benefit of his money he is in worse shape than if he
did not have the loan."











International Trade War Is On
Statesmen and Economists Sound Warning; No Time for Class
Conflicts in America
By N. H. Lingenfelter, Associate Editor, The Agricultural Review
F OUR eminent American citizens recently have com-
mented upon a trend in world affairs that, while it
may have no meaning to the drygoods box whittler
down at Griggsby's Station, carries profound import to
thoughtful minds; a trend the ultimate of which may
determine the commercial and industrial survival of the
fittest among the civilized nations of the modern world.
In past ages the sun, in its diurnal observation of things
terrestrial, has witnessed the rise and fall of mighty states;
nations that dominated the world by military strength,
industrial power or commercial enterprise. It is a pro-
found fact that history repeats. Mundane structures, like
material man, seem doomed to inevitable decay and death.
No nation has assurance of permanency. Each apparently
has its "worm i' the bud." The boy in school reads of-

The glory that was Greece,
The grandeur that was Rome.

The same boy, reading his text-book of American his-
tory, becomes so impregnated with chauvinism from its
redundance of triumphal progress and minimization of
reverses, as to become imbued with the idea that his own
country is permanent and indestructible. More than the
youth of our country cherished that belief, at least sub-
consciously, until not only individual national life, but
civilization was menaced in the great World War.
All of which leads to the present outlook that is causing
anxiety on the part of American statesmen and leaders in
commerce and industry. The thoughtful few have long
realized that the time eventually would come when
America would have to meet on the general level the com-
petition of other nations for supremacy in world trade if
not for very existence in the international field. Condi-
tions hastened by the world war have precipitated that
situation.








20 INTERNATIONAL TRADE WAR IS ON

Senator Capper, of Kansas, recently declared: "An-
other world war is in progress-a war for trade. We are
in the midst of a commercial conflict which dwarfs any
rivalry the world has seen, and it directly affects every
American farmer and wage-earner."
Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover has directed
attention to gigantic monopolies formed and forming in
foreign countries to extort profits, notably the rubber
monopoly of Great Britain and the coffee monopoly of
Brazil. Coffee was our principal import in 1923 and second
only to silk in 1924. Fifty per cent. of the world's coffee
is consumed in the United States. Brazil's valorization
scheme cost the United States $82,000,000 in 1925.
Walter Parker, of New Orleans, in an extensive argu-
ment in favor of speedy development of inland waterways
in the United States, particularly in the vast agricultural
region known as the Mississippi valley, indicated the need
of altered economic conditions that would enable America
to meet foreign competition in agricultural products and
manufactures especially in the Latin-American field.
Realization of this situation also is indicated in a recent
brochure by F. Edson White, president of Armour and
Company, packers, who said: "Conditions throughout the
world in which we are trading are more likely than ever
before to force us into new ideas. Every nation is rest-
lessly abiding the time when international settlements of
war obligations, tariffs and trade agreements will permit
it to produce in volumes large enough to apply effectively
to debt liquidation or to increase in current wealth and
consequent international exchange of goods. . The
survival of the American meat packing industry in com-
petition with that of other countries, and the perpetuation
of its position among the industries of our own nation
that encroach upon our present fields, is dependent upon
our maintaining the most receptive attitude we can toward
new ideas and efficiencies of operation and distribution."
In addition to promoting increased production of cotton
in India, Egypt and Australia, Great Britain's financiers
are backing cotton planters in Peru, where, according to
Peruvian Consul General at London, the undeveloped
coastal areas offer a potential production of 18,000,000
bales. In less than eight years Peru has doubled its cotton
production. The Agricultural Department at Washington
asserts that "it is a historical fact that the coastal valleys








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


of Peru are capable of much heavier agricultural produc-
tion than they now are yielding."'
Moreover, England, long a free trade country, now has
2,000 articles subject to tariff restriction and has placed
a horsepower tax of $120 a year on American automobiles,
and Germany is raising formidable tariff bars against this
country.
Already we have a problem of surplus in American
grain. In the item of wheat it is authoritatively announced
that the Russian output for 1925 was about 600,000,000
bushels, a quantity exceeding the estimates, but still under
the normal 800,000,000 bushels produced in pre-war times.
Italy, Greece and other European nations are striving
to produce enough foodstuffs to avoid importations in the
future. Mussolini, the Italian dictator, has offered a large
cash fund to finance wheat research and experimentation.
The outlook is such as to cause grave consideration, but
past achievements of America give confidence as to the
outcome, and slight cause for discouragement. The situa-
tion simply calls for the building of our foreign commerce
upon sound business fundamentals and the avoiding of
visionary theories. With the varied interests of this coun-
try unified in purpose and co-operating in effort, there is
not much likelihood that we shall be vanquished in this
economic conflict.











Whole World Contributes to

Florida Plant Life
Trees and Plants from Tropical Lands of Faraway Thrive in
Adopted Home
St. Augustine Record
By FRED A. OLDS, in "Beautiful Florida"
TO persons who come to Florida a large part of this
State looks like a conservatory. As a matter of fact
many parts of the world have contributed trees and
plants, which thrive in their adopted home and appear to
have had their origin here.
There are, in Florida, many native trees and plants, such
as the sabal or "cabbage" palm and five other kinds of
palms, commonly called palmettos; a poinsettia, which
blooms all the year and has a small flower and leafbracts;
a Turk's cap, with flowers which do not hang down'but
point upwards; a small sunflower commonly called the
golden glow; a true sister of the tree commonly called
the sago palm; violets of two kinds, slightly fragrant; the
yucca or Spanish bayonet, often called bear-grass.
The Spaniards found in America two plants which
astonished their priests; one the castor-oil plant, with
large leaves shaped like a human hand which they promptly
named "Palma Christi," or "Hand of Christi;" the other
a vine, the maypopp," which they named the "Passiflora,"
because of its curious flower they fancied they saw all the
emblems of Christ's "Passion;" that is to say, the agonies
He endured in His progress to His crucifixion; hence the
"passion flowers" as we term it.
These first discoveries brought from Spain and other
countries on the northern shore of the Mediterranean and
from its southern or African shore the orange, lemon, lime
and grapefruit. Their first settlements in the new world
were in the West Indies, then in Mexico, Central America,
South America and Florida.
There are scores of trees and plants which to the north-
ward would have to be kept under glass. In the lovely
panoramas which unfold there are warm-climate trees and
flowers for which all the southern worlds have been








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


searched for. Some, as stated, the Spaniards brought from
Europe, Africa, the West Indies, Mexico, Central and
South America, but others have been brought in from the
far quarters of the south Pacific Ocean and other zones.
The United States has sent out several expeditions to dis-
cover and bring to this part of the world trees and plants
which it was hoped would be useful or beautiful, or both,
thrive here.
The observer will find date and cocoanut palms, the
royal palm, the travelers' palm, from the East Indies,
which looks quite like a banana plant, except that its
leaves are more graceful and all in one line, while its
flower is like a fairy-boat with all sails set.
To Australia, Florida is indebted for two trees. One is
the eucalyptus, smooth and tall, but ungainly, which was
for a time thought to be a sort of guard against fevers,
until men learned in the last years of the last century,
the costly lesson of the causes of fever, malarial, yellow, etc.
The other tree from Australia, that world of queer
plants and animals, is the arecauria, or monkey-puzzle
tree. It is a true conebearer. A specimen here is about
sixty feet high and is perhaps 35 years old. Its trunk is
yellow-brown and rather slender and from this droop in
curves its fronds or branches, twenty feet long, their green
intense, with a waxlike finish. All foliage and branches
are set with hooked green spikes, like thorns. Its cones at-
tain a weight of fifteen pounds. In Australia it reaches
a height of 150 feet and this young tree will, if spared, do
likewise. It is called the monkey-tree by the rule of con-
traries, because no monkey can climb it.
There are no true mahogany trees in Florida; only the
gum-bolimbo or "false mahogany." The palms which are
native are not so handsome as those brought in from other
parts of the world. The silk-oak, or silk-tree, comes from
much further south, while the oleander is from Southern
Europe. The native holly has red berries, and is terribly
plundered by gatherers of Christmas evergreens.
The avocado, or alligator-pear, comes from far south-
ward, as does the loquat, which is of the apple family.
The custard-apple, the papaya or papaw, and the guava,
come from the West Indies. Some of the tree-ferns here,
which come from Austria, attain a height of twenty feet.
The royal poinciana, which Spaniards call the "Carolina
tree" is not a native. It has extremely large flowers and









24 WORLD GIVES TO FLORIDA PLANT LIFE

its seed-pods are a yard long and very slender. There are
no native camelias, all having been brought in.
The jacaranda, with leaves somewhat like those of the
mimosa, was brought here. It bears blue flowers, in spikes
three feet in length. There are native azaleas, but not in
wide variety.
The camphor-tree was brought here from the East
Indies. Of orange trees there are many varieties. Among
these is the pineapple, product of crossing fertilization
here by bees. The Valencia comes from the province of
that name in Spain. There is the blood-orange; the
tangerine, which comes from Morocco in Africa; the
mandarin from China; the satsuma from Japan. The
Parson Brown, the first to ripen, was bred here by that
preacher himself. The Gimgong was bred here by a China-
man of that name, so it is Floridian. So also is a satsuma
which comes from the Florida keyes.
The lime tree comes from far-away Tahiti, in the South
Pacific, where a favorite food is raw fish steeped in lime-
juice. There is also the Eustis lime, which is a blend of
the lime and the kumquat orange, developed by the United
States experiment station. The Florida Keys lime, which
is a native, is the one generally found in the markets,
hence the name it bears.
In the way of plants there is a wide variety, many
brought from far-away lands. The cyperus papyrus, from
which the ancients made paper, comes from the banks of
the River Nile, in Egypt. It is of the sedge family, has a
slender stalk which bends gracefully, attains a height of
ten to fifteen feet, and has a top like the ribs of an um-
brella, with seeds at the ends. It has a sister, native in
Florida, cypersus alternifolius, called "umbrella-grass."
There are several varieties of the agave, which comes
from Mexico. Its splendid green spikes, upstanding and
vividly green, carry sometimes flower stalks 30 feet in
height, these bearing many clusters of snowy flowers,
ranged on either side like steps or footholds. A variety
is the sisal (pronounced see-saw) from the leaves when
rotted rope is made.
The ginger-lily, or shell-flower, has masses of pale green
leaves two feet long and at the tips of horizontal stems
from the stalks are the flowers, which resemble two rows
of pink and white sea-shells.
The rice-paper plant comes here from China and has a









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


nearly white woody stalk, dashed with green, with white
flowers very loosely placed in flat masses at its top.
The poinsettia is from Tahiti in the South Pacific, where
Mr. Poinsett, a widely-known citizen of Charleston, S. C.,
found it and brought it to the United States. It was given
his name by the American Botanical Association. It is
much at home in Florida. It is a freak among flowers. Its
real flowers are very small and yellow, the scarlet which
surrounds them being merely leaf bracts, not petals,
designed to attract by their gaudy colors bees, to visit
the inconspicuous flowers.
All bananas were brought here, mainly from Central
America. They grow twenty feet high in Florida, but
even higher in their home in the tropics.
The hibiscus comes to us from the Hawaiian Islands, in
the Pacific, where it was the "royal flower." It is entirely
at home here and is of many colors, with double and single
flowers.
The bougainvillia is from Tahiti, in the Southern Pacific
Ocean, and is named for its discoverer, Admiral Bougain-
ville, who took it to Europe about 150 years ago. Its flow-
ers are crimson or purple; the latter most common in
Florida.
The grapefruit as now known, is the successor of the
shaddock, the latter having been originally grown solely
for ornamental purposes. It was not eaten until 40 years
ago, and first in Northern Florida by a New York lady
at her winter home. Now it grows all over the country
and last season went to England and Europe.
From Japan comes the water hyacinth, introduced here
as a cattle food. From May to August its exquisite blue
flowers are wonderful to see and look like a curtain laid
upon the water. But this visitor is called by many people
a pest, as it has cost Florida a pretty penny, as it chokes
the rivers and lakes and has to be cut away by machinery.











Citrus Fruit--Their Origin, Dis-

tribution and Uses
By M. B. Matlack, Citrus Research Fellow, University of Florida,
in Manufacturers Record
THE place of origin of any of the various species of
the genus Citrus, or citrus fruits, now under cultiva-
tion is not definitely known, unless it be that of the
Mexican lime. Their origin is, however, of great antiquity.
The use of marmalades made from the peel of the citron
is described by the Emperor Baber in his memoirs. It is
thought by some that the citron is the oldest known
variety.
The term Citrus was first applied to this fruit by Pliny,
and was later adopted by Linnaeus as the generic name for
this and other closely related fruits. Previously, the citron
had been described by the Greek Theophrastus, who spoke
of it as the "apple of the Medes and Persians." The poet
Virgil gives us a record of how highly it was esteemed by
the Medes. De Candolo, a botanist who spent his life in
studying the place of origin of cultivated plants, is of the
opinion that the species medical (citron and lemon) are
indigenous to India in the warm districts at the foot of
the Himalayas from Garwai to Sikkin. Another botanist,
Wright, affirms that a certain variety of this species grows
wild in the Nilgherry Hills. It is possible that the Shad-
dock originated in South China, Cochin China or the
Malay Archipelago, but the weight of the evidence of
various authors seems to show that it came from some of
the islands of the Pacific, i. e., Java, the Friendly Isles or
the Fiji Isles. The common grapefruit, or pomelo, belongs
to this species. The bitter orange is also thought to have
come from the eastern part of India, perhaps from the
foot of the Himalayas.
The area of dispersion of the genus Citrus extends from
New Caledonia in the east as far as India in the west; does
not extend beyond the 23rd parallel to the south or extend
in the Northern Hemisphere beyond the 30th parallel. All
the species with stamens united (except the Citrus neo-
caledonica) are grouped in the western half of this zone,
while the species with free stamens (except Citrus hystrix)
are localized in the eastern half. Citrus fruits have spread









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


west from India into Persia and Palestine and thence into
the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. To the
Spaniards belongs the credit of having introduced citrus
fruits into tropical and semi-tropical America. The sweet
seedling orange was introduced into California from
Mexico by the Franciscan Fathers about 1769 and was
cultivated by them in the gardens of their Missions. In
the Antilles and Brazil the sweet orange was found grow-
ing before 1648.
Though soil does not play a great part in distribution, it
does make a great difference in the nature of the fruit.
For instance, the Washington Navel when grown in Flor-
ida is very large, but the tree does not bear heavily, the
skin has very little of an orange tint and the juice is in-
sipid. In California it does not grow so large, but has a
compact pulp without a great deal of juice. A variation
in texture among Florida oranges grown on different
Florida soils is quite noticeable to those who are familiar
with them.
The products of the genus Citrus have been used in medi-
cine with more or less success since the days of the Medes
and Persians. Various parts of the orange tree are used
medicinally; the leaves, which are bitter and aromatic, are
employed in the form of an infusion as a gently stimulant
diaphoretic; the dried flowers are used in Europe as a
gentle nervous stimulant, in the form of an infusion, two
drachms to the pint of boiling water, taken in the dose of
a teaspoonful. The juice of the Seville, or bitter orange,
when added to water and sweetened is employed in febrile
diseases. Lemon juice is also used in like manner. The
sweet orange is extensively used as a light refrigerant
article of diet in inflammatory diseases, care being taken
to remove the membraneous portion. The essential oil of
the peel of the sweet orange is used in anaesthesia. Re-
cently, substances have been found in oranges, grapefruit
and lemons which markedly affect the blood sugar content
of animals, one of which acts very much like insulin.
Use of citrus fruits to prevent scurvy is not new and
citrus fruits are the best source of the antiscorbutic
vitamin or vitamin C. It is the most desirable source of
this vitamin for the addition to the diet of babies fed on
pasteurized milk. Vitamiins A and B also have been found
in oranges and in their peel. Lemon oil and grapefruit
peel lack these vitamins. The amount of A and B in the









ORIGIN OF CITRUS FRUITS


juice of the orange is not so great, but is great enough to
be of some value where these two vitamins are needed in
the diet.
The commercial uses of citrus fruits are not so great in
number, but from a monetary standpoint are by far the
more important, the most important being the home con-
sumption of the sweet orange in the free state and the
fresh juice now is sold in many of our cities as a very
refreshing beverage. The juice, so far, has never been
bottled in a manner such that it will keep for any length
of time, but work is being carried on in the laboratories
of the chemistry department of the University of Florida
with this end in view. The juice has been successfully
made into wine and has been converted into a very desir-
able vinegar. Jellies and marmalades are now being made
on a commercial scale in both Florida and California from
the sweet orange and the grapefruit, and the kumquat has
great possibilities for these purposes. Candied peel of
citrus fruits is also to be found on the market.
The production of citric acid from the juice of the lemon
has long been an important industry, and pectin, a gelatin-
ous substance used for the preparation of jellies, can be
made from the white part of the peel of the orange or
lemon. Next these lemons can be used as an eye wash. In
the Far East another variety of lemon is used by gold-
smiths for cleaning every kind of golden article which
they intend to cover with pigment.


Raspberry Suitable for Florida

Found
Pears, peaches, plums, quinces, grapes, blackberries,
strawberries, avocadoes, persimmons, mangoes, guavas and
all varieties of citrus fruits do well in Pasco County, and
now a variety of raspberry has been found which not only
grows readily, but bears the finest quality of fruit pro-
lifically. In the home garden of Mrs. George B. Massey,
Sr., is a Yellow Jacket raspberry bush three years old,
that is eight and a half feet tall, nine and a half feet in
diameter at its widest spread, and is now ripening a heavy
crop of fruit. The only fruit now lacking in Pasco County
is the apple, and someone will probably find a variety that
is adapted to this section before long.











The Story of the Burbank Potato
As Reported by Elizabeth Urquhart and Edited by Luther
Burbank
Copyrighted, 1925, by C. C. Powell. All property rights reserved.
PEAS and beans being closely related, beans come
next on our garden list, but as they are tender, the
seeds should not be planted until early in May or
until weather conditions are favorable and the soil warm
and well-broken-up; otherwise the seed will decay.
String beans may be planted every two weeks for suc-
cession up to the middle of August; pole varieties yield
larger crops than the bush forms and may be trained by
the use of strings or wire netting, or planted to grow on
a fence or trellis.
Mr. Burbank's suggestion in regard to peas being good
subjects for experiment by the amateur, had made a deep
impression and many questions presented themselves.
"Are peas the only vegetables that the amateur might
experiment with ?" is inquired.
"No, beans also may be the subjects of most interesting
experiments, as they produce many surprises and great
variety in each generation, and it is from these varieties
that valuable new types may be developed, I have worked
with thousands of varieties of beans, and produced almost
unnumbered combinations from which selections are made
for new types.
"Yes, but the beans alone are not enough! The amateur
must have brains as well as beans for such work.
"The work requires close observation, judgment in selec-
tion and infinite patience. The plant breeder advances
step by step in the creation of new fruits, grains, flowers
and vegetables.
"I do not, however, recommend difficult problems for
the beginner; he must begin with simple things so that he
may gain confidence.
"Other vegetables such as the potato and the tomato
are both easy to work upon, and who knows what improve-
ments and in size and flavor the amateur may accomplish
with them?"
This mention of the potato reminded the student
gardener that potatoes must be added to the list of "must-









30 STORY OF THE BURBANK POTATO

haves," but the temptation to hear about the Burbank
Potato was too strong to resist. Like a child, he wanted
the story first and the practical part afterwards. To eager
questions, Mr. Burbank answered:
"My first success in the bearing of plants was the Bur-
bank Potato in 1872, and the chance finding of a seed ball
on a vine of the Early Rose potato, which had never been
known to produce seeds, led to my opportunity of develop-
ing this new form."
Mr. Burbank explained here that the potato, the banana,
the sugar-cane and the horse-radish as most greenhouse
plants have lost their power by producing seed because of
having been so long propagated by division and by cut-
tings and by buds and grafts.
"This seed ball," continued Mr. Burbank, "was care-
fully watched and its disappearance for several days al-
most ruined the experiment, but fortunately it was re-
covered and from it in the following Spring were planted
twenty-six seeds, all but three of which came up and pro-
duced twenty-three different varieties of tubers. Out of
these, two proved to be fine types and from the best was
produced the Burbank Potato, from which has been grown
since 1875, over 600,000,000 bushels of potatoes, being more
productive than any other known variety. The annual
crop is worth many millions and it has added immensely
to the food values of the world.
"I sold the original Burbank Potato to an eastern seed
house for $150."
In the course of his further experiments with the potato,
which, however, have not produced a variety surpassing
the Burbank potato, Mr. Burbank has had specimens of
the wild potato sent to him by his collectors in Chile,
Bolivia, Arizona and Mexico, some of which were dug out
of the rocks, high up in the Andes, and in some cases it
was necessary to blast the rocks to get out the tubers,
which extended many feet underground. The tubers on
these long vines, however, were very small and insignificant
and only valuable as curious forms.
Mr. Burbank has always been interested in the Solanum
family to which the potato belongs, as well as the tomato
and the egg-plant, and for 25 years he worked over the
development of the celebrated Sunberry, erroneously
called by some the Wonderberry, but that is another story.












U. S. Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Agricultural Economics
U. S. Standards for Sweet Potatoes (1926)
Grades
U. S. NO. 1 shall consist of sweet potatoes of similar
varietal characteristics which are firm, not badly mis-
shapen; which are free from black rot, decay, and freezing
injury; and free from damage caused by dirt, secondary
rootlets, bruises, cuts, scars, growth cracks, scald, scurf
or other diseases, weevils or other insects, and mechanical
or other means.
Unless Otherwise Specified, the diameter of each sweet
potato shall not be less than 13/4 inches nor more than
31/2 inches, and the length shall not be less than 3 inches
nor more than 10 inches, but the length may be less than
3 inches if the liameter is 2 inches or more.
Tolerances. In order to allow for variations other than
size, incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 10 per cent., by weight, of the sweet potatoes in any
lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not
to exceed a total of 5 per cent. shall be allowed for defects
causing serious damage, and not more than 1/5 of this
amount, or 1 per cent. shall be allowed for sweet potatoes
affected with soft rot.
In addition, not more than 10 per cent., by weight, of
the sweet potatoes in any lot may not meet the size re-
quirements, but not more than one-half of this tolerance,
or 5 per cent. shall be allowed for sweet potatoes which
are below the minimum size requirements.
VT. S. NO. 2 shall consist of sweet potatoes of similar
varietal characteristics which are firm and which are free
from black rot, decay, and freezing injury; and free from
serious damage caused by dirt, bruises, cuts, scars, growth
cracks, scald, disease, weevils or other insects and mechan-
ical or other means.
Unless Otherwise Specified, the diameter of each sweet
potato shall not be less than 11 inches nor more than 4
inches.
Tolerances. In order to allow for variations other than
size, incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 10 per cent. by weight, of the sweet potatoes in any
lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not








32 U. S. STANDARDS FOR SWEET POTATOES

to exceed 1/10 of this amount, or 1 per cent. shall be al-
lowed for sweet potatoes affected with soft rot.
In addition, not more than 10 per cent. by weight, of
the sweet potatoes in any lot may not meet the size require-
ments, but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5
per cent. shall be allowed for sweet potatoes which are be-
low the minimum size requirements.
U. S. FANCY shall consist of sweet potatoes of similar
varietal characteristics which are firm, smooth and well-
shaped; which are free from black rot, decay, and freezing
injury; and free from damage caused by dirt, secondary
rootlets, bruises, cuts, scars, growth cracks, scald, scurf or
other disease, weevils or other insects and mechanical or
other means.
The diameter of each sweet potato shall not be less than
2 inches nor more than 31/ inches and the length shall
be not less than 3 inches nor more than 6 inches, but the
length may be less than 3 inches if the diameter is 21/
inches or more.
Tolerances. In order to allow for variations otier than
size incident to proper grading and handling, not more
than 10 per cent. by weight, of the sweet potatoes in any
lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not
to exceed a total of 3 per cent. shall be allowed for defects
causing serious damage, and not more than 1/3 of this
amount or 1 per cent., shall be allowed for sweet potatoes
affected with soft rot.
In addition, not more than 10 per cent. by weight, of
the sweet potatoes in any lot may not meet the size require-
ments, but not more than one-half of this tolerance, or 5
per cent. shall be allowed for sweet potatoes which are
below the minimum size requirements.
Unclassified shall consist of sweet potatoes which are not
graded in conformity with any of the foregoing grades.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the sweet
potatoes in the same container shall have skins of similar
color, such as white, yellow or red. Moist and dry types
shall not be mixed.
"Firm" means that the sweet potato shall not be flabby
or shriveled.










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 33

"Badly misshapen" means that the sweet potato is so
misshapen as to cause a waste for ordinary use of more
than 20 per cent. by weight, of the potato.
"Damage" means any injury which materially affects
the appearance of the lot or causes appreciable waste in
the ordinary preparation for use.
"Serious damage" means any injury not including
badly misshapen potatoes, which seriously affects the ap-
pearance of the lot, or causes a waste of more than 20 per
cent. by weight, in the ordinary preparation for use.
Black rot shall be considered as serious damage.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right
angles to the longitudinal axis.
"Smooth" means that in addition to other defects
which cause roughness, sweet potatoes shall be free from
prominent veining.
May 12, 1926.


2- I.












Florida Crops

Forecasted acreage for 1926, compared to 1925, as given
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture:
SNAP BEANs-Florida 10,240 acres with a production
of 686,000 hampers, compared to 15,000 acres in 1925 with
a production of 1,275,000 hampers.
CABBAGE-Florida, 3,640 acres, compared to 4,610 acres
in 1925.
CANTALOUPES-Florida, 500 acres, compared to 370 acres
in 1925.
CELERY-Florida, 3,370 acres, compared to 4,320 acres
in 1925.
CUCUMBERS-Florida, 6,080 acres, compared to 10,830
acres in 1925.
LETTUCE-Florida had about 1,100 acres, compared to
3,400 acres in 1925.
STRAWBERRIEs-Florida, 2,250 acres, compared to 3,170
acres in 1925.
TOMATOEs-West Coast Section, 8,940 acres; East Coast
Section, 5,100 acres; other Florida, 5,900 acres; total,
19,940 acres; compared to West Coas-, Section, 10,090
acres; East Coast Section, 11,500 acres; other Florida,
11,880 acres; total, 33,470 acres in 1925.
WATERMELONS- Florida, 19,200 acres, compared to
20,910 acres in 1925.
WHITE POTATOES-Hastings Section, 16,450 acres; other
Florida, 6,420 acres; compared to Hastings Section, 15,550
acres; other Florida, 6,370 acres in 1925.
Taking the total acreage of the the above crops for both
years, 1926 and 1925, there is a total of 28,810 acres under
that of 1925. In 1925 the total acreage of the above crops
in Florida was 118,000, the 1926 forecasted acreage gives
a total of 89,190 acres.











Fiber for Binder Twine from
Texas
By W. D. Hornaday, in Manufacturers Record
R ECENT announcement by Cayetano Garza, mil-
lionaire fiber grower and ranchman of Victoria,
Tamaulipas, Mexico, that he has taken steps to
establish a henequen plantation of several thousand acres
in the Gulf coast region of Texas is of international in-
terest. Development of the industry may ultimately result
in the production of sufficient domestic fiber in the United
States to supply a considerable part of the enormous
demands for binder twine of the wheat farmers and grow-
ers of other grains, according to Mr. Garza.
If the assertion of Mr. Garza that henequen may be
successfully grown in Texas proves correct, it will open
the way for the development of an industry that has
brought millions of dollars revenue to the planters of the
State of Yucatan. It was not until about 20 years ago that
the growing of the fiber plant, known as zapupe-closely
akin in all respects to the henequen plant-was started on
a commercial scale in northern Mexico, especially in the
vicinity of Victoria, about 150 miles south of the Texas
border. It is stated that the zapupe has the valuable dis-
tinction of being a hardier plant than henequen; that it
will withstand considerable freezing weather without
being damaged, and that it is adapted to the more northern
regions of Mexico. Of late years the zapupe has also come
to be called henequen, and it is said that it is this species
which Mr. Garza purposes to grow in Texas.
When the fact is considered that more than 100,000 tons
of binder twine are used annually in the harvest fields of
the United States and Canada, the importance of any
experiments that may be made in growing a domestic sup-
ply of the fiber may be realized. For several years condi-
tions in Yucatan have been so disturbed and the henequen
industry there so upset that binder-twine manufacturers
of the United States have at times been in a quandary as
to where their supply of sisal fiber for the manufacture of
twine was to come from, and development of a domestic
source of supply in Texas would be a welcome relief of
the uncertainties of the market situation that arise from









FIBER FOR BINDER TWINE


time to time. One of the largest manufacturers of binder
twine in the United States has been experimenting in the
growing of henequen and other fiber-producing plants in
various parts of the world for more than 30 years, but as
yet it has found no place as ideally adapted naturally to
the industry as Yucatan, it is stated.
This concern purchased 400,000 acres of land in the
peninsula of Lower California about twenty-five years ago
and planted an enormous area in young henequen plants
which were brought there from Yucatan. Not a drop of
rain fell upon the plantation for seven years and all the
plants died. In the light of its failures to develop new
sources of supply for the fiber, this big binder-twine manu-
facturing company does not have much faith in the pos-
sibilities of producing sisal on a commercial scale in Texas.
The people who form the principal laboring element of
Yucatan are Maya Indians and are amiable, cleanly, indus-
trious and capable. Although rather undersized, they are
well formed and very powerful. They are trustworthy and
faithful, and perform the labor required in that country
better, perhaps, than any people who could be secured for
the purpose. The plantations are usually large and, in con-
sequence of their size, somewhat isolated. A plantation
consists of several thousand acres of laud. only a part of
which is cultivated.










Our Diminishing Timber

Resources
HE nation is at last awake to the necessity for in-
telligent action, if we are not to be a country devoid
of timber resources. The strenuous efforts of a
number of organizations and individuals to arouse the
public to its almost criminal disregard for our rapidly
diminishing timber reserves are at last bearing fruit. In-
terest in the subject is increasing rapidly, and an intelli-
gent interest is displacing apath-.
President Coolidge some eighteen months ago called at
Washington a conference to consider ways and means for
bringing about a proper conservation, an intelligent utiliza-
tion; and a clearer understanding of the protective meas-
ures needed in considering what remains of our timber
supply. That conference was almost futile, in spite of the
national aspect lent to it by the President. It voted to
create a "Central Conmmittee" to study the subject, but
the committee was never organized. The mining industry
was represented at the conference by the American Mining
Congress, whose representative was appointed as a member
of the Central Committee. No action could be obtained,
and no really constructive effort was made to get the com-
mittee to function, largely because of inability to finance
it, the Government having no funds available for the pur-
pose. Finally, after a year and a half, Secretary of Com-
merce Hoover lent his name and the prestige of the Depart-
ment of Commerce to a committee to be known as "The
National Wood Utilization Committee." Although this
committee has the complete endorsement of the Depart-
ment of Commerce, and Secretary Hoover as its national
chairman, its work is financed entirely outside Govern-
ment funds. The personnel of the committee is now being
organized, and plans are under way for the launching of
a very big campaign.
In addition to this committee purporting to represent
nationally the timber producing and consuming industries,
various States are taking up the subject. In Pennsylvania
there has already been started a very comprehensive effort
to reduce extravagance in the use of timber. In fact, all
over the country there is a growing interest in the subject.
Scientists are devoting their energies in solving the
problem.









38 DIMINISHING TIMBER RESOURCES

An announcement from Cornell University brings out
the interesting fact that that university believes it has
developed a process that will remove ink from old news-
papers, thereby making a hitherto entirely waste product
of considerable value in timber conservation. They claim
their discovery to be comparatively simple, in that the
process reduces newspaper to pulp, and by chemical treat-
ment removes the ink from the mass. Just how important
such a discovery is may be realized by considering the
quantity of timber that is consumed in the publishing of
the Sunday edition of the Chicago Tribune. This one
newspaper consumes 71 acres of timber in its Sunday edi-
tions and 145 acres each week in its other editions.
The mining industry,- at an enormous expenditure, uses
a tremendous amount of timber annually. It is estimated
that they will consume during the current year something
like 2,500,000,000 board feet of timber. Anything that will
reduce their timber costs and that will at the same time
permit of intelligent conservation is of special interest to
mine operators.
About six years ago the American Mining Congress, in
response to the demands of the metal operators, whose
timber problem was beginning to become burdensome,
organized a special committee to study the question. Aside
from a few companies, that were looking far ahead, little
interest could be aroused. In the coal industry practically
no interest could be obtained, because there was in the
coal fields an overabundant supply of timber. But the
committee kept at work, until last year it reported the in-
teresting fact that several large companies had built their
own timber-treating plants and were going seriously into
the matter of treating their timbers. The coal industry is
now taking a decided interest in treating its mine timbers,
in conservation of their present supply of timber, and in
the reforestation problem. And real progress is being
made.
All of these things-the National Wood Utilization
Committee, the work of scientists and of our national
universities, the growing interest of the mining industry
in solving its timber problem-are healthy indications that
an earnest interest is being taken in those things that
promise to reduce the rate at which the forests are disap-
pearing. The subject is worthy of careful consideration on
broad economic grounds, and as an important phase of
mining that industry stands ready to do its share in bring-
ing about a solution.-From the Mining Congress Journal.












Lumber and Naval Stores Produc.
tion of Florida is Threatened,
Figures Reveal
Commission to Conserve Forests Declared to Be Great Need
(Times-Union, May 9, 1926).
WITH the exception of her wonderful sunshine
and fertile soil, Florida's gigantic bodies of
standing timber are her greatest natural asset.
And, despite the enormous revenue derived from this
sourse scarcely any effort is being made to protect and keep
alive this wonderful gift of nature.
During the year 1925 production of lumber in Florida
reached a total of 1,250,000,000 feet, more than 100,000,000
feet greater than any year since 1918, according to the
Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
The importance of the industry is attested by the fact
that during 1923 thirty-two per cent. of all the wage-
earners in Florida were engaged in it and twenty-four per
cent. of the total production of the State was lumber. The
value of the lumber that year was over $45,150,000, while
workers engaged in the industry received wages and sal-
aries aggregating $15,645,000.

LARGE FOREST AREA

At least 20,000,000 acres of land in Florida are now
partially stocked with trees. The area in farms amounts
to 6,000,000 acres, of which but 2,500,000 acres is
under cultivation. If the cultivated area becomes four
times greater than at present in other words, if
7,500,000 acres more of land are placed under the plow,
giving a net cultivated area of 10,000,000 acres-there will
still remain 10,000,000 acres in forests. An area of 10,-
000,000 acres will yield three billion board feet of timber
annually. This is over twice the present lumber cut. But
to do this, the area must be kept well stocked with trees.
The forests renew themselves naturally if the baby trees
are not killed by forest fires.









40 LUMBER, NAVAL STORES PRODUCTION

Aside from the value of lumber cut and sold, the pine
forests of the State yield each year turpentine and rosin
which increases the wealth of the State by millions of dol-
lars yearly.
Following the decline of the naval stores industry in the
Carolinas, Florida has been in the lead in the production
of turpentine and rosin for fifteen years. In 1910 Florida's
output exceeded the combined production of all other
States. On this basis production dropped from 53.7 per
cent. in 1910 to 32 per cent. in 1925. Florida could not be
expected to continue in the lead against the entire country.
The comparison, however, indicates clearly that the naval
stores industry has contributed in no small way to the
prosperity of the State.

SUPPORTED 70,000 PERSONS

In 1923-24 Florida's output amounted to 195,000 barrels
of turpentine and 660,000 barrels of rosin. The estimated
market value of these commodities is placed at $12,900,000.
Employment was given to more than 14,000 people. Over
$7,000,000 was paid to laborers and salaried officers. As-
suming one wage earner for every five persons, it is esti-
mated that 70,000 individuals were dependent upon the
naval stores industry in Florida in 1924. Another
$3,000,000 was placed in circulation through the purchase
of materials. The average annual naval stores business
transacted at the two principal ports has amounted to
$1,653,000 for Pensacola and $9,023,000 for Jacksonville.
The figures quoted above do not include the turpentine
and rosin distilled from wood. Production from wood dis-
tillation amounted to 52,000 barrels of spirits valued at
$2,015,000 and 200,780 barrels of rosin valued at
$1,368,000.
For the past fifteen years Florida has just about held
its own insofar as the dollar value of the naval stores
business is concerned. This is due to the rise in value of
rosin and turpentine. Productions have dropped off from
1,422,000 barrels of turpentine and rosin in 1908, the peak
year, to 855,000 barrels in 1923-24. This represents a de-
crease of 39.8 per cent. or 2.3 per cent. per year. This
trend downward may be attributed, in part, to the in-
creased cost of labor and 1o other commonly recognized
influences. But, the ever diminishing number of living








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


pine trees from which the crude gum is obtained is recog-
nized by well-informed men as the primary factor which
has limited production.

PRODUCTION UNDER DEMAND

From the point of view of the producers and dealers,
the present day output of turpentine and rosin is suf-
ficiently under the demand to create a healthy market
condition. In some quarters this situation has led to a
feeling of satisfaction. This is most natural, following, as
it does, lean years, or a period of over production.
There were fat years in the Carolinas, and these were
followed by almost total extinction of the industry. Wil-
mington, N. C., once a great naval stores port, as such, is
no more. The decline in production in Florida is recognized
by many leaders in the industry as a sure indication of
more lean years, and, finally, no profits at all, unless some-
thing is done in the way of putting idle forest lands of
the State to work by preventing forest fires.

INDUSTRY CAN BE SUSTAINED

That the naval stores men are concerned about the
future supply of raw materials is evidenced by the fact
that a Commission appointed by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture, was sent to Spain and France in 1924 to study con-
servative methods of turpentining. The report of the Com-
mission teems with enthusiasm regarding the possibility
of a sustained industry in this country, as in France, for
all time. It states that we have better soil, better climate,
better pines than France, in fact, every factor except
taxation and the devastating influence of forest fires. Two
million acres in the Landes district of France-about the
area of five of Florida's counties-support a population
of 1,400,000 people. Tree growing for the production of
timber, turpentine and rosin is the principal industry.
The production of naval stores is equal to one-fourth of
the entire production of all the Southern States and is
not far under the output of the entire State of Florida.
This industry has been maintained eighty years. Per-
manent communities, with good homes, churches and
schools have been built up on an area which many years
ago was nothing but sand dunes and swamps.








42 LUMBER, NAVAL STORES PRODUCTION

If such a transformation could be brought about in
France under less favorable conditions than prevail in
Florida, it would seem reasonable to assume that the par-
tially productive forest lands here can be returned to
their original state. The elimination of forest fires and
conservative turpentining practices, according to experts
of the United States Department of Agriculture, will safe-
guard this twelve million dollar industry for all time.

FORESTRY DEPARTMENT NEEDED

The industry is awakening to its obligation in the matter
of adopting more conservative methods in the woods, as is
evidenced by the 'recently formed Pine Institute of
America. The avowed purpose of this organization is to
improve conditions in the industry and to take steps in-
tended to prevent fires from killing the bay trees. The in-
stitute avers that when the public more fully appreciates
that the existence of the naval stores industry is threatened,
there is little doubt that progressive Florida will also
recognize its obligation to create a fire warden-organization
under the control of a strong forestry department. Such
a department, it is pointed out, could do much to safe-
guard the naval stores industry. The primary objective
should be to demonstrate that tree growing, as a crop, is
profitable; to demonstrate conservative methods of turpen-
tining and to prevent forest fires through education and
by enforcing fire laws.
Thirty or more States appear to be getting satisfactory
results on their investments in forestry departments and
in the protection of young stands of timber. If Florida
would spend but one-half of one per cent. of the combined
value of the lumber and naval stores industries, estimated
at $60,000,000, it would cost $300,000 annually. This is
characterized by experts as cheap insurance on such a
valuable industry, which means so much to the continued
prosperity of the State, and it is predicted that the time
is drawing near when Florida will look into this problem
and take appropriate steps to safeguard this important
industry.











Citrus Industry of Florida
Its Present Development an'd Future Possibilities.
By C. C. COMMANDER, Gen. Mgr. Florida Citrus Exchange.
Ft. Pierce News Tribune.
NO comprehensive picture of the citrus industry of
Florida can be given without some consideration
of the origin of the fruit itself. Because of the
many misstatements concerning this early history and in
order to furnish us a background for further discussion,
it may be well to cite the facts as far as it is possible to
determine them.
The first authentic record of the citrus fruit from
which our modern orange came takes us back to the early
part of the Eighth century. There seems to be no question
that both the sweet and bitter orange flourished under the
shadows of the Himalaya Mountains in the Valley of the
Ganges at this early date.
It is thought that the Arabs, during the early part of
the Eighth century, carried it into southwestern Asia, for
towards the close of the Ninth century and the beginning
of the Tenth century it seems to have been freely culti-
vated in Arabia.
During the Twelfth century, after having been intro-
duced into Syria by the Arabians, it was carried by the
soldiers of the Cross, returning from their crusades, into
Palestine and Italy.
The bitter orange, known as the Sevilla, undoubtedly
comes from trees brought into Spain by the Mohammedans
during their conquests. The fruit from this section is
still used by all English manufacturers as a basis for their
marmalades. It is interesting in this connection to trace
the derivation of orange from the "nagrunge" of the
Sanskrit into the "naranj" of the Arab, which passed by
easy stages into "aranji" of the Roman, only in turn to
become "arancia" of the Italian, which later became the
provincial orange. The Arabian name "naranj" became
in Spanish "naranja" and it is easy to surmise that the
town of the same name on the eastern coast of Florida
came direct from the early Spanish term "naranja,"
meaning orange.









44 CITRUS INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA

The sweet orange seems to have come from Central
China and Java, and does not seem to have been intro-
duced into Europe until a much later date than the bitter
orange, probably some time during the latter part of the
Fourteenth century, or the early part of the Fifteenth. It
was, however, commonly cultivated in Italy during the
early part of the Sixteenth century, and undoubtedly
brought from there by the Portuguese to the Azores, and
later on the West Indies, and from there probably into
Florida. While there is no historical record of this later
date, it is supposed that the orange was first brought to
America by the founder of St. Augustine in 1565. But
little progress was made in its cultivation, however, for
when Florida was taken over from the Spaniards some
250 years later, the industry had gained but little head-
way. Since then constant observation, countless experi-
ments, most careful study of its growth, and above all,
the final discovery of the root system of certain hardy
varieties, to which was added the bud-stock of a produc-
ing orange tree, has finally resulted in what we claim to-
day is the best orange produced in the world.
There is no fruit that can compare with the orange in
the number of years of life in production. Near Madrid,
Spain, is an orange tree which, according to the records,
is 633 years old, showing no signs of decay. Several groves
in Southern Spain are said to be 400 years old. In our
own country there are trees that still bear abundantly
from fifty to eighty years and more, so that an owner of
a grove in Florida, without fear, can claim to have an
ever-bearing property.
The grapefruit is of comparatively recent development.
Less than a century ago, Captain Shaddock brought a
fruit to Florida from the East Indies, which took the
name of the old sea captain. The bloom of the shaddock
had the appearance and fragrance of the orange blossom.
The shaddock produced clusters of huge fruit many of
which measured as much as eight inches in diameter. The
inside of the fruit had a pinkish tinge and was pithy and
not edible. It had no more commercial value than the
ordinary mock orange, though it became popular as an
ornamental tree for lawns and walks.
Citrus fruit nurserymen were not slow, however, to see
the promising field for experiments which the shaddock
offered. Having all the characteristics of the orange, they









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 45

bred it with the orange and rough lemon, and through a
series of interesting experiments finally produced the
"Pomello," or grapefruit of to-day.
The raising of citrus fruits had rapidly passed from a
pastime to an important State industry. Here in Florida,
the fact that the citrus industry produces the largest agri-
cultural revenue available to the State is not news. It
exceeds in returns to the State all other farm products
combined. It is nearly twice as great as Florida's saw
mills. It is two and one-half times greater than the value
of her naval stores. It is three and one-third times greater
than the value of her fisheries and her mineral products.
It is exceeded only by Florida's mammoth factory pro-
duce, which is three times greater commercially than the
present citrus volume.
There are 288,656 acres planted to citrus in the State.
Of this total 176,000 are bearing. The balance, or non-
bearing acreage. applies to all trees four years of age or
less.











Drainage in the United States
South Florida Developer.
OME seven millions of acres of land in Florida is em-
braced in what the bureau of the census describes
as "areas in organized drainage enterprises." This
is a tremendous area; it is greater than the area of three
States whose delegates signed the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, and an immense sum will be required to com-
plete the several plans of reclamation that are under way.
Yet, though by one standard it is a tremendous area, and
although it would be pleasing to claim pre-eminence for
Florida in the matter of drainage, as pre-eminence for
this State can be claimed in other lines, the area contained
in organized drainage enterprises in Florida is not more-
it is even less-than in at least two other States of the
Union, as reported by the Bureau of the Census of the
Department of the Interior.
Michigan is only slightly smaller than Florida, and
Minnesota is only one-tenth larger, yet as reported by the
authority above quoted, Michigan has 9,778,269 acres
in organized drainage enterprises and Minnesota has
9,364,869.
The States with which the comparison with Florida is
made are in a sense new States-that is, the area of the
cultivated land is much less than the whole of the States'
areas, and there are many tracts of cut-over land which
are being utilized by draining. But it is interesting to
note that in as old a State as Illinois over 4,000,000 acres
are in drainage districts, and in as well-developed a State
as Iowa over 5,000,000 acres. To persons familiar with the
history of drainage and to those who know the benefits that
follow from drainage, there will be nothing of surprise
to learn that the older and better developed States which
lead in agriculture also contain large areas of land in
drainage districts; they will regard the second as the
corollary of the first.
The rainfall in California is deficient (it is less than
that which is counted as normal for the country as a
whole) ; a large part of North Dakota is situated in what
is known as the semi-arid belt, and likewise Montana and
Colorado, but all of these States have large areas in drain-








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 47

age districts. These are the figures for those States:
California, 1,132,758; Colorado, 171,656; Montana,
313,584; North Dakota, 1,284,584. This indicates that even
where the rainfall is not above normal, drainage is found
to be worth its cost.
Analysis of the reports of the Bureau of the Census on
drainage might be carried further and to other States.
The inference from these figures, however, is that there is
ample justification for the continuance of the drainage
enterprises that are under way in Florida, and that their
progress ought not to be hampered, but, on the contrary,
every effort made to advance the projects to completion.











Each Florida Soil Type Has Its

Own Set of Crops
Selection of .Right Type of Soils for the Growing of Specific
Crops is the First Essential to Success, so Newcomers
Must Know What They Expect to Raise Before
They Buy Land
By CHARLES D. KIME, Orange County Agricultural Agent, in
The Florida Grower
(Leading land owners in Orange and neighboring counties
recently got together at Orlando to discuss ways and means for
the proper development of the agricultural and horticultural
resources of their properties. They formed a committee to re-
view the situation, and showed excellent judgment by making
"Charlie" Kime, Orange county's agricultural agent, chairman
of that committee. The committee's report, while intended pri-
marily to show the property owners what could be done in the
way of farming development in the central part of the state-
and how it should be done, too-contains information of great
value to the prospective farm-settler, particularly the table on
truck crop plantings and the data appended to the general re-
port showing what crops are suited to the different types ot
soil.-Editor's Note.)

T HE Agricultural Committee submits the following
report on the possibilities of Orange county lands
covering the crops which may be grown, and in the
case of certain ones, the cost of production and average
yield. The committee does not feel that it can give a fair
estimate income yield that may be expected from any of
the crops listed as there is a great variation from year to
year, and a great many of them have not been shipped
commercially for a sufficient.length of time to give a fair
average.
The committee has classified the soils under the follow-
ing heads:
1. Muck.
2. Low flat soils undrained, and low flat soils ade-
quately drained.
3. Intermediate soils.
4. High land soils.
Trucking should be attempted only on tile-drained land
which is also arranged for irrigation, distinguishing be-
tween those strictly commercial and truck crops as now








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


typified by such areas as Winter Garden and .Sanford.
General garden crops should be attempted only on lower
soils where drainage is established.

WHAT CROPS TO GROW

Each tract should be classified according to its soil type,
using the designations low muck soils, drained muck soils,
low flat woods soils after drainage and liming, intermediate
soils, and high pine land soils. There follows this report
a list of crops classified according to the above designations
and covering the general lines which we believe may be
safely followed on them. As a general proposition the pro-
ductive lines which command the most favorable market
standing, and which will combine for small farm proposi-
tions, are:
1. Dairying.
2. Berry crops, such as blackberries, grapes and straw-
berries.
3. Poultry.
4. Garden crops.
5. Trucking.
6. Fruits.
7. Specialties, such as bulbs, avocadoes, ferneries and
ornamentals.
8. Honey production.
The most important combination of this list is that
where from one to four or five dairy cows can be used.
The agricultural committee wishes to call attention very
earnestly to the following condition which is arising at
the present moment. If we will take the marketing of eggs
in Orange county, we will find that during the winter
there is an under-supply, and during the earlier spring
months the supply of fresh.eggs is more than sufficient
to meet the demand, giving us a surplus. This same con-
dition will become true very shortly with regard to a large
number of other crops such as grapes, strawberries, cab-
bage, celery, lettuce, dairy products, blackberries, and so
forth. With such a condition confronting us the local
marketing situation will become acute at regular stated
intervals during the year. This can be overcome and the
market consumptive ability of the section spread through
a 12-months period only by the employment of cold stor-
age facilities. If the agricultural development of this see-








50 TYPES OF SOIL FOR ALL CROPS

tion is to be put across we must have cold storage plants
in which the surplus production can be held over for use
and distribution during the year.
In addition to this one point which offers an immense
expansion on marketing ability of products produced
locally, the plans should certainly include a co-operative
marketing idea. Those companies putting on large develop-
ments should always bear in mind and emphasize with
their people that their best success will come through a
co-operative association, thereby laying the ground work
for the orderly movement of perishables from the State.
A report issued by the State Marketing Bureau, through
L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner, indicates that Florida im-
ports $24,000,000 worth of dairy products per year, 14,-
500,000 dozen eggs at a cost of $4,500,000 and $7,500,000
worth of poultry. This shows a large consuming area in
the State, the larger portion of which would be in South
Florida.
On a conservative basis it seems reasonable to assume
that Florida can market profitably about 30,000 cars of
grapes through a proper co-operative arrangement. This
allows for an immense expansion along this line. Local
markets within the central section of the State can un-
doubtedly consume the product from over five hundred
acres of strawberries, with an indicated acreage of black-
berries fully as large. These two products also offer a
canning possibility which time should develop.
The following gives a general summary of the different
uses to which the various general soil types found in Orange
and surrounding counties are adaptable:

DRAINED MUCK SOILS

FALL PLANTINGS:

(Seed beds prepared in September; plantings made in
December.)
Cabbage seed and plants, lettuce seed, celery seed and
plants, onion seed and sets, mustard, rape for greens.
radishes, garden peas, cauliflower seed and plants, beets,
turnips, spinach, carrots, collards, broccoli, romaine,
parsnips, kale good, kohl-rabi, leek, brussels sprouts, pars-
ley, strawberries.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Field Crops-Oats for green feed, barley for green feed,
rape for green feed, Italian rye for green feed, pasture
grasses.

SPRING PLANTINGS:

(More hardy varieties planted in February with some
frost protection; others planted in March.)
Garden Crops.-Squash, cucumbers, bush beans, pole
beans, lima beans, sweet corn, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes,
sweet potato draws, flowering artichoke, okra, collards,
strawberry plants for runners, blackberries.
Field Crops.-Field corn, cow peas, velvet beans, crot-
alaria, lespedeza, millet, rice, sorghum, sunflower, sugar
cane.
Generally speaking ornamentals can be planted in the
spring or fall, including most flowers, roses, bulbs and
ferns. Other lines of endeavor which can be followed to
advantage on this soil are dairying and poultry.

LOW FLATWOOD SOILS

(After Drainage and Liming).

FALL PLANTINGS:

On untiled land-cabbage, tomatoes, onion seed and sets,
radishes, rape, mustard, beets, turnips, carrots, collards,
parsnips, kale.
On tiled land-lettuce, celery, garden peas, cauliflower,
spinach, romaine, kohl-rabi, leek, parsley.
Field Crops.-Oats for green feed, barley for green feed,
rape for green feed, Italian rye for green feed, pasture
grass for green feed.
(Note). All crops yield heavier on tiled and irrigated
lands.

SPRING PLANTINGS:

On untiled land-squash, bush beans, pole beans, lima
beans, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, sweet potato draws,
okra, collards, strawberry plants (on new land for fall
planting), blackberries.
On tiled land-cucumbers, sweet corn, flowering arti-
choke.









52 TYPES OF SOIL FOR ALL CROPS

Field Crops.-Chufas, field corn, cow peas, velvet beans,
crotalaria cover crop, beggarweed, lepedeza, millet, sorgh-
ums, sunflower, sugar cane, rice.
Generally speaking, roses, bulbs, ferns and flowers will
do well on this type of soil.
(Note). All crops yield heavier on tiled and irrigated
lands.
INTERMEDIATE SOILS

(Too high for truck and too low for citrus).
Fruits. Plums, Japanese persimmons and plums,
peaches of Florida varieties, sand pears, guavas, mangos
of hardy varieties, surinam cherries, bunch and scupper-
nong grapes, blackberries.
Vegetables.-Collards, melons, cantaloupe, sweet pota-
toes, tomatoes, pumpkins, okra, most flowers.
Other Lines.-Dairying, poultry, squabs, ferneries under
slat, bulbs, honey production according to location.
Field Crops.-Peanuts, chufas, cowpeas, velvet beans,
crotalaria, beggarweed, millet, sorghum, sunflowers.

HIGH LAND SOILS

There is no successful use for high scrub lands, though
this soil makes good building sand when coarse. The yel-
low subsoil and Orlando sand types in this classification
are adaptable for the following uses:
All citrus varieties of proper root stock, most varieties
of grapes, blackberries on lower slopes, pears of sand type,
peaches, plums, avocados, mangos, surinam cherries of
hardy types, Japanese persimmons and plums, pecans on
lower -slopes, black walnut on lower slopes, ferns under
slat, poultry and squabs, sweet potatoes, watermelons, cow
peas, corn on lower slopes, velvet beans, oats in fall for
green feed (best when grown on low land), rye in fall for
green feed (best when grown on low land).
*This soil classification, with crop suggestions, was com-
piled by Mr. Kime to meet central peninsular Florida con-
ditions found in such counties as Orange, Sanford,
Osceola, Lake, etc.

















Florida Truck Crop Table

What to Plant, When to Plant, How to Plant, When to
Harvest, Value of the Crops
By RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Associate Editor Florida Grower, in
Collaboration with
PROF. M. R. ENSIGN, Entomologist-Pathologist, Florida Exten-
sion Service
TO say definitely when any one crop should be planted
in Florida, or how planted, is hardly more than a
big guess, except generally. This is a State of wide
dimensions-north to south, east to west-and as much of
it is in close proximity to water-rivers, lakes, bays, seas
and oceans-planting time varies from extreme southern
counties to extreme northern counties by several weeks.
The man who studies the following table should bear this
in mind and let his criticisms be tempered with forebear-
ance. We believe that dates and so forth given here will
be found about as accurate as it is possible to give them
for planting truck crops in Florida. Figures used to in-
dicate the values of the respective crops are for the year
1925.








FLORIDA TRUCK CROP TABLE


Most Profitable
Varieties


Giant Stringless.
Green Pod, Early
SSpeckled Valen-
tine, Early Refu-
g e e, Kentucky
Wonder, Tennes-
see Flat Pod,
New Davis White
Wa x, Wardell
Kidney Wax.


BEAN S,
green and
wax.








CABBAGE.


Seed per Acre


3 pecks.


1 lb., if drilled
in field 1 lb;.
will furnish
enough plants
for 2 to 4
acres.


Distances Apart
in drill bet. rows

3 to 4" 3 to 4'


Depth to
Plant Seed

to 2"


Time to Plant
Seed

Soon as danger of
frost is over, or
early enough to
harvest ahead of
first frosts.


Time to Expect
Harvest


8 to 10 weeks $4,922,000


1 1 1 1__ ___1 __ _


about 15"


about 36" 1/2" deep.


2 to 5 lbs. about 4' about 6' 1 to i/2"


5 to 6 ounces
in seed bed
(enough for 1
acre.


30" %" in
bed.


October and
January.






Jan. 15- Feb. 1.
south of Tampa;
north that point
Feb. 15-Mar. 1.

August to No-
vember.


January and
March-April.






From 70 to 90
days from
planting.


5 to 6 months
planting seed
in seedbed.


Vegetables


Charleston Wake-
field, Long Island
Wakefield, Pre-
mium Flat Dutch
Jersey W a k e-
field,Coepnhagen,
Danish.

Netted Gem, Sal-
mon-Tint, Po l-
loc k, Emerald
Gem.

Golden Self-
Blanching (early
planting). Green
Top and Easy
Blanching (late
planting).


CANTA-
LOUPE.



CELERY.


Annual
Value Crop
in Florida


$920,000







$200,000




$10,000,000


---- I











Stowell's E v e r-
green, Crosby's
Ada m's Early,
Long Island
Beauty, Country
Gentleman.


CORN
(sweet).





CUCUM-
BERS.



EGG-
PLANT.





LETTUCE.




OKRA.


7 to 15 lbs.


12 to 36"


usually
4'


3 or12 to 3"


i t t I I -I-


2 to 3 lbs.




6 ozs. in seed-
bed: 3,000
plants to acre.




% to 1z/ ozs.
(in seedbed).



6 to 10 lbs.


4 to 5'


about 18"


Improved White
Spine, Davis Per-
fect, Curby Stay-
green.

Black Beauty,
Florida High-
bush, New York
Improved Spine-
less, Early Long
Purple.

Big Boston,Cream
Butter. Paris
White Cos, Ro-
maine, Iseberg.

Perkins Mammoth
Podded, Long
Green, White


5 to 6'


about 3'






12 to 15"


1 to 11/2"


/4 to 1/2" in
in seedbed.





1% to 1/4


Soon as danger
frost is by.


Soon as danger
frost is by.


75 to 90 days. |$100,000(?)


75 to 90 days.


1- 1 1 1


July 15-fall crop.
January-spring
crop.


September
rei ber.


to De-


about 3' 1 to 2" February to July.


100 to 120 days.|


November to
March.



April to Sept.
(mature in 60
days).


$3,366,000




$100,000 ^






$1,892,000




$90,000


about 12"




thin to 12"
apart in
drill.








FLORIDA TRUCK CROP TABLE-(Coitiinued)


Vegetables





ONIONS.





PEAS
(green).



PEPPERS.


POTATOES
(Irish).



POTATOES
(sweet).


Seed per Acre





3 to 4 lbs. of
seed; 8 to 12
bus. of sets.


Distances Apart
in Drill IBet. Rows


4 to d"


12 to 15"


Most Profitable
Varieties

Valvet, Dwarf
Prolific.

Crystal Wax,
White Bermuda,
Red Bermuda,
Australian
Brown.

Alaska E xt ra
Early, Thomas
Laxton, Florida
McNeil.

Ruby King, World
Beater.

Spaulding Rose
No. 4, Bliss Tri-
umph, Irish Cob-
bler.

Porto Rico, Big
Stem, Jersey,Tri-
umph, Norton
Y'am, Nancy Hall


14 to 1/2 lb. (in
seedbed).

11 to 12 bus.


6 to 8 bus. for
slips to plant
1 acre first
drawing; 7,-
000 to 12.000
slips to acre.


about 20"


about 12"


about 3'


3 to 31/2'


I-----1-~- -- -~- I


12 to 30"


Depth to
Plant Seed




/1 to 12"
(seed).
1 to 2"
(sets).


1/ to 3"




4 to 1/2


about 13"


2'/2 to 31/' 4 to S"


Time to Plant
Seed




Dec. to Feb. (seed
bed) ; an. to Mar.
(sets in field).



December to
March.



July 15-Aug. 1-
fall; Jan., spring

Dec. 15-Jan. 15-
south of Ocala;
Jan. 1-Feb. 15-
north of Ocala.


Soon as danger of
frost is by; start
beds earlier.


Annual
Time to Expect Value Crop
Harvest in Florida
--I-


Jan. to April
(strips), April
to June(roots)



February to
May.



From 110 to
120 days.

From 70 to
120 days.



3 to 4 mos.
from setting
of plants.


.1---- ^
|$75.000





$235.000

C


$,1.6-)1,000







I $4.060,000
I_~-r

I~y~si~ro~


11/2 to 21/2 bus. 1 to 2" 3 to 4'










(ocozelle. White
Bush, or Patty
Pan.Early Crook-
neck. Early Yel-
low Bnsh, Mam-
moth White
Blush.


2 to 3 lbs.


Missio(inry. Klon- 15.000 to 35,-
dyke. 35.000 plants.


Livingston's Globe.
Stone. Early De-
troit. Bonny
Best. Beauty,
Earliana, Florida
Special.


Tom Watson.Flor-
ida Fa vorite,
Thermond Gray,


Irish Gray, Ex-
c'el.


1 11). seed: 3,-
600 to 6,000
plants.


4 to 6'


12 to 14"
(single row
system) ; 9
to 14"
(double
row sys-
tem).

10 to 20"


4 to S'


3 to z3'
(single row
system) : 4'
(double
ro w sys-
tem).


/22 to 4'


II I -


1 to 21/2 lbs. 16 to 8'


8 to 10'


1 to 2"


2 to .3"







1/%" in seed-
(bed).


1 to 2"


Soon as danger of 50 to 60 days.
frost is by.


September to No-
vember.






January to March.


January to March.


December to
May.






March to
June.


SQUASH


70 to 100 days. $2.964,000


$45,000


I




j$1.626,000







.$ 9,276,000
(1924)
15.000,000
(1925)


STRAW-
BERRY.


WATER-
MELON.










FACTS AND FIGURES ON CENTRAL FLORIDA'S GENERAL TRUCK CROPS.


Celery ........ .........
Lettuce..................
Cucumbers. ..............
Peppers................. .
Cabbage..... ...........
Green Corn ..............
Potatoes.................
Strawberries ............
Sweet Potato.........
W atermelon ............
B eans. ................ .
Tomatoes .............. .
Eggplant...... ........
Squash..................


Cost


$400-$800
125- 175
75- 200

75- 100
15- 30
100-
175- 250
30- 50
50- 75
60- 90
75- 125
100-
40- 80


Yield


600-800 crates
250-700 crates
250-350 crates
175-300 crates
6.75 tons or 150 crates
30-100 crates
Av. 40 bbls.
1500-3000
112 bu.
3 1-2 acre-1 car
75-200 hampers
75-200 crates
250-400
150-300


Plants Per Acre


60,000
30,000
1,450
10,000
11.500
12,000
11 bu.
12,000
7,000
2-3 lbs. seed
60 lbs. seed
3.600
3.000


Shipping Period


Jan. 1.-May 10
Dec.-March
M arch-June
Nov.-May
Jan.-April
May-June
March-June
Dec.-March
July-Dec.
June-July
Dec.-May
March-July
Nov.-May
April-June


Note:-These figures are based on central peninsular Florida conditions.


I~I











Record Power Production of Pub-
lic Utility Power Plants
in 1925
Manufacturers Record

T HE electrical power production of public utility
power plants last year amounted to 65,870,306,000
kilowatt hours, according to a compilation by the
Division of Power Resources of the Geological Survey.
This record power output is greater by 11.6 per cent, than
the 59,013,590.000 kilowatt hours of electrical energy pro-
duced in 1924. With the exception of the depression of
1921, the output of public utility power plants has shown
a steady annual increase. As illustrating the tremendous
growth in public utility power service in recent years,
last year 22,315,000,000 kilowatt hours, or 51 per cent.
more electrical power was generated by public utility
power plants that similar plants produced during the
boom period of 1919-1920.
Of the total electrical power of public utility plants last
year 22,355,917,000 kilowatt hours, or 33.9 per cent., were
the output of water power stations and 43,514,389,000 kilo-
watt hours, or 66.1 per cent., were produced by fuel
power which required the consumption of approximately
40,000,000 tons of coal, 17,000,000 barrels of 42-gallon
capacity of fuel oil and 50,000,000,000 cubic feet of gas.
In 1925 the public utility power plants of the South
produced 7,035,472,000 kilowatt hours of electrical energy,
1,714,878,000 kilowatt hours of which were generated by
water power and 5,320,594,000 kilowatt hours by fuel
power.
The total developed capacity of water power in the
South in 1925 was 2,034,249 horse power, or 20 per cent.
of the country's total. The capacity of public utility power
plants in the South in 1925 was 1,778,936 horse power, or
21 per cent. of the country's total. In the last several
years the South has shown a relatively greater increase in
developed water power than any other section of the
country.






PRODUCTION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY PUBLIC-UTILITY POWER PLANTS IN 1925*
(Compiled by Division of Power Resources)


Total power-


Division and State
New England ..................
Maine ......................
New Hampshire.........
Vermont ....................
Massachusetts ......
Rhode Island...............
Connecticut .................

Middle Atlantic................
New York.....................
New Jersey-...-..............
Pennsylvania ...........

East North Central.
Ohio ...........
Indiana ...................
Illinois ............
Michigan ............
W\isconsin -. ... .

West North Central.........
Minnesota .................
Iowa ..... ..----
M issouri ............-............
North Dakota ..........
South Dakota..........
Nebraska ................
K ansas ..........................


Per cent
Kilowatt of U. S.
hours total
......... .. 4,823,655,000 7.32
-.-.- .. 509,231,000 .77
....... 263,683,000 .40
.-.. .....- 257,974,000 .39
.. .....- 2,377,649,000 3.61
....- ...-..- 408,208,000 .62
..- ......-. 1,006,910,000 1.53

.-....-. ...- 18,298,853,000 27.78
.-.....-.-..- 10,266,700,000 15.58
........-.. 1,506,155,000 2.29
.-..- ..- 6,525,998,000 9.91

........... 15,714,972,000 23.86
......... 4,387,499,000 6.66
........-... 1,484,472,000 2.26
-......-.... 5,269,477,000 8.00
...-....... 3,031,273,000 4.60
.......... 1,542,251,000 2.34

..... .. 4,253,656,000 6.46
........ .. 1,045,684,000 1.59
........... 1,195,315,000 1.82
.- ..-..-... 865,802,000 1.31
. ..-.... 39,050,000 .06
.- .....-- 74,875,000 .11
.......... 366,266,000 .56
-- ...--. 666,664,000 1.01


- -Water power----
Per
cent of
Per cent U. S.
Kilowatt of total water
hours power power
1,637,835,000 34.0 7.32
486,491,000 95.5 2.18
222,872,000 84.5 1.00
251,568,000 97.5 1.12
512,130,000 21.5 2.29
5,034,000 1.2 .02
159,740,000 15.9 .71


5,178,861,000
4,484,970,000
2,154,000
691,737,000

1,623,098,000
31,998,000
66,865,000
198,456,000
709,595,000
616,184,000

1,317,721,000
534,943,000
671,399,000
47,803,000

10,788,000
29,100,000
23,688,000


-Fuel power-----
Per
cent of
Per cent U. S.


Kilowatt
hours
3,185,820,000
22,740,000
40,811,000
6,406,000
1,865,519,000
403,174,000
847,170,000


of total fuel


power p
66.0
4.5
15.5
2.5
78.5
98.8
84.1


23.17 13,119,992,000
20.06 5,781,730,000
.01 1,504,001,000
3.09 5,834,261,000


14,091,874,000
4,355,501,000
1,417,607,000
5,071,021,000
2,321,678,000
926,067,000

2,935,935,000
510,741,000
523,916,000
817,999,000
39,050,000
64,087,000
337,166,000
642,976,000


6,271,770,000 9.52 1,667,075,000 26.6


ower
7.32
.05
.09 -
.01
4.29
.93 c
1.95 -

30.15
13.29
3.46
13.41 '

32.39
10.01 M
3.26
11.65
5.34
2.13

6.75 -3
1.17 5)
1.20
1.88
.09 "
.15
.78
1.48


South Atlantic .....


7.46 4,604,695,000 73.4 10.58





Delaware .-................
Maryland ................
District of Columbia.
Virginia ...................
West Virginia ...........
North Carolina........
South Carolina ........
Georgia ......... ....
Florida ........... -

East South Central.......
Kentucky .................
Tennessee ..............
Alabama .................
Mississippi ..........

West South Central...
Arkansas ...............
Louisiana ............
Oklahoma ... .....
Texas ..... ..........

Mountain ..................
Montana -............
Idaho .........................
Wyoming .................
Colorado ..........
New Mexico........
Arizona ..... ...
Utah .......
N evada ..............


Pacific .........
Washington
Oregon .....
California .

United States.


102,100,000
572,651,000
349,803,000
801,568,000
1,642,894,000
942,294,000
881,536,000
660,790,000
318,134,000

2,609,746,000
474,745,000
874,973,000
1,169,101,000
90,927,000

2,201,833,000
189,070,000
350,322,000
394,383,000
1,268,058,000

3,127,142,000
1,262,629,000
754,079,000
55,544,000
522,892,000
21,787,000
130,541,000
339,967,000
39,703,000

8,568,679,000
1,623,007,000
729,859,000
6,215,813,000


13,380,000

168,684,000
24,187,000
381,156,000
580,702,000
488,147,000
10,819,000

1,024,437,000
6,281,000
457,994,000
560,162,000
- - - -


3-34 30,491,000
.29 22,470,000
.53 .---.
.60 2,320,000
1.92 5,701,000

4.75 2,605,574,000
1.92 1,253,899,000
1.15 751,786,000
.08 6,109,000
.79 196,564,000
.03 828,000
.20 90,585,000
.52 266,895,000
.06 38,908,000

13.01 7,270,825,000
2.46 1,534,840,000
1.11 563,219,000
9.44 5,172,766,000


.14
.10

.01
.03

11.66
5.61
3.36
.03
.88

.41
1.19
.17


102,100,000 100.0
559,271,000 97.7
349,803,000 100.0
632,884,000 79.0
1,618,707,000 98.5
561,138,000 59.6
300,834,000 34.1
172,643,000 26.1
307,315,000 96.6

1,585,309,000 60.7
468,464,000 98.7
416,979,000 47.7
608,939,000 52.0
90,927,000 100.0

2,171,342,000 98.6
166,600,000 88.1
350,322,000 100.0
392,063,000 99.4
1,262,357,000 99.6

521,568,000 16.7
8,730,000 0.7
2,293,000 .3
49,435,000 89.0
326,328,000 62.4
20,959,000 96.2
39,956,000 30.8
73,072,000 21.5
795,000 2.0


32.52 1,297,854,000 15.1
6.86 88,167,000 5.4
2.52 166,640,000 22.8
23.14 1,043,047,000 16.8


65,870,306,000 100.00 22,355,917,000 33.9 100.00 43,514,389,000 66.1 100.00


*Central stations, electric railway plants and other plants generating electricity for public use











Conspicuous Increase in Production and
Sales of Dyes and Other Synthetic
Organic Chemicals
Great Progress Made in Manufacture of Fast Dyes, Many Valu-
able Dyes of High Fastness Being Produced for First
Time in the United States in 1925.

P RELIMINARY figures compiled by the United
States Tariff Commission show a domestic produc-
tion of coal-tar dyes for the calendar year 1925 of
about 86,000,000 pounds, with a value of about $40,000,000.
This is an increase of 25 per cent. by quantity over that
of 1924. The total sales of dyes in 1925 were about
79,000,000 pounds, valued at $36,900,000. This is an in-
crease of nearly 22 per cent. in quantity and a 5 per cent.
increase in total value over the figures for 1924. This in-
creased output and sales is largely due to the greater
activity of the domestic textile industry and an improve-
ment in the export trade in indigo and sulphur black.
The outstanding features for the year were: (1) Con-
tinued recessions in dye prices, due largely to the severe
competition between the domestic manufacturers; (2) con-
spicuous progress in the manufacture of fast dyes, many
valuable dyes of high fastness being produced for the first
time in the United States in 1925. The output of vat dyes
(other than indigo) exceeded 2,500,000 pounds, compared
with 1,820,000 pounds in 1925. This class of dyes is used
largely on cotton and yields shades of exceptional fast-
ness. This increase is of special interest as indicative of
the pronounced trend toward an increased use of fast
dyes. (3) The imports of dyes recorded a 75 per cent.
increase by quantity and a 65 per cent. increase by value.
This increase in imports since the tariff reduction of 15
per cent. on September 21, 1924, shows increased compe-
tition from foreign dyes, mostly of the higher cost types.
(4) Dye exports recorded an increase amounting to 64
per cent. by quantity and 19 per cent. by value over that
of 1924.










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


TABLE I.-DOMESTIC PRODUCTION AND SALES OF
COAL-TAR DYES.

Production Sales
Year- Pounds. Pounds. Value.
1925 .......... ..... 86,000,000 79,000,000 $36,940,000
1924 ................ 68,679,000 64,961,433 35,012,400
1923 .............. 93,667,524 86,567,446 47,223,161
1922 ................ 64,632,187 69,107,105 41,463,790
1921 .......... .... 39,008.690 47,513,762 39,283,956
1920 ................ 88,263,776
1914 ................ 6.619,729

The weighted average price of all domestic dyes sold in
1925 was nearly 14 per cent. less than the average of 1924.
The following table shows the trend of the average prices
of domestic coal-tar dyes in recent years:

Weighted Average *Sales
Year- Price of Domestic Dyes
1925 ............................ ...... $0.466
1924 ...... .............................. .54
1923 ............................ ....... .545
1922 ...... ............................ .60
1921 ................. ......... ....... .83
1920 ...... ............. .... .. ....... .99
1917 ........................... ...... 1.26
*The total value of all dyes divided by the total quantity.

The price recessions were of a general character and
include the low as well as the high price dyes. The aver-
age sales price of indigo in 1925 was 15.5 cents per pound,
compared with 22 cents in 1924. The current price is
about 12 cents per pound, a decrease from the pre-war
price, when our entire supply was imported from Ger-
many and Switzerland.
The total dye imports during 1925 were 5,315,158
pounds, with an invoice value of $4,791,900. This repre-
sents a 75 per cent. increase by quantity and a 65 per
cent. increase by value over that of 1924. In accordance
with the provisions of Paragraph 28 of the Tariff Act of
1922, the ad valorem duty on dyes and other finished coal-
tar products was reduced on September 22, 1924, from 60
to 45 per cent.; the duty on intermediates from 55 to 40
per cent. The specific duty of 7 cents per pound on both
groups remained unchanged. Since the tariff reduction
the imports have recorded a conspicuous increase. The
average monthly import during 1925 was 442,930 pounds,










64 SALES OF DYES AND OTHER CHEMICALS

valued at $399,326, compared with 179,103 pounds, valued
at $182,515, for the first 9 months of 1924, prior to the
reduction in the tariff rate. An increase in the activities
of the textile trade during 1925 and the latter part of 1924
was a factor in the increased imports after the tariff reduc-
tion. There has been, however, an increased competition
from foreign dyes, principally of the higher cost types used
for special purposes. These dyes have been almost entirely
of German and Swiss manufacture.
The following table shows the imports of dyes into the
United States from 1920 through March, 1926:
TABLE II.-IMPORTS OF COAL-TAR DYES INTO THE
UNITED STATES.
Invoice Monthly Average
Period- Pounds. Value. Pounds. Value.
1926-Total 3 months .. 1,157,290 $1,097,164 385,763 $365,721
1925 ................... 5,315,158 4,791,908 442,930 399,326
1924-First 9 months.... 1,611,931 1,642,632 179,103 182,515
Last 3 months .... 1,410,608 1,266,146 470,203 422,049
Total ............ 3,022,539 2,908,778 251,878 242,398
1923 ................... 3,098,193 3,151,363 258,153 262,614
1922 ................... 3,982,631 5,243,257 338,850 436,838
1921 .................. 4,252,911 5,156,779 354,409 429,732
1920 ................... 3,402,582 5,763,437 283,548 480,286
The imports of coal-tar dyes in 1925 were 6.2 per cent.
of the total production by quantity and 12 per cent. by
value. They were by quantity over 8 per cent. of the ap-
parent consumption, assuming this to be equivalent to
production plus imports, minus exports. The dyes manu-
factured in the United States, based on preliminary
figures, accordingly supplied about 92 per cent. of ap-
parent consumption by quantity of coal-tar dyes. By
value, however, domestic production would be consider-
ably less than 92 per cent. of consumption, as the average
price of the imported dyes is much higher than the aver-
age of the domestic production. There was an exportable
surplus of certain dyes.
The total exports of coal-tar dyes in 1925 was 25,799,889
pounds, valued at $6,694,360. This represents an increase
of 64 per cent. by quantity and 19 per cent. by value over
that of 1924. Our export trade has recorded a steady im-
provement since 1922 and consists largely of indigo and
sulphur black. The peak year was in 1920, when the ex-
ports were valued at nearly $30,000,000, prior to the re-
appearance of German dyes upon the world markets.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

TABLE III.-DOIESTIC'EXPORTS OF DYES.


Pounds.
1920 ........... ......... ........ ........
19 2 1 .......... ....... ... ... ... . .........
1922 .............. ............... 8.344,187
1923 ............................ ... 17.924.200
1924 .............................. 15.713.428
1925 ............................. . 25.799.889


Value.
$29,823.591
6,270,139
3.996,443
5.5685.267
5,636.244
6.694.360


NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF INHABITANTS
OF THE UNITED STATES

(Abstract of the Fourteenth Census of the United States).


TABLE I.-ACCESSIONS OF




ACCESSION.


TERRITORY: 1790-1920.


I Per cent Distribution
n -"


I 3 -

Aggregate, 1920 ................ 3.743,529
Continental United States ........ 3.026,7891
Territory in 1790* ............ 892,1351
Louisiana Purchase (1803)...... 1 827.9871
Florida (1819) ............. 58,666|
By treaty with Spain (1819 .... i 13.435
Texas (1845) .................. 389.1661
Oregon (1846) ............. .. 286.5411
Mexican Cession (1848) ........ 529.1891
Gadsden Purchase (1853) ...... 29.6701
Outlying Possessions ............ 716,7401
Alaska (1867) ................. 590.884
Hawaii (1898) ...... ....... 6,449
Philippine Islands (1899) ...... 115.026[
Porto Rico (1899) ............ 3.4351
Guam (1899) .................. 210i
American Samoa (1900) ....... 771
Panama Canal Zone (1904) .... 5271
Virgin Islands of the United I
States (1917) ...... ........1 132!


Aggre- Area of
gate the
Area TU. S.
100.01 .
s80.0 100.0
23.81 29.5
22.11 27.4
1.61 1.9
0.41 0.4
10.41 12.9
7.71 9.5
14.11 17.5
0.8 1.0
15.8
15.8 .
0.2 ...
3.1 ...
0.1 ...


3-Q. B.


Includes drainage basis of Red River of the North, not a part
of any accession, but in the past sometimes considered a part of
the Louisiana Purchase.
Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.











STATES AND OUTLYING POSSESSIONS, 1790-1920.


3



CENSUS YEAR.
a



1920 ... .............. 3.743.529
1910 ................. .. 743.397
1900 .................... 3,742,870
1890 ............ ...... i 3 617,673
1880 .......... ........ 3.617.673
1870 .................... !3.617.673
1860 ............ ...... 3,026,789
1850 .................... 2,997,119
1840 .......... ........ 1,792.223
1830 ..................... 1,792,223
1820 ............ ...... 1,792,223
1810 ................... 1,720,122
1800 .......... ........ 892,135
1790 ..................... 892.135


Area of United States Exclusive of Outlying Pos-
sessions.


100.0
100.0
100.0
96.6
96.6
96 6
80.9
80.1
47.9
47.9
47.9
46.0
23.8
23.8


- a





3,026,7891
3,026,7891
3,026,7891
3,026,789'
3,026,7891
3,026,7891
3,026,789
2,997.119
1,792,223
1,792,223
1,792,223
1.720.122
892,135
892.135


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.0
59.2
59.2
59.2
56.8
29.5
29 5


a


2.973.774|
2,973,8901
2,974,1591
2,973,965
2.973,965
2.973,965
2,973,9651
2,944,3371
1,753,588[
1,753,588
1,753.588
1,685,8651
867,9801
867,9801


52.824
52,824
52,824
52.824
52,782
38,635
38,635
38,6351
34,257
24,1551
24.155)


Does not include water surface of oceans,
United States.


Gulf of Mexico,


or Great Lakes, lying within jurisdiction of the


a >
a W





716,740 -
716,608 X
716,081
590,884 -
590,884
590,884




.


TABLE 2.-AREA OF THE UNITED











FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

TABLE 3.-POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES AND
OUTLYING POSSESSIONS, 1920 AND 1910.


Gross Area
(land and
water) in
sq. miles


Population.


1920


1910


United States with outlying
possessions ...............
Continental United States ..
Outlying possessions ........
Alaska ...................
American Samoa ..........
Guam ..................
H awaii ................
Panama Canal Zone.......
Porto Rico ...............
Military and naval, etc., serv-
ices abroad (3) .........
Philippine Islands .......
Virgin Islands of the U. S.


Ii
3.743.529 *117.823.165 101.146,530
3.026.789 105,710,620 91,972,266
716,740 *12,112.545 9,174.264
590,884 55,036 64,356
77 8,056 -7,251
210 13,275 11,806
6,4491 255,912 191,909
527 22,858 -64,810
3,4351 1,299,809 1,118,012

....... 117,238 55,608
115,026 t10,314,310 %7.635,426
132 (6) 26.0511 (7) 27,086


Revised total correction in population of Philippine Islands.
Population in 1912.
(3) Comprises military, Red Cross, and consular services
abroad, and naval service abroad or in American waters but not
on fixed station.
t Population December 31, 1918. Revised figures: population
given in Vol. I (10,350,640) was taken from preliminary bulletin
issued in 1920 by the Philippine government.
% Population in 1903.
(6) Population November 1, 1917.
(7) Population in 1911.











68 CENSUS 1790-1920

TABLE 4.-POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. EXCL-I
SIVE OF OUTLYING POSSESSIONS, 1790-1920.


(ENS US
YEAR


Population


Per cent of
Increase Over Preced- increase
ing Census. with correc-
__tion for
1870 and
Numnher Per Cent 1880.*
1880.1


1920 ......... 105.710.620 13.738,354[ 14.9 14.9
1910 ......... .!1,972,266 15,977.6911 21.0 21.0
1900 ......... 1 75.994,575 13.046,861! 20.7 20.7
1890 ......... 62.947.714 12.791.931 25.5 25.5
1880 ......... .50.155,783 11.597.412 30.1 26.
1870 ........ 38,558.371 7.115.050! 22.6 26.6*
1860 ........] 31,443,321 8.251,4451 35.6 35.;
1850 ......... 23.191.876 6,122.4231 5.9 9 35.9
1840 ......... 17.069.453 4,203,433 32.7 1 22.7
1830 ......... 12.866,567 3.227.5671 33.5 3.5
1820 ...... .. 9.638.453 3,398,5721 33.1 33.1
1810 ......... 7.239,881 1.931.3081 36.4 36.4
1800 ......... 5,308.483 1,379.2691 35.1 35.1
1790 ........ 3.929.214 ........... ....... .. ...........
Enumeration of 1870 incomplete in Southern States. Per-
centages in this column for 1860-1870 and 1870-1880 represent esti-
mated true rates of increase.




Progress of Ice Cream Industry

The following comparison of the growth of the ice cream
industry as compared with that of other representative
and important industries in this country, as compiled from
Government reports, is almost unique in the history of
the growth of any business.
On other words, the ice cream industry increased 281
per cent. in this period as against an average increase in
the other six leading industries of 75.08 per cent.


Boots and Shoes increased
from ............. ... ..................
Woolens increased fronm..........
Steel increased from .................
Confectionery increased from.
Lumber increased fron.............
Cotton increased from..............
ICE CREAM increased from...


1914

-$501,760,000
. 379,484,000
S918,664,565
S153,686,000
.615,310,000
676,569,000
S55,983,000


% of
1921 hIcr.


to 866,817,000
to 755,584,000
to 1,481,659,000
to 315,998,000
to 902,501,000
to 1,279,168,000
to 213,262,000


72.7
99.0
61.3
105.6
26.2
90,0
281.0













Farm Tenancy on the Increase

A CCORDING to preliminary census returns, 38.6
per cent. of the farms of the country were operated
by tenants in 1925, as compared with 38.1 per cent.
in 1920. There was a decrease in the total number of farms
reported, a decrease in the number of farms operated by
owners and managers, but an increase in the number of
farms operated by tenants.
The 1925 farm census gives the total number of farms
in the United States, showing for each State the number
operated by owners (owning all or a part of the farm), by
managers (operating a farm for another), and by tenants
(operating a farm belonging to another and paying a
rental in cash or a portion of the product), with compara-
tive figures for 1920. During the five-year period the num-
ber of farms. in the United States decreased from 6,448,343
to 6,371,617, or 1.2 per cent.; the number operated by
owners decreased from 3,925,090 to 3,868,334, or 1.4 per
cent.; the number operated by managers decreased from
68,449 to 40,755, or 40.5 per cent., and the farms operated
by tenants increased from 2,454,804 to 2,462,528, or 3 per
cent., in 1925 over 1920.
The total number of Tarms in the South reported in
1925 was 3,381,570, which is 53 per cent. of the country's
farms, compared with 3,459,528 in 1920, or a decrease of
2.2 per cent.
The number of farms operated by owners in the South
in 1925 was 1,687,029, or 43 per cent. of the country's
total, as compared with 1,776,245 in 1920, a decrease of
5 per cent.
The number of farms operated by managers in the South
in 1925 was 11,968, which was 29 per cent. of the country's
total, as compared with 20,421 farms operated by managers
in the South in 1920, a decrease of 41 per cent.
In 1925 the South reported 1,682,573 farms operated by
tenants, 68 per cent. of the country's total, as compared
with 1,662,863 farms in 1920, or an increase of 1.2 per cent.











70 1 FARM TENANCY ON INCREASE

NUMBER OF FARMS BY TENURE FOR EACH CENSUS SINCE
1900 FOR THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOUTH


Number of Farms 1900
South -..-... ...................2,895,590
United States.............5,737,372


1910
3,363,955
6,361,502


1920
3,459,528
6,448,343


1925
3,381,570
6,371,617


Operated by:
Owners-
South .... ...............
United States ........

Managers-
South .......................
United States........


.-1,561,960 1,730,618 1,776,245 1,687,029
.3,653,323 3,948,722 3,925,090 3,868,334


S20,465 18,162 20,421 11,968
S59,085 58,104 68,449 40,755


Tenants-
South -----...........................1,313,165 1,615,175 1,662,862 1,682,573
United States.............2,024,964 2,354,676 2,454,804 2,462,528




NUMBER OF FARMS BY TENURE, BY STATES, 1925


-.

Divisions and State 1925
United States................6,371,617
New England............... 159,489
Maine ---......-.. ......... 50,033
New Hampshire ...... 21,065
Vermont ............... 27,786
Massachusetts ........ 33,454
Rhode Island ......... 3,911
Connecticut ........... 23,240
Middle Atlantic .......... 418,868
New York................ 188,754
New Jersey................ 29,671
Pennsylvania ......... 200,443
East No. Central..........1,051,572
Ohio .......................... 244,703
Indiana ...................... 195,786
Illinois ....... ........... 225,601
Michigan .................. 192,327
Wisconsin ............... 193,155
West No. Central ........1,111,319
Minnesota ................ 188,231
Iowa ..................... 213,490
Missouri .................. 260,478
North Dakota............ 75,970


-No. of Farms Operated b-, E




1925 1925 1925 1925
3,863,334 40,755 2,462,528 38.6
148,159 2,462 8,868 5.6
47,984 350 1,699 3.4
19,895 156 1.014 4.8
24,889 307 2,590 9.3
30,807 979 1,605 4.8
3,263 176 472 12.1
21,258 494 1,488 6.4
348,179 4,465 66,224 15.8
159,949 2,261 26,544 14.1
24,535 413 4,723 15.9
163,695 1,791 34,957 17.4
771,876 6,606 273,090 26.0
181,347 1,060 62,296 25.5
137,429 1,268 57,089 29.2
129,074 1,877 94,650 42.0
161,974 1,234 29,119 15.1
162,052 1,167 29,936 15.5
685,798 5,570 419,951 37.8
136,382 766 51,083 27.1
116,443 1,651 95,396 44.7
174,385 1,063 85,030 32.6
49,513 361 26,096 34.4










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 71

NUMBER OF FARMS BY TENURE, BY STATES, 1925.-Cont'd.

--No. of Farms Operated by-

-O C-




Divisions and State 1925 1925 1925 1925 1925
South Dakota............ 79,537 46,160 331 33,046 41.5
Nebraska ........... 127,734 67,766 669 59,299 46.4
Kansas ...................... 165,879 95,149 729 70,001 42.2
South Atlantic.............1,108,070 609,310 6,186 492,574 44.5
Delaware .........-.... 10,257 6,515 74 3,668 35.8
Maryland ............... 49,001 35,138 936 12,927 26.4
Dist. of Columbia...... 139 81 19 39 28.1
Virginia ...................... 193,723 143,587 1,267 48,849 25.2
West Virginia............ 90,380 74,943 662 14,775 16.3
North Carolina.......... 283,482 154,805 423 128.254 45.2
South Carolina ........ 172,767 59,969 368 112,430 65.1
Georgia ...................... 249,104 88,686 1,407 159,011 63.8
Florida ....................... 59,217 45,586 1,010 12,621 21.3
East So. Central..........1,005,974 497,785 1,732 506,457 50.3
Kentucky ............... 258,514 175,435 281 82,798 32.0
Tennessee .............. 252,669 148,624 326 103,719 41.0
Alabama .........--.... 237,563 92,918 447 144,198 60.7
Mississippi ............... 257,228 80,808 678 175,742 68.3
West So. Central.........1,017,305 412,064 3,061 602,180 59.2
Arkansas ................ 221,994 95,479 616 125,899 56.7
Louisiana .........-... 132,451 52,386 504 79,561 60.1
Oklahoma .........-.. 197,218 81,226 494 115,498 58.6
Texas ...................... 465,642 182,973 1,447 281,222 60.4
Mountain .................... 233,434 179,234 2,411 51,789 22.2
Montana .........-..... 46,906 36,283 367 10,256 21.9
Idaho ........................ 40,593 30,195 512 9,886 24.4
Wyoming ................. 15,512 12,545 191 2,776 17.9
Colorado .............. 58,026 39,518 585 17,923 30.9
New Mexico .............. 31,687 26,005 256 5,426 17.1
Arizona ...................... 10,798 8,178 293 2,327 21.6
Utah .........................- 25,999 23,020 90 2,889 11.1
Nevada ..................... 3,913 3,490 117 306 7.8
Pacific ........................ 265,586 215,929 8,262 41,395 15.6
Washington ............ 73,267 60,389 935 11,943 16.3
Oregon ...............-....... 55,910 45,886 618 9,406 16.8
California ...-............. 136,409 109,654 6,709 20,046 14.7










DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE-WASHINGTON
1925 FARM CENSUS
Preliminary Announcement: Number of Farms, by Tenure-United States
Washington. D. C.. April 20. 1926.-The Department of Commerce announces. subject to corrections, the
following preliminary figures for the number of farms in the United States, showing for each State the number
operated by owners (owning all or a part of the farm), by managers (operating a farm for another), and by
tenants (operating a farm belonging to another and paying a rental in cash or a portion of the product), as
shown by the 1925 census of agriculture, with comparative figures for 1920. During the five-year period the
number of farms in the United States decreased from 6,448,343 to 6,371,617, or 1.2 per cent; the number oper-
ated by owners decreased from 3,925,090 to 3,868,334, or 1.4 per cent; the number operated by managers de-
creased from 68,449 to 40,755, or 40.5 per cent; and the number of tenants increased from 2,454,804 to 2,462,528, a'
or 0.3 per cent. The per cent of all farms operated by tenants in 1925 was 38.6, in 1920 it was 38.1.
Per Cent
Number of farms operated by- or Total
Total number of __Farms
farms Operated n
Division and State Owners Managers Tenants by
Tenants Z

1925 1920 1925 1920 1925 1920 1925 1920 1925 1920

United States ......... 6,371,617 6,448,343 3,868,334 | 3,925,090 40,755 68,449 2,462,528 2,454,804 38.6 38.1
New England ........ 159,489 156,564 148,159 140,160 2,462 4,802 8,868 11,602 5.6 7.4
Maine ----...----. 50,033 48,227 47,984 45,437 350 786 1,699 2,004 3.4 4.2
New Hampshire 21,065 20,523 19,895 18,604 156 546 1,014 1,373 4.81 6.7
Vermont ............ 27,786 29,075 24.889 25,121 307 568 2,590 3,386 9.3 11.6
Massachusetts .. 33,454 32,001 30,870 28,087 979 1,627 1,605 2,287 4.8 7.1
Rhode Island .... 3,911 4,083 3,263 3,245 176 205 472 633 12.1 15.5
Connecticut ........ 23,240 22,655 21,258 19,666 494 1,070 1,488 1,919 6.4 8.5









Middle Atlantic....
New York .......
New Jersey ........
Pennsylvania ....

East North Centrall
Ohio .......
Indiana ............
Illinois .........
Michigan .........
Wisconsin .....

W. North Central.
Minnesota ........
Iow a ............. .
Missouri ...........
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska .......
K ansas ..............

South Atlantic ......
Delaware .... .
Maryland ........----
Dist. of Col'bia.
Virginia .............
West Virginia ...
North Carolina
South Carolina..
Georgia .............
Florida ................


418,86
188,75
29,67
200,44

1,051,57
244,70
195,78
225,60
19?,32
19:3,15

1,111,31
188,23
213,49
260,47
75,90
79,53
127,7:
16(5,8'

1,108,0
10,21
49,0(
1;
193,7
90,3
283,4
172,7
249,1
59,2


8 425,147
4 193,195
1 29,702
3 202,250

2 1,084,744
'3 256,695
6 205,126
1 237,181
7 196,447
55 189,295

9 1,096,951
11 178,478
0 213,439
78 263,0J4
07 77,690
17 74,637
14 124,417
79 165,286

70 1,158,976
57 10,140
01 47,908
39 204
23 186,242
80 87,289
82 269,763
67 192,693
04 310,732
17 | 54,005


348,179
159,949
24,535
163,695

771,876
181,347
137,429
129,074
161,974
162,052

685,798
136,382
116,443
174,385
49,513
46,160
67,766
95,149

609,310
6,515
35,138
81
143,587
74,943
154,805
59,969
88,686
45,586


327,104
151,717
21,889
153,498

766,786
177,986
137,210
132,574
159,406
159,610

711,156
132,744
121,888
185,030
56,917
47,815
69,672
97,090

617,089
6,010
32,805
100
136,363
72,101
151,376
67,724
102,123
38,487


4,465 I
2,261
413
1,791

6,606
1,060
1,268
1,877
1,234
1,11i7

5,570
766
1,651
1,063
361
331
669
729

6,186
74
936
19
1,287
662
423
368
1,407
1,010


9,853
4,376
987
4,490

13,551
3,065
2,329
3,411
2,319
2,427

10,776
1,596
2,487
2,247
855
781
1,315
1,495

9,799
144
1,262
19
2,134
1,090
928
738
1,655
1,829


66,224
26,544
4,723
34,957

273,090
62,296
57,089
94,650
29,119
29,936

419,951
51,083
95,396
85,030
26,096
33,046
59,299
70,001

492,574
3,668
12,927
39
48,849
14,775
128,254
112,430
159,011
12,621


88,190
37,102
6,826
44,262

304,407
75,644
65,587
111,196
34,722
27,258

375,019
44,138
89,064
75,727
19,918
26,041
53,430
66,701

542,088
3,986
13,841
85
47,745
14,098
117,459
124,231
206,954.
13,689


15.81 20.7
14.11 19.2
15.91 23.0
17.41 21.9

26.01 28.1
25.51 29.5
29.21 32.0
42.0 42.7
15.1 17.7
15.5 14.4

37.8 34.2
27.11 24.7
44.7 41.7
32.61 28.8
34.41 25.6
41.51 34.9
46.4 42.9
42.2 40.4


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Colorado .............. 58,026 59,934 39,518 45,291 585 880 17,923 [ 3,763 30.91 23.0
New Mexico..... 31,687 29,844 26,005 25,756 256 433 5,426 3,655 17.11 12.2
Arizona ..... 10,798 9,975 8,178 7,869 293 305 2,327 1,801 21.61 18.1
Utah ........ 25,999 25,662 23,020 22,579 90 296 2,889 2,787 11.1 10.9
Nevada .... .. 3,913 3,163 3,490 2,699 317 168 306 296 7.8 9.4
I I I
Pacific .......... ... 265,586 234,164 215,929 180,144 8,262 7,033 41,395 46,987 15.6 20.1 t
Washington .... 73,267 66,288 60,389 52,701 935 1,168 11,943 12,419 16.3 18.7 O
Oregon ............ 55,910 50,206 45,886 39,863 618 916 9,406 9,427 | 16.8 18.8
California ...... 136.409 117,670 109,654 87.580 6,709 4,949 20,046 25,141 14.71 21.4 t







-1
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t?









Actinism
G. M. Randall, M. D., B. Sc. in Florida Bulletin
CTINISM is that property of radiant solar energy,
either luminous or nonluminous, which effects
chemical and physiological changes in elements,
organic or inorganic, as well as animal and vegetable life.
We may preface more specific consideration later by a
familiar example. The fading of textile colors in fabrics,
spoken of as bleaching, is due to actinic rays of the sun.
The pigmentation of the human skin, whether in the
African, Mediterranean or Nordic race, is due to exposure
to the actinic rays of the sun.
The change wrought in the photographic film or plate is
a chemical change of the colloidal silver salt to another
crystalline form of silver which is opaque, is due to
actinism. This change may be likened to thU change of
liquid H20 to the crystalline form of the snow flake or
ice crystal.
The sun's rays are made up of seven "prismatic" colors,
called prismatic because when the sun's rays are passed
through a glass prism these rays are deflected and sep-
arated into seven distinct colors, from which all other
colors, tints and shades are made. These seven colors, in
order, are Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and
Violet. There are other rays radiating from all luminous
bodies that are invisible, but perfectly demonstrable. For
example, we have the "infra-red" rays which are thermal,
giving off heat but not light. We also at the other end of
the spectrum have ultra-violet rays, which are neither
thermic or luminous nor visible, but which have other dis-
tinct physical properties which are factors in the scheme
of Actinometry.
Progress of science in the past few years has demon-
strated the potency of sunlight to effect many very im-
portant changes in animal and vegetable life, which we who
are interested in the "Sunshine State" may very profit-
ably consider. The most valuable asset of Florida is sun-
light. Sunlight makes climate. In considering actinism
we are simply analyzing the chief element of climate. We
should not be satisfied in our adultations of Florida with
word pictures, however glowing or fraught with adjec-
tives. We ought to be able to give good and sufficient







FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 77

reason wvhy sunlight is good for human beings. The sub-
ject of actinism is great and full of technicalities, but even
so, in its practical application may be reduced to terms
understandable by the intelligent laiety.
The beginning of our understanding of the facts of
Actinometry came through our study -and practice of
photography. The amateur photographer understands that
one must regulate the amount of light admitted through
the lens to the sensitized film, either by limiting the time
of exposure, regulating the size of the aperture of the
shutter or diaphragm, or by the use of a "ray filter."
The ray filter is of ruby red glass which intercepts the
actinic rays more than any other colored glass. Glass of
blue or violet intercepts these rays to only a slight degree.
Actinism manifests itself in other obvious ways, such as
the growth of plants. Plants with very few exceptions
grow only by aid of actinism. The more actinism the more
growth. The date palm and certain mushrooms are notable
exceptions to the general rule. The date palm grows only
at night, which is also true of some of the mushroom
family and other fungi and myxomycetes, parasites and
co-called bacteria.
It is interesting here to note that plant growth is greater
as we go away from the Equator. The reason for this is
that during the summer solstice, when the sun is at its
greatest declination (that is, north of the Equator, be-
tween June 20th and December 20th), the sunlight is more
operative or available. This has been carefully worked out,
and it is found that the time between sowing and harvest-
ing of winter wheat at Alsace, which is at a latitude of
.59 degrees north, is 133 days; at Skibbota, latitude 69
degrees north, it is 114 days, a difference of 31 days in
germination and maturity of a grain handled in the same
way and in the same character of soil and moisture. This
31 days difference is due entirely to the amount of opera-
tive sunlight or actinism. We are all familiar with the
fact that we have in the north country during summer
twenty-four hours of sunlight. There is a greater variety
of flowering plants in Greenland than there is in
Maine, and during the summer all plants grow much more
rapidly. If they grew as slowly in Greenland as they do
in Florida no plant there would mature. In the extreme
north there is no lost motion in growth due to the long
night. Plants do not watch the clock, but the sunlight.
Sunlight is inimical to all bacterial growth. The most
potent germicide known to nature is sunlight. This ac-
counts for the conspicuous absence of zymotic diseases in








ACTINISM


the semi-tropics. Florida in particular. Actinic rays of
the sun will penetrate living tissue and destroy bacterial
growth without affecting the living host. This is exem-
plified in all of our solariums where Heliotherapy (or sun
cure) is the only remedial agent for the cure of bone and
pulmonary tuberculosis.
Actinism, besides its germicidal property, effects nutri-
tional changes, spoken of as metabolism. This is seen in
the cure of rickets, rheumatism and certain skin diseases
not of bacterial origin. In the past four years Dr. Rollier
of Leysen, Switzerland, has in his solarium shown that
tubercular diseases which have hitherto resisted all known
treatments, are cured permanently by no other agent than
actinism or the sun's rays. Actinism acts on the blood
through the living tissues of the skin, and subcutaneous
cellular and muscular tissue. Normal growth and elimina-
tion are stimulated and a greater "vital resistance" to all
disease processes is promoted.
Vitamines are nothing more or less than stored up actin-
ism. Vitamines are food accessories or adjuncts, not of
themselves foods, per se, but acting like digestive ferments
to potentialize caloric foods. Vitamines so abundant in
oranges, tomato and many leaf vegetables, are reservoirs
of sunshine in the last analysis. Actinism increases the
pigmentation of the skin, and the races of man, all of
whom sprang from one origin, have thick or thin skulls,
.dark or light hair and eyes, as a result of their thousands
,of years residence whether under equatorial or polar con-
,ditions, according to their habitat. The pigmented skin of
the negroid type is a ray filter, which protects from over
effect of actinism, and also secures to this race an immunity
to certain tropical diseases that would decimate a Nordic
type under the same exposure and influence.
A very important manifestation of actinism is the effect
of sun on soil. Take a box of clean white sand and let it
be exposed to sunlight and add pure water. In this, with
access of sunlight, seeds will germinate and mature. The
plant grows, matures and dies and falls into the sand.
Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are "fixed" from the air,
and thus is soil built up. The centuries that the glorious
sun has been shining on Florida sands has potentialized
these sands of the sea until we have an incomparable soil.
The sun which has been shining on this Florida peninsula
of marine sand during all the geological ages has made it
the best place for man to live yet found on the globe. Thus
is actinism our chief asset.











Distribution of Area and Popula.

tion of the Earth

The World's Alumnae-1926.

T HE United States with its outlying possessions oc-
cupies approximately 6.5 per cent. of the world's
land area and embraces about 7.2 per cent. of its
population.
The area and population of the larger countries and of
the continental divisions of the earth are shown in the fol-
lowing table, which gives separate figures for the eleven
countries or empires, each having a population, according
to the latest census or estimate available, in excess of
25,000,000. The population shown for China is the usual
estimate of 400,000,000, but other estimates range from
340,000,000 to 440,000,000. The figures for the remaining
foreign countries are the latest census figures or authori-
tative estimates:

REGION OR Area in Pet. Distribution.
COUNTRY. Sq. Miles. Population. Area. Pop.
Aggregate ...... 57,255,200 1,748,000,000 100.0 100.0
Cont. divs.-
Africa ........ 11,622,619 142,000,000 20.3 8.1
America, North 8,589,257 136,000,000 15.0 7.8
America, South 7,570,215 64,000,000 13.2 3.7
Asia .......... 17,206,000 921,000,000 20.0 52.7
Australasia .... 3,312,613 9,000,000 5.9 0.5
Europe ........ 3,872,561 476,000,000 6.7 27.2
Polar Regions.. 5,081,935 .......... 8.9 ....
Countries (incl. deps.)-
Brit. Empire... 13,406,103 441,595,965 23.4 25.3
China ......... 4,277,170 400,000,000 7.5 22.9
Russia ........ 8,273,130 133,442,065 14.5 7.6
United States.. 3,743,529 125,624,278 6.5 7.2
France ........ 5,817,797 99,525,039 10.2 5.7
Japan ......... 260,738 80,704,800 0.5 4.6
Germany ...... 185,889 59,858,284 0.3 3.4
Netherlands .... 961,569 57,001,391 1.6 3.3
Italy .......... 590,865 40,888,834 1.3 2.3
Brazil ........ 3,276,358 30,635,605 5.7 1.8
Poland ........ 149,140 27,372,447 0.2 1.6
Other Countries 17,312,712 21,351,292 30.3 14.3









80 AREA POPULATION OF EARTH

THE RACES OF MANKIND

According to Dr. A. Hrdlicka, curator, Division of
Physical Anthropology, United States National Museum,
Washington, D. C., three main human races are recognized
to-day, which are: 1, the whites; 2, the yellow-browns; and
3, the blacks.
Each one of these shows a number of sub-races or types
which are often called "races" also. The principal of
these are:
Whites: The Mediterraneans, the Alpines and the
Nordics.
Yellow-browns: The Mongoloids, the Malays and the
American Indian.
Blacks: The Negrito, Negrillos and Bushmen; the
Melanesian Negroes and Australians and the African
Negroes.
Population of the world by races under a slightly dif-
ferent classification is estimated as follows: Indo-Germanic
or Aryan (white), 821,000,000; Mongolian or Turanian
(yellow-brown), p645,000,000; Semitic (white) 75,000,000;
Negro and Bantu (black), 139,000,000; Malay and Poly-
nesian (brown), 40,000,000; American Indian, north and
south (red, half breeds), 28,000,000.

DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD POPULATION

Large or at least considerable numbers of people are
living on most of the lands throughout the world which
are favorable for human habitation, the principal excep-
tions to this being Southern Siberia, Southern Brazil,
Argentina, Southeastern Australia and South Africa.
With these exceptions the present sparsely peopled areas
are hot or cold deserts which cannot support large popula-
tions, says H. M. Strong, geographic expert, Division of
Statistical Research, United States Department of Com-
merce.
Three island areas, England, Japan and Java, are not-
able for their dense population. In England the crowding
of people is due to industrial development. In Japan it
has been chiefly the result of intensive agriculture carried
almost to the limit of production as related to subsistence
and recently manufacturing. Java is a tropical island,
within a few degrees of the Equator, containing a large









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


area of level, highly fertile and well watered land. The
Dutch have maintained stable political conditions in Java
for many years, thus favoring the development of a highly
productive tropical agriculture. Cuba also a tropical is-
land, approximately the same size, yet has about 3,000,000
people as compared with 34,000,000 in Java.

DENSE CONTINENTAL POPULATION

Dense population exists in three large continental areas
China, India and the greater part of Europe-excluding
the northern and northeastern parts. Northeastern United
States, within a line drawn from Boston to Buffalo to
Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, is the only region in the West-
ern Hemisphere in any way comparable to these three in
density of population.
The dense populations of Continental Asia are based on
intensive agriculture, and relatively low standards of liv-
ing. Only in recent years has manufacturing developed
in the vicinity of Shanghai and Hankow, Bombay, and
Bihar-Orissa section of India southwest of Calcutta.
The crowded conditions in Northwest Europe and to
some extent in Italy have grown out of manufacturing.
Here the people are not raising as much food and raw
materials as they need, and consequently here where buy-
ing power is relatively high and demand large is the great
import market of the world. Northern France, Western
Poland and Czechoslovakia also have important manufac-
turing activities, so that the economic life of these peoples
is colored strongly by manufacturing industries. In Poland
and Southern Russia is a thickly-peopled agricultural land.
The dense population in tropical countries, like India
and Java, and the crowded conditions in some port cities
of the tropics have given an exaggerated idea of the large
number of persons living in these regions as a whole. The
tropics in general are rather sparsely peopled, as shown
by a survey of the regions crossed by the Equator in South
America, Africa and the East Indies, though the coastal
regions of Brazil and the sections around the Gold Coast
in Africa are fairly well inhabited. In these areas agricul-
ture and mining have stimulated growth of population,
while markets in the United States and Europe create
demand for the minerals and crops they produce.








82 AREA POPULATION OF EARTH

Some plateaus in tropical regions, where climate is cooler
than on the lowlands, are conspicuously well peopled,
namely, Abyssinia, Peru, Colombia and Mexico.

VACANT ASIAN DESERTS.

The fertile black soil strip across Southern Siberia can
support a fairly dense population, but those lands in Asia,
which are at present almost vacant, will for the most part
remain sparsely peopled. In the desert area between the
Caspian Sea and Eastern China some irrigated lands will
claim a few people, but the high, dry, cold desert of West-
ern China can support but a few nomads. The greater part
of Siberia and Northern European Russia as well will
remain sparsely populated. Had suitable conditions existed
in Northern European Russia, the overcrowded conditions
of Southern and Western Russia long ago would have
peopled these lands. Similarly, most of Siberia never can
support a dense population because of its short growing
season, low rainfall and intense winter cold.
Arabia, the Sahara, Southwest Africa and the interior
of Australia are deserts which never can be well peopled.
The people now living in Australia occupy only the humid
areas; on the northern and northeast coasts the climate is
tropical with a rainy and dry season.

ROOM IN SOUTH AMERICA

South America on the whole is sparsely peopled. The
vast unsettled region of Brazil and Bolivia near the
Equator will not acquire a dense population under present
conditions. The southern part of Argentina, except near
the Andes, is relatively dry. The section west of the
pampas also is deficient in rainfall, irrigation being neces-
sary to produce crops. In Northeastern Argentina, how-
ever, where cotton and similar crops can be grown, settle-
ment may occur. At present the well-peopled area of Ar-
gentina is on the pampas or great level wheat lands, close
to the River Plate and ocean shipping.












Weights and Measures

THE METRIC SYSTEM

(Data by the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce)

UNITS OF WEIGHT AND MEASURE

THE fundamental unit of the metric system is the
meter, the unity of length. From this the units of
capacity (liter) and of weight (gram) were derived.
All other units are the decimal subdivisions or multiples of
these. These three units are simply related, e. g., for all
practical purposes 1 cubic decimeter equals 1 liter and 1
liter of water weighs 1 kilogram. The metric tables are
formed by combining the words "meter," "gram," and
"liter" with the six numerical prefixes, as in the follow-
ing tables:

Prefixes-
Milli-Meaning one-thousandth (.001).
Centi-Meaning one-hundredth (.01).
Deci-Meaning one-tenth (.1).
Unit (1.)
Units-"Meter" for length.
"Gram" for weight or mass.
Deka-Ten.
Hecto-One hundred.
Kilo-One thousand.
"Liter" for capacity.

METRIC CONVERSION.

Millimeters X .03937 = inches.
Millimeters 25.4 = inches.
Centimeters X .3937 = inches.
Centimeters 2.54 = inches.
Meters X 39.37 = inches.
Meters X 3.28 = feet.
Meters X 1.094 = yards.
Kilometers X .621= miles.
Kilometers 1.6093 = miles.
Kilometers X 3280.8 = feet.
Square millimeters X .00155 = square inches.
Square millimeters 645 square inches.
Square centimeters X .155 = square inches.
Square centimeters 6.45 = square inches.
Square meters X 10.764 = square feet.
Square kilometers X 247.1 = acres.
Square kilometers X .3861 = square miles.
Hectares X 2.471 -- acres.








84 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Hectares X .003861 = square miles.
Cubic centimeters 16.387 = cubic inches.
Cubic centimeters 3.70 = fluid drams (U. S. P)
Cubic centimeters 29.57 fluid ounces (U. S. P.)
Cubic meters X 35.314 = cubic feet.
Cubic meters X 1.308 = cubic yards.
Cubic meters X 264.2 gallons (231 cubic inches).
Liters X 61.023 = cubic inches.
Liters X 33.81 fluid ounces (U. S. P.)
Liters X .2642 = gallons (231 cubic inches).
Liters 3.785 = gallons (231 cubic inches).
Liters 28.317 = cubic feet.
Hectoliters X 3.53 = cubic feet.
Hectoliters X 2.84 = bushels (2150.42 cubic inches).
Hectoliters X .131 = cubic yards.
Hectoliters -26.42 = gallons (231 cubic inches).
Grammes X 15.432 grains.
Grammes (water) 29.57 = fluid ounces.
Grammes -28.35 = ounces avoirdupois.
Grammes per cubic centimeter 27.7 = pounds per cubic inch.
Joule X .7376 = foot pounds.
Kilograms X 2.2046 = pounds.
Kilograms X 35.3 = ounces avoirdupois.
Kilograms 907.18 = short tons (2,000 pounds).
Kilograms per square centimeter X 14.223 = pounds per
square inch.
Kilogram meters X 7.233 = foot pounds.
Kilo per meter X .672 = pounds per foot.
Kilo per cubic meter X .062 = pounds per cubic foot.
Kilo per cheval X 2.235 = pounds per horse power.
Kilowatts X 1.34 = horse power (33,000 foot pounds per min-
ute).
Watts 746 = horse power.
1 Watt .00134 horse power = 44.3 foot pounds per minute.
Calories X 3.968 = B. T. U. (British Thermal Unit).
Cheval vapeur X 0.986 = horse power.
Centigrade X 1.8+32 = degrees Fahrenheit.
Gravity Paris = 980.94 centimeters per second.

Note.-Joule: C. G. S. unit of both mechanical and electrical
energy. Equivalent to work done or heat generated in keeping
up for one second a current of one ampere against a resistance
of one ohm, or in raising the potential of one coulomb by one
volt. Equal to 10,000,0000 ergs of .73756 foot pounds.
Calory: One of two recognized units of heat, of which the
greater calory is amount of heat necessary to raise one kilogram
of water 1 C.; the lesser or small calory being the amount of
heat necessary to raise one gram of water 1 C.
The U. S. Bureau of Standards advocates use of "Kilocalorie"
and "calorie," respectively, for the greater and lesser calorie.
Foot pound, horse power, and cheval or cheval vapeur, as gen-
erally defined, vary from place to place by %% because of varia-
tions in the intensity of gravity. The relations given here are for
the international standard gravity, which gives an acceleration
of 980.665 c m per second.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 85

UNITS OF LENGTH.

Fundamental Units-A meter (m) is a unit of length equivalent
to the distance between the defining lines of the international
prototype meter at the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures when this stand is at the temperature of melting ice
(0O C.)
A yard (yd.) is a unit of length equivalent to 3600/3937 of a
meter.

Multiples and Submultiples.

1 kilometer = 1000 meters.
1 hectometer = 100 meters.
1 dekameter = 10 meters.
1 decimeter = 0.1 meter.
1 centimeter = 0.01 meter.
1 millimeter 0.001 meter = 0.1 centimeter.
1 micron = 0.000001 meter = 0.001 millimeter.
1 millimicron = 0.000000001 meter 0.001 micron.
1 foot = 1/3 yard = 1200/3937 meter.
1 inch = 1/36 yard 1/12 foot 100/3937 meter.
1 link = 0.22 yard = 7.92 inches.
1 rod = 51 yards 161/ feet.
1 chain = 22 yards 100 links = 66 feet = 4 rods.
1 furlong 220 yards -- 40 rods = 10 chains.
1 statute mile 1760 yards = 5280 feet = 320 rods.
1 hand 4 inches.
1 point = 1/72 inch.
1 mil = 0.001 inch.
1 fathom 6 feet.
1 span 9 inches = 1/8 fathom.
1 nautical mile, 1 sea mile, 1 geographical mile, United States
= 6080.20 feet = 1,151553 statute miles = 1853.249 meters.

UNITS OF AREA.

Fundamental Units.

A square meter is a unit of area equivalent to the area of a
square the sides of which are 1 meter.
A square yard is a unit of area equivalent to the area of a
square the sides of which are 1 yard.

Multiples and Submultiples.

1 square kilometer = 1,000,000 square meters.
1 hectare or square hectometer = 10,000 square meters.
1 are or square dekameter = 100 square meters.
1 centare = 1 square meter.
1 square decimeter = 0.01 square meter.
1 square centimeter = 0.0001 square meter.
1 square millimeter = 0.000001 square meter = 0.01 square
centimeter.
1 square foot 1/9 square yard.










86 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

1 square inch = 1/1296 square yard = 1/144 square foot.
1 square link = 0.0484 square yard = 62.7264 square inches.
1 square rod = 30.25 square yards =272.25 square feet = 625
square links.
1 square chain = 484 square yards = 16 square rods = 100,000
square links.
1 acre = 4840 square yards = 160 square rods = 10 square
chains.
1 square mile = 3,097,600 square yards = 640 acres = 259
hectares.
UNITS OF VOLUME.

Fundamental Units.
A cubic meter is a unit of volume equivalent to a cube, the
edges of which are 1 meter.
A cubic yard is a unit of volume equivalent to a cube, the
edges of which are 1 yard.

Multiples and Submultiples.
1 cubic kilometer = 1,000,000,000 cubic meters.
1 cubic hectometer 1,000,000 cubic meters.
1 cubic dekameter = 1,000 cubic meters.
1 stere =1 cubic meter.
1 cubic decimeter = 0.001 cubic meter.
1 cubic centimeter= 0.000001 cubic meter = 0.001 cubic deci-
meter.
1 cubic millimeter = 0.000000001 cubic meter = 0.001 cubic
centimeter.
1 cubic foot = 1/27 cubic yard.
1 cubic inch = 1/46656 cubic yard = 1/1728 cubic foot.
1 board foot = 144 cubic inches = 1/12 cubic foot.
1 cord = 128 cubic feet.

UNITS OF CAPACITY.

Fundamental Units.
A liter is a unit of capacity equivalent to the volume occupied
by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure water at its maximum density
fat a temperature of 4" C, practically) and under the standard
atmospheric press (of 760 mm). It is equivalent in volume to
1.000027 cubic decimeters.
A gallon is a unit of capacity equivalent to the volume of 231
cubic inches.
A bushel is a unit of capacity equivalent to the volume of
2150.42 cubic inches.

Multiples and Submultiples.
1 hectoliter = 100 liters.
1 dekaliter = 10 liters.
1 deciliter = 0.1 liter.
I centiliter 0.01 liter.
1 liquid quart == '/ gallon = 57.75 cubic inches.











FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN S7

1 liquid pint = 1/ gallon = 1/ liquid quart = 28.875 cubic
inches.
1 gill = 1/32 gallon = / liquid pint = 7.21875 cubic inches.
1 fluid ounce 1/128 gallon = 1/16 liquid pint.
1 fluid dram 1/ fluid ounces = 1/128 liquid pint.
1 minim = 1/60 fluid dram = 1/480 fluid ounce.
1 firkin = 9 gallons.
1 peck /4 bushel = 537.605 cubic inches.
1 dry quart = 1/32 bushel = 1/8 peck = 67.200625 cubic inches.
1 dry pint = 1/64 bushel = M dry quart = 33.600/3125 cubic
inches.
1 barrel (for fruit, vegetables and other dry commodities) =
7056 cubic inches = 105 dry quarts.

UNIT OF MASS.

Fundamental Units.

A kilogram is a unit of mass equivalent to the mass of the
international prototype kilogram at the International Bureau of
Weights and Measures.
An avoirdupois pound is a unit of mass equivalent to
0.4535924277 kilogram.
A gram is a unit of mass equivalent to one-thousandth of the
mass of the international prototype kilogram.
A troy pound is a unit of mass equivalent to 5760/70(0 of that
of the avoirdupois pound.

Multiples and Submultiples.

1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms.
1 hectogram = 100 grams = 0.1 kilogram.
1 dekagram = 10 grams = 0.01 kilogram.
1 decigram = 0.1 gram.
1 centigram = 0.01 gram.
1 milligram = 0.001 gram.
1 avoirdupois ounce = 1/16 avoirdupois pound.
1 avoirdupois dram = 1/256 avoirdupois pound = 1/16 avoir-
dupois ounce.
1 grain = 1/7000 avoirdupois pound = 10/4375 avoirdupois
ounce = 1/5760 troy pound.
1 apothecaries' pound = 1 troy pound = 5760/7000 avoirdupois
pound.
1 apothecaries' or troy ounce = 1/12 troy pound = 480/7000
avoirdupois pound 480 grains.
1 apothecaries' dram = 1/96 apothecaries' pound = / apothe-
caries' ounce = 60 grains.
1 pennyweight = 1/20 troy ounce = 24 grains.
1 apothecaries' scruple = 1/3 apothecaries' dram = 20 grains.
1 metric carat = 200 milligrams 0.2 gram.
1 short hundredweight 100 avoirdupois pounds.
1 long hundredweight = 112 avoirdupois pounds.
1 short ton = 2,000 avoirdupois pounds.
1 long ton = 2240 avoirdupois pounds.










DOUBLE CONVERSION TABLES FOR THE METRIC SYSTEM
NOTE:-The central figures represent either of the two columns beside them as the case may be. Examples:
One foot=0.304801 meters; one meter=3.28083 feet; one U. S. Mile=1.609347 kilometers; one kilometer 0.621370
miles; one U. S. liquid quart=0.94633 liters; one liter=1.05671 U. S. liquid quarts; 1 pound avoidupois=0.45359
kilograms; one kilogram=2.20462 pounds avoidupois. The units are those of the United States Bureau of Stand-
ards.


Milli-
ileters.




0.03937 1 25.4001 3,28083 1
0.07874 2 50.8001 0.56167 2
0.11811 3 76.2002 9.84250 3
0.15748 4 101.6002 13.12333 4
0.19685 5 127.0003 16.40417 5
0.23622 6 152.4003 19.68500 6
0.27559 7 177.8004 22.96583 7
0.31496 S 203.2004 26.24667 8
0.35433 9 228.6005 29.52750 9
0.39370 10 254.0006 32.80833 11)


(hulic ( ubic Square
Yards. Meters. Feet.


0.7646
1.5291
2.2937
3.0582
3.8228
4.5874


10.764 1
21.528 2
32.292 3:
43.055 4
53.819 5
64.583 6


Meters. U. S.
Miles.


Kilo Cubic
meters. Inches.


0.304801 0.621370 1 1.609347
0.609601 1.242740 2 3.218694
0.914402 1.864110 3 4.828042
1.219202 2.485480 4 6.437389
1.524003 3.106850 5 8.046736
1.828804 3.728220 6 9.656083
2.133604 4.349590 7 11.265431
2.438405 4.970960 8 12.874778
2.743205 5.592330 9 14.484125
3.048006 6.213699 10 16.093472


SMuar SIlquare
Meters. Miles.


0.09890
0.18581
0.27871
0.37161
0.46452
0.55742


0.3861 1
0.7722 2
1.1583 3
1.5444 4
2.1366 6
2.7027 7


Square
Kilo-
met ers.
2.5900
5.1800
7.7700
12.9500
15.5400
18.1300


0.06102 1
0.12205 2
0.18307 3
0.24409 4
0.30512 5
0.36614 6
0.42716 7
0.48819 8
0.54921 9
0.61023 10


Acres.

2.471 1
4.942 2
7.413 3
12.355 4
14.826 5
17.297 6


Cubic
Centi-
meters.
16.3872
32.7743
49.1615 G
65.5486
81.9358 -
98.3230
114.7101
131.0973
147.4845
163.8717
0r5

Hectares.

0.4047
0.8094
1.2141
1.6187
2.0234
2.4281


In chess.


1.3079 1
2.6159 2
3.9238 3
5.2318 4
6.5397 5
7.8477 6









0.65032
0.74323
0.83613
0.9289;:


2.7027 7
3.0888 8
3.4749 9
3.8610 10


9.1556 7
10.4635 8
11.7715 9
13.0794 10

U. S.
Liquid
Quarts.
1.05671 1
2.11342 2
3.17013 3
4.22684 4
5.28355 5
6.34026 6
7.39697 7
8.45368 8
9.51039 9
10.56710 10


18.1300
20.7200
23.3100
25.9000


17.297 7
19.768 8
22.239 9
24.710 10


5.3519
6.1165
6.8810
7.645(i


Liters.

0.74633
1.89267
2.83900
3.78533
4.73167
5.67800
6.62433
7.57066
8.51700
9.46333


75.247 7
86.111 8
96.875 9
107.639 10


U.S.
Gallons.
0.26418 1
0.52836 2
0.79253 3
1.05671 4
1.32089 5
1.58507 6
1.84924 7
2.11342 8
2.37760 9
2.64178 10


Illcto- Avd.
liters. Pounds.
0.35238 2.20462 1
0.70477 4.40924 2
1.05715 6.61387 :
1.4095: 8.81849 4
1.76192 11.02311 5
2.11430 13.22773 6
2.46668 15.43236 7
2.81907 17.63698 8
3.17145 19.84160 9
3.52383 22.04622 10


Liters. U. S.
Bushels.
3.78533 2.8378 1
7.57066 5.6756 2
11.35600 8.5135 3
15.14133 11.3513 4
18.92666 14.1891 5
22.71199 17.0269 6(
26.49733 19.8647 7
30.28266 22.7026 8
34.06799 25.5404 9
37.85333 28.3782 10


2.8328
3.2375
3.6422
4.0469


Kilo-
grams. O
0.45359 _
0.90718 U
1.36078
1.81437
2.26796 o
2.72155
3.17515 P
3.62874 3
4.08233 t
4.53592







i-










EPOCH-MAKING INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES
Dale. Invention. Inventor. Nativity.
1450 (approx.) Movable type............................... Johann Gutenberg .................. Germany
147 Printed musical notes first used ..................................................................
1477 W atches first m ade ..................... ............ ..............................................
1590 Telescope .............................................. Galileo ................................ Italy
1752 Lightning conductor ............ .................. ... Benjamin Franklin. ............. United States
1773 Introduction of the "Hollander" or beating engine for puil-
ing rags in the manufacture of paper................. ........................ ........
1774 The mule spinner ............................................ Samuel Crompton....... ............England
1775 Cut nails .............................................. Jeremiah Wilkinson .............. Ignited States
1777 Circular wood saw....................................... Miller ................. ....... ... England
1782 Steam engine ........................................... James W att ............ ..........Scotland
1784 Plow, with cast-iron mold board, and wrought and cast-iron
shares ............................................ .. Jam es Sm all ........................Scotland
1785 Power loom .............................. .......... James Cartright................ .... England
1786 First steamboat in United States ........................ John Fitch......................United States
1788 Grain threshing machine................... ............ Andrew Meikle .... .............. England
1782 Gas first used as an illuminant ........................ William Murdoch ....................England
1793 Cotton gin ........................... ................ Eli W hitney ...... .............. United States
1800 Machine for making continuous webs of paper............ Louis Robert.......................... France
1800 Electric battery discovered ............................. Volta ................................. Italy
1801 First fire-proof safe .................................... Richard Scott.........................England
1802 First photographic experiments .......................... Wedgewood & Davy. .................. England
1807 Steamboat navigation on Hudson river .................. Robert Fulton ....................United States a
1807 Percussion or detonating compound ..................... A. J. Forsyth............ ..........Scotland
1808 First steamboat to make a trip to sea, the "Phoenix"...... John Stevens.................... United States
1814 First practical steam rotary printing-press paper printed
on both sides ......................................... Charles Babbage ......................England
1922 Calculating machine ...................... ........ . Frederick Koenig.................... Germany










1825 Portland cement ........................................ Joseph Aspdin .......................England
1827 Friction matches .... ................................. John W alker ................... United States
1828 Hot air blast for iron furnaces ........................... J. B. Neilson........ .. ............ Scotland
1821 Chloroform ............................................ G. J. Guthrie ....................... Scotland
1832 First conception of electric telegraph .................... S. F. B. Morse.................. United States
1834 "McCormick" reaper ................................... Cyrus H. McCormick. ..... .. United States
1834 Rotary electric motor ................................. M. H. Jacobi.............. ........... Russia
1839 Vulcanization of rubber ................................ Charles Goodyear ........ .......United States O
1839 Daguerreotype (first to produce direct photographic positive
in the camera by means of highly polished silver surface
plate exposed to the vapors of iodine and subsequent de-
velopment with mercury vapor)....................... Louis Daguerre.......................France
1840 First incandescent electric lamp .......................... Grove ..............................England
1842 Ether as an anaesthetic .................................. Dr. Long.............. ...... United States
1843 Typewriting machine ................................... Charles Thurber ............... United States
1844 First telegam sent ................... .................. S. F. B. Morse. ... ..... ........ United States
1846 Sewing machine ..................................... Elias Howe .............. ...... United States
1851 Ice-making machine ................................... J. Gorrie. ........................United States
1855 Process of making steel, blowing air through molt en pig iron Sir Henry Bessemer................ .England
1856 Refining engine in paper pulp making..................... T. Kingsland.................. United States
1857 Coal-oil first sold in the United States .................... Messrs. Stout & Hoinl ........ United States
1858 Ground wood pulp .................................... Henry Voelter .. .. ... .... . .. Germany C
1858 First Atlantic cable ................... ................. Cyrus Field .................... United States
1861 Shoe sewing machine ........................ ......... George McKay........... .. .United States
1861 Passenger elevator ................... .... ............ F. G. Otis.......... ........ United States 3
1862 Calcium carbide produced ..... ..... ................. Frederich Woelker ......... ......... Germany
1864 Rubber dental plate .................................... J. A. Cummings .................. United States'
1864 Antiseptic surgery ............................ ....... Sir Joseph Lister ................... England
1866 Dynamo electric machine.............................. W ilde ................... ..........England
1868 First practical typewriting machine ................ .... C. L. Sholes. ................... United States
1868 Dynamite ...................................... ........ A. Nobel .......... .............. .. Sweden
J.







EPOCH MAKING INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES-(Continued)
Date. Invention. Inventor. Nativity.
1868 Railway air-brake ........ ............ .............. Geo. Westinghouse.............. United States u
1871 Grain binder .......................................... S. D. Locke...................... United States
1873 Self-binding reaper ........................ ........... Locke & Wood.................. United States
1875 Roller flour mills ...................................... F. Wegmann.................... United States
1876 Speaking telephone .................................. Alex. G. Bell ....................United States
1.877 Gas engine ......................................... N. A. Otto.......................United States -
1879 Automatic grain binder ................... .... ....... J. F. Appleby.. ............... United States
1879 Electric railway ....................................... Siemens ........................... Germany
1879 Steam plow ............... . .................. W Foy ........................ United States
1880 Typhoid bacillus isolated ................................ Eebrth & Koch... ................... Germany
1880 Pneumonia bacillus isolated ............................. Sternberg ....................... United States O
1882 Tuberculosis bacillus isolated .......................... Robert Koch ................... ..... Germany
1882 Hydrophobia bacillus isolated ........................... Louis Pasteur .......... ........... France 03
1884 Cholera bacillus isolated................................. Robert Koch ........................ Germany
1884 Diphtheria bacillus isolated ................ .......... Loeffler ............ ............... Germany
1884 Lockjaw bacillus isolated ................... ......... Nicolaier . . . . . . . . . . . . France
1884 Linotype machine ................... .......... ...... .. Ottmar Mergenthaler ......... ... .Germany
1886 Graphophone ........................................... Bell & Tainter ................ United States
1886 Electric welding .................................. Elihu Thompson. ............... United States
1888 Process of making artificial silk ........... ............... H. de Chardonnet...................... France o
1888 Hertzian waves or electric-wave radiation. ................ Heinrich Hertz ....................Germany 0
1891 Microphone .............. ............................. Emile Berliner. ................. United States
1891 Power loom ................................. .... Northrup. ....................... United States
1893 Kinetoscope ............................................ T. A. Edison................... United States
1895 X-rays ................................................ W C. Roentgen. ..................... Germany B
1896 System of wireless telegraphy .................... ...... G. Marconi. ........................... .Italy a
1901 Air-ship ...................................... .. ...... .M Santos-Dumont .................. .. Brazil
1901 Automobile mower .......... ......................... Deering Harvester Co........... United States
1906 Flying machine ........................................ Orville and W ilbur W right .. ... United States
1906 Color photography ........................ ............ Louis and L. Lumiere ................. .France
1906 Wireless telephony ..................................... Archie F. Collins................ United States
1914 Infantile paralysis bacillus isolated ...................... Dr. Simon Flexner............... United States
1914 Typhus bacillus isolated.............................. Dr. Harry Plotz............... United States












FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 93

WORLD'S HIGHI M()ONTAINS.

Name. Country. Feet.
Mlt. Everest .................. India ..................... 29.002
Mount Dapsang.............. Thibet .................... 28.282
Acongaua ................. Chile ..................... 53,080
Chimborazo................... Ecuador ............. .. 20.498
Sorata...................... Bolivia ..... .... .. .. .. 21.286
Illimani..................... Bolivia .................. 21.030
Dem avend .................. Persia .................... 21.000
Hindo-Koosh ................ Afghanistan ........... 20,600
Arequipa.... ..............Peru ....... ............ 20.320
Mt. McKinley .............. Alaska .... ......... 20.464
Mt. St. Elias ............... Alaska ..... ......... .. 18.100
Logan....................... Canada .. .. .. ........ 19.500
Antisana.................... Ecuador ... ...... ... 19.335
Cotopaxi.....................Ecuador. .. ... ........ 19.613
Kilima-Njarn. ..............East Africa ......... .. 18.715
Misti.........................Peru ............... .. .. 20.013
Elbrooz ..................... Russia ............ ..... 18.526
Popocatapetl.................. Mexico ................... 17.748
Orizaba..................... M exico .......... .... . 17.37:
Pichincha...................Ecuador .. ............ 15.918
M ount Blanc .............. S voy .................... 15.810
Mt. Whitney ................. .California ............. 14.898
Fairweather ................ Alaska ......... ........ 14,500
Rainier............ ....... W ashington .. .... .. 14,526
Shasta................ ...... California .. ..... ....... 14.380
Ararat.......................Armenia .............. 14,320
Long's Peak ........... ...Colorado ..... .... :... 14,271
Pike's Peak................. Colorado ........... .... 14.108
M t. Ophir ................... Sumatra ................ 13,800
Fremont's Peak........ .....Wyoming ..... ....... .13.790
Peak of Teneriffe. ......... .. Canary Islands............ 12,182

WORLD'S INLAND SEAS.
Size Depth
Name- Square Miles. Feet
Caspian Sea .. ......... .. ........... 176.800 2510
Sea of Arai ........................... .30.000 10()
Dead Sea ................................ 203.. 2(00
Lake Superior .................... . . .. 32.000 1.000
Lake Michigan ... .......... ... 22,400 1.000
Lake Huron ............ ... ........ 21,0004 1,000
Lake Erie ............................... 10,315 204
Lake Ontario ............................ 6.300 366;
Lake Nicaragua ......................... 6,000 300
Salt Lake ................... ..... ....... 1.875 1.400









DATA OF STATES AND TERRITORIES.


State or
Territory.

Alabama .........
Alaska ..........
Arizona .........
Arkansas ........
California .......
Colorado .........
Connecticut ......
Delaware ........
Dist. of Col.......
Florida ..........
Georgia ..........
Guam .... .....
Hawaii ..........
Idaho .. ......
Illinois ..........
Indiana ........
Iow a ............
Kansas ..........
Kentucky .......
Louisiana .
Maine ..... ....
Maryland ........
Massachusetts
Michigan ........
Minnesota ......
Mississippi .. ...
M issouri .........
Montana ........


Square
Miles.

52,250
590,884
113,020
53,850
158,360
103,925
4,990
2,050
170
58,680
59,475
1.250
6,740
84.800
56.650
36.350
56.025
82,080
40.400
48.720
33,040
12.210
8.315
58.915
83,365
46.810
69,415
146,080


Admitted to
Union

Dec. 14, 1819. .....
July 27, 1868......
Feb. 24, 1863......
June 15, 1836......
Sept. 9, 1850......
Aug. 1. 1876.....
Jan. 9, 1788.. ..
Dec. 7, 1787......
July 16, 1790......
Mar. 3, 1845 .....
Jan. 2, 1788 .....
Aug. 12, 1898......
Apr. 30, 1900. .....
July 3, 1890 .....
Dec. 3, 1818......
Dec. 11, 1816.....
Mar. 3. 1845 .....
Jan. 29. 1861 ......
Feb. 4, 1792......
Apr. 8, 1812......
Mar. 3, 1820.. ..
Apr. 28. 1788......
Feb. 6. 1788 ......
Jani. 26. 1837 ......
May 11, 1858......
Dec. 10. 1817. .....
Mar. 2, 1821 .. ..
Nov. 8, 1889 .....


1702
1801
1580
1685
1769
1858
1635
1627
1660
1565
1733
1667
1778
1842
1720
1730
1788
1831
1765
1699
1624
1634
1620
1650
1805
1716
1764
1809


Capital.


Sitka...........
Phoenix........
Little Rock....
Sacramento....
Denver.........
Hartford.......
Dover .........
Washington ....
Tallahassee. ...
Atlanta........
Agana.........
Honolulu .......
Boise City.....
Springfield .....
Indianapolis
Des Moines .....
Topeka........
Frankfort. .....
Baton Rouge ...
Augusta ... ...
Annapolis......
Boston ........
Lansing ......
St. Paul ........
Jackson. .......
Jefferson City .
Helena .........


Nickname of
State.

Cotton ............


B ear............ .
Golden .......... .
Centennial. ........
Nutmeg ..........
Blue Hen........

Peninsula. Flower.
Cracker ...........



Prairie........ ...
Ioosier. .......
Hawk.ey. ....... .


Pelicanll ...........
Pine Tree ... ......
Old Line.. ........
B ay ..............
Wolverine .........
Gopher, North Star
Bayou. ...........
Show Me. .......
Stub Toe......


Nickname of
People.

Lizards.


Toothpicks.
Gold Hunters.
Rovers.
Wooden Nutmegs.
Blue Hens, Chickens.

Fly-up-the-Creeks.
Crackers.

Kanackers.

Suckers.
Hoosiers.
Ilawkeyes.
Jayhawkers.
Corncrackers.
Creoles.
Foxes.
Crowthumpers.
Beaneaters.
Wolverines.
Gophers.
Tadpoles.
Pukes.








Nebraska ........
Nevada ..........
New Hampshire..
New Jersey .......
New Mexico ......
New York ........
North Carolina...
North Dakota ....
Ohio .......... .
Oklahoma .......
Oregon ..........
Pennsylvania ....
Philippines ......
Porto Rico........
Rhode Island.....
South Carolina.
South Dakota...
Tennessee .... ..
Texas .... ....
Utah ............
Vermont ........
Virginia .........
Washington ......
West Virginia....
Wisconsin *. ......
Wyoming .......


77.510
110,700
9,305
7,815
122,5801
49,170
52,250
70,795
4,160
70.430
96,030
45,215
140,000
3,609
1,250
30,570
77,650
42,050
265,780
84,970
9,565
42,450
69,180
24,780
56,040
97.890


Mar. 1, 1867......
Oct. 13, 1864 ......
June 21. 1788......
Dec. 18. 1787 ......
Sept. 9, 1850 ......
July 26, 1788......
Nov. 21, 1789. ..
Nov. 2, 1889......
Nov. 29, 1802 ......
Nov. 16, 1907......
Feb. 14, 1859......
Dec. 12, 1787......
Nov. 28, 1898......
Aug. 12, 1898 ..
May 29, 1790......
May 23, 1788......
Nov. 2, 1889 ......
June 1, 1796......
Dec. 29, 1845......
Jan. 4, 1896......
Feb. 18, 1791. ..
June 26, 1788......
Nov. 11, 1889......
Dec. 31, 1862 ....
May 29, 1848......
July 11, 1890 ......


Lin1coln .........
Carson Cit.y..
(oncord .. ....
Trenton ....
Santa Fe. ......
Albany. ........
Raleigh.........
Bismarck .....
Columbus. ......
Guthrie ...
Salem ..........
Harrisburg. ....
Manilla .........
San Juan.......
Providence .....
Columbia .......
Pierre. .........
Nashville. ......
Austin ..........
Salt Lake City...
Montpelier......
Richmond ......
Olympia ........
Charleston......
Madison ........
Cheyenne....


Si ....... .........
( ill i ..............
i................

Empire. .... .......
Old North .........
Sioux .... ........
Buckeye. .........

Bea.vr. ..........
Keystone. ........ .


Little Rhody ....
Palmetto .........
Coyote............
Volunteer.........
Lone Star .........

Green Mountain...
Old Dominion ....
Chinook ...........
Panhandle ........
Badger............


Bugeaters.
Sage Hens.
Granite Boys.
Jersey B lies.

Knickerbockers.
Tarheels.
Tuckoes.
Buckeyes.

Webfeet.
Leatherheads.
Filipinos.

Gun Flinks.
Weazles.
Singed Cats.
Butternuts.
Beefheads.

Green Mt. Boys.
Beadles.
Chinooks.
Panhardlers.
Badgers.


STATE FLOWERs.-Alabama, Golden Rod; Arkansas, Apple Blossom; California, Eschscholtzia; Colorado, Co-
lumbine; Delaware, Peach Blossom; Idaho, Syringa; Indiana, Corn; Iowa, Wild Rose; Kansas, Sunflower; Ken-
tucky, Golden Rod; Louisiana, Magnolia; Maine, Pine Cone and Tassel; Michigan, Apple Blossom; Minnesota,
Moccasin; Mississippi, Magnolia; Missouri, Golden Rod; Montana, Bitter Root; Nebraska, Golden, Rod; New
York, Rose; North Dakota, Wild Rose; Ohio, Golden Rod; Oklahoma, Mistletoe; Oregon, Oregon Grape; Penn-
sylvania. Golden Rod; Rhode Island, Violet; South Carolina, Golden Rod; South Dakota, Anemone; Texas, Blue
Bonnet; Utah, Sego Lily; Vermont, Red Clover; Washington and West Virginia, Rhododendrons.










Seven Wonders of the World

1. Olympian Zeus. a famous statue by Phidias.
2. Diana's Temple at Ephesus was supported by 127
columns, each weighing 150 tons.
3. The Great Pyramid, 12 miles from Cairo. Supposed
date of erection is 2,200 years B. C., covering an area when
first built of 13 acres. It is 543 feet high and 693 feet on
the sides. Its base covers 11 acres. Many of the stones
are 30 feet long, 4 broad and 3 thick. Its central chamber
is a room hewn out of the solid stone, 46 feet long, 16
wide and 23 high. It contains a sarcophagus, probably of
the builder.
4. The Colossus of Rhodes, a brass statue 105 feet in
height, spanned the harbor with its feet, beneath which
the tallest ships pass. It was made by Chares, who, aided
by an army of workmen, consumed 12 years in its construc-
tion. It remained in position in the harbor of Rhodes for
66 years, and was thrown down by an earthquake B. C.
224. It lay on the ground 894 years, and was sold to a
Jew for old metal. He carried away 900 camel loads,
or about 720,000 pounds of bronze. There were over 100
colossal statues in the City of Rhodes, besides the great
bronze image that bestrode the harbor.
5. The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, a magnificent
tomb built 354 years B. C. by Mausoleus' Queen, Artemisia.
6. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were terraces on
columns. The gardens were 400 feet square and over 400
feet high. The ascent from terrace to terrace was by flights
of marble steps, and on the highest was a large reservoir.
They were erected for the amusement of a Bablyonian
Queen who had come from a mountainous country. The
Tower of Babel, at Babylon, was composed of eight square
towers, one upon the other, the pile being 660 feet high.
Babylon was a square, 15 miles on each side, the walls 87
feet thick and 370 feet high.
7. The Pharos at Alexandria, a lighthouse located on a
small island in 'Lower Egypt, built 300 years B. C.











America's Wonders

NIAGARA FALLs -Between Lakes Erie and Ontario,
Niagara River plunges over a wall of rock into a deep
gorge in two falls, divided by Goat Island. The American
falls are 164 feet high, and the Canadian 150. Together
they are 3,750 feet wide. The gorge below is seven miles
long, and the river has been 31,000 years wearing it. A
great whirlpool of tremendous power is three miles below
the falls. Niagara is an Indian word, meaning "thunder
of water." The falls were first reported by Father Hen-
nepin, in 1678.
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK-In the corner of Wyom-
ing, Idaho and Montana is a region of wonders unequaled
in variety of marvels in the world. There are numerous
geysers, volcanoes of hot water, some of them rising as high
as 250 feet at an eruption. The largest are Giant and
Castle, and the most regular is Old Faithful, which erupts
every seventy minutes to a height of about 200 feet. There
are numerous beautifully-colored hot springs and pools,
mud springs, paint pots, terrace formations, terrace of
sulphur, a cliff of obsidian, or natural glass, five beautiful
lakes, a marvelous canyon and two beautiful falls of the
Yellowstone River. One of these is 350 feet, and exceeds
Niagara in beauty. The valleys and lakes are 6,000 to
8,000 feet above sea-level, and the mountain peaks 11,000.
The geysers were discovered in 1869, and the park created
by Congress in 1872. It contains 3,312 square miles, and
is a national game preserve, no fire-arms being permitted.
It is policed by soldiers.
YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK-In the Sierra Nevada Moun-
tains the Merced River and tributaries plunge into a deep
valley, hemmed with high peaks and cliffs, making a group
of wonderful falls. The gorge-like valley is impressive and
beautiful. Bridal Veil Falls are 900 feet high; Yosemite
Falls 2,600 feet in all, with one plunge of 1,500 feet.
Nevada Falls are the largest in volume, and 600 feet high.
Vernal Falls are 300 feet. Other wonders are Mirror
Lake, El Capitan, a wall of rock 3,300 feet high, Cathedral
Rocks. Liberty Cap, North Dome and Glacier Point.
Yosemite was discovered in 1851. California presented it
to the United States, and it has been made a national
park. The name means "full grown grizzly bear." An-
other Indian name is "Ah-wah-nee."

97
41 ', ];









AMERICA'S WONDERS


THE GREAT SNOW PEAKS-In the Sierra Nevada, Cas-
cade and Coast ranges are many mountain peaks covered
with perpetual snow, and difficult to climb. They are ex-
tinct volcanoes, and some still have craters emitting heat
and sulphur fumes. Huge glaciers are on their sides. They
are from 12,000 to over 20,000 feet high. The most noted
are: Shasta, in California; Jefferson and Hood, in Oregon;
St. Helens, Adams, Rainier and Baker, in Washington;
Fairweather, in British Columbia, and St. Elias and Mc-
Kinley, in Alaska. The most interesting of the accessible
ones is Rainier, and here the Government has created Mt.
Rainier National Park. The one most visited and climbed
in Hood.
CRATER LAKE NATIONAL PARK-In Southern Oregon is
a unique marvel-a lake in the huge crater of an extinct
volcano. The crater is ten miles in circumference at more
than 10,000 feet above the sea, and the water too deep to
be sounded. The crater walls rise almost perpendicularly
2,000 feet above the water, which is an intense blue.
Crater Lake is now off the line of travel, and difficult of
access, but will become one of the great scenic attractions.
It has been made a national park.
GREAT NATURAL CAVES-The best known and largest
cave of the country is Mammoth, in Kentucky, being but
one of many in the same general formation in Kentucky,
Tennessee and Indiana. It is on the left bank of Green
River, and has many large chambers, high halls and small
passages, all filled with beautiful stalactites and stalag-
mites, and a stream called "Echo River" flowing through
it, containing eyeless fish. It has been explored for seven
miles, but not entirely. Other beautiful caves are Wyers',
in Virginia, and the recently discovered Josephine Caves,
in Oregon.
GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO-For 300 miles the
Colorado River, along the border of Utah and Arizona,
flows through a wonderful gorge, or canon, whose almost
vertical walls rise 6,000 feet above the stream, and are a
rich, ruddy color. Passage down the canon by boat is ex-
tremely hazardous, and has seldom been attempted. The
chief exploration was made by Major John W. Powell, for
the Government, in 1867, and later.
GARDEN OF THE GODs-Between Colorado Springs and
Manitou, Colorado, and at the base of Pike's Peak, is a
small, but marvelous, valley of unique red rock forma-
tions, called the "Garden of the Gods." It is reached by
stage from either place, and shares with Pike's Peak and
its cog-wheel railroad the interest of tourists.












The Universe Our Home

THE CALENDAR-The earth makes one revolution around
the sun in 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.6 seconds,
called a "sidereal year." In 45 B. C. Julius Caesar made
the Julian calendar by giving the present months and
days, and ordering that one day be added every four
years, which we call "leap year." In 1752 Pope Gregory
XIII authorized the Gregorian calendar, which we now
use, by dropping 11 days in September to restore the
equinox to March 21 and September 21, where it was in
321 A. D., when the Council of Nice established the festival
of Easter. He also added a leap year on all centurial
years exactly divisible by 400 and by 4,000. The fourth
leap year falls 36 minutes and 38.4 seconds short of mak-
ing up the time lost in four years, hence the other leap
years. Russia and the Greek Church still use the Julian
calendar, and the difference in time is now 13 days.
THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE-The atmospheric envelope
about the earth, and which revolves with it, though mov-
ing in the form of winds in various directions in its lower
levels, because of varying temperature, is estimated to be
40 miles in height from the surface of the earth. It thins
rapidly as ascent is made, thus reducing the amount of
oxygen the lungs can take in at one breath. This is felt
severely at an altitude of two miles, and five miles is al-
most as high as a human being can go. The atmosphere
prevents the heat of the sun being too intense, and also
prevents too much radiation of heat from the earth, while
absorbing water and precipitating it in the form of rain
or snow.
ECLIPSES-An eclipse of the sun is caused by the center
of the moon passing directly across a line drawn from the
center of the sun to the portion of the earth which comes
within the moon's shadow. The eclipse is only partial
elsewhere. When the moon passes behind the earth in a
direct line to the sun, then the shadow of the earth eclipses
the moon. Because the earth is much larger than the moon,
total eclipses of the moon are more frequent than of the
sun. There are several eclipses of both moon and sun
every year. See the almanacs.
COMETS-Comets are huge bodies in a gaseous condition,
which, if condensed to the solidity of the earth, would










100 THE UNIVERSE OUR HOME

make much smaller bodies than the earth, which enter our
solar system from outer and unknown space, drawn by the
attraction of the sun and the planets. There are several
of them every year, most of them being detected only by
telescopes. A few have regular orbits by which they enter
the solar system, pass around the sun and go out again
into space, until the power of attraction overcomes their
momentum, and they begin to return. Some of these have
been observed more than once, and their period of return
estimated. These have been given names. Halley's, which
came last in 1909 and 1910, returns every 76 years.
Eneke's returns every 3 1/3 years. It is believed that
most comets enter the solar system but once, and then go
off into illimitable space, passing through other solar sys-
tems; but it is impossible to be sure about this. Therefore
there is no way of estimating the number of comets there
may be in the universe, and they may number millions.




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