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Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00033
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture peanut growing in Florida
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture. State of Florida.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: October 1925
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct., 1921)-v. 39, no. 3 (July 1929).
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The peanut, its culture and uses
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text





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NUMBER 4


PEANUT GROWING




IN FLORIDA














SUPPLEMENT TO

FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

OCTOBER, 1925














NATHAN MAYO

Commissioner of Agriculture

Tallahassee, Florida








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The Peanut, Its Culture and Uses

Very little is known regarding the early history
of the peanut in the United States except that it was
brought into the country during the period of slave
importation and became established along the
James River in Virginia. It is not until after the
Civil War that we find any record of peanuts be-
coming a commercial crop, and then only on a small
scale. Prior to this time peanuts were grown in
gardens for home use, and the nuts when parched
were considered a great treat by the children. Soon
the value of peanuts as a money crop was recog-
nized and farmers began growing an acre or two
for the market, and upon this beginning has been
built an industry that represents twelve to fifteen
millions of dollars annually. During the early days
of the peanut industry only one or two varieties
were recognized, those having the largest pods
being known as "Virginians," and the smaller
podded sorts as "Africans." Soon the farmers ob-
served that among the large pod variety there were
certain plants that were of a more compact or bunch
habit than the general crop, which spread or ran
upon the ground; also that these bunch plants pro-
duced larger pods than the runner type. Accord-
ingly the two sorts were separated, and the names
of "Virginia Bunch" and "Virginia Runner" given
them.
The habits of the peanuts render it especially
adapted to cultivation on the sandy soils throughout
the Southern States, and the wide range of uses to
which it may be put makes it a valuable addition to
our farm crops. During past years the greater part
of the commercial peanut crop has been produced
in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
and Tennessee. With the boll weevil injuring the
cotton crop of the Southwestern States, the peanut
promises to become an important money crop and
a part of the regular farm rotation of this section.
In many cases the peanut has proven fully as profit-
able as any other farm crop. The production of










peanuts has not kept pace with the increased de-
mand, and there is little danger, for the present at
least, of overstocking the market. Spanish peanuts
can be grown for about 21/2 cents a pound, and when
the general market becomes supplied the oil mills
can handle the surplus, making therefrom one of
the finest cooking oils that can be produced. The
cake resulting from the manufacture of oil is valu-
able for stock feeding and fertilizer. There is al-
ways the opportunity to convert peanuts into pork
that will bring fancy prices. The famous Smith-
field hams and bacon, which sell at from 30 to 40
cents a pound, are made from hogs that are partly
fed on peanuts. All kinds of live stock will eat and
thrive on peanuts and peanut hay.
The peanut belongs to the same family of plants
as do the clovers, alfalfa, beans and peas, but has
the peculiar habit of developing its seeds under-
ground instead of on top, as do most of the legumes.
During the early days when peanuts were first culti-
vated it was thought necessary to cover the blos-
soms with soil in order to secure well-filled pods.
It is only necessary, however, that there should be
a bed of loose soil surrounding the plants, and they
will then care for themselves. The blossoms of the
peanut appear above ground, shooting out from
where the leaf joins the stem, and after fertilization
takes place the flower withers and the little stem or
peg elongates and pushes down into the earth,
where the pod develops. This habit of the peanut
has an important bearing upon the production of
the crop, in that peanuts should be planted only
upon loose, sandy soils, and the soil must be well
cultivated and loose in order that the pegs may
enter the soil and form pods.
In common with other legumes the peanut has
the power, through the agency of bacteria upon its
roots, to draw the nitrogen from the air and not
only use it for its own growth but to store it for the
use of other plants as well. An illustration of this
may be had by pulling up a peanut plant and noting
the immense number of nitrogen-gathering nodules
upon its roots.









5
THE SOIL AND ITS PREPARATION
Peanuts thrive best on a rather loose, sandy loam
soil, such as is found in abundance throughout the
Southern States. The soil should be well drained,
or what is ordinarily termed a "warm" soil. Pea-
nuts can be grown on the heavier alluvial soils, but
are easier to cultivate and mature better on the
light, sandy loam soils. It will pay to prepare the
land for peanuts in a most thorough manner, and
much of the difficulty in keeping the crop clean will
be avoided by harrowing or disking the land two or
three times before planting. The Spanish variety
may be grown on much heavier land than the Vir-
ginia Bunch or Runner.

CROP ROTATION IN PEANUT CULTURE
Peanuts should not be grown exclusively on any
farm, but in rotation with other crops. Peanuts are
adapted to growing in a system with corn, cow-
peas, oats, cotton and Irish potatoes, the cropping
arrangements being made to conform to local re-
quirements. The crop of peanuts should invariably
follow some crop that has been kept cultivated and
reasonably clean, as this decreases the labor re-
quired to keep the weeds under control.
When fitting land for peanuts it should be plowed
about the same depth as for corn, broadcast plow-
ing being preferable to bedding. If the land has
been in corn the previous season it should be plowed
in ample time to allow the materials that are turned
under to thoroughly decay before planting time.
Some growers prefer to bed the land and then drag
down almost level before planting, but on the whole
it is better to keep the surface smooth and then
work the soil toward the rows in cultivating.

FERTILIZERS REQUIRED BY PEANUTS
Commercial fertilizers, if any are used, should be
applied about the time the land is given its last har-
rowing before planting. A crop of 60 bushels of
peanuts will require about 85 pounds of nitrogen,
15 pounds of phosphoric acid, 32 pounds of potash
and 48 pounds of lime. It would be difficult to se-










cure a fertilizer that would supply these elements
in the above proportions; in fact, it would not be
profitable to retain all of these elements, especially
the nitrogen, in the soil by means of commercial fer-
tilizers. A fertilizer containing about 2 per cent
nitrogen, 8 per cent phosphoric acid, and 8 per cent
potash, is recommended for peanuts, and this may
profitably be applied at the rate of 200 to 400
pounds to the acre. This will add the necessary
phosphoric acid and potash to grow a crop, but only
a small part of the nitrogen. The remaining nitro-
gen can be secured more cheaply through the
agency of cowpeas, crimson clover, and the peanuts
themselves if they are properly handled.
Stable manure is not a desirable fertilizer for pea-
nuts unless applied about a year in advance. The
objections to manure are that it carries with it too
many weed seeds and also produces a rank growth
of peanut vine at the expense of the peanuts.
Lime is essential to the proper ripening of the
peanuts, and where not already abundantly present
should be applied to the soil. Marl is often used as
a substitute for lime, being hauled and spread upon
the land during the winter months. Ordinary lime
may be used at the rate of 300 to 400 pounds to the
acre on land being planted to peanuts In many
cases the soils of the Southern States are pretty well
supplied with lime. Where there is any doubt about
the matter lime should be applied to a portion of
the field at least and its influence upon the yield and
ripening of the peanuts observed. The lime should
be applied to the surface after plowing and while
fitting the land for planting.
Wood ashes are an excellent fertilizer for pea-
nuts, as they contain both potash and lime. Unfor-
tunately, the supply of wood ashes is quite limited
and only small quantities may be secured. Where
obtainable, unleached wood ashes may be applied
to peanut land at a rate not exceeding 1,200 pounds
to the acre.
Several methods are followed in distributing the
fertilizers for peanuts, and while some growers em-
ploy a one-horse distributor and sow the fertilizer
where the row is to be, others scatter it broadcast
and harrow it into the soil. The roots of peanuts










do n6t spread like those of corn, and it may be
more economical to apply the fertilizers to the row
rather than broadcast.

PLANTING PEANUTS
SELECTION OF SEED
Careful selection of seed is just as important with
peanuts as with any other farm or garden crop. Our
best varieties have originated by selection, and it
stands to reason that they may be still further im-
proved by the same process. The best of the crop
should always be saved for seed, and wherever a
particularly fine plant is found it should be saved
separately and the peas planted in a row to them-
selves, or in a small patch where they can be closely
observed. If several extra fine plants were selected
and the peanuts from each saved separately, this
seed might be planted in a special seed plat, a row
being devoted to the product of each plant. In .this
way comparisons may be made from time to time
and the best saved for further selection. Thp ideal
plant should not only produce a large number of
pods, but the pods should be well filled, uniform in
size, smooth, and of bright color. The peas them-
selves should be plump, bright, uniform in shape,
and well filled. If a grower does not have a good
strain of seed, he should purchase from someone
who has given the matter attention; then in future
years give especial care to the matter of saving
good seed.

PLANTING SHELLED OR UNSHELLED PEANUTS
The seed of the large varieties of peanuts are
practically all shelled by hand for planting. In the
case of the Spanish the peas practically fill the pods,
making it difficult to remove the shell by hand. The
machines used in the factories for shelling peanuts
break the peas more or less, and even when the peas
are not broken the germination is often injured by
the rough usage in shelling. For this reason it has
been found safer to plant the Spanish peas in the
shell almost exclusively. The shelled peas will
sprout a little more quickly than those in the shells,










but a few days' time will not make any material
difference. If desirable, the pods may be soaked
in water for a few hours before planting, in order
to hasten germination.

PLANTING MACHINERY
The machines now upon the market for planting
peanuts are constructed somewhat upon the plan of
the one-horse cotton planter. These machines are
well adapted to planting the shelled peas, both of
the large and small varieties, and, if the peas are
clean and free from stems, are quite satisfactory for
planting the Spanish nuts in the shells.
In using the one-horse machines the land is first
laid off in rows one way by means of a marker
similar to that used in laying off corn rows. The
planter is then run in this mark, and it drops, covers
and rolls at one operation. The different distances
of planting are regulated by changing a gear wheel
on the machine.
PLANTING BY HAND
For hand-dropping, furrows or marks are made
with a sweep-stock or single shovel just a little in
advance of the droppers to prevent drying out. The
seed peanuts are hauled to the field in bags, and
close-woven baskets of about half-bushel size have
been found desirable to drop from. The droppers
simply take a small handful and work them be-
tween the thumb and first finger, at the same time
stooping slightly in order to drop the pods at regu-
lar distances. Behind the droppers the seed is cov-
ered by means of a cultivator having the center
teeth removed and a notched board placed across
the rear portion, the notch coming directly over the
row. The horse that draws the covering cultivator
or harrow should be hitched with a side draft so
that it will not walk directly upon the row.
DISTANCES TO PLANT
The planting distances will depend upon the
variety being grown; also upon the strength of .the
land. For the Virginia Bunch variety the usual dis-









9
tances are 30 to 36 inches between the.rows and 10
to 12 inches in the row; for Virginia Runners the
rows are placed 36 to 40 inches apart and the plants
12 to 16 inches apart in the rows. For Spanish and
other similar varieties the rows are placed from 32
to 38 inches apart and the plants 8 to 12 inches
apart in the rows.

DEPTH TO COVER THE SEED
The depth to cover the seed will depend some-
what upon the compactness of the soil. If the soil
is of a light sandy nature and in good condition the
seed should be covered about an inch deep. Should
the soil at planting time be quite dry it will be de-
sirable to cover the seed at least 1/. or 2 inches to
insure germination.

PROTECTION OF SEED FROM ENEMIES
After planting, seed peanuts are often molested
by moles, crows and pigeons; blackbirds are also
accused of destroying the young plants just as they
come through the ground. For the protection of
the seed in the soil from moles it is permissible to
coat the shells very lightly with pine tar thinned
with kerosene. It would hardly be permissible to
coat the shelled seed with tar, although a few peas
might be tarred and mixed with the regular seed.
For protection against crows, stretch lines of white
string across the field; also scatter a few tarred
peas over the surface of the ground. Pigeons are
perhaps the most difficult to either frighten or repel,
and the use of a shotgun is the most certain remedy.
If the seed are all securely covered in planting
there will not be so great danger of crows or other
birds getting a start upon them.

CULTIVATION

TOOLS REQUIRED
The tools adapted for the cultivation of peanuts
are practically the same as those required for corn.
Shortly after planting the peanut field may be gone
over once or twice with a weeder of the King or










Hallock type, or with a light, harrow, to loosen the
surface and destroy weeds that are starting. In
using these tools very little attention need be paid
to the rows; in fact, many growers prefer to go
directly across the rows. Later, after the plants
appear and the rows can be followed, one or two
teeth can be removed from the weeder, and this
type of cultivation continued until the plants are
large enough for working with regular corn culti-
vators. A two-horse spring-tooth riding cultivator
is one of the best implements for handling the pea-
nut crop and after the plants attain considerable size
the spring teeth can be changed for regular shovel
teeth. A one-horse cultivator having five teeth is
also an excellent implement, as the size of the
shovels can be increased as the crop becomes larger,
or hillers can be attached for working the soil to-
ward the rows of plants.

METHOD OF HANDLING THE CROP
Throughout the growing of a crop of peanuts it
should be the aim to keep the entire surface of the
soil fine and loose, and a bed of loose soil near the
plants in which the pods may form. It is scarcely
necessary to add that the crop should be kept free
from weeds. At the first cultivation it is considered
a good practice to throw the soil well toward the
plants, forming a bed, at the same time leaving a
small furrow in the center of the alley to provide
drainage in case of heavy rains. It is not necessary
to cover the blossoms or to throw soil over the vines.
Some growers follow the practice of rolling the pea-
nuts to make the pegs go into the ground and form
pods. The best method is to provide an abundance
of loose earth near the plants and they will have
no difficulty in plants setting pods. Care should be
taken, however, that the pegs that are already
rooted be not disturbed by the final cultivation.
Hand hoeing may be necessary, especially during a
rainy season, when the grass grows rapidly.

HARVESTING
Peanuts are harvested by lifting the vines from
the ground with the pods attached and then stack-










ing them around small poles to cure. Proper har-
vesting and curing is the most important part of the
handling of the peanut crop. Many persons who
are growing peanuts for the first time have an idea
that the crop may be handled in some easier and
cheaper way than by stacking, but many years of
practice has shown that stacking around poles is
the simplest and best method. By placing the vines
and peas in small stacks they are permitted to dry
slowly and at the same time are in so small quantity
that they will not become musty.
The proper time for harvesting the peanut crop
is indicated by a ripening appearance of the vines.
This consists of a slight yellowing of the foliage
and a drooping of the vines. A few days later some
of the lower leaves will begin to fall, especially if
the weather is dry. To the northern limits of the
peanut territory the harvesting should be done just
before frost. Many beginners insist upon digging
their peanut crop too early and before the peas have
fully matured. It is true that there may be a pod
now and then which bursts and sends forth a sprout,
but the number of these are few as compared with
those of later formation which are rapidly filling.
Where good peanut hay is especially desirable the
crop should be harvested in time to secure the best
quality of vine and leaf.

LIFTING THE PEANUTS FROM THE SOIL
The usual custom in the older peanut sections has
been to simply run a plow under the roots and lift
them from the ground. Sometimes a specially de-
signed plow is used having a share or point with a
broad wing to extend beneath the plants; in other
cases an ordinary plow is used, but the turning or
moldboard is removed to prevent the furrow being
turned, the idea being to simply loosen the plants.
This practice of plowing out the crop has been re-
sponsible in a great measure for the general deple-
tion of soil fertility throughout the peanut belt. To
maintain soil fertility these roots must be left in the
soil. By the old method of plowing out the crop
almost all of the roots are removed, and as they
have not subsequently been returned to the soil, de-










pletion of fertility has been the result. The proper
method is to employ a tool which will cut off the
greater portion of the root and leave it in the soil.
In several sections the farmers have had special
tools made for running under the peanut vines, and
some of these are worthy of more general use.
MACHINES FOR DIGGING PEANUTS
Some of the regular machine potato diggers have
been found quite satisfactory for harvesting pea-
nuts, but as a rule these implements have not suffi-
cient clearance to allow a heavy growth of peanut
vines to pass through. At present very much larger
machines are being perfected and especially
adapted to the work in the peanut fields. The ma-
chine or elevator potato digger require about four
strong mules to pull them, but may be so regulated
that the sharp point of the digger will cut off the
roots just below where the peanuts are formed, carry
the vines with the peas attached up and over the
elevator device, and deliver them on the ground be-
hind the machine with practically all of the soil
shaken from them. An outfit of this kind will dig
from 8 to 12 acres daily and require about 20 hands
to stack the vines behind it. In land that is weedy
there is always difficulty in harvesting the crop, re-
gardless of the kind of implement used for digging.
METHOD OF STACKING PEANUTS TO CURE
As already mentioned, the proper method of cur-
ing peanuts is to stack them, vines and all, around
stakes set in the field where the crop is grown. Be-
fore starting to harvest the crop provide the small
poles to be used as stakes around which to stack
the peanuts. These stakes should be 7 feet in length
by about 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and may be
either split out of large logs or simply small sap-
lings with the bark upon them. From 12 to 35 of
these poles will be required for each acre, accord-
ing to the stand and growth of vine; the rule, how-
ever, is about 22 stacks to the acre. Have the poles
hauled and piled where they can be conveniently
distributed through the peanut field when the rush
of harvesting comes on.









As a rule, 11, 13 or 15 rows of peanuts are placed
in a single row of stacks. The digging machine is
started in the center, on the row where the stacks
are to stand, and is worked outward until the neces-
sary number of rows are lifted. After the machine
has gained sufficient headway the poles are dis-
tributed at distances varying from 12 to 20 paces
and set in the ground by means of a pointed bar, a
peg and a maul, or by a post-hole digger, and
tamped in place. The stake should be set into the
soil sufficiently deep to prevent the stack blowing
over. On the other hand, they should not be set so
deeply as to prevent their being easily lifted with
the stack at thrashing time.
Peanuts should not be handled when there is dew
or rain upon the foliage, but aside from this, they
may be stacked within an hour or two after digging.
Before starting to build the stack, nail a couple of
short pieces of lath at right angles across the stake
about 8 inches from the ground, then simply build
the stack upon these, keeping the peas or roots close
around the pole and giving the outer part of the
stack a downward slope to carry off the water dur-
ing rains. As the stack is nearing completion it
should be kept higher in the center and drawn to a
point. If convenient, the top of the stack may be
finished with a bundle of dry grass, or a few peanut
vines may simply be rolled together and pressed
down over the top of the hole. Wet or green hay
should never be placed on top of the stack. When
completed, the stack should be about 6 feet in height
and 20 inches in diameter.
LENGTH OF TIME THAT PEANUTS SHOULD REMAIN IN
THE STACKS
Once the peanut vines are in the stacks they will
be comparatively safe for 5 or 6 weeks, or until they
are dry enough to pick from the vines. As a rule,
the curing period will require at least 4 weeks, and
if the peas are not molested by birds, field mice,
rats or thieves they may remain in the stacks for 3
or 4 months without injury. The crop will not be
ready to pick from the vines until the stems have
become brittle and the peas have attained a nutty
flavor.






A










PICKING PEANUTS FROM THE VINES
Formerly peanuts were all picked from the vines
by hand, the work being done largely by negro
women and children. Recently there have been
developed several machines for doing this work.
These peanut-picking machines are of two types,
one having a cylinder like the ordinary grain
thrasher, and in the other a picking mesh of
diagonally woven wire is employed.

PEANUT-PICKING MACHINERY
The essentials of a satisfactory peanut-picking
machine are, first, that the pods should be picked
clean from the vines without breaking or cracking
the shells; and, second, that the peanuts be cleaned
of all the coarser dirt and separated from the pieces
of stems. There is always a small quantity of very
fine dirt adhering to the hulls of the peanut, which
must be separated from them in the cleaning fac-
tory. The greatest objection to the work of peanut
thrashers in the past is that they broke too many of
the shells, in many cases breaking the kernels as
well and rendering them unsalable. This breaking
of the shells is a more serious damage than might
appear at first thought, as the keeping qualities of
the nuts depend upon their not becoming broken.
There are a number of insects which attack peanuts
while in storage, especially during the summer
months, and these cannot injure the kernels unless
the shell is cracked or broken.
The picking of peanuts is paid for at so much per
bag of about 4 bushels, 35 cents a bag being the
ruling price. In some sections the owners of the
picking machines do the work for every tenth bag,
or where they provide a baling machine and press
the peanut hay into bales they take every eighth
bag, but none of the hay. Hand-picking is paid for
at the rate of from 40 to 50 cents a hundred pounds.

SACKING AND HANDLING PEANUTS AFTER PICKING
As the peanuts come from the picker they are
placed in sacks and either hauled direct to the cars
or stored for later delivery. The standard peanut










bag is about 4 bushels, 90 or 92 pounds of Virginias
and 110 to 120 of Spanish. As the bags are filled
they are sewed and tied at the corners to facilitate
handling. If the peanuts are not to be sold imme-
diately they are often taken from the bags and
stored in bins or in slatted cribs where they will get
air. The storage room should be proof against rats
and mice.
The peanut vines, if properly cared for after the
removal of the peas, make an excellent hay. The
best plan is to have a baling press working while
the thrashing or picking is being done and press the
vines into moderate-size bales.
The peanut-picking machines break the hay con-
siderably, but by careful handling in baling the
leaves and stems can be worked into the bales to-
gether in the proper proportions. The feeding value
of peanut hay renders it worth while to take special
precautions in curing and handling it. One im-
portant point in curing peanut hay is to get the
vines into the small stacks soon after digging them;
also to avoid having the hay become wet by rains.
VARIETIES OF PEANUTS
At present about five varieties of peanuts are
grown in the United States, these being known as
Virginia Runner, Virginia Bunch, African (or North
Carolina), Spanish, and Valencia, commonly known
as Tennessee Red. The Virginia Runner and Bunch
produce peas that are practically alike, these being
the Jumbo or parching peanuts of our markets. The
African, or North Carolina, as it has come to be
called in this country, has a spreading vine and pro-
duces a medium-size pea, which is used for shelling
purposes and for the smaller grades of parching
stock. The Spanish variety is the small peanut,
with only two peas in a pod, which is used so ex-
tensively for the manufacture of salted peanuts, pea-
nut butter, etc. The Spanish has an upright or
bunch habit of growth, with the peanuts clustered
about the base or ..ie plant. The Valencia, or Ten-
nessee Red variety, has rather large and sometimes
very long pods, with anywhere from two to seven
small red peas crowded together in the pods. The
Valencia is in demand for use in the manufacture










of salted peanuts and peanut butter. A form of the
Valencia known as Georgia Red or Red Spanish is
extensively grown for hog and cattle feeding in
parts of the Southern States. However, this variety
is not desirable for the market. For the present
the true Spanish, or white Spanish, as it is some-
times called, is the proper variety to grow through-
out the Southwestern States, as it is easy of cultiva-
tion and contains a high percentage of oil.
MARKETING OF PEANUTS
The peanuts as they come from the picking ma-
chine on the farm are generally bagged, and either
hauled direct to the cars or stored for a short time
in barns or sheds until they can be shipped. It
should be the aim of every grower to have his crop
go into the bags in just as clean a condition as pos-
sible, free from stones, sticks, dirt and pieces of
stems. Where the peanuts are not properly cleaned
the buyers are compelled to dock the weights, and
this always results in dissatisfaction to both parties.
If the peas are not clean as they come from the
thrasher they should be run through a fanning mill
to blow out the dirt, and afterwards picked over by
hand if necessary.
Peanuts are comparatively light to handle and
can be transported considerable distances, and it is
not necessary to have a factory in every section
where peanuts are grown. As a rule, the buyers
from the factories come to the various shipping
points to inspect, purchase, and load the peanuts
into the cars as they are hauled in by the farmers.
Another method is where the factory is represented
in a town by a merchant who buys the peanuts from
the farmers and stores them until wanted for ship-
ment to the factory.
WEIGHT OF PEANUTS
The unit in handling peanuts is the pound rather
than the bushel or bag. The large Virginia peanuts
weigh about 22 pounds to the measured bushel,
while the Spanish weigh about 30 pounds to the
bushel. By using the pound as the unit in buying
and selling peanuts, the troublesome question of









17
weight per bushel will be avoided. Peanuts grown
in one section may weigh more to the bushel than
those grown in another or even an adjoining terri-
tory.
THE CLEANING FACTORY PROCESS
SIn the factory the peanuts are fanned and pol-
ished to remove the dirt, and are separated into a
number of different grades. During the process
they are carefully picked over by hand and cleaned
until the finished products would scarcely be recog-
nized as coming from the rough stock that was
shipped in by the farmer. All of the shelled or
broken peas must be separated from the whole ones
and worked into shelled stock of various grades.
In the factories where the Spanish are handled
the process is not so complicated, yet even here
there is the same careful hand-picking to remove
inferior peas and refuse not taken out by the clean-
ing machinery. The peas are passed over a fan,
then are shelled and the hulls thrown out. Next
the peas are run through a machine which separates
the split or broken peas from the whole ones. The
different grades are then run on what are termed
picking belts, beside which a large number of
women are seated and pick out every inferior pea
or particles of foreign matter. The refuse from a
peanut factory often contains practically every
waste or cast-off article that may be found on the
farm. After the cleaning process is completed the
peanuts are bagged in clean, new burlap bags and
marked with a stencil showing the brand, grade,
and name of the cleaner.

USES OF PEANUTS
USES OF PEANUTS AS FOOD
Peanuts now find uses in a great many ways aside
from being roasted and sold in packages. There is
a great and ever-increasing demand for peanuts to
be used in the preparation of salted peanuts, pea-
nut butter, peanut candies, peanut flour, and
vegetarian meat substitutes. Owing to the high
nutritive properties of peanuts they are rapidly as-
suming an important place as a standard human
food, ranking in this respect with other legumes











which they resemble in composition. The consump-
tion of peanut butter alone amounts to hundreds of
carloads of the product annually.
PRODUCTION OF OIL FROM PEANUTS
In France and Germany millions of bushes of
peanuts are annually crushed for oil, the oil being
used for cooking, for salad making, and in the place
of butter, while the cake resulting from the manu-
facture of the oil is used as stock feed. In this
country we have many oil mills that are either idle
or running on short time on account of the shortage
of cotton seed, and it is only a matter of a little
time until our production of peanuts will enable us
to build up a great industry in the manufacture of
peanut oil. In general, the oil from the peanut has
the same culinary and table uses as olive oil, cotton-
seed oil, and some other vegetable oils, and, like
them, is considered a wholesome and valuable food
product. Thirty pounds, or a bushel, of Spanish
peanuts will yield 1 gallon of oil and about 20
pounds of cake. A gallon of this oil was worth be-
fore the European war began about 75 cents whole-
sale and the cake about 11/ cents a pound, or 25
cents, making a total of $1 from a bushel, from
which the working cost must be taken. If we as-
sume that an average of 40 bushels of Spanish pea-
nuts can be grown to an acre, we have a very
profitable proposition in the manufacture of peanut
oil at present prices, especially when the peanut
hay will practically pay the cost of growing the
crop.
VALUE OF PEANUTS AS STOCK FEED
The analysis of peanuts shows them to contain
the following food constituents:
Carbo-
Protein hydrates Fat
Peanuts in the hull........ 20.4 16.4 36.2
Peanut kernels ........... 26.8 17.5 44.9
Peanut cake or meal from
hulled nuts ............ 47.6 23.7 8.0
Peanut cake or meal, hulls
included .............. 28.4 27.0 11.1
Peanut hulls ............. 7.3 18.9 2.6










Peanut hay is relished by all kinds of live stock
and is a particularly valuable feed for dairy cows.
The following comparison with other well-known
leguminous hay and others shows its value as a
stock feed:
Carbo-
Protein hydrates Fat
Peanut hay ........... 11.75 46.95 1.84
Peanuts, whole plant ... 13.5 36.3 15.1
Alfalfa .............. 14.3 42.7 2.2
Cowpea hay .......... 16.6 42.2 2.2
Red clover hay ........ 12.3 38.1 3.3
Timothy hay .......... 5.9 45.0 2.5
All of the inferior or refuse peanuts can be used
to advantage on the farm for feeding to hogs and
also to the general farm animals. There is not a
pound of the entire peanut crop, including roots,
stems, leaves and peas but that has some value, and
not an ounce should be wasted. The tops when used
as hay have a feeding value equal to the best clover,
alfalfa and cowpea hays; in fact, peanut hay is one
of the best dairy feeds for milk production. As a
result of the handling of peanuts in the cleaning
factories there are quantities of finely broken and
shriveled peas that are sold for hog feed, and some-
times ground into meal and sold for feeding to cows.
The cake resulting from the manufacture of peanut
oil is equal to the best cottonseed meal for feeding
purposes.
Doubtless a great many more peanuts will be
grown in the future than in the past, as the demand
is also increasing and there is much money to be
made so long as the price for Spanish or other pea-
nuts remains at or near the present prices-5c per
pound for farmer's stock. There is great interest
in hog raising throughout the State, and peanuts are
a valuable adjunct to corn for the production of
high-grade hams and bacon.







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