HOG RAISING IN
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Commissioner of Agriculture
Arteraft Printers, Tallahassee
Florida is sending out of the State each year more
than $22,000,000 to pay for the bacon, hams, lard
and other hog products needed to feed her people.
This great sum divided among the farmers of the
State would give each one $375.00.
When it is remembered that probably one-half
the farmers are not interested in the growing of
hogs, it will be seen what a business this would be
if the farmers who do grow hogs could supply the
It is true that the hog industry has grown very
fast in the past few years, but not fast enough to
keep up with the increased population and demand.
If there was any natural or economic reason why
hogs should not be produced in large enough quan-
tity to supply the demand, there would be some ex-
cuse for such a condition. But when there are con-
ditions so favorable to growing hogs, there seems to
be no reasonable excuse why the Florida farmer
should not try, at least, to keep some of this money
It is the purpose of this bulletin to try to encourage
the growing of more hogs in the State of Florida. It
will not be the intention to create any false impres-
sions, but rather to show that, when good common
sense, hard work and good care are used, hogs can
be grown here at a lower price than in other States,
where so much must be spent for houses, and where
the hogs are allowed the open fields so little of the
In Florida it is possible to so arrange the crops
that the hogs can have grazing each day in the year
out in the open field. They may be killed from the
field, or if a better finish is wanted, a few weeks of
pen feeding will be all that is needed.
SELECTION OF BREEDING STOCK
Hogs are divided into types or breeds, according
to their conformation and blood lines. Of the two
types, Bacon and Lard, the Lard type is much the
more common and is represented by the Berkshire,
Poland China, Duroc-Jersey and Hampshire breeds.
These breeds are more compact, shorter of leg, and
carry much more lard than the Bacon type, which is
represented by the Tamworth and Yorkshire.
Of all the breeds found in America today, the only
ones that originated here are the Poland-China,
Duroc-Jersey and Chester White. The Hampshire,
Berkshire and Tamworth came from foreign coun-
History tells us that the first hogs were brought
to the Western world by Columbus on his second
voyage. Then, in 1539, they were brought to Florida
by DeSoto, who drove a herd of hogs wherever he
marched, so as to provide meat for his army. He is
credited with giving the Indian his first hog meat
The hog has, with all other domesticated animals,
been greatly improved by good care and feeding, so
that the modern hog is very different from the one
introduced by DeSoto.
The selection of the type and breed to be used
will depend upon the likes or dislikes of the party
who is to do the selecting. Never get a breed that
you do not like. There is no best breed, but all will
do well if given the proper care and feed, and the
chances for success depend much more upon the
man than upon the breed.
It is much easier to sell breeding stock if all in a
community have the same breed. Higher prices
will be obtained when a car of the same breed is
sold than when several breeds are mixed.
In selecting the foundation animals it should be
the purpose to get the very best that can be had for
the price. It is possible that some of the smaller
breeders will sell for less than the large breeders,
because they have not the reputation. The pigs
selected should be true to type and have the charac-
teristics of the breed selected. See that the pig
stands up well on its feet and shows good health.
The pigs should have good length, strong backs, and
good depth through the heart. With these charac-
teristics the pig will have a good start, and if given
a chance will develop into a good hog.
If undecided what is wanted, it is always well to
trust to the honesty of some reputable breeder, or,
better still, call in the County Agent and get him to
help make the selection.
Not much equipment is needed in Florida to begin
breeding hogs, but it is a serious mistake to get the
hogs and have no plans as to how or where they are
to be housed.
A low, inexpensive shed, closed on all sides except
the south, is all that is needed for shelter in winter.
Each brood sow should have one of these at farrow-
ing time, and be kept to herself until the pigs are
strong enough to follow the sow over the pasture.
A good trough in which to feed should be provided.
In the summer the hogs must have shade and water.
While the shade of the house is better than none,
there is nothing that will take the place of a good
tree. It is therefore a good idea, if possible, to locate
the hog houses in the shade of some trees. Plant
mulberry trees, if no shade is to be had. If no stream
is convenient, some means must be arranged so that
the hogs may have good clean water at all times. A
mud wallow is bad, and a concrete wallow that can
be cleaned is of great help.
Provide in some way for the pigs to have access
to a good mineral mixture. Put this in a self-feeder,
so as to protect it from the weather.
Several methods are used to control the lice, such
as putting oil in the wallow, pouring oil directly on
the hog, having a rubbing post around which bags
that are saturated with oil are placed. All these
ways are good, but if many hogs are to be grown, a
small dipping vat is the best of all. These may be
bought, or any farmer can build a better one out of
In building the hog fence or pens it is well to put
a plank around the bottom to keep the hogs from
trying to root under the fence. In place of a plank,
a barb wire stretched along the bottom will help to
keep the hogs from getting under the fence. See
that the wire is stretched as tight as it should be.
The best way to keep hogs in a pen is never to let
them get out. When once they find that they can
get out it is very hard to keep them in.
Some system of marking should be adopted if pure
bred hogs are grown to be sold for breeding pur-
poses. Tattooing in the ear is sometimes used. The
tattoo instruments and ink can be purchased from
any supply house that handles farm supplies.
Another good system is to punch the ears with
harness punch, according to some system, such as
the following: Each sow has a number, and all pigs
in the same litter are given the number of their
mother. One notch in upper side right ear is num-
ber 1, lower side right ear is 2, upper side left 3,
lower side left 4. Two notches in upper left would
be 6. One notch in upper left and one in lower left
would be 7. This could be extended as needed.
The use of aluminum buttons is a good system,
but they are often torn out and get lost.
But any way is better than the old system, used
when the hogs ran on the open range, which was to
cut the ears. With some of these old marks the. ear
was almost cut away. Only the pigs that are kept
for breeding need be marked. Unless they are
marked there is great danger of getting them badly
mixed, and when the registration papers are to be
made out no one will know which pig came from a
certain sow or litter.
Not only is marking needed when pigs are to be
sold, but it will be of great help in keeping up with
the sow. Some record should be kept on each sow,
showing the number of pigs in each litter and how
many lived, with any other notes which would aid
in selling the pigs or proving if the sow was one that
should be kept in the herd.
The record should also show the date when the
sow was bred and the date when she is due to far-
row. Without such a record the farmer has to guess,
and so often the proper preparation has not been
made for the arrival of the new litter.
FORAGE CROPS FOR HOGS
It is well known that the more feed the hog gath-
ers the cheaper the pork produced. It is natural for
the hog to graze, and it should never be a question
of "root hog or die," but the rooting should be con-
fined to gathering those underground crops, such as
peanuts, chufas and sweet potatoes.
The table following gives an arrangement of crops
that are suited to Florida conditions, and if followed
out would provide forage crops all the year. But
there should be some grain fed when the hogs are
on those crops that have no grain, such as oats, rye,
It is not intended that all these crops should be
planted, but each farmer should plant those that are
adapted to his soil.
The objection to such a system is the amount of
fence required, but the labor saved in gathering the
crops will in a few years pay for the fence. To keep
such a system going is not as easy at it seems, and
requires much thought and attention, but the results
obtained will amply repay for all the trouble.
No estimate can be given of the acres required for
such a plan, for that will depend upon the fertility
of the land and the number of hogs to be kept. Much
fence can be saved and fewer acres used by the
proper rotation of the crops. As soon as one crop is
eaten the ground should be broken and another put
in at once. If more than one acre of any of the for-
age crops is put in, it will be best not to turn the
hogs on the entire field at once, for they will break
down and waste much more than if they are allowed
only a part of the field and forced to clean it up
before going on to the balance. The use of the
hurdle fence will be found to be very convenient for
cutting off a part of any crop. If it is not known
how,to build a hurdle fence, a letter to the Florida
Department of Agriculture will get the information.
At what stage of growth should the hogs be turned
on the crops is a question often asked. The follow-
ing will help to answer that question:
Oats and rye should not be grazed until they have
made at least four inches growth and are firmly
rooted. If turned on before this there will be too
much waste, in that the young plants will be pulled
out of the ground, and also if there is not sufficient
growth to give the hogs enough feed without root-
ing, they will ruin the stand of grain by trying to
find more than the oats to eat. When the oats or
rye is in the boot stage it is too tough for the hog,
and it is better to hold them off until the grain is
about ripe. Rye should not be allowed to seed, as
the bearded head is not good for the hogs.
Dwarf Essex Rape is one of the very best crops,
but, as above stated, it must not be used until there
is enough growth to keep the hogs grazing rather
than rooting. This crop is one that, by all means,
should be divided so as to give one-half a chance to
rest while the other is being grazed. It never gets
too old, and is good at all stages. There is no use
to plant rape on poor land, for on such land it will
make a very poor growth.
Corn can be used at any time after the roasting-
ear stage has been reached, but better returns will
be obtained if the hogs are held out until the corn
is mature. If rape, cow peas, soy beans, velvet
beans, pumpkins, citrons or some other crop is
planted with the corn, the yield of the corn will not
be decreased and the food value per acre will be
very much increased. Much better results are ob-
tained if only a portion of the corn field is used at
Sorghum may be grazed when it gets about two
feet high, but much greater returns will be obtained
if the sorghum is allowed to mature. The grain in
the head is almost equal to an ear of corn. and the
sugar in the stalk helps to make good growth.
Peanuts are of two varieties. The two-crop or
Spanish must be used as soon as mature, as they will
not keep in the ground. In just a few weeks they
will sprout and become no good for feed. For this
reason it must be arranged that not more of these
are planted than the hogs can use. Should there be
more, they should be dug and held for later feeding.
The North Carolina or Virginia peanut is grown
for fall and winter use. It will stay in the ground
all winter, which gives it much advantage over the
Chufas should not be used until the nuts are fully
mature. They will keep all winter.
Clover can be grazed as soon as it gets a few
inches high. Southern Burr, Annual Sweet Yellow
and the little Southern White seem to do well in
Florida. These make splendid growth on the clay
lands and will grow on the sandy soils if some lime
is used. On clay lands the regular sweet clover will
grow to advantage.
Bermuda, Carpet and Dallas grass can be used
just as early as the first green shoots come. The
young tender leaves are the part the hog likes.
Cow peas, velvet beans and soy beans should not
be turned on until some of the beans are at least
half mature unless there is a very great shortage of
feed. In that case it will pay to turn in the hogs so
that they will eat the vine rather than 'the seed.
Velvet beans will keep in the field all winter.
In the case of the soy bean, if a variety of seed is
used, beginning with the Dixie and ending with the
Biloxi, the period of feeding will be very much ex-
Two crops of cow peas may be made if the early
variety is used.
Kudzu should be allowed to cover the ground
fairly well with the new growth before the hogs are
turned in. From early spring until frost this crop
will provide an abundance of feed.
Sweet potatoes may be fed when the potatoes are
about half grown, if feed is scarce, but much greater
returns will be had if they are allowed to mature.
If fed before frost, the hogs will eat the vines as
well as the potatoes. Greater yields will be made
if the varieties other than yams are grown.
Artichokes are very little grown, but do produce
a heavy yield when on good ground, and have the
advantage of staying in the ground all winter. Hogs
do not like them as well as they do other root crops.
Vetch and beggarweed can be used as soon as the
plants are a few inches high.
On 218 farms in South Georgia where such a
system of forage crops was used, only five pounds
of grain was fed, in addition to the pasturage, in
order to secure 100 pounds of gain.
This offers quite a contrast to the results obtained
in what are considered the hog States of the Union,
and illustrates the point that hogs can be grown for
less money in Florida than in the States that have
been considered the real hog States. But it also
shows that unless a great deal of attention is given
to growing these crops and the feeding of some sup-
plement, that the best results will not be obtained.
It must be remembered, also, that the mineral mix-
ture must be before the hogs at all times.
FORAGE CROP CHART
(Lines show months that the crops could be used as hog feed)
Oats .- -. .__ _
R y e ... .. ... ..... ......... .....--
Essex Rape ... ..................- -
C o r n ............... ..... .... .
S orghum .........................
Peanuts ..................... .....-- ---
Peanuts .---i-~ -- --I --
Chufaver .. ....... .......... ..
Bermuda Grass ...............
C ow P eas ........ ..............
Kudzu . ...... ...... .
Sw eet Potatoes .................
Velvet Beans ..
Soy B eans .................. ...
A rtichokes ......................
Sudan Grass ............
V etch ................
A GOOD MINERAL MIXTURE
It has been the custom with stockmen for many
years to keep before the hogs some mixture of ashes,
copperas and salt, but the reason for doing so was
more for the medicinal effect than any other.
In recent years the various State Experiment Sta-
tions have been conducting experiments along this
line, and some very interesting results have been
It is now known that a good mineral mixture is
needed if the full growth is to be obtained-the
reason being that the hog cannot get enough mineral
out of the grass and grain eaten.
A mixture recommended by the Extension Divi-
sion, University of Florida, is as follows:
Charcoal, 1 bushel.
Wood ashes, 1 bushel.
Slaked lime, 4 lbs.
Salt, 8 lbs.
Copperas, 2 lbs.
Sulphur, 4 lbs.
These should be thoroughly mixed and put into a
box that, while open to the hogs, will be closed to
Hogs that have had such a mixture while on feed
have made much better gains than those that had
CARE OF BROOD SOW AND PIGS
Many failures are made by those who at the be-
ginning have made a good start in the game of
growing hogs. When the proper preparations have
been made, the hogs for the foundation herd ob-
tained and turned into the pens, they seem to think
that the hogs will not require any more attention.
In fact, the work has just begun, since now comes
the important part of applying' those general prin-
ciples that make the growing of hogs a fine art.
The work must begin with the brood sow, for upon
her selection depends in a large measure the chance
of success. Select only a well-formed, growth sow
that shows by the way she stands and walks that she
has good health. She should be long in body and
have not less than ten teats. She should in every
way be typical of the breed to which she belongs.
If old enough when purchased it is well to have
the sow bred before she is delivered. This is done
so as to get new blood into the herd at the least cost.
The well-cared-for sow should have two litters
each year, and the best months for the pigs to come
are March and September. It is easy to remember
that the sow will pig or farrow three months, three
weeks and three days after being bred. Knowing
this, arrange to have the pigs come when wanted.
A study of the forage crop table will give the reason
why these two months are best, since it will be seen
that more feed is on hand at that time. Pigs born
in March have missed the cold weather and are old
enough to wean in June, when there should be an
abundance of feed. The September pigs are weaned
before cold weather and are ready for the fields
when the crops are gathered. In addition to this, if
the pigs are to be exhibited at the fairs, the classes
are so arranged as to fit in with these ages, since
they are generally used by all the best breeders.
Except those that are to be kept for breeding, no
pig should see but one Christmas. If given the
proper care and feed they will be large enough for
the market in less than one year. Letting the sow
breed at just any time is a practice that is not fol-
lowed by good breeders.
The condition of the sow at the time of breeding
will in a large measure control the size of the litter
and condition of the pigs when born. A sow that is
thin and not in a good thrifty condition when bred
never has a large litter. Many breeders say that the
care of the sow at this time is the most important
part of the entire game. Have her in good condition
when bred, feed her right, give her plenty of exer-
cise, water and shade, and a good, strong litter is
almost a certainty.
The Alabama Experiment Station has found that
the following is a satisfactory feed for brood sows:
"Shorts 70 lbs.
Peanut Meal 35 lbs.
Salt 1 lb.
Add skim milk at the rate of two quarts for each
3 pounds of grain. Feed this in the morning and
two quarts at night."
Do not feed corn alone, for the pigs are never as
strong as when a balanced ration is fed.
A few days before the sow is due to pig she should
be brought to her pen, where she is away from the
other hogs and can be given the proper shelter and
bedding. Too much bedding is worse than none, for
the young pigs often get under the straw and are
killed by the sow mashing them. The sow should
never be made to stay in a dusty or wet pen, since
these conditions cause much trouble to the young
A few days before farrowing, cut the sow's feed
to a thin slop made of shorts and water, or butter-
milk if it can be obtained. If she is constipated, give
a dose of Epsom salts in her slop.
After farrowing give nothing but water for 24
hours and keep her as quiet as possible. Heavy feed-
ing at once will cause trouble in the pigs, and if con-
tinued many will die. For the first week feed only
a slop of shorts and skim milk, then begin to increase
the feed until there is being fed all that she will
clean up three times a day. After the first week the
sow should be allowed the run of the pasture.
A good ration to be fed the suckling sow is the
following, which is recommended by the Extension
Division of Florida Agricultural College:
Shorts .... .. ... .... 45 lbs.
Corn M eal ..... ... ......... 25 lbs.
Peanut Meal ....... 25 lbs.
Tankage ..... ... 5 lbs.
Salt ............. .... ... 1 lb.
The sow at this time must not only feed herself
but her pigs, so she must be fed liberally. At no
time in the life of a hog is feeding so important as
the first two months of its life. At no stage is milk
used to better advantage than when fed to the suck-
ling sow and to the pigs at weaning time. The farm
that has no cows to furnish skim milk for the hogs
will have to get the food elements furnished by milk
in the other products fed, such as tankage or fish
When about three weeks of age the pigs will begin
to want more than their mother's milk, and they
must be fed in order to keep them growing. Give
them a trough in a pen by their mother's pen and
they will soon learn to feed themselves. All that
the pigs eat will help the sow, for the drain upon
her at this time is very heavy if she is giving the
milk she should. The pigs must never fail to make
a gain each day, but the gain should be in growth
rather than in fat. Care must be used to see that
the ration is the one needed and that the pigs get
all they need, but no more than they will clean up.
Try to keep them with a good appetite but not under-
fed. Shelled corn and milk, or shorts and milk,
make a splendid feed for young pigs. At this age
pigs are growing very fast and every effort must be
made to keep them gaining if cheap pork is to be
Fed in this way, the pigs at eight weeks of age
should be independent of their mother and should
be weaned. No better method of weaning can be
followed than to keep them up in their pen for a
few days and feed them all they need. Overcrowd-
ing with feed may cause bowel trouble, and so it
must be the feeder's care to see that the right
amount is fed. Should feed be left it should be
cleared out before more is given. Sour or spoiled
feed causes stomach troubles.
If the sow is milking heavily when the pigs are
weaned it is well to leave two or three pigs with her
for a few days longer, or she may be turned in to
her pigs once or twice a week until she does go dry.
Cutting out all grain feed to the sow at this time
and letting her have only what she gets in the pas-
ture will hurry her in going dry. The mature sow
will need no more grain until she is bred again, pro-
vided the pasture crops are in good condition.
The few weeks after weaning is the critical time
in- a pig's life. If they can be kept gaining, then a
profit is in sight, but should they become stunted it
will be hard to get them started again. Keep them
warm, dry, clean and well fed and success is almost
sure. The things to guard against are dust, lice and
A good feed at this time to supplement the pasture
is a mixture of corn meal, shorts, peanut meal or
If skim milk can be obtained it can take the place
of the tankage. At no time in the pig's life can milk
be used to better advantage than when the pigs are
From now on the management will depend upon
the purpose for which the pigs are to be used. Those
that are to be kept for breeding should be kept grow-
ing, but with no effort to fatten. Those that are to
be killed should be fed in such a way that they will
be ready for the market in eight to ten months.
The boars that are to be kept should be separated
from the herd that is to be killed, and the sows that
are to be saved for breeding should be put out on
pasture crops that will develop them to their best
Whenever a new pig is purchased it should not be
turned in with the other hogs at once. It is better
to put the pig in a pen for two or three weeks and
in this way see if it is healthy. It has often been the
case that by turning new pigs into the herd some
disease has been introduced.
THE FATTENING PERIOD
If the pigs have had the proper amount of pasture
crops and grain throughout their lives, there is very
little left to do in finishing them for the market. For
the pork market they should not be too fat, and
should weigh when dressed about 100 pounds. It is
easy to get this weight and finish in the field. The
cost of a pound of gain is very much greater as the
weight increases. This shows the importance of
getting the gains early in the life of the pig. The
following table, taken from Henry's "Feeds and
Feeding," shows just how the cost increases:
RELATION OF WEIGHT OF PIGS TO FEED CONSUMED
AND RATE OF GAIN
Daily for 100 Average Gain Feed for 100
Wt. of Pigs lbs. Live Wt. for Day lbs. Gain
15- 50 lbs. 6.0 lbs. .8 lbs. 293
50-100 lbs. 4.3 lbs. .8 lbs. 400
100-150 lbs. 3.8 lbs. 1.1 lbs. 437
150-200 lbs. 3.5 lbs. 1.2 lbs. 482
200-250 lbs. 2.9 lbs. 1.3 lbs. 498
250-300 lbs. 2.7 lbs. 1.5 lbs. 511
300-350 lbs. 2.4 lbs. 1.4 lbs. 535
This clearly indicates how much better it is to get
the pigs finished at a lighter weight than to try to
get the maximum amount of fat on them. The old
practice of keeping the hogs up for a long time on
corn alone is all wrong. The finishing period should
never be more than six to eight weeks. A hog should
be sold or killed just as soon as it has taken on all
the fat that it will pay for.
The best ration to finish with is a mixture of corn,
95 pounds, and tankage, 5 pounds, or peanut meal,
10 pounds. This should finish the pig in about eight
It is very important that the pig should have an
abundance of good clean water at this time and that
the mineral mixture be always handy so that the
pig may get to it at all times.
At the Alabama station it was found that in the
finishing period one ton of peanuts produced 561
pounds of gain. When the value per ton for peanuts
on the market is less than the value of 561 pounds
of pork, it will pay to use them to fatten hogs. (See
Ala. Agri. Bul. No. 105.)
There is a common opinion that the grinding,
cooking and soaking of feed will aid in the fatten-
ing of hogs. Numbers of experiments have shown
that it does not pay to do these things. The only
time that it does pay is to make palatable those feeds
which the hog will not eat uncooked.
The feeding of garbage or slops is very risky un-
less great care is used to see that no spoiled meat,
glass or other things are given the hogs. The feed-
ing of such slop raw is better than to cook it, for
while cooking may kill some of the disease germs it
also renders useless the hog's taste of what is fit for
food. A hog will not eat anything that is bad if it
is raw, but when cooked they will eat anything.
Trying to put on a few extra pounds by cooking
the feed is very expensive practice.
In feeding the hog it is well to remember that no
other animal makes as good use of the food fed, as
the following will show.
Cattle eat 12 to 13 lbs. dry matter per 100 lbs. live weight
Sheep eat 15 to 18 lbs. dry matter per 100 lbs. live weight
Hogs eat 26 to 30 lbs. dry matter per 100 lbs. live weight
Cattle gain on an average 1 lb. to every 12 lbs. fed
Sheep gain on an average 1 lb. to every 9 lbs. fed
Hogs gain on an average 1 lb. to every 4 lbs. fed
The hog, then, eats twice as much per 100 pounds
live weight and gains three times as much per pound
fed as the cow.
As long as the farmer produces only enough hogs
to furnish his own meat he has no problem in mar-
keting. But when he has a surplus of hogs, then he
wants to know how best to sell.
There are several methods that may be followed:
1. Kill and retail in nearest town.
2. Sell, on foot, to local butcher.
3. Dress and sell to local butcher.
4. Ship to packers.
5. Sell to local buyer to be shipped.
6. Ship in co-operative car.
1. Kill and retail the meat. This will require
much more of the farmer's time than any of the
other methods, but gives him a chance to get the
greatest returns from his meat. If the meat is
ground into sausage and sold to private homes, still
greater returns may be had. If a local trade can be
built up for a high grade product, the farmer can
often work up a nice business that will take care of
all his surplus meat.
If he does not wish to sell the meat fresh, the
farmer may cure it and sell as smoked bacon and
2 and 3. Selling on foot to local butcher. This
does away with all the trouble of killing, but
the hogs have to be hauled to town. The price on
foot must be equal to the price that could be ob-
tained if the meat was sold. To calculate this, mul-
tiply the live weight of the hog by 80%, which will
give the pounds of dressed meat. (A well-fattened
hog will dress 80%.) Multiply this by the price per
pound that can be received for the dressed meat.
This will give the value dressed. Divide this by the
live weight and the result will be the price to get on
An example of this will be shown by taking a 150-
pound hog as a basis.
If a farmer can net 20c per pound by selling his
meat as sausage, what price should he get on foot
150 X 80 = 120 pounds meat @ 20c $24.00.
$24 150 = 16c, the price that hog should bring
If the price for dressed pork is 15c per pound,
what should be the price on foot?
120 X 15c $18.00. $18 150 = 12c, the price
that hog should bring on foot.
In these problems no allowance is made for the
extra trouble in killing and selling, where the hogs
are not sold on foot.
4. Shipping to the packers can only be done when
the farmer has a carload, or is near enough to haul
to market in trucks. The problem above should help
to decide when to do this.
5. Selling to the local buyer has only one advan-
tage, and that is when the owner has no market and
is willing to pay the local man a commission to sell
6. Ship in co-operative car.
Under this plan the farmers bring their hogs to
the station on a certain day. Each farmer's hogs are
given a mark, and then loaded in car all together
and shipped to the live stock market. There the
commission agent sells them according to grade, and
remits to each farmer the net returns for his hogs.
The only cost in this way is the freight and commis-
Another way of making a co-operative shipment
is to have some competent person grade and weigh
the hogs as they are received at the car, the farmer
being paid the market price less the freight, the
"Hog days" are used by some county agents as
the way to get the hogs of the county sold. On such
days the farmers bring in their hogs and the buyers
bid for them, paying the market price. This system
insures the highest price, and the farmer has no
trouble except getting the hogs to the car.
The age and weight to sell must depend upon the
market and upon local conditions on the farm. If
the feed on the farm has for any reason run short,
then the hogs must be sold or feed bought. Should
there come a high market for small hogs it would be
the right policy to sell the pigs that were of this
weight, rather than keep them and try to make them
Old sows and stags are always docked when
shipped, because they do not dress out as well as
the younger hogs.
CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING HOGS THROUGH
The County Demonstration Agent's duties have
broadened considerably since the institution of ex-
tension service. One of the duties added to his
original project is the task of helping the farmers
market their field crops and live stock. In some
States this line of extension service has been pushed
much faster than in others. The methods of ship-
ping hogs will be presented as suggestive to all who
are interested in co-operative marketing.
Marketing by this method requires no permanent
organization, but it does not at all hinder the farm-
ers from organizing permanently around each pro-
duct or in a general way and securing the aid of the
County Agent in making shipments and sales.
In shipping hogs by the carload for numerous
owners there are two methods of designating owner-
1. By marking each man's hogs differently, hav-
ing as many marks as there are shippers. This
method has several objectionable features: The edu-
cational side of co-operative shipping is lost when a
lump sum is received for his hogs instead of being
paid by grades. (This same lesson is lost when the
commission men appear on the day of shipping and
buy direct from the farmers-which is often done.
The commercial features of the transaction are lack-
ing and the sale is made on a local market to a rep-
resentative of a commission man instead of to a local
buyer. Even this way is preferable to the old way.)
To cut out, class and weigh a carload of hogs
billed out by this method requires time, which the
commission man is unwilling to give at his end of
the line, and he discourages this kind of shipments.
If a hog gets injured or killed in transit the owner
loses it, which is unfair. This is avoided by the
2. By grading and crediting each owner with so
many pounds of such a grade. All losses are borne
by the car shipments and not by the individuals.
This requires more knowledge of grading than the
marking method, but is much better. Hogs are
bought at the stockyards on classes. They are
graded according to a schedule of characterization.
A-As to Finish:
(b) half fat.
(c) poor flesh.
B-As to Special Characteristics:
(b) open gilts.
(c) sows which have suckled.
(d) males which have headed a herd.
(e) boars are sold subject to government in-
spection; they should be castrated and
afterward shipped as stags.
(f) stags suffer a dock of seventy pounds.
(g) sows showing "piggy" have a uniform
dock of forty pounds; further docks are
made of from 10 to 30 pounds for rup-
The following grades apply to barrows and open
gilts well finished:
No. 1-200 pounds and over.
No. 2-165 pounds to 200.
No. 3-130 pounds to 165.
No. 4-100 pounds to 130.
No. 5-100 pounds and under.
The other grades are handled according to de-
grees of finish in the same manner.
Packer sows are graded according to size, quality
Grade A-Choice, smooth, fat and heavy.
Grade B-Good quality, but medium fat and light
Grade C-Rough, thin and common quality.
Grade D-Skins-any class emaciated.
The main task for the beginner is to learn the dif-
ferent grades of finish. It is safest for the beginner
to mark the different grades and write a letter to
the commission-man explaining the grading and
marking, and request a detailed reply explaining
any deviation from the original grading. The mark-
ing by grades can be done by clipping each grade
at a certain place on the hog.
Shipping hogs in hot weather requires consider-
able precaution and care from the time they leave
the farm till unloaded at the stockyards. If they
have been driven on foot they should be allowed to
cool before loading. The cars should be well bedded
with sand or clay. This bedding should be wet, be-
fore loading, and hogs should not be crowded in the
cars. If car is allowed to stand in the sun, additional
wetting may be necessary. The water should be
poured on the floor and not on the hogs. Burlaps
hung from the roof of the car containing ice will
keep the floor damp and cool-say six to the car,
containing 50 pounds each. In hot weather 15,000
pounds of hogs is the maximum load to put in a
36-foot car. All hogs should have standing room in
any kind of weather. Do not start them to market
full of swill. Fine coal distributed over the car floor
is better than overfeeding.
The most difficult part of the work in shipping
cars of live stock co-operatively is the clerical job
of making settlement with the owners. Right here
let it be said that it is not necessary for the County
Agent to make shipment in his own name. He usu-
ally gets some bank at the point of shipment to bill
out the car and receive the statement of sales and
checks from commission men. Most any bank will
do this for the deposits it will bring to it.
There are several methods used in figuring losses
and apportioning the amounts due the individual
shippers. In giving one method there is no sugges-
tion that there are not others just as good.
Suppose a car of hogs was billed out weighing
14,000 pounds, the weight returns showed 13,500
pounds, the price for half dozen grades ranged from
$10 a hundred to $20 a hundred, freight charges $60,
yardage $6, feed $20, commissions $18-amount of
check $2,800.00-how would it all be worked out?
The farmers were given a receipt at the scale with
the weights of their hogs, and it is easier to settle at
these weights than at the stockyard weights, the
shrinkage to be cared for in the prices received. As
an illustration of handling this feature of the busi-
ness, let's take a sample shipment and trace the
various bookkeeping items:
30 No. 1 hogs weighing.... 8,000 lbs.
25 No. 2 hogs weighing.... 4,500 lbs.
10 No. A smooth packers 1,500 lbs.
2 Stags ...... ......... .. 500 lbs. after dockage
3 Skins ... ........ 434 lbs.
The commission man sells the hogs and sends back
the following statement:
29 hogs ..... ..... 7,502 @ $20.00-$1,500.00
25 hogs ......... 4,365 @ 18.75- 818.43
10 hogs .... 1,455 @ 18.50- 269.17
2 stags .......... 485 @ 16.25- 78.81
1 cripple ... 257 @ 11.00- 28.27
3 skins ......... 421 @ 8.00- 33.68
70 14,485 $2,726.36
Freight . 60
Yardage ........ 6
Feed ............. 20
Commissions ..... 15
In this case the shrinkage would be 449 pounds,
or an average of 3%. Let's find the net price for
the lowest grade in the lot and call all higher prices
premiums. This is done by subtracting the premiums
that the better hogs brought, and all local expenses,
from the check and dividing by the total number of
pounds shipped in the car.
The lowest priced hogs were the skins which sold
for $8 a hundred; the No. 1 hogs brought $12 per
hundred over the skins; No. 2 hogs brought $10.75
more; the packers $10.50 more; and stags $6.25
more, and the cripple $3.00 more.
No. 1 8,000 pounds @ $12.00-$ 960.00
No. 2 ...... 4,500 pounds @ 10.75- 483.75
No. 3 packers 1,500 pounds @ 10.50- 157.50
Stags ...... 500 pounds @ 6.25- 31.25
Total premiums ...... . $1,632.50
The total check received was $2,625.36.
This amount less the premiums leaves the sum
which would have been received had all hogs been
skins and sold for 8 cents a pound, or $992.86.
This amount, divided by the gross number of
pounds, 14,934, gives $6.648, or the net price of the
The net prices for the other grades are ascertained
by adding the premiums.
The stags sold for $6.25 more, so they netted
$12.898 per hundred; the packers brought $10.50
more, therefore netted $17.48; the No. 2s $10.75,
net $17.398; and No. Is $12.00, net $18.648.
The next step is to verify the net prices by multi-
plying the weight in each class by the net price for
No. 1 ..... 8,000 pounds @ $18.648-$1,491.84
No. 2 .4,500 pounds @ 17.398- 782.91
No. 3 packers 1,500 pounds @ 17.148- 257.22
Stags 500 pounds @ 12.898- 64.49
Skins ..... 434 pounds @ 6.648- 28.85
The hog that was crippled en route weighed 257
pounds and brought 11c a pound. Being a number
one originally and should have brought $20 a hun-
dred, it brought $9 a hundred less. This loss is
treated as a shrinkage just as dead hogs are
EQUIPMENT FOR WEIGHING, GRADING AND LOADING
Proper equipment in the way of stock pens should
be furnished by the railroads at shipping points, but
where no live stock trade has been established tem-
porary arrangements will have to be made. The
stock pen should be so built that the hogs can be
driven in from the ground or let out from the hind
gate of a wagon onto an incline platform leading
down to the grading pen. From this grading pen
they can be driven by grades on the scales, weighed,
and then driven into the loading pen with chute
leading to the car.
With none of these equipment to start with, a
large, strong crate can be built with door to enter
and at other end door for leaving. A good pair of
cotton scales will do to swing to a sweep pole to
raise and lower the crate when weighing.
The following schedule of rates for commission
men is allowed for car lots having more than one
owner in addition to the rate on car lots having one
For more than 1 and not more than 10 owners, $2.
For more than 10 but not more than 20 owners, $3.
For more than 20 owners, $3.50; provided that in
no case shall any one owner of such car lot pay a
higher rate than the maximum charge for a car hav-
ing a single owner.
HOME-CURING OF MEAT
It is the opinion of some that meat cannot be cured
on the farm in Florida. The answer to this is that
thousands of pounds of meat are cured each year
and that the quality is of the very best. However,
as in every Southern State, where sudden changes in
the temperature come, there is danger that the meat
will spoil unless some precautions are taken.
Before the days of ice and cold storage plants, the
risk of curing by the regular method on the farm
was very great, but now nearly all ice plants will
store the farmer's meat for the curing period at such
a low cost that no one should take the risk of trying
to take the meat through the entire process at home.
It will be found that the hogs will dress out better
if they are kept in a pen without food for twenty-
four hours before killing. Water should be given,
but the idea being to have the intestines empty when
When the hogs are dressed they should be cut up
at once and salted. In colder climates the hogs are
allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, or longer,
before being cut and salted, but in Florida it is best
to have the salt "strike in" as early as possible. Do
not spare the salt, as there is no danger of getting
the meat too salty, and there is danger of not getting
on enough. Inside of twenty-four hours after salt-
ing, take the meat to the storage and have it packed
away in salt. Let it stay packed for four weeks if
the hogs weigh from 150 to 200 pounds, and longer
if the hogs are larger. At the end of the storage
period take the meat home, wash, dry and smoke.
The only danger of loss in this method is when the
meat gets to storage too late. The charges made by
the storage plant is so small that no one can afford
to take the chances at home. The great advantage
of such a system is that the hogs may be killed at
any time and the farmer does not have to wait on a
If the cold storage is not convenient, the next best
plan is to use the brine method, which is described
as follows in a former bulletin of this department:
Curing meats with brine is a good method for
farm use. It is less trouble to pack the meat in a
barrel and pour brine over it than to go over it three
or four times and rub in salt, as in the dry-curing
method. The brine also protects the meat from in-
sects and vermin. Brine made of pure water and
according to the directions in the following recipes
should keep a reasonable length of time. During
warm weather, however, brine should be watched
closely, and if it becomes "ropy" like sirup, it should
be boiled or new brine made. A cool, moist cellar
is the best place for brine curing.
Pure water, salt, sugar or molasses, and saltpeter
are all the ingredients needed for the ordinary cur-
ing of meat. The meat may be packed in large
earthen jars or a clean hardwood barrel. The barrel
or jar may be used repeatedly unless meat has
spoiled in it. It should be scalded thoroughly, how-
ever, each time before fresh meat is packed.
Curing should begin as soon as the meat is cooled
and while it is still fresh. Ordinarily 24 to 36 hours
after slaughter are sufficient for cooling. Frozen
meat should not be salted, as the frost prevents
proper penetration of the salt and uneven curing
SUGAR-CURED HAMS AND BACON
When the meat is cooled, rub each piece with salt
and allow it to drain over night. Then pack it in
the barrels with the hams and shoulders in the bot-
tom, using the strips of bacon to fill in between or
to put on top. Weigh out for each one hundred
pounds of meat, eight pounds of salt, two pounds of
brown sugar, and two ounces of saltpeter. Two
ounces of finely ground black pepper may be added
with benefit. Dissolve all in four gallons of water,
and cover the meat with the brine. For summer use
it will be safest to boil the brine before using. In
that case it should be cooled thoroughly before it is
used. For winter curing it is not necessary to boil
the brine. Bacon strips should remain in this brine
four to six weeks; hams six to eight weeks. This is
a standard recipe and has given the best of satisfac-
tion. Hams and bacon cured in the spring will keep
right through the summer after they are smoked.
The meat will be sweet and palatable if smoked
properly, and the flavor will be good.
PLAIN SALT PORK
Rub each piece of meat with fine common salt and
pack closely in a barrel. Let stand over night. The
next day weigh out ten pounds of salt and two ounces
of saltpeter to each 100 pounds of meat and dissolve
in four (4) gallons of boiling water. Pour this brine
over the meat when cold, cover and weight down to
keep it under the brine. Meat will pack best if cut
into pieces about six inches square. The pork should
be kept in the brine till used.
HOW TO SMOKE MEAT
Pickled and cured meats are smoked to aid in
their preservation and to give flavor and palatability.
The creosote formed by the combustion of the wood
closes the pores to some extent, excluding the air,
and is objectionable to insects.
HOUSE AND FUEL
The smokehouse should be eight to ten feet high
to give the best results, and of a size suited to the
amount of meat likely to be smoked, six by eight
feet being large enough for ordinary farm use.
Ample ventilation should be provided to carry off
the warm air in order t6 prevent over-heating the
meat. Small openings under the eaves or a chimney
in the roof will be sufficient if arranged so as to be
easily controlled. A fire pot outside of the house
proper, with a flue through which the smoke may be
conducted to the meat chamber, gives the best con-
ditions for smoking. When this cannot be well ar-
ranged, a fire may be built on the floor of the house
and the meat shielded by a sheet of metal. Where
the meat can be hung 6 to 7 feet above the fire this
precaution need not be taken. The construction
should be such as to allow the smoke to pass up
freely over the meat and out of the house, though
rapid circulation is at the expense of fuel.
FILLING THE HOUSE
Meat that is to be smoked'should be removed from
the brine two or three days before being put in the
smokehouse. If it has been cured in a strong brine
it will be best to soak the pieces in cold water over
night to prevent a crust of salt from forming on the
outside when drained. Washing the meat in tepid
water and scrubbing clean with a brush is a good
practice. The pieces should then be hung up to
drain for a day or two. When drained they may be
hung in the house. All should be suspended below
the ventilators and should hang so that no two
pieces come in contact, as this would prevent uni-
The best wood to use is green hickory, sassafras
or Chinaberry. These can be burned green if some
dry wood is used to begin the fire. Do not have any
more fire than is needed, as the heat is very bad.
Watch the meat and stop the smoke when the meat
takes on a good brown color. From four to five days
is usually enough time to smoke.
The shoulders and hams may now be put into
bags and painted with a mixture of flour and water,
which will help to keep out the insects. The sides
are hung out in some cool, dark place, which is
usually the house in which it was smoked.
CONTROLLING HOG DISEASES AND PARASITES
By DR. A. L. SHEALY
Professor Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida
Many of the diseases of hogs could be controlled
and prevented if more attention were given to care
and management. It is highly important, in view of
the prevailing high prices of hogs, that methods be
employed which would reduce losses to a minimum.
By having clean water, wholesome feed, and clean
premises, most of the common diseases of hogs can
be controlled. Too great emphasis cannot be given
to the importance of sanitation in controlling dis-
eases of swine.
The supply of drinking water should be clean and
wholesome. Too often the hog raiser provides only
a mud hole as a source of drinking water. In many
cases such mud holes are heavily contaminated with
worm eggs. These worm eggs are consumed by the
pig in the drinking water and are passed into the
digestive system, where they hatch, resulting in
heavy worm infestation in the pig. As a result of
worms, the pig will not gain, but rather loses weight
and becomes very unthrifty, and may die. Each of
these results of worms causes financial loss to the
owner. If it is at all possible, the drinking water
should come from a well, or from a freely flowing
spring located on the farm.
In controlling diseases of hogs, especially worms,
the old dirty hog wallow should, by all means, be
eliminated from the premises. Contrary to the be-
liefs of many owners, it is not essential to have hog
wallows on the farm, for some of the prize-winning
herds of hogs in this State never have access to a
wallow of any sort. The old, dirty, filthy hog wal-
low is the chief source of worm infestation. The
pigs using these wallows always get worm eggs into
their digestive system, and even nursing pigs may
become infested with worm eggs by the mother hav-
ing used the filthy wallow, getting worm eggs on her
mammary glands, and the young pigs consuming
these eggs through nursing.
If the owner desires a wallow for his pigs he
should fill up all the old dirty wallow holes and
build a concrete hog wallow. It should be remem-
bered that the owner can give all the drugs to de-
stroy worms he desires to give, but if he does not
eliminate the source of infestation he will never con-
trol worms in pigs. It might be said, further, that
all species of worms in the hog can be controlled
The following sanitary measures have proven suc-
cessful in controlling worms, and further, it has been
found out that the little extra effort and expense in-
curred in carrying out these measures have been
more than compensated by the gains made in pigs
free from worms. Take the brood sow off of the
permanent pasture a week or ten days prior to her
farrowing time, wash her thoroughly with soap and
water, then place her in a lot or small pasture where
no pigs have been for several months. Of course, if
two or more brood sows are due to farrow about the
same time, all of them may be put in the same lot
or pasture. Keep the sow with her litter of pigs on
this clean lot or pasture until the pigs are three
months old. It is well if the pasture has been planted
in some annual grazing crop, such as oats, rye, sor-
ghum, corn, peanuts, or any of the crops useful for
swine grazing at the time the sows are due to far-
row. After the pigs are three months old they may
be safely turned out with the rest of the herd; but
young pigs under this age are very susceptible to
worms, and if allowed to run with old hogs and over
old permanent pastures they are very apt to become
infested with worms.
It is always a good practice to rotate the hog pas-
tures as often as possible in order to control not only
worms, but other diseases as well.
The control of lice is also important in hog raising.
This parasite does not cause as severe loss as is
caused by worms, yet it is a fact that pigs heavily
infested with lice cannot make large gains and are
unthrifty.' In controlling lice, the method employed
will depend on the number of hogs on the farm. If
the farmer has as many as six brood sows, it would
be a good investment for him to construct a concrete
dipping vat for use in destroying the lice. If he has
two or three brood sows he cannot afford the ex-
pense of constructing a dipping vat, but. rather
should resort to the use of some preparation which
may be applied by hand. Many farmers use the
waste oil from garages to an advantage in freeing
their swine of lice. Others use crude oil applied
over the hog. Another preparation highly effective
in destroying lice is a mixture of kerosene, 1 part,
to raw linseed or cotton seed oil, 2 parts. This mix-
ture is applied over the skin of the hog. It is very
important that these preparations be applied to the
hog every ten days until all lice are destroyed, for it
will take several applications to destroy these para-
sites, since the "nits" will hatch out during the in-
terval between treatments.
In the event the dipping vat is used, the vat should
be filled partially with water, then add five to ten
gallons of crude oil or waste oil of garages to the
water. As the hog enters, passes through, and
leaves the vat, it gets completely covered with the
oil, which kills the lice. Dip the pigs every ten days
until the lice have been destroyed.
If any communicable disease has been present in
the herd, it is very important that sanitary measures
be carried out in cleaning the premises of infection.
All old, loose boards and litter should be burned.
The hog houses and pens should be sprayed with a
good disinfecting solution such as a 5 % solution of
creolin, a 3 % solution of lysol, or a 5 % solution of
formalin. Milk of lime is also very useful as a dis-
infecting solution. In making the milk of lime solu-
tion use rock or "quick" lime and add enough water
to slack same. After the lime has slacked, then add
two pounds of lime to every gallon of water used.
The solution should be sprayed over the premises.
It is highly important for every hog owner to keep
all of his hogs immunized against hog cholera at
all times. Hog cholera can be controlled only by
vaccinating the pigs with the hog cholera serum and
virus. These pigs should be vaccinated at weaning
time if there is no hog cholera within the herd, for
at that age they are easier handled, and a smaller
amount of serum and virus is required than when
these pigs attain a larger size. However, if hog
cholera is prevalent on the farm, or on a nearby
farm, then the suckling pigs should be vaccinated
immediately, and a second treatment should be
given them after they are weaned.
Another factor of great importance in controlling
diseases of swine is the proper disposal of carcasses
of dead animals. There are only two methods of
properly disposing of carcasses, namely, by burning
them or by burial. When the carcass is either
burned or buried, this precaution checks the spread
of many contagious diseases. If burial is the method
employed, the carcass should be placed at a depth
of at least three feet underground.
Swine which are grazed over any one crop, such
as peanuts, corn or any similar crop, should be given
a mineral mixture, since no single food or crop can
supply all the mineral requirements of the body. If
some kind of mineral mixture is not given, many of
the hogs are apt to develop weakness of the back
and hind quarters. A mineral mixture found to be
very useful in supplying the full mineral require-
ments of the body is composed as follows:
Hardwood ashes ... .. .. ... 10 pounds
Charcoal ............................ 5 pounds
Air-slacked lime................... 5 pounds
Common salt ........... ....... .. 5 pounds
Powdered ferrous sulphate .... 1/ pound
Mix these ingredients together thoroughly and
put the mixture in wooden boxes and keep in a shel-
tered place. The pigs will partake of the mixture
of their own accord, but if they do not voluntarily
eat it, then add a small amount of the mixture to
the ration fed to the hogs. It is extremely important
that brood sows receive the mineral mixture.
The following statement by Dr. J. V. Knapp, Vet-
erinarian of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board,
gives the number of hogs treated and the amount of
serum used in the control of hog cholera the past
year. Any letters in regard to cholera or other con-
tagious diseases should be addressed to State Live
Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, Florida.
Total amount of serum and virus used in the State
of Florida for the past twelve months-June, 1925,
to May, 1926:
J u n e ..... .... ...... . .....
J u ly .. ........... .............. ........
A u g u st ............... ...........
Septem ber ............... ... ....
O ctober ............ . ....
N ovem ber .............. .........
D ecem ber ......... .........
January ........... .....................
F ebruary ............... .... ...
M a rch ............ .............
A p ril .. ...... .... ...... .. ...
M a y .. .. .. .. ... ..............
The following table shows the amount of serum
and virus used in the principal hog-raising counties
of the State during the past twelve months:
Suwannee ... ....
A lachua .............
Colum bia ...........
M adison ..........
Sum ter ..........
H olm es ...............
Levy . ..... .
W akulla .......
B aker ............
Washington ... ..
M arion .... ...
.... ......... 327,750
.. .. .... 350,120
... ... 443,600
. ... ...... 296,195
... ... .. 57,660
.............. 4 8,3 0 0
.................. 2 13 ,7 9 0
........ ...... 455,220
.... ........... 180,590
Total number of hogs treated in the State of Flor-
ida during 1925-26, 156,250.
The cost to the farmer will average about 20c per
head to immune his hogs. The larger the number
of grown hogs the higher the cost.
HOGS IN FLORIDA
D ade ... .....
D ixie .......
Jackson .. .
Leon .. ....
... ... 476
County- Number Brood Sows
M adison .............................. 18,744 2,936
Marion ................................ 18,938 3,272
Manatee .......................... 3,809 1,499
Monroe ............ ......... 70 23
N assau ... ........ ...... .... 8,135 2,173
Okeechobee ......................... 2,668
O kaloosa ........................... 10,291 1,521
Orange ......... .......... 771 134
O sceola ................................. 6,143 971
P olk .................. ........ ....... 5,520 860
P asco ................. ............... 2,827 548
P alm B each ............................. 152 54
Pinellas ................................... 184 30
Putnam ............................. 4,530 1,304
Sarasota .............................. 422
Santa Rosa ........................... 14,808 2,067
Sem inole .............................. 261 44
St. Johns .......... .................. .. 3,930 835
St. L ucie .............................. 445 122
Sum ter .................................. 5,727 859
Suw annee ............................. 25,567 4,060
Taylor ....... ......... .. 19,451 5,906
U nion ..................................... 8,556 1,453
V olusia .................................. 4,005 535
W akulla .............................. 8,161
Walton ............................ 18,311 2,075
Washington ......................... 18,551 3,027
Total ..................... 506,159 80,624
LIST OF BULLETINS ON THE CARE AND MAN-
AGEMENT OF HOGS THAT MAY BE
OBTAINED IF WRITTEN FOR:
Florida Agricultural Ex. Station, Gainesville, Fla.:
Lessons for Pig Club Members.
Pork Production in Florida.
Soft Pork Studies.
Alabama Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.:
Forage Crops for Hogs and Feeding Hogs on
Care and Management of Sow and Litter.
Peanuts as a Feed for Hogs, Pres. Bul. No. 105.
A Simple Mineral Mixture for Fattening Hogs.
Peanuts for Fattening Hogs in Dry Lot.
U. S. Department of Agriculture:
Hog Production and Marketing.
Breeds of Swine.
S. C. Experiment Station, Clemson College, S. C.:
Rations for Weaning Pigs.
Pig Raising for Club Members.