Satsumas in Florida
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. McRAE
Commisipner of Agriculture
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
S - of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
0/ ided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
Grove at Round Lake, Jackson County.
This Bulletin is written to supply information on a new
horticultural industry in process of development in West
Florida. The growing of satsumas in this section has been
carried far enough to demonstrate the practicability of
developing on an extensive commercial scale this class of
It is a pleasure to acknowledge our indebtedness to
Messrs. J. D. Smith of Marianna, W. A. Sessoms of Boni-
fay and W. L. Wilson of Panama City, for their co-opera-
tion and personal services in helping the department to
secure the information herein contained concerning this
industry in Jackson and Bay counties, as well as other
general information. These gentlemen gave their time and
furnished transportation facilities in our tour of investi-
gation in their respective sections. Mr. W. A. Sessoms has
had extensive experience as County Agent in the penin-
sula citrus belt. For two years he was in DeSoto County
before it was divided into five counties; one year in Marion
County, and for the last year in Jackson County as horti-
culturist for the Dekle Land Company, operating at Round
Lake. The project here includes satsumas, grapes, pears,
plums and blackberries. Mr. Sessoms' contribution on the
approximate cost of developing satsuma groves furnishes
the precise information that is wanted by numerous in-
quirers who contemplate investing in this branch of horti-
culture in West Florida.
All the pictures of satsuma groves in this bulletin were
taken in the fall of 1922.
There are hundreds of wide-awake citizens of this section
who look upon it as the future "SATSUMA LAND."
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
SATSUMAS IN FLORIDA
Florida's annual production of citrus fruits has reached
15,000,000 boxes, oranges 8,400,000 and grapefruit
6,600,000 boxes. This is slightly more than California's
yield since the 1922 freeze.
The value of the 1922 citrus crop is estimated at
$40,000,000. This crop comes from 3,434,378 trees. In
addition, there are 211.433 lime trees which produced
30,000 boxes worth $150,000.
SATSUMA, TANGERINE AND DANCY TANGERINE
The Satsuma, Tangerine, and Dancy Tangerine, are
varieties that belong to the Mandarin Group, a Chinese
fruit. They are also grown in Japan. "Satsuma" was
originally a province of Japan; from thence this variety
was introduced into this country.
The Mandarin Group is spoken of colloquially as the
"Kid-Glove Orange," because the peeling can be removed
without soiling a kid glove.
Central and Southern Florida have never grown the
Kid-Glove Orange very extensively. West Florida has
about two thousand acres planted to the Satsuma. Not
more than three hundred acres are as yet old enough to
THE SATSUMA AREA
It has been determined that the Satsuma grows better
near the northern border of the citrus belt. Baldwin
County, Alabama, has been producing Satsumas long
enough to demonstrate the practibility of growing them in
that latitude, and that the market for this variety is as
ample as for other citrus fruits.
HARDIDNESS OF THE SATSUMA
There is no edible orange quite so hardy as the Satsuma,
when budded on Trifoliata stock. The Trifoliata is a
deciduous tree,-therefore, it becomes dormant in the fall,
and is very cold-resistant.
As to whether a citrus tree will be killed, or damaged by
certain degrees of cold, depends upon more things than the
mere degree of low temperature, among which may be men-
tioned the following:
1-Dormancy of tree.
2-Humidity of atmosphere.
3-Humidity of soil.
4-Texture of soil.
5-Velocity of wind.
6-Topography of earth in the windward direction.
Trifoliata stock will stand zero weather. Satsumas have
been known to stand a temperature of 15 degrees F., and
yield a good crop the next season, yet they have been
killed at a temperature of 24 degrees F.
DORMANCY OF TREES
1. When frost comes early in the fall, before the trees
have become dormant, it will damage trees that would not
be affected by the same frost occurring in mid-winter. If
frost should come in the spring after the sap begins to rise,
it will damage trees that would not have been hurt by the
The dormancy of the tree can be regulated to a small
degree by cultivation. Cover crops have a tendency to
lower the temperature of the soil, and their presence in
winter might be the cause of a damaging frost, when the
absence of them might insure a harmless frost.
On the other hand, this same dense cover crop in the
late fall may hasten dormancy and prepare the trees for
colder weather. Also, a dense cover crop in the early
spring may prolong dormancy until spring frosts are over.
HUMIDITY OF ATMOSPHERE
2. The humidity of the atmosphere has a great deal to
do with the effect of a cold wave. A damp atmosphere of
a given temperature will frost and cause damage to trees
when a dry atmosphere of the same temperature will do no
HUMIDITY OF SOIL
3. The humidity of the soil has its effect on the
humidity of the atmosphere. A dry winter is much safer
than a wet one of the same minimum temperature.
TEXTURE OF SOIL
4. The texture of the soil has something to do with the
effect of a given low temperature. To illustrate: One bf
the safe-guards against freezing is to bank the trees in
the fall to keep the body of the tree near the ground from
freezing. This is all right in light, sandy, soils. But in
clay soils, it is all wrong. The clay will stand up around
the young sprout and the blowing wind will cause the for-
mation of a little pocket, in which water may stand. If no
water should collect in the pocket, the stiff clay will keep
moist against the tree, and a frost will make it spew out
frost crystals. This will be much colder than mere dry,
loose, sand banked around the tree.
VELOCITY OF WIND
5. Air gently moving will not frost until several degrees
colder than stagnant or still air-the same is true of water.
On the other hand a fierce gale of cold wind will do more
damage than still air of the same temperature.
TOPOGRAPHY OF COUNTRY
6. The topography of the country immediately to the
windward of a grove will-in a large measure-determine
the damaging effect of a given degree of frost wind. For
instance: A large, open lake, say, to the northwest, of an
orchard will temper a wind blowing over the water before
the air reaches the trees. Therefore, the lake would be a
Trees like this produce from 1,500 to 2,000 oranges.
protection. On the other hand, if this same lake as to posi-
tion, is a sort of swamp and full of trees that shade it, the
air passing over such a lake would be colder than if no
lake were there, and in this case the water and wind brake
would be a detriment to the grove. The wind brake may
be a help or a hindrance. A thin windbrake may prove to
be beneficial, while a thick one which produces air pockets,
may be a source of damage to a grove.
Groves on the tops of hills are less apt to be damaged by
frost than those in the low, or flat lands, unless the low
lands are protected by large bodies of water that are
warmed through the day by the sun.
LOCATION OF GROVES
Cold air falls, and warm air rises. This is a law of
physics. But it has its limitations. The coldest air is on
the highest mountains; and deep depressions, like some in
California, are the hottest places. Nevertheless, the ordi-
nary hill is warmer on top than at its base because of the
greater humidity at the base. Even with the thermometer
registering the same, the stagnant air will accumulate frost
crystals when the air which is in motion and somewhat
rarer will not frost. Air has drainage the same as land.
The location of the Satsuma grove should be on the up-
lands in North and West Florida unless quite near the
Gulf. Satsumas grow successfully on a variety of soils.
Experience seems to indicate that sandy soils with a clay
subsoil not too far from the surface are preferable. The
Satsuma will succeed on clay and alluvial soils, but it does
not do well on soils lacking humus, nor on calcareous soils.
In locating a grove, one should not lose sight of the value
of god roads leading to market, shipping points, and ship-
Of course only vigorous trees of best varieties and free
from pests should be planted. It is also desirable to have
stock budded from trees of high bearing record.
A two or three year old root with a one or two year old
top, is preferable.
When trees are received from the nursery, they should be
unpacked at once and planted or trenched in a shady place.
There are three important varieties of the Satsuma
grown in the Gulf States, mostly in Alabama: The Owari
(O-wah-ry), the Ikeda (E-kay-dah), and the Zairai (Zi-ri).
Of these, the Owari is recommended as the most desir-
able, and the Zairai as the least desirable. The Owari is
the earliest, which is an item of considerable importance.
The fruit is flat, thin-skinned, depressed at both bottom
and stem ends, and is practically seedless. It matures the
latter part of October and in November. The leaves of
the Owari are broad, especially at the base.
There are a half dozen varieties of the Satsuma, and
several subvarieties, found in Japan. The fruit of the
Ikeda is not as flat, nor depressed at either end; it has a
coarse peel, and is a month later in maturing than the
Owari-the leaves are narrow.
The third variety, the Zairi, is the primitive form of the
Satsuma in Japan. The fruit is larger, has a coarser
texture, thicker skin, and more seed than other varieties.
The tree is vigorous and an upright grower.
Sat.suma Orange Trees should be planted 25 or 30 feet
apart. The hole should be made large enough to receive
the roots in natural position. The trees should be planted
to the same depth that they were in the nursery.
A little compost fertilizer should be worked into the dirt
with which the hole is to be filled. If commercial fertilizer
is used, about two pounds to the tree is sufficient, running
about 8-4-4. The top should be trimmed back so as not
to overtax the roots as they have been reduced in power by
The trees will naturally branch out low if let alone, and
pruning should encourage the low-headed, compact form,
as it renders spraying and picking much easier.
It has been definitely determined that the quality of the
Satsuma, both as to taste and appearance of the peeling,
in a great measure, can be determined by methods of culti-
vation and fertilization. The time of ripening can also be
extended or shortened by ten days through methods of
For early ripening the cultivation should cease by the
first of July. For proper fertilizing no specific fertilizing
directions can be given for all soils, as it will depend upon
the soil itself in each particular case, as to the amount of
fertilizer and the formula to be used.
FERTILIZING YOUNG TREES
Young growing trees need plant food that support the
tree. Bearing trees need food-producing elements.
A fertilizer carrying six to eight per cent, phosphoric
acid, four per cent. nitrogen, and four per cent. potash,
is the usual formula recommended for young growing
trees. The amount should be regulated to the needs of the
FUNCTIONS OF FERTILIZER ELEMENTS
Each ingredient in a complete fertilizer has its special
function in the economy of plant growth.
Phosphorus is necessary for the development of stalk,
seed and root systems in vegetables and field crops; in
trees it is needed for general growth and for the fruit
especially. It gives stability and vigor to plants, builts
fiber, hardens and matures growth and is a ripening ele-
ment. Phosphoric acid is a compound which contains
43.7% of phosphorus by weight.
Nitrogen is needed for wood and leaf growth. It builds
up the body, gives rich green color to the leaves and aids
in vigorous growth. Yellow foliage usually indicates need
of nitrogen. Growing trees call for this element in good
quantities, however, while too little stunts growth excess
gives rank growth with sappy, weak stalks in vegetables-
suiting vegetables like celery, lettuce, etc.,-and causes
die-back in citrus, indicated by the bark becoming thick
and puffy. Too much nitrogen may "amoniate" both
trees and fruit. This is because ammonia is by weight
fourteen parts nitrogen and three parts hydrogen. Pure
nitrogen is an orderless, colorless and tasteless gas. Hydro-
gen is also an odorless, colorless and tasteless gaseous
element that liquifies under great pressure and under low
temperature. Nitrate of soda, 16%, is equal to 19% am-
monia. Nitrogen delays ripening.
Potash is essential for the full development of plants
and is essential to the production of fiber, starch elements
and of seed. The shedding of fruit indicates the need of
Potassium is one of the distinct elements, but it has pecu-
liarities which prevent its use as a fertilizer unless com-
bined with other elements. Where flavor is an item-and
it is in fruit-sulphate of potash is preferable. It is made
up of two parts potassium, one of sulphur and four of
oxygen; formula, K, SO,. Muriate of potash is made up of
potassium and chlorin, fifty fifty; formula, KC1. Car-
bonate of potash is made up of two weights of potassium,
one of carbon and three of oxygen; formula, KCOa.
Nitrate of potash is made up of one part potassium, one
of nitrogen and three of oxygen, formula, KNO3.
Use one to three pounds of commercial fertilizer for
young trees and increase this one pound a year until the
trees are five or six years old and begin to bear commercial
crops; then use two applications per year of the following:
Available phosphoric Acid ......... 8%
Nitrogen ........................ 4%
Potash .......................... 4%
Apply in early spring and mid-summer. Bearing trees
from ten years and up-should receive from fifteen to
thirty pounds a year.
Splendid results are secured from use of barn yard
manure only-spread broadcast. However, it is liable to
ammoniate the trees and fruit if used to excess.
There has as yet been no standardized system of culti-
vating citrus trees. People differ as to how deep and how
often to ploy, how much cover crop to raise and how long
to allow it to stand. These are points upon which the
be't citrus growers differ. Legume cover crops furnish
nitrogen and humus, and are advantageous through the
summer by keeping the ground moist during the drier sea-
son. When turned under they furnish humus which most
soils need. Heavy cover crops reduce the temperature.
To hasten dormancy in the fall, a good cover crop is ser-
viceable. But, to allow the ground to be heated from the
sun in winter, the cover crop should be turned under. To
keep the ground from warming up too early in the spring
a ever crop is helpful; it keeps the ground cool and pre-
vents premature rising of sap, which renders the trees
susceptible to injury from light frost.
Disk and acme harrows are best to use near trees. Deep
plowing is permissible, ten or fifteen feet from the tree.
The general rule for spraying citrus trees applies to
Satsumas, which are subject to the same diseases. For
directions in spraying apply to the Experiment Station,
It is impossible to get orders filled by nurseries at pres-
ent. The demand far exceeds the supply.
If your land has been prepared and you cannot get
supplies from nurseries, it is possible that you can get the
Trifoliata stock from them, and your buds from growers,
and do your own budding.
Grafting is not practised in propagating the Satsuma.
Budding is the only method which would interest those
who cannot get nursery stock.
Sometime before the regular picking season the owner
of the grove should make a careful inspection of his trees
to determine variety and peculiarities of each tree.
Each tree should be labeled in a diagram of the grove.
When buds are cut for a new tree the selection can then
A Round Lake specimen.
be made of the best trees and best hearing limbs. No bud
wood should be cut from nursery trees. If it is necessary
to cut bud wood in the spring, the limbs from which they
are taken should be marked the preceding fall.
Budding is economical of wood, but expensive in stocks,
as a seedling is required for each tree, while with the piece-
root system of grafting, two or more stocks can be made
from a single seedling.
Budding is usually done in July, August, or early Sep-
tember, during the active season of growth. The bud
should be taken from wood of the present season's growth.
The leaf is left to each bud to serve as a handle to aid in
pushing the bud in place when inserting it. A small por-
tion of the woody tissue of the branch should be removed
with the bud.
The stock for budding should be at least as large as the
ordinary lead pencil. The cut for the reception of the
bud is made in the form of the capital letter T.
Usually the cross cut is not at right-angles with the body
of the tree and extends toward the root for an inch or more.
The flaps of bark caused by the intersection of the two
cuts are slightly loosened with the ivory heel of the bud-
ding knife and the bud, by aid of the leaf handle, is placed
under the flap and pushed firmly into place, until the cut
surface of the bud is in perfect contact with the peeled
body of the stock. A band eight or ten inches long is then
wrapped around the stock, above and below the bud to hold
it in place, and exclude the air.- Bands of raffia make con-
venient tying material. These bands should be removed as
soon as the bud shows evidence of having united with the
stock, to prevent binding the stock and hindering growth.
The following spring the tree should be cut off, sloping,
just above the inserted bud.
All North Florida lies within the Satsuma belt. Up to
the present time, Jackson County has done more to com-
mercialize the growing of this fruit than any other Florida
County. So far, only small groves have been planted.
Mr. J. D. Smith of Marianna, is a pioneer in satsuma
growing in Jackson County. He also has excellent
orchards of plums and peaches. He has a small acreage
of grapefruit which bore heavily for such small trees at
three years old. His Excelsior plums brought him $300 to
Grapefruit, J. D. Smith, Marianna.
$500 per acre. His young peach trees are as thrifty look-
ing as one might wish to see. Mr. Smith has great faith
in the possibilities of the "hill region of Jackson County
and West Florida as a fruit country. To back up this
faith he has given 100 acres of land in ten acre tracts to
as many men who enter into contract to plant to satsuma
and other fruits and prove what can be done in that
Mr. L. A. Mobley, who lives 17 miles southeast of Mari-
anna, has forty trees of satsumas eleven years old, and
fifty-two trees that are six years old and two thousand
trees one year old. Several of his eleven-year-old trees
bore two thousand oranges each this season (1922). He
received 2c a piece for them which amounts to $40 per
tree. These trees were only twelve feet apart and on one-
sventh of an acre he sold last year, $550 worth of oranges,
which is at the rate of $3,850 per acre. This, howeevr, is
no criterion as no grove should have trees set closer than
twenty-four feet apart and 2c per orange is more than can
be expected on an average for satsumas. On account of
the size of the fruit this price means over six dollars per
box. These trees have had only barn yard fertilizer save
two applications of commercial fertilizer some years ago.
A mulch of barn yard manure is kept at all times on the
old grove. Mr. Mobley is now having to remove just half
the trees in this small grove to give room to the full grown
trees which laped between the rows.
Mr. J. W. Hardison of Round Lake, has four acres of
ten-year-old trees that are averaging $500 per acre. There
are quite a few groves in the vicinity of Round Lake that
are in a thriving condition and the indications are that
this will be one of the satsuma centers of West Florida.
Mr. W. L. Wilson of Panama City, in Bay County, has
quite a grove project in process of deevlopment. His trees
are not yet of bearing age. There are also small groves
near Bay City and Lynn Haven.
Bay County bids fair to have the largest acreage by an-
other season as the Seminole Plantation Company is pre-
paring to plant 3,000 acres to satsumas in the vicinity of
West Bay, at the western extremity of St. Andrews Bay.
All West Florida counties have a few trees. Being next
to that part of Alabama where satsuma growing has
reached its highest development, West Florida bids fair to
become the leading producer of this fruit.
Plum orchard in spring, J. D. Smith, Marianna.
THE SATSUMA IN SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLA.
For the following data we are indebted to McRae and
Simpson, Milton, Florida:
Upon the occasion of a recent visit to Santa Rosa County
by Mr. A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of the Extension
Division of Florida Agricultural College, he said that he
found this section ideally adapted, by reason of soil and
climate, for the successful growing of the Satsuma. This
fact has been fully attested by the fact that there are at
present more than twelve thousand thriving trees here,
and stock for upwards of seventeen thousand secured for
planting during the next few weeks.
So great is the demand for planting stock that practi-
cally all available trees for planting during the next two
years has been purchased.
Some of the bearing groves here have produced from
$800.00 to $1,000.00 per acre during the present season.
One tree in particular having produced this season in ex-
cess of 5,000 oranges.
Due to the location of this county on the Gulf of Mex-
ico, and other large areas of water, the Satsuma flourishes
particularly well here. The fruit growing rapidly, with
firm, close texture of peel, and firm luscious flesh.
The fact that as yet the plantings do not admit of car
lot shipments, and the yield of fruit is large for local con-
sumption, the price on the local market this season has
been from $1.75 to $2.00 per hundred for fruit properly
Among those in the county who have groves of from ten
to thirty acres, we have The DeGalvez Nursery Co., with
42,000 additional nursery stock; Fritz Heintzleman, with
15,000 additional nursery stock; A. Keogel, with 10,000
additional nursery stock; S. N. Cox, Dr. J. B. Turner, D.
R. Read, Pace Bros., and I. B. Krentzman, and many
groves of an acre or more which are being enlarged as
rapidly as the planting stock can be secured.
PENSACOLA JOURNAL, OCT. 3, 1922.
In Escambia county alone, when planting has been
finished on February 1, next, there will be approximately
700 acres of Satsumas under cultivation in the county, and
next year the acreage promises to double. As a matter of
fact, the real estate dealers who handle country properties
have daily inquiries for Satsuma lands, and plans are now
under way by several large holders of lands suitable for
Satsuma culture, to plant ten-acre groves for marketing
Cottage Hill is perhaps the center of Satsuma culture in
the county now, and a representative of The Journal who
was out there last Saturday was advised that approxi-
mately two cars of fruit would be shipped from that
station within the coming thirty days, and the growers are
assured of a price for their fruit which will yield them
from $800 to $1,000 per acre. As a matter of fact, there
is one orchard of three acres at Cottage Hill which will
yield its owner $3,000 this year.
THE SATSITMA'S POSSIBLE COMPETITOR
Some one suggests that the Ever-bearing Orange, re-
cently discovered and widely distributed, will enter the
market in the off season as a competitor of the Satsuma.
This feature is not material.
The Ever-bearing has the distinct disadvantage of hav-
ing no special gathering and shipping season. Only a few
will be on the market at any one time. Another disad-
vantage is in spraying the trees. Often it is necessary to
-use sprays that are injurious to the fruit and no season
can be selected with the Ever-bearing when it is free from
blooms, as well as fruit, at varying stages of development.
The fact that the owner of an Ever-bearing grove will have
no special season for gathering and shipping, will render
it difficult for him to secure packing house facilities dur-
ing the greater part of the year.
1. Satsumas are grafted on Trifoliata stock which is
deciduous, and will stand zero weather.
2. Satsumas will stand, on the average, lower tempera-
ture than other varieties of oranges.
3. Satsumas come into the market after all crops are
gone, and before the new ci'op, of other varieties, is ready
for market-a decided advantage.
4. Satsumas thrive only on a restricted area of the
orange belt, which renders over-production impossible.
5. Satsumas bloom later and ripen earlier than the
round orange, therefore, they are less liable to damage
6. Satsumas ripen a week earlier in many parts of the
Satsuma district of Florida than they do in Alabama.
APPROXIMATE COST OF DEVELOPING A 10-ACRE
(By Wm. A. Sessoms, Bonifay, Florida)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Year Year Year Year Year
Cost of land at $151
per acre ...... $150.00 ......
Cost clearing land,
$12 per acre... 120.00 ......
Cost plowing and
discing ....... 40.00 ......
Cost 160 rods fenc-l
ing ........... ,120.00 ......
Cost 160 posts atl
15 cents ...... 24.00 ......
Cost of building]
fence ......... 15.00 ......
Cost of 690 trees,I
spaced 25x25 ft.I
at 40 cents .... I 276.001 ......
Cost planting 6901
trees at 5 cents. 34.50 ......
Cost shrubbing . 30.00 20.00
Cost cultivation..1 70.00 80.00|
Cost fertilizer, 41
lbs. 1st year andl
2 lbs. additional
per year ...... 41.501 62.001
Cost spraying ... 33.501 50.251
I ...... ......
$ 80.00 $100.00
Total development |I
cost at end ofl
5th year ...... ...... ...... 2047.551 ............
Interest on money I
invested ...... ...... ...... 560.881 ....
Taxes for 5 years. ......I ....... 100.001 ......
Total cost of grove I
at end of 5thyr. ...... ....... 12708.43 ..........
Less receipts from
fruit 4th & 5th I
years ......... ...... ...... 1020.00
Actual cost of a 5[
year grove .... . .. .. . . 1688.43 ..... ..
Profit should run $1,000 the 6th year and a heavy in-
crease each year to the 10th year when the profit should
be $3,000. After fourth year equipment for heating
should be secured and this will add to the overhead ex-
penses of caring for grove.
FRUIT GROWERS OF WEST FLORIDA TO
MACHINERY DEVISED AND PUT IN MOTION TO SET THE
(By Ross Masters)
Round Lake, October 31, 1922.-The board of directors
of the West Florida Fruit Growers Association closed an
all day session here last evening, at which a constitution
was adopted, officers eelcted, and steps taken to incor-
porate under the laws of the State of Florida.
The meeting was presided over by that Nestor of West
Florida fruit growers, the Hon. J. D. Smith, of Mari-
anna. W. L. Wilson of Panama City, added enthusiasm
to the meeting at every stage while acting as secretary.
The permanent officers chosen at the meeting are as fol-
lows: President, W. L. Wilson, of Panama City; Vice-
President, Hon. J. D. Smith, of Marianna; Secretary-
Treasurer, W. A. Sessoms, of Bonifay.
The board of directors is an earnest capable body of
men. They brought great faith and enthusiasm to the
work. All but two were present. They are as follows:
J. D. Smith, Marianna; Jesse Miller, Graceville; W. W.
Wester, Grand Ridge; L. A. Mobly, Alliance; S. A.
Leonard, Blountstown; Mr. Leavins, Wewahitchka; Willis
Carroll, Round Lake; W. L. Wilson, Panama City; T. A.
Paton, Lynn Haven; C. H. Pope, West Bay; Joe Williams,
Chipley; J. D. Parish, Vernon; Mr. Wells, Alford; W. A.
Sessoms, Bonifay. The membership promises to be ade.
quate to put back of the movement the men, money, and
brains necessary to insure success.
The corporation will have, as its principal place of busi-
ness, Round Lake, where the annual meeting of the Asso-
ciation will be held in February. The meetings of the
board of directors will be distributed according to the
needs of the work and will be held every sixty days, or
oftener on call. The aim of the incorporation is to pro-
mote interest in fruit growing, to aid its members in plant-
ing, cultivating, picking, packing and marketing fruits;
and to facilitate the buying of the nursery stock, fertili-
zers, implements, sprays, packing cases and other mate-
rials used in the business. The organization is flexible, yet
sturdy, an organism with a back-bone and sand in its
gizzard; it has a constitution having an Article X with
teeth in it, so to speak. All in all it is a device that will
help mightily to set the satsuma rolling.
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492; it
took the world 430 years more to discover West Florida.
But when they really did discover it they found at last
the Land of the Satsuma, the new Hesperides-The Gar-
den of the Golden Apples.
Since the above was written, the charter has been
granted and the trade mark "Satsumaland" has been
Two Year Old Grapefruit, J. D. Smith, Marianna