• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural development in the...
 Soil chemistry and bacteriology...
 History of agriculture
 Land tenure
 It pays to diversify, say Florida...
 An adequate merchant marine
 Kitchenette beef
 Florida park system
 Beautifying the Florida farm...
 How to plant citrus fruit...
 Feeding habits among insects and...
 Check list of U. S. standards for...
 Standards of weights and measu...
 Scale of weights and measures used...
 Watermelon loading rules
 Tupelo honey
 Feeding and marketing ducks
 Poultry raising
 Water birds
 The Florida Keys
 Tobacco
 Back Cover






Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 38. No. 4.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00025
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 38. No. 4.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture, State of Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: October 1928
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Agricultural development in the United States
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Soil chemistry and bacteriology with special reference to the Everglades
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    History of agriculture
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Land tenure
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    It pays to diversify, say Florida farm leaders
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    An adequate merchant marine
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Kitchenette beef
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Florida park system
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Beautifying the Florida farm home
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    How to plant citrus fruit trees
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Feeding habits among insects and their relation to control measures
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Check list of U. S. standards for fruits and vegetables
        Page 67
    Standards of weights and measures
        Page 68
    Scale of weights and measures used in marketing farm crops
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Watermelon loading rules
        Page 71
    Tupelo honey
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Feeding and marketing ducks
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Poultry raising
        Page 79
    Water birds
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The Florida Keys
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Tobacco
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Back Cover
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text


J"-: ,/. /,L

VOLUME 38 NUMBER 4




Agricultural


Themes

FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OCTOBER, 1928











NATHAN MAYO
Commisaioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSE, FLORIDA

Stetson University
Entered January 31, 1908, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class ,u.-
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, au-
thorized September 11, 1918."






VOLUME 38 NUMBER 4




Agricultural



Themes

FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
OF THE DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE
OCTOBER, 1928







NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, au-
thorized September 11, 1918."
I T. J. APPLEYARD, INC., TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA












Table of Contents

Page
Agricultural Development in the United States 5
Soil Chemistry and Bacteriology with Special Reference
to the Everglades ....... .. 9
History of Agriculture . 18
Land Tenure . 24
It Pays to Diversify, Say Florida Farm Leaders 31
An Adequate Merchant Marine .... 36
Kitchenette Beef . . 41
Florida Park System . 44
Beautifying the Florida Farm Home 47
How to Plant Citrus Fruit Trees . . 57
Feeding Habits Among Insects and Their Relation to Con-
trol Measures 60
Check List of U. S. Standards for Fruits and Vegetables 67
Standards of Weights and Measures . . 68
Scale of Weights and Measures Used in Marketing Farm
Crops .. . 69
Watermelon Loading Rules 71
Tupelo Honey 72
Feeding and Marketing Ducks . 74
Poultry Raising . . 79
Water Birds 80
The Florida Keys .85
Tobacco 91









Agricultural Development in The

United States

By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture.

FARM LANDS
T HE total area of the United States is 1,903,289,600 acres,
878,798,325 of which is in farm lands, and 478,451,750
acres of the latter is improved farm land. 1,140,000,000
acres are tillable. In 1860 the farm lands aggregated only
407,212,538 acres, while of this the improved land, at that time,
totaled 163,110,720 acres; there were 391,466,500 acres in actual
cultivation.
WASTE OF RESOURCES
The waste of our vast resources has been commented on by
the world. No one thought of building up or maintaining the
fertility of the soil when there was so much more virgin soil
which could be occupied with scarcely more trouble than moving.
Millions of feet of timber have been wasted because of its plenty.
There are few parts of the United States today, however, which
do not feel acutely the poverty of land and the scarcity of timber.
The deserted farms of New England attest the absolute waste
of soil fertility in that part of the United States. The farmer
in many Southern States-who recently found it profitable to
tear down his old fence, made of cedar rails, and sell the material
to a pencil factory, demonstrates very forcibly the growing
scarcity of timber. The history of the United States is stained
with the wanton and reckless waste of our natural resources
and the present generation is wishing even for the crumbs from
the resourceful table of their ancestors.
FARM IMPLEMENTS
Agriculturists of the United States use machinery as no other
nation in the world. In 1850 the total value of farm machinery
was $151,587,638, while in 1910 the value of farm implements
had risen to $1,480,000,000, in 1925, $2,691,000,000. Because of
virgin lands, however, it has not been absolutely necessary for
the farmer to apply the intelligence to his business, in order to
live, as the farmers of other countries necessarily have to. This
is the critical situation facing the American farmer today and









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


with the natural resources well gone he must apply brain with
his brawn to replenish nature's storehouse and cope with more
artificial conditions.

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES

Ours is growing to be a varied and composite national life.
No longer does the producer consume all that he produces; nor
does he produce all that he consumes. The fast development of
the cities has created a demand for the products of the soil and
this demand, together with our exporting business, has called for
the development in the United States of the greatest transporta-
tion facilities in the world.

BONANZA FARMING
The ideal farming is that which attains the highest efficiency,
economically and socially speaking. The maximum economic
returns are received from bonanza farming, while the minimum
social returns are received from this form of farming. This
latter item cannot be sacrificed for the former, for the reason
that it would be a sacrifice of men for dollars, which indeed is
irrational. The logical type of farming is obvious: the small farm
owned and operated by its owner.

DEVELOPMENT OF CLASS FARMING
The cereal crops are the most important in the United States.
In 1850, 876,673,868 bushels of cereals were produced; 1924,
1,823,880,173 bushels. 1910 reports showed that 4,512,564,465
bushels were produced annually and 40 percent of the improved
farm land is used in producing same. These cereal crops were
valued at $2,665,539,114; in 1925, $3,800,000,000. The net income
of agriculture as a unit is estimated at $2,756,000,000 for 1926;
the gross income was $12,415,000,000.
Cotton in 1850 was produced to the amount of 2,445,793 bales,
while in 1915 it was produced to the amount of 16,000,000 bales
and with a normal value of nearly a billion dollars. In 1924
there were 39,000,000 acres of cotton producing 13,682,000 bales.
This crop is grown on 6.7 percent of the improved land of the
United States.
The live stock business of the United States has gradually
grown to enormous proportions but for the last several decades
a decline in its production has led to a scarcity which experts
say cannot be overcome for some time to come. All live stock in
the United States in 1850 was valued at $545,180,510, while the
value in 1925 was over five billion dollars.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 7

The healthful effects of fruit are being recognized by the
American consumer as never before, and as a result of this, to-
gether with the more economical distribution of same, the fruit
business is assuming a much larger volume of production. Fruit
in the United States is now produced to the value of $240,000,000.
Truck crops in the United States are grown on 7,073,379 acres
to the value of $418,110,154, and in 1926 the value of this crop
was $8,000,000,000.
In the United States in 1850 were produced 313,345,306 pounds
of butter and 105,535,893 pounds of cheese. The total number
of dairy cows reported in 1910 was 20,625,000, producing 5,813,-
699,474 gallons of milk and from which was made 994,650,610
pounds of butter and 9,405,864 pounds of cheese. The value of
all dairy products in 1910 was $596,414,464. The number of
dairy cows in 1925 was 22,523,000, producing 9,000,000,000 gal-
lons of milk and 1,600,000,000 pounds of butter. In 1928 the
number of cows was 21,948,000, producing 11,008,000,000 gal-
lons of milk.

FLORIDA KEEPS THE PACE


Population, Federal estimate, June 30, 1927. ....
Assessed valuation, 1917 ......................
Assessed valuation, 1927 (over 125 pet. increase)
Mileage of railways, Dec. 31, 1927 .............
Railroad improvement and new lines-1920-1927
Tonnage hauled by railroads in Florida, 1927 ....
Tonnage hauled by ships in Florida ports ........
Mileage of hard-surfaced roads ................
Expended for roads (1915-1927) by State High-
way Department .........................
Total building contracts, 1923-1927 ............
O r, per year .................. ..........
Resources of banks, 1927 ......................
Value of manufactures, 1925 ..................
Value of minerals, 1926 ......................
Acres in Florida, land and water ..............
Land area in Florida ........................
Acres in cultivation, 1927 .......................
Percentage of land area in cultivation, 1927 ..


1,300,000
$322,216,072
$727,821,318
8,220.63
$142,198,557
27,666,106
15,000,000
7,345

$ 65,349,033
$890,537,900
$176,107,580
$518,438,829
$267,009,159
$ 20,274,489
37,546,240
35,111,040
1,485,054
4.23


Florida leads the nation in the production of Grapefruit,
Celery, Fuller's Earth, Phosphate (84 percent of the United
States' production), and in the following winter-grown crops:
Tomatoes, Snap Beans, Egg Plant, Cucumbers, Peppers, Irish
Potatoes.








8 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

FARM INCOME OF FLORIDA, 1927

Field crops .................................. $ 16,036,000
Truck crops ................................. 31,967,000
Fruits and nuts ............................. 50,692,000
Live stock ................................... 5,885,594
Poultry and eggs ............................ 11,720,087
Dairy products .............................. 12,619,319
Miscellaneous crops .......................... 6,427,019

Total ................................... $135,347,019

The fruit and truck crops grew on less than 300,000 acres,
which means a 'production of over $285.00 per acre!

Total Federal taxes, 1927 .................... $44,483,095.42
(Or, per capital) .......................... $32.64
Exports from Florida, 1926 .................. $50,860,904.00
Imports to Florida ......................... $27,306,991.00
Hotel rooms in Florida, 1928 ................ 261,987
Average rainfall, 51.9 inches (93 stations).
Average temperature, 72 degrees.

Florida ships 10 percent of all fresh fruit and vegetables of
the United States from less than 300,000 acres. This equals more
than 10 percent of the total value of carload shipments.
Florida has 3,805 square miles of inland water abounding in
fish, and 1,400 miles of shore line, gulf and bay. These waters
yield about 137,000,000 pounds of fish per year.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 9


Soil Chemistry and Bacteriology

With Special Reference to the
Everglades

By DR. R. V. ALLISON.
Read at the Farmers' Congress, Miami, July 31, 1928.

IN UNDERTAKING the discussion of a subject of the nature
of the one that has been assigned to me by your chairman,
Soil Chemistry and Bacteriology, one is tempted promptly to
delve into the interesting experiences and experiments of those
earlier workers who, with so little, did so much in establishing
the basis for these important sciences in the service of agri-
culture. When one refers to this foundation work as early,
however, examination indicates that in terms of actual years
elapsed since its actual accomplishment it is comparatively
recent.
Thus, as late as 1731, Jethro Tull, an Englishman, published
a work entitled "The Horse Hoeing Husbandry," in which his
opinion was firmly expressed in regard to the great benefits
that were found to follow the use of the drill and horse hoe,
which he was then introducing for the first time. He presented
his arguments, derived from his own personal observations and
studies in a most picturesque language and stoutly maintained
that the benefits from cultivating the soil followed from the
fact that the soil material was more finely divided or pulver-
ized and thereby and naturally the plant could take more of it
into its system when in this form. In this he was pitting his
judgment and argument that the plant derived its sustenance
from the soil by actually taking into its system the finer particles
of the mass against the earlier view of Lord Bacon and Van
Helmont to the effect that water constituted the sole nutrient
for plants. The work of Lord Bacon was published in 1627.
The history of the development of our present understanding
of plant nutrition and the role of the soil therein has been most
interesting. A number of unique discoveries and observations
in relation to the place and effect of natural and artificial
manures in plant growth prefaced the real beginning of system-
atic study in the field of plant growth and its relation to the
soil. This is usually regarded as beginning with the practically
contemporaneous work of Lawes and Gilbert at what is now
the renowned Rothamsted Experimental Station in England, of
Baron Liebig in Germany and of Boussingault in France. Wit-








10 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

ness the fact that as the result of this very early work at Rot-
hamsted there are still being continued systematic series of plot
experiments that have been scarcely interrupted either in crop-
ping or fertilizer treatment for eighty years or more. These have
been for the most part upon soil that is known as "Flints in
Clay" locally, and, due to the great number of years that the
soil-plant relations have been maintained uninterrupted in them,
they have developed a great mass of data that is practically
unique in the history of agriculture. These studies, further-
more, were so carefully conceived and carried out that the results
are now being analyzed by able mathematicians and important
deductions arrived at from them in respect to plant nutrition
and the relation of the plant to the soil. This work in England,
France and Germany referred to was begun shortly prior to the
middle of the last century. Many years prior to the prominent
work of these men, the Frenchman, de Saussure, had established,
in a very precise way, the important role of oxygen (air) in the
growth and development of the plant. How important this con-
sideration is, especially in the relation of this element to the
growing roots of plants as they develop in the soil environment!
Too frequently it is not sufficiently appreciated, even at this
time.
Later we have the systematic work of such physiologists as
Pfeiffer, Knop and others whose findings, through the growing
of plants in solution cultures, more definitely established the
fact that the mineral constituents of the plant alone were derived
from the soil and that in order for these materials to enter the
plant from the soil through the living roots it was necessary
for them to be in a state of true solution. These studies have
led to our present day investigations in plant nutrition that have
ramified into a great many other fields of science and are really
responsible, in a large way, for our present understanding of
the chemical and biological character of the relation of the plant
to the soil. In passing it might be noted that during these early
times a great amount of effort was spent upon the analysis of
plant materials and of soils with the idea of learning how
much of certain definite elements each contained in order that
applications might be made to the soil in such a way as to sys-
tematically correct its deficiencies for the growing of plants.
It is found that this phase of the problem has carried down well
through the years and much effort was also expended by our
earlier workers in the experiment stations of this country along
this same line. As a result of the progressively intensive work
upon this important problem, we now know that it is neither
practical or possible to undertake to do this. Rather, our con-
clusions in regard to the fertilizer needs of plants growing upon
any particular soil type are drawn from definite and systematic








AGRICULTURAL THEMES


studies with these plants, preferably in the field. Not infre-
quently, however, field studies are necessarily accompanied by
analytical work in the laboratory both upon the soils involved
and upon the plants grown.
As in the case of the development of our understanding of
the chemical aspects of the soil we might trace the development
of soil bacteriology from those early studies of Hellriegel and
Willfarth upon the fixation of nitrogen from the air by bac-
terial forms living in specialized tissues which they themselves
develop upon the roots of legumes, or of Winogradsky and of
Beijerinck upon the fixation of nitrogen in the soil by free
living forms quite independent of plant growth. These and
otherr remarkable discoveries of a similar nature were first made
in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century. How
tremendously important they have been in the development of
our scientific agriculture and yet how recent! These studies
have developed rapidly and large volumes are now written upon
the manifold ways in which the activities of these minute plants
and animals of the soil and air enter into the great natural cycle
that carries the natural vegetation of the earth through the
periods of germination, development, death and disintegration
throughout the ages of time. Yet these organisms are so small
that millions of them, most diverse in type, could be demon-
strated in the small amount of muck that might lodge under the
nail of the finger if one were to dig with the hands into the soil.
Associated with the early workers in either fields, chemistry
or bacteriology, were a great many others and as their successive
discoveries ramified and opened up new fields of investigation,
the number of workers who have dedicated their lives to the de-
velopment of this interesting and important work steadily in-
creased. At the present time many thousands throughout the
world are devoting their entire time and energy to the solution
of these important problems that have evolved and continue to
evolve daily in the agricultural sciences.
Rather than narrate the interesting story of the development
of either of these sciences in relation to the soil, however, though
interesting and entertaining it might be, I shall rather under-
take to indicate how particular agricultural problems that im-
mediately confront us here in this state and in this section of
the state are firmly bound up with the ways and means of our
general agricultural science as it has developed to date. What
I have told you should be sufficient to indicate from what
modest beginning the work has sprung, how recently it has had
its beginning and with what vehemence it has developed. Like-
wise what a source of inspiration to modern workers is to be
found in the examination of these early works. I take it, how-
ever, that the session is more vitally interested in hearing of







FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


something that may more particularly concern the immediate
development of Miami's agricultural resources, her back coun-
try, so-called, or, perhaps more definitely, the Everglades.
Since the speaker is from the Everglades Experiment Station
east of Belle Glade, perhaps it would not be amiss to discuss
briefly what we are trying to do there in the service of the Ever-
glades along the lines of the present discussion. In this it will
not be convenient to deal too specifically with soil chemistry and
soil bacteriology as such. Indeed, some of our most important
problems are quite as much concerned with certain physical
aspects of chemistry. Likewise in reference to bacteriology,
perhaps you will permit me to refer to it more as soil biology
and then, with the use of proper elasticity in our thinking we
can include in it our studies with the higher plants as well as
the lower forms which are particularly embraced by bacteriology.
Certainly, so far as all aspects of soil conditions that have effect
upon plant growth are concerned, those that favor the develop-
ment of the higher plants, such as abundant aerationl and
moisture and the availability of a balanced supply of plant food
are equally necessary for the great majority of beneficial micro-
organisms in the soil In this respect, then, the so-called higher
plants and the lower forms have considerable in common and we
may associate somewhat the needs of cabbages or sugar cane
with those of the tiny bacteria that break down the coarse or-
ganic matter of the soil to simpler chemical forms with conse-
quence that certain of the elements it contains again become
available for assimilation by the higher order of plants. Since
the working force at the Experiment Station is decidedly limited
at the present time, our work to date has been more largely
with the higher plants-largely the study of a considerable
variety of plants to chemical and other treatments under field
conditions. The station was established particularly for the
study of the prospective utility, from every standpoint, of the
raw, sawgrass soils that characterize the main body of the Ever-
glades.
If you will permit me, then, to discuss somewhat briefly the
work at the Experiment Station, the experience and study to
which I would first call your attention is the very striking
failure of practically all types of agricultural plants when their
culture in our raw, freshly broken peat is undertaken. Repeated
experiences indicate that the potato is almost a unique exception
to this rule of failure among agricultural plants. All others,
practically without exception, fail completely without making
anything of normal growth whatsoever. In connection with this
rather common experience, doubtless most of you know of the
development of the treatment of the raw soil with copper sulfate
(bluestone) as a corrective for this condition. Other elements







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 13

of a special nature, other than copper, have also been studied
in this same way and an outstanding response has been obtained
with the use of manganese sulfate as well. This is commonly
applied as the sulfate, as in the case of copper, particularly on
account of its ready availability upon the market and conse
quently its cheapness in this form. An unusual response has
been obtained to zinc, particularly in the case of peanuts, when
used in combination with copper and under the condition of
primary applications made shortly previous to the time of seed-
ing. The zinc was also applied in the form of the sulfate. When
used alone, it gave no response of permanence or value.
More recent tests with these special elements in combination
have given even more remarkable responses in the case of a
large number of plants than where they are used singly. This
is notably true of the combined application of copper and man-
ganese where, in the case of rape, sunflowers, cowpeas, peanuts,
beans and a considerable number of other plants the develop-
ment that follows has been notably better than that with the use
of either element alone. This has been especially true of the
copper-zinc combination upon peanuts as referred to above when
the plants upon the plots receiving this combination of the
special elements were as much as a month to six weeks ahead
of the plants receiving the copper treatment alone, whereas those
receiving no treatment with copper did not develop at all and,
in fact, died after attaining an average height of two and one-
half to three inches. This in contrast with the normal plants
developed as a result of the special treatments given the soil
where the tops establish a complete cover over a three-foot row
and the yield of nuts has been nearly double that of the average
for mineral soils elsewhere.
In regard to the manner and quantity of application of these
special elements, good response has been obtained with the use
of fifty pounds each of copper sulfate and manganese sulfate
per acre, though seventy-five or one hundred pounds per acre
upon very raw soils that have been freshly broken would be much
safer, especially in view of the irregular distribution that will
ordinarily result with the use of ordinary labor. A very sound
practice would be the application of a part of the material a few
weeks in advance of the planting and working it into the soil
thoroughly with the fitting of the seedbed. This application
should be made broadcast, if possible. If other fertilizers are to
be applied, it will be a considerable saving of time and effort to
mix such special materials as copper or manganese sulfate with
them in such quantity as it is desired to apply. In the use of
zinc sulfate, however, much smaller quantities of this material
will be found necessary. This element has been found much
more readily toxic than the other salts referred to and good re-







14 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

suits have been obtained with it, in combination with copper,
at the rate of twelve to fifteen pounds per acre when applied in
the planting row. Even this small quantity, however, has been
found distinctly toxic to beans.
In connection with the use of stimulants in this way upon a
fibrous peat soil of this type, however, a point that should most
importantly be kept in mind is that of maintaining the supply
of ordinary fertilizer elements, notably phosphoric acid and
potash. For it is a fact of almost universal recognition that pure
organic soils of the type we have to deal with in the Everglades
are notably weak in these elements in particular. Even in the
case of nitrogen, while we know from analysis that such soils are
notably nigh in content of total ammonia, it might be possible to
bring about such circumstances in the soil environment as to
develop a real need for applications of nitrogen. This might
be true under such conditions as an extremely heavy and dense
growth of vegetation or other conditions which would not only
use up the available nitrogen supply in the soil rapidly but would
bring about physical conditions conducive to poor aeration which
would slow up the ammonification and nitrification processes
in the soil that are necessary in the furnishment of an available
supply of nitrogen in the form of the soluble and readily assim-
ilable nitrate to the growing plants. In other words, if the
special elements be used to force response in this way and at-
tention be not given to the maintenance of an adequate supply
of the common inorganic nutrients, plant failure will be en-
countered that will be quite as complete as that experienced in
the original absence of the special element in question. In other
words, no soil is stronger or more fertile than the content and
availability of the weakest of the necessary elements.
This matter of response of plants to special elements when
applied to raw, sawgrass peat is mentioned and emphasized in
this way since the whole vast Everglades area back of Miami is
constituted of peats quite identical in general type with that
upon which these results have been obtained, and I do not doubt
that any grower, contemplating the breaking of fresh areas in
this section, could consider these practices with great profit.
The matter of attention to the supply of the ordinary mineral
elements is mentioned since, in the case of certain plants in
particular, we have obtained response to phosphoric acid and
to potash immediately upon freshly broken land. From this it
is apparent that soil color is not necessarily a safe criterion in
regard to its fertility. Even in the case of nitrogen, which is
present in such a soil in large quantities, its availability may be-
come a serious question since we know that even under optimum







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 15

conditions, much of this organic nitrogen will break down very
slowly.
It is seen that with the establishment of satisfactory crop
response upon freshly broken peat through the use of special
chemicals in this way a considerable amount of agronomic work
shall be required to gather information upon a large number
of crops in regard to the time, quantity and proportions of the
fertilizer elements to apply to a given crop. Similar informa-
tion must be obtained for horticultural and other plantings.
All of these general problems are attended, of course, by an
almost innumerable number of associated problems. In the
matter of maintenance of the fertility of a soil of this type
which, by virtue of its natural exposure, as well as its physical
characteristics is practically certain, annually, to receive a series
of washings out by the heavy rains that characterize the sum-
mer season. The question is, how stable will the fertilizer ma-
terials that are supplied be against the tendency to wash away
with the drainage waters under such conditions. Is there suffi-
cient absorbing surface of a proper kind in a soil of this char-
acter to retain appreciable quantities of these fertilizer salts
against loss in this way as is known to occur in mineral soils?
Or will this absorbing complex, if not present in the soil in its
raw state, develop with the weathering of the material that
follows cultivation? This problem makes the study of the quality
and movement of drainage waters of particular importance, in-
dependent of their need from the drainage standpoint. So much
for the brief reference to the general chemical features of plant
response in the raw, sawgrass peat.
Though I believe that the Chairman is desirous that as much
time as possible be left for discussion of particular problems that
may arise in connection with the various subjects, I should like
to bring to your attention one further general problem that, in
the opinion of the speaker, is one of the most serious, if not the
most serious, that confronts the agricultural development of
the organic soils of the Everglades. Reference is to the matter
of excessive shrinkage or subsidence that is so commonly to be
observed.
There can be no doubt in the minds of any who have studied
the problem of peat land reclamation with any degree of care,
whether here or elsewhere, that such soils experience definite
surface subsidence following drainage and that this subsidence
is necessarily in more or less direct proportion to the extent of
the drainage. The first and most rapid settling is largely
accountable to the loss of water from the spongy mass and its
consequent settling together. Cultivation practices further ac-
centuate the settling both by simple compression and through







16 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

the stirring which it effects in the soil that produces a more
rapid decomposition of the coarser fiber to a finely granulated
mass which consequently occupies less space. During this ex-
posure there is also a small but appreciable loss through natural
oxidation, particularly in consequence of the exposure of ma-
terials of this type to such high temperatures as a dark brown
to almost black material will develop under a tropical sun if
not protected in some way. Finally there is the very serious
loss that has come to thousands of acres through active burning.
The extent and character of this loss in the Everglades has been
a matter of rather common observation and experience to many
if not all of you. Most of you are also doubtless conversant
with the effect of such burning upon the response of many crops.
Only recently, in certain regions of the Upper Glades, I have
seen wretched failure in plantings of corn upon what, prior to
deep burning, were fairly well matured soils. The fire had
simply destroyed the material to a depth of ten to fifteen inches
and completely removed the weathered material to the pure
raw fiber below, and besides the loss of elevation, years of time
in the weathering process and hundreds or thousands of years
of time in the processes of accumulation whereby these soils were
originally formed, were also lost in the destructive progress of
the fires of a single season.
Independent of open conflagration, I should like to empha-
size the matter of excessive shrinkage due to excessive drainage
or lowering of the water table as a really grave matter that
should receive much more attention than it is receiving at the
present time. This is true not only upon its own merit but
also because it accentuates the fire hazard, especially in so far
as depth burning is concerned.
In the matter of the extreme conditions of shrinkage that fol-
low the excessive lowering of the water table, most of you are
familiar with the great network of cracks twelve to eighteen
inches in width at the top that open with endless ramifications
through the mass to a depth of three or four feet. Here, again, is
involved a physical as well as a chemical problem for, as peaty
material of this type dries and actual volume is lost in a vertical
as well as a lateral direction to such an extent that it tears apart
into great isolated blocks we have developed in the material a
definite condition so far as the relation of the new and old
volumes occupied by the mass is concerned. In other words, the
prospect of the partially dried and shrunken mass returning to
its original volume is going to be contingent, largely, upon the
extent to which it takes up again the water it has lost. How-
ever, we know that the reversible process of rewetting and
swelling of material of this type once it has dried out is very







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


slow and hence it is practically certain that there will not be
a complete return to the original volume once such material has
shrunken due to excessive loss of water, even under most favor-
able conditions. That extreme conditions of this type are seri-
ous need scarcely be pointed out when it is realized that in con-
nection with careful and judicious cultivation and handling of
soils of this type in regular practice with the maintenance of a
constant water table at maximum height permitted by the re-
quirements of a particular crop we shall still experience a certain
minimum but definite annual subsidence.
This problem of the effect of overdrainage upon the existence
of organic soils is referred to as outstanding for consideration
at the present time since many hundreds of thousands of acres
of Everglades land now lay exposed, seasonally, to these losses
referred to. In view of the fact that under such conditions,
even in the absence of fire, the loss is of a very definite char-
acter, we can fully expect that great areas of the exposed ex-
panses referred to will have become worthless for the agricultural
purposes to which they were originally dedicated in the in-
stallation of the drainage program long before they shall be
needed for cultivation if this type of exposure continues.
In closing I beg to say that these latter remarks upon the
physical aspects of our great reclamation project are in no wise
to be interpreted as purely critical of the drainage works that
have been accomplished to date in the Everglades. On the con-
trary, they present a brief and simple statement of facts, as the
speaker sees them, upon the most vital problem that confronts us
at the present time. If the matter is as serious as I believe it
is and as serious as I have undertaken to point it out to you in
this brief way, then these remarks should rather indicate the
pressing necessity for the working into the drainage program of
the immediate future, measures looking towards conservation
that are active and vigorous; and it is not seen how this can be
done except through the establishment of undrained reserves that
represent great sections of our receding marshland which will
receive every possible attention in the way of maintaining a
high water table that will approximate, as nearly as possible, the
native conditions that existed over this great plain of grass prior
to the inauguration of drainage operations. Under such condi-
tions we might even expect a resumption of the processes of
accumulation and this, indeed, would be a most happy state of
affairs not only for that section but for the whole Everglades
and for the whole State.
Everglades Experiment Station,
July 31, 1928.
2-Agri.








18 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

Brief Sketch of the

HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE
In China, Babylonia, Rome, Italy, Spain, Germany and England

By T. M. PATTERSON.

AGRICULTURE began when prehistoric man first exer-
cised a choice in using certain plants for foods by pulling
up others around same or otherwise encouraging the
growth of these desirable plants. Domestication of wild animals
may have antedated the above process in which case the history
of agriculture dates back to that time. Be that as it may, we
do know that agriculture has been and will continue to be the
foundation of all civilizations and as such demands the study
and consideration of all people who hope to contribute to the
progress of their posterity.
Notwithstanding the fact that historians disagree, I believe
that China's claim to the oldest civilization is not unreasonable.
According to their history and existing signs of an ancient civil-
ization, they are definitely known to have flourished in almost
the equal of their present stage some fifty centuries ago. Con-
sidering their slow rate of advancement during historical times,
it is very probable that it took them thousands of years to ad-
vance to that stage.
China has the distinction of being the only surviving nation
boasting of an acient history, and which shows promise to con-
tinue her existence. In contributing to this permanency, I know
of no single thing which has made it possible other than the rank
and importance she gives to agriculture. Agriculturists are
second only to the government officials-the artisans and traders
following in succession. The following bit of Chinese philosophy
shows their attitude toward the greatest of all professions:
"Public prosperity is like a tree: agriculture is its roots; in-
dustry and commerce are its branches and leaves. If the root
suffers, the leaves fall, the branches break, and the tree dies."
Confucius begins his history with the reign of Yao in the 24th
century B. C., who, it is said, encouraged agriculture and dis-
covered certain medicinal plants. There is no specific history
of ancient agriculture in China-the only source of information
concerning her practices being references in her literature. From
this we know that the Chinese have long lived on nitrogenous
foods-rice, millet and vegetables being her staple products.
China has long recognized the importance of agriculture, to such







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


an extent, in fact, that for the last many centuries nine-tenths
of her population have been engaged in agricultural pursuits.
Likewise her farming has been intensive, made necessary to sup-
port her dense population, which in some of her provinces
amounts to 700 per square mile. Probably the most noticeable
phase of Chinese agriculture is the care exercised in saving all
waste matter and religiously returning it to the soil. Irrigation
is widely practiced because of their sometimes slight and un-
certain rainfall. China has long lived to herself, only recently
has her trade extended beyond her borders. Her rivers and
canals constitute practically the only transportation facilities
and as such they have been developed extensively for her other-
wise meagre domestic and foreign trade.
Babylonia, benefited almost as much by the overflow of the
Euphrates and the Tigris rivers as Egypt was by the overflow
of the Nile, should have maintained a permanent productive
country, but agriculture was not given the importance it de-
served and in only a few centuries her otherwise fertile land
was converted into vast deserts and marches. Herodotus tells
us that 2300 B. C. (when detailed history begins) and there-
after was large and almost unbelievable yields of corn, barley,
rye.and wheat from her fertile alluvial plains. At the height
of her splendor Babylonian commerce and agriculture flourished.
But the equilibrium was not maintained and her agricultural
and commercial decline coincided with the downfall of her
civilization. No definite agricultural history was left by these
people, only references in their literature being available. We
know that canals played quite an important part in their agri-
culture and that market gardening constituted their chief pur-
suit. Nebuchadnezzar's hanging gardens attest their agricul-
tural advancement, which was at its height during his reign.
But all gradually dwindled until the third century B. C. when
Babylon, built as it was on a foundation of sand, remained
only a barren and desert waste.
Had it not been for the fallacy of the Roman "World Em-
pire,"' that nation would no doubt still exist. All phases of her
civilization were developed, and agriculture did not suffer. It
might be said, however, that whereas the ancient Roman civil-
ization, as far as individuals are concerned, advanced as high or
even higher than the individuals of our age, but their knowledge
was aristocratic-ours democratic: theirs confined to a narrow
and restricted class-ours diffused throughout our confines. Our
average far outstrips theirs and therein lies the true estimation
of any civilization.
In the art of agriculture it might be truly said that the Romans
were as far advanced as we are but that we have advanced much








20 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

farther in the science of this subject. Roman agriculture is
important, first, because they wrote much about it and, second,
because they, like the Germans of today with their culture, be-
lieved in spreading it wherever their armies camped.
Very little definite history of ancient Roman agriculture from
Romulus to the first and second centuries B. C. remains, ex-
cept, for instance, we know that Roman farmers have always
been intensive farmers and also that the agriculture existing
during the first century B. C. must have been an evolution from
simpler and cruder practice, which necessarily took centuries to
evolve. However, there are volumes written in detail about agri-
culture practiced during the first and second centuries preceding
the birth of Christ when Roman civilization was at its height.
During this period the profession of agriculture was held in high-
est esteem. Cato (234-149 B. C.) and Varro, Columella and Pliny,
living during the first century B. C. give the minutest details
of farm management. They deal with fertilizers, including the
use of legumes as green manures, the rotation of their crops,
among which the most important are: wheat, corn, barley, rye,
lucerns (alfalfa), fenugreek, vetch, lupines, beans, peas, lentils,
etc.; methods of breeding and domesticating farm animals,
among which were horses, mules, oxen, cattle, poultry, etc. They
also practiced irrigation. They recognized the importance of
selection-plant and animal breeding. Witness Virgil (70-19
B. C.), who, despite his classical and immortal "Aeneid", was a
resident scientific farmer and found time in his "Georgics"
to say:
''Still will the seeds, though chosen with toilsome pains
Degenerate, if man's industrious hand
Cull not each year the largest and the best."
The dissolution of the Roman Empire towards the close of the
fifth century A. D. marks the beginning of Italian history.
During the Middle Ages the agriculture of this fertile peninsula
was very wretched, due to the owning of large tracts of land by
aristocrats who made slaves out of the common people, chiefly in
southern Italy, whose agriculture remains at a low ebb. In
sharp contrast to this class, there are the gardeners of northern
Italy whose intelligent methods and husbandry have put them
in the class of the best farmers of the world. Throughout the
Middle Ages and up to this time, Italy, due to her ideal climate,
has produced a large variety of crops. The most important are:
wheat, corn, rice, vegetables, potatoes, hemp, flax, cotton, the
vine, olives, and tobacco. The cultivation of oranges and lemons
is of comparatively recent date and now occupies an important
place among their crops. Italy is not without her flocks and







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


herds for the livestock industry is a very important one there.
Coincident with the production of these crops, Italy, before and
during the Middle Ages, developed an agricultural commerce
unparalleled in history. The grandeur of Venice from this
standpoint excells that of Carthage, Corinth and Athens of the
previous age. In the development of her "Rialto "-exchanges,
banks, finance, and other commercial conveniences-she achieved
more than any other previous center. Genoa, Naples and Flor-
ence also contributed much to this preeminence of Italian com-
merce. The miserable condition and low standing of a large
part of the agricultural class has been hinted at above and can
only be remedied by the reform of her land tenure system.
Little is known of Spain before the Romans visited her in
the second century B. C., except that the ancient Phoenicians
extended their influence there as early as the eleventh century
B. C. and thereafter. It was left to the Saracens of Spain-also
the religious houses of other countries-to maintain the only
advanced agriculture of the Middle Ages. While agriculture
waned in all other countries during this age, the Saracens con-
tinued the intelligent practices which were established there by
the conquering Romans. They studied the agricultural litera-
ture left by the Roman writers. The remains of their well-
planned canals are seen today. They introduced plants from
Asia and Africa. Among other crops they cultivated cotton,
corn, rice, and sugar and covered the rocks of southern Spain
with fruitful vineyards. These Moors proved to be the masters
of the art of agriculture, and with their expulsion from Spain
in 1610 the decline of agriculture dates. However, agriculture
continues to be the primary vocation of the Spanish and with
their irrigation they are enabled to grow the crops of their
Saracen predecessors. Probably the most notable thing about
their agriculture is the quality of their livestock. Especially
are they noted for their mules, asses, and sheep. Spain, too, had
her day in the world of commerce, which was at its height while
she was exploring America, Mexico, and Peru. Gradually, how-
ever, it declined from that date until the latter part of the 19th
century, when her trade and commerce again takes on an active
aspect.
Little is known of the many barbarous tribes that inhabited
the site of the present German Empire during the many cen-
turies preceding the birth of Christ. Their agriculture, from
available indications, was very crude and their life was one
something like that led by the Indians of America before its
discovery. In the first and second centuries B. C. the Romans
came in contact with these fighting tribes but never were able
to establish their rule over the liberty-loving Teutons beyond







22 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

the Rhine. In fact, these Goths, Vandals, Franks, and other
tribes finally overran and destroyed the Roman Empire. In
each tribe the people were divided into four classes-nobles,
freemen, vassals, and slaves-the latter constituting the bulk of
the agricultural workers, hence the prevailing crude practices
in this art. With the crowning of Charlemagne in 771 A. D.
began the real history of Germany. From this date until modern
times, the German states have engaged in wars and conquests to
the almost total neglect of agriculture. However, the 19th
century saw them cultivating practically every kind of crop
that we do in the United States with the exception of cotton,
while they in turn grow wheat, rye, sugar beets, vines, potatoes,
and hops in excess of us. Their livestock industry is far ad-
vanced; especially are they noted for their horses, cattle and
sheep. Their methods of cultivation are more scientific than
any other country, which fact is consistent with their intensive
methods of culture. The average size of their farms is very
small and comparatively few tenants occupy these. Their com-
merce, which is not so much agricultural as it is industrial, is
second only to that of England. They export large quantities
of manufactured products but import correspondingly large
amounts of food stuffs.
As with the German tribes, so the early Britons were very
crude in their agriculture. Other than that ancient Phoenicians
carried on an extensive tin trade with the inhabitants of the
island, we know only of their practices which followed the con-
quests of the Romans in the first century B. C. We are told
that the Romans taught agriculture so successfully to the rude
Britons that before the period of occupation was over they were
exporting large quantities of grain. However, with the fall of
the Roman Empire and the consequent loss of its influences, the
English agriculture dwindled back to that of the previous crude
Britons and remained so almost through the Middle Ages. In
the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries the agriculture of England
showed alternations of indolence and bustle, of feasting and
semi-starvation. At length a better day dawned and the 16th
century witnessed the starting of a greater and more profitable
agriculture. Wheat, oats, barley, rye and hops were grown suc-
cessfully. During the 17th century turnips and red clover were
brought from Holland by Sir Richard Weston, who was later
called by Arthur Young a greater benefactor than Newton. A
crop rotation consisting of wheat, turnips, barley, clover and
grass was inaugurated during the 18th century and later called
the Norfolk system. Under this system one-half of the land was
in grain and the other in cattle-grazing crops. Another great
change was the revolution in tile breeding of animals commenced







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 23

by Bakewell in the middle of the 18th century. This led to the
subsequent dominance of the English breed of livestock. Jethro
Tull, of the early 18th century, was almost in touch with the
later 19th century methods. He advanced the theory that seeds
should be sowed in drill and that spaces between the rows should
be cultivated.
Probably the greatest defect of England's agriculture is her
imperfect system of land tenure. Until only recently has she
been able to gain any headway towards making her land hold-
ings democratic rather than aristocratic--ownership by the indi-
vidual tillers rather than by the landlords. England's agricul-
tural commerce is second to that of her manufactured products.
Towards the close of the 19th century and beginning of the
20th, certain universal causes have advanced agriculture to a
marked extent. Among the most important of these are: (1)
Application of science to agriculture and the establishment of
governmental agencies for the advancement of same; (2) The
revolution of transportation facilities through the use of steam
power on land and sea; (3) The rapid opening of vast areas of
new land in North and South America, Australia, and Africa to
settlement, cultivation, and grazing; (4) The invention and ex-
tensive use of labor-saving machinery as applied to agriculture;
(5) The abolition of slavery and serfdom and the subsequent
reform of land tenure systems; (6) The specialization of agri-
cultural industries; (7) Wide-spread study and increased im-
portance given to rural economics; (8) The organization of the
distribution of agricultural products and their use in manu-
factures, in accordance with modern business principles govern-
ing the organization of other great industries; (9) The voluntary
co-operation of farmers through numerous associations; and (10)
The wide dissemination of agricultural information through
agricultural schools and colleges, books, journals, public docu-
ments, and farmers' meetings.







24 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Land Tenure

By E. F. WHITE.

THE HISTORY of land tenure is one long record of conflict
between public right and private interests. Every policy
has been tried from the extreme of common ownership with
no exclusive possession to the extreme, in America, of private
ownership, so exclusive that the right of eminent domain
amounts to little more than a standing invitation to the state to
offer itself as a victim of hold-up.
Perhaps no other one question has been more debated than that
of the degree to which land shall be subject to private ownership.
The manner in which individuals or corporations may acquire
land; the security with which they may hold it either for legiti-
mate or illegitimate purposes against the superior right of the
public to its general distribution and usage; the degree to which
they may exercise control while in possession, and the extent to
which they may project that control beyond the period of actual
possession; the freedom with which they may or may not dispose
of it at will to others-all these have been determined in differ-
ent ways in different ages and in different countries. And his-
tory shows that these varied solutions of the problem of land
tenure have had a profound influence upon civilization in those
ages and countries.
Land at the beginning of history was unappropriated. Each
man helped himself to what he could and what he would. But
the preservation of life compelled the weak to seek protection
by placing themselves under some strong local leadership. Thus
the land gradually became appropriated. It is in Greece and
Rome that we first find individual proprietorship. Greece and
Rome alike parcelled out their conquered lands among the masses
with ownership absolute. In Rome, however, by the time of
Servius Tullius the obligation of military service was based on
land ownership and the recompense for such service was more
lands. Class distinction based on land ownership began here.
Those who did the most military duties obtained the most land.
Great estates of military chieftains came into prominence and
these began to be cultivated by captives and later by the poorer
freemen. This system undoubtedly contributed its features to
feudalism. Under this latter and subsequent system of land
holding the serfs and poorer freemen became serfs of the soil,
entitled to some rights, but tied to the manor house and com-
pelled to do service to the lord of the soil, who in turn paid
taxes to the crown from whence came his authority. With the






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 25

decline of the crown and the rise of the baron, taxes gradually
became less but the rent paid by the serf to his lord still re-
mained in full force.
The continental theory was early copied in the United States
as it was then in force in the mother country, but with political
independence for America came individual proprietorship in the
soil which had hitherto rested in the Crown of England. Since
that time the Federal government has been the owner of all lands
not already owned by individuals, but it now has sold it to
settlers under the Homestead Act for a song, or has given it to
towns, railways, or speculating corporations under cloak of the
Homestead Act.
It is upon the frontiers in a country that private interests
most readily become vested, and that the public most tardily
awakens to its rights. Later these interests attack the body of
the country. Already we have witnessed a Promised Land pass
away, vast tracts upon the border of the West were either
granted directly to exploiting companies, or parcelled out to
homesteaders only as a disguise to their transfer from public
ownership to that of the big proprietor.
A man takes up a homestead given him by the public, or sold
to him at a nominal cost, ostensibly that he may till the soil and
establish a home. But inside the package which the public gives
him he perceives a bounty. He may find gold or copper or silver
or oil beneath the surface, and he joins the combine to make the
public pay as dearly as possible for the contents of the gift which
it handed him. The farm is still there. As a farm it is still just
as valuable as he or the government thought it was beforehand.
But as a farm he is not interested in it. He obtained possession
of the land because he recognized in it a trap-door to the
potentialities underground. And thus the public is robbed of
what is rightfully its own.
To how great an extent this monopolization has taken place
and what effects it is bringing to bear, it may be well to note.
According to the census of 1900 only 46.7 percent of the families
owned homes, and only 31.8 percent, or less than one-third,
owned unmortgaged homes. From 1890 to 1900 the number of
families in the United States owning their own homes fell from
47.8 percent to 46.7 percent; mortgaged homes increased from
13.4 percent to 14.7 percent. From 1890 to 1900 the number of
farm tenants increased from 34.1 percent to 35.6 percent. How
soon the overwhelming odds will become tenants is evident with-
out conjecture. "In the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma tenant farms
have increased 35 percent to 51 percent during the last thirty
years. In Mississippi and Georgia, two-thirds of the farms are







26 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

tilled by those who have no interest in their ownership. In
South Carolina 63 percent of the farms are operated by the
tenants. Of the 19,000,000 families in the United States, about
200,000 are rich; 2,000,000 are well-to-do; 7,200,000 are poor;
and 9,600,000 are very poor."
This enormous tenant class may be said to accompany in juxta-
position the enormous holdings of lands in those sections. For-
eigners own large sections of our land. The Texas Land Syndi-
cate, in which the Duke of Rutland and Lord Heresford are
largely interested, owns 3,000,000 acres of the best lands in
Texas. The British Land Company owns 300,000 acres in
Kansas. Sir Edward Reed owns 1,000,000 acres in Florida, and
Lady Gordon and the Marquis of Dalhousie 2,000,000 acres. But
to come even closer home, recently a New York firm purchased
over 25,000 acres of land in South Mississippi for the nominal
rate of $5.50 per acre. A Dutch syndicate in 1913 bought 42,000
acres in Harrison county, Mississippi, for a slightly higher rate.
An English milling syndicate owns 32,000 acres of our best
delta lands. A Canadian syndicate owns a vast tract in north-
west Mississippi. It is estimated that the Great Southern Lum-
ber Company alone owns 1,500,000 acres in the long-leaf pine
section of Mississippi. And yet we say there is no land monopo-
lization, the rub isn't coming home-general land tenancy with
all its attendant social and economic evils will not come to our
land! But these figures, startling as they are, do not tell the
complete story. It is conservatively estimated that 150,000,000
acres of the public domain have been stolen by large land syndi-
cates, or thirty states the size of Massachusetts. Yet about
50,000,000 of our people own no homes at all!
These great holdings which may be farmed most economically,
from a social standpoint, as they are now run, are a sore to the
best development of society. Labor to work these estates is
secured on the lowest market, resulting in the lowest class of
laborer and a segregation of those types of humanity least fitted
for progressive development. "Society drifts back to the feudal-
istic basis, and the ideal home, which is the anchor of the Repub-
lic and the hope of the world, becomes a rare exception and not
the rule."
Let us take a look at the United Kingdom and see how she has
dealt with the land problem and what her "solution" has led to.
The difference in social and economic conditions between France
and the British Isles is due in a large part to the different
policies as regards their lands-of equal inheritance making for
small proprietorship on the one hand, and of primogeniture,
which makes for large estates and landlordism, on the other.
Today one-fourth of Great Britain is owned by 710 men; 70






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 27

men own one-half of Scotland, and 13,000 men or little less than
one-thirtieth of one percent of the population own two-thirds of
the whole of the United Kingdom. Is it any wonder that each
year the population in the rural districts becomes scarcer and the
cities become more overpopulated?
The above is only one of the many ever-present instances of
the principle that the limitation under which land is held for
private use have a vital relation to human welfare. It seems to
follow then that those limitations need to be determined in ac-
cordance with the social effects which experience has shown to
follow upon a more or less restricted tenure.
But before discussing methods of solving the land tenure
problem, it might be well to get a clear conception of the fullness
of land-ownership in order to aid in determining the effects of
its monopolization. "Man cannot produce; he cannot propagate
his kind; he cannot live, without land." If, then, land is a
necessity to production and to life, the masses of all countries
must be dependent on those who own the land. Under a landed
aristocracy, plutocracy reigns and must reign, while the people
are dependent on the few for the necessities of life. "The land-
less man is an unfree man" says an old Saxon proverb. If the
people of this country could be taught this single fact the solu-
tion of the social evils arising from landed aristocracy would be
simple of solution. Not only would they set about with greater
thrift and energy to possess their own land, but likewise they
would set about removing the obstacles to the obtaining of their
portion, which is the regulation of the tenure of lands.
This struggle between private interests and public good has
been a constant one; it is destined to become more gigantic and
more desperate when the body of the people come to realize more
fully the value, yea, the necessity, of the individual owning his
portion of the land that he cultivates. It has been termed "An
Herculean Task" and if Hercules represents the public good
in small individual proprietorship of the land, Anateus may best
represent vested interests. It will be remembered that Hercules
discovered that when Anateus touched mother earth his strength
was multiplied tenfold, and that the only way to overcome him
was to keep him clear of the ground. So great interests, when
based upon lands, seem to expand with a power well-nigh irre-
sistable, so that every now and then the small proprietor or the
landless man has to either create a crisis or take advantage of a
passing one to get a new grip on the land. The question before
this country today is, will we clear vested interests of the land
before they are too firmly planted, or shall we wait until, driven
by dire necessity, a crisis must be reached before the public can
obtain a new grip on its lands?







28 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

The solution to this problem comes, we believe, by increasing
the number who own small holdings in homes. Sismondi says:
"Wherever we find peasant proprietors we also find the com-
fort, security, confidence in the future, and independence which
assures at once of happiness and virtue. Of all cultivators he
is the happiest." Considerations such as these have led econo-
mists in Europe to believe that in ownership in small holdings
lies the solution of land tenure. Such a system requires the
abolition of all laws or customs, as in England, of entail, or any
expediency for keeping large estates in one family. This feature
we already have in America. Such a system required laws
facilitating land transfer and is dependent upon co-operation
for its greatest good, for by this method if properly run an asso-
ciation of small holdings could well obtain the industrial ad-
vantage of the bonanza farm without its social evils. The in-
centive for individual initiative would still be present, and the
self-consciousness of home-ownership would be a source of pride
and pleasure. The institution of a system of agricultural credits
would facilitate co-operative action necessary to the best eco-
nomic production, and would open a way whereby the now
homeless who have the energy and ability and the desire for
home ownership could obtain their goal.
But there must be some restrictions on tenure in order to
obtain small proprietorship. Foreign ownership of lands in
America should be forbidden, and absentee landlordism must
be checked. Absentee landlordism could be prevented by com-
mencing with a slight excess tax on all lands not resided upon
by their owner; this tax should be gradually increased so as to
make it economically undesirable for the absent landlord to
hold it and in this way give him ample time to dispose of it to
advantage, or make it his home. In this way land speculation
would be checked and individual proprietorship still be retained;
the present enormous absentee-owned lands would have to be
made use of as a home for their owner, or disposed of to become
the habitation of the now homeless.
The system above outlined, while breathing of some features
of the more radical theories here discussed, is distinctly superior
to either. The associated small holdings with the restrictions of
tenure noted would obtain the same end as the single tax with-
out, gradually but surely, bringing the lands into state hands.
The single tax proposes that a annual tax should be put on
all lands equal to the full rental value of the land apart from
improvement. The first obstacle to the working of this plan is
the difficulty confronted in finding the exact full rental value
of lands; for the value in agriculture depends primarily on the
man and secondarily on the land.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES


The single tax as well as the socialistic view disregards private
property in land. The socialist would vest all title in the com-
munity or the state and have the land owned and operated
jointly and co-operatively. This would mean socialism and all
that it entails. The primary disadvantage of the single tax and
socialism lies in their failure to recognize private property in
land. It may be stated thus: "The great majority of mankind
will work much harder and make much greater pecuniary sacri-
fices for themselves and their immediate descendants than for
the public. In order, therefore, to give the greatest encourage-
ment to production, it has been thought right that individuals
shoulkhave an exclusive property in land, so that they may have
the most to gain by making the land as productive as possible
and may be in no danger of hindrance by the interference of
others."
There is still another gigantic evil in either the anarchist,
single tax, or socialistic theories of reforms that does not appear
in the system advocated above and that is their lack of provision
for compensation. Most of the followers of these doctrines be-
lieve in taking over lands without compensation to their owners.
Professor Hadley says: "The principle that private property
must not be taken without compensation is no mere accidental
phrase let fall by courts or constitution makers. It is an axiom
of political science. If the progress of society renders the aboli-
tion of an institution necessary, compensation follows as a matter
of course." On the other hand, there are those radical reformers
who believe in compensation. But the majority of economists
entertain grave doubt as to the worth of a change if attended
with compensation.
Let us go still another step in analyzing the single tax which,
of all the radical theories of reform, seems the most sensible.
Yet land nationalization or even the single tax applied in its
entirety is unjust. Land value today, even in the city, does not
come from the mere natural source or even from the labor and
industry, the wit and invention of landowners, and hence to
legislate or tax away land values would rob landowners of the
results of their labors and their fathers', and hence is not only
unjust but is inexpedient in discouraging industry and progress.
In taxing lands to their full value the single tax advocate over-
looks this fundamental fact in human experience-put two men
of different capacities on like land, and on the same crop one
will get a large rent, the other will barely get a subsistence. It is
neither the quality of the land nor the possession of the land
which primarily governs income; it is the labor and capital ap-
plied to the land, and, more than all, the mental application
which is the prime factor.







30 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

In closing we might add that the whole history of the world
shows that civilization, prosperity, and progress have gone with
private property in land-and we may go still further and say,
in its general distribution among the masses and held absolute.
To revert to common ownership and subvert this institution
would be to revert to barbarism and discourage thrift and in-
dustry. The whole history of agriculture is evidence of the fact
that land held in common by a tribe or a community or a state
can never be put to its best usage; that fixity of tenure is essen-
tial to improvement, and that no tenure is so perfect as small
proprietorship in the absolute.







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 31


It Pays to Diversify, Say Florida

Farm Leaders

T HE QUESTIONS propounded in the January 15th (1928)
issue of The Florida Farmer have brought forth a surpris-
ing number of replies, both from agricultural leaders and
those personally engaged in some branch of farming. Only a
few of the letters can be published here.


One-Crop Policy Not a Safe One to Follow, Says Nathan Mayo


By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Editor Florida Farmer: As per your request I am answering
your five questions asked in the January 15th issue of The Flor-
ida Farmer.
1. Would you recommend a program of diversified farming
for all parts of Florida?
Yes.
2. What is the smallest size farm you would recommend for
general farming in South, Central, North and West Florida ?
There is no categorical answer to this question. All land
would have to be of practically the same nature and quality, and
"general farming" would have to be given an arbitrary meaning
in order to put a definite limit to the number of acres that should
be used in a farm. "General farming" has different meanings
in the minds of different people. Personally, I do not consider
that a Florida farmer is doing general farming who raises none
of the following: Grain, hay, forage, livestock, peanuts, sugar
cane, potatoes, poultry. And yet he might have none of these
and still grow two dozen kinds of truck and fruit crops in this
state. There are immense acreages in Florida not suited to gen-
eral farming, yet which are suited to highly specialized fruit and
vegetable farming. There is no meridian or latitudinal line
dividing these lands. They are in belts, depending on climate,
soil, accessibility, etc.
3. Do you consider it practical for the average citrus grower,
residing upon his grove, to raise some other cash crop, and if so,
what crops would you recommend ?
Yes. The crops to recommend depend on what part of the
state the farm is in and on what crops are best suited to the land








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


to be cultivated. No one can name these arbitrarily without
knowing the conditions of the farm and farmer. Even the size
of the family, the availability of labor, the character of ma-
chinery owned, have to be taken into consideration.
4. Does it pay the farmer or grower in the long run to spe-
cialize ?
It depends upon how you define specializing. I think it pays
to specialize on some one kind of farming and have special crops,
but not to the exclusion of all other crops. It is all right to have
a "leader," but the one-crop policy in the long run is a delusion.
5. What do you consider the safest agricultural program
for the average Florida farm or grove ?
There is no blueprint that can be laid out as a pattern. The
"average farm" is quite different from the "average grove."
I should say that in both cases there should always be hogs,
poultry and milk cows. As to how many acres should be planted
to each crop and how they should be rotated from year to year
will depend upon what crops thrive best, the market price of
the various crops, the pathogenicity as well as the fertility of the
soil. Farming is in a great measure the creation of the indi-
vidual ingenuity of the farmer.


Farm and Grove Should Produce at Least Four Money Crops


By L. M. RHODES, State Marketing Commissioner.
Editor Florida Farmer: In reply to your five questions pub-
lished on page three of the January 15th issue of The Florida
Farmer, which you requested me to answer:
Question 1. It would be difficult if not impossible to outline a
single program applicable to all parts of Florida with its great
diversity of soil and climate. The amount of land to be culti-
vated, labor supply and financial ability all play an important
part in determining the kind of farming that should be followed,
but as the general rule, a program of diversified farming is
safest. A variety of products gives the producer access to more
markets, will help him to better supply home markets and to
supply his family and livestock with food and feed. The farmer
who diversifies has more sources of income and less chances for
total failure.
Question 2. This also depends on size of farm family, labor
supply, finances, etc. Probably forty acres should be the mini-
mum for a successful program of general farming. Sugar cane,
sweet potatoes, peanuts, hay, corn, oats, cowpeas, hogs, cattle,









AGRICULTURAL THEMES 33

poultry, nuts and small fruits, cotton, Irish potatoes, rice, to-
bacco, velvet beans are all grown successfully on the general
farms of the state. They all strike low and high markets gov-
erned by conditions, supply and demand. We have a potential
home demand for more than $100,000,000 worth of farm
products.
Question 3. If the citrus grower has suitable land, I think
it is practical in many instances for him to grow other fruits
and some vegetables, keep a dairy cow or two and at least a
small flock of poultry. Even citrus fruits can fail and it is
safer to have other sources of income.
Question 4. In certain well organized communities with land
and market conditions peculiarly adapted to certain crops I
think it often pays farmers to specialize.
Question 5. The safest agricultural program for the average
farm or grove is to grow at least four if not more money crops
so as to have an income as nearly as possible throughout the
year, and to keep one or more dairy cows, some pigs and poul-
try, and grow a garden and a variety of fruits for home use. If
it is profitable to grow feed and food to sell, it certainly is wise
to supply home needs. Therefore all farm supplies that can be
grown cheaper than they can be bought should be grown on the
farm. The soil is the farmer's source of support and income.
Livestock and legumes enough should be raised to keep up soil
fertility.

Diversification a Decided Advantage, Thinks Burdette Lewis


By BURDETTE G. LEWIS, Vice-President J. C. Penney-Gwynn
Corporation. In Charge Florida Properties.
Editor Florida Farmer: I have your letter of January 16th,
enclosing a clip sheet which is page 3 of the January 15th issue
of The Florida Farmer, in which you ask a number of questions,
which I am willing to try and answer seriatim.
1. I am not familiar with every foot of Florida, but I have
never heard of any section or seen any section where diversified
farming is not an advantage and a decided opportunity, espe-
cially for Florida.
2. The proper size of a farm is a great world-wide problem
whose solution must be sought in the near future if agriculture
is to prosper. I am unfamiliar with the conditions in each sec-
tion of Florida and will, therefore, not attempt to answer for
anything but Penney Farms area and Clay County, where as a
general proposition I would not recommend anything less than
3-Agri.








34 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

five acres where a farmer is to give his full time. I think the
tendency for the newcomer is to try far too much land in
Florida.
3. Poultry, berries, garden truck, grapes, Japanese persim-
mons and, usually, a dairy cow or a pig or two are good im-
mediate cash money producers for the man owning and operat-
ing a grove who must wait for his grove to come into bearing.
4. I think there are few men capable of general as contrasted
with specialized farming operations.
5. I am not sure what is meant by the word "program" in
Question 5. If it means rotation of cover crops for grove, I
would recommend the farmer to get the best expert advice for
his particular land and climatic conditions and to follow that
advice. If it means auxiliary crops in addition to the grove or
farm, I should say a fruit program combined with poultry, or
fruit combined with truck crops on the right soil would be the
best.


Diversified Farming Only Safe Practice for Farmer


By W. I. PHELPS. Farmer, Jefferson County.
Editor Florida Farmer: I am strongly in favor of diversified
farming and believe it is the only safe practice for the farmer of
limited means. In parts of our state some make a very large
return from a single crop but there are bound to be off years
when the market is bad, weather conditions unfavorable or some
other set-back and one should have other crops or products to
fall back on. Each farmer should adopt his products to his
particular farm, location and market demands. Some farms can
produce certain crops better than other farms in the same
locality and certain crops can be produced best in certain
locations.
In general, I believe that milk, poultry products and pork can
be produced more cheaply in Florida, especially northern Flor-
ida, than in almost any other section of the country. Green
feed can be grown the year round and for grain we can grow
good crops of corn, peanuts and beans. I do not think there is
much money in growing grain here to sell but there is an excel-
lent return if the grain is fed to poultry or stock and the fertility
of the farm is increased rather than diminished. Instead of
shipping milk, eggs and pork into the state we should in the near
future ship them out to the markets of the northeast.
The small farmer can in most cases do best to either grow








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 35

products which are grown extensively in his locality and shipped
out or adapt his production to home demand, starting at his own
home. Vegetables bought even at the local store are not as good
as those grown at home. Each farmer should try and have fresh
vegetables and fruit from his own farm, having as large a variety
the year round as possible. The grocers in each locality ship in
products which could well be produced locally. Many farmers
think only of growing vegetables to ship while the small farmer
should think first whether he cannot produce many of the prod-
ucts now shipped in. For example, very little lettuce, onions or
celery is produced in northern Florida. We may not be in a
position to ship such products but there are many farms on
which excellent Iceberg lettuce can be grown early, ahead of
the southern Florida lettuce and also in the spring after the
southern Florida lettuce is about gone. We can grow as good
onions and celery as anywhere, I believe. The small farm should
also study the local demand and endeavor to raise products at a
time when there is a local shortage. With a little extra attention
many vegetables can be produced somewhat out of the regular
rush season and the man who has such vegetables for sale can
reap an extra profit. Many think farming is a question of
muscular work but like every other business it is to a large extent
a question of head work and proper management.







FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


An Adequate Merchant Marine
An Indispensable Factor in the Expansion of Our Foreign
Trade and for National Security


By ALFRED H. HAAG, Director, Department International Shipping,
Georgetown University School of Foreign Service


PROBABLY the most vital issue confronting the American
people today is the much-discussed shipping problem. The
apparent lack of appreciation on the part of the American
people of this issue is primarily due to the insidious propaganda
that is and has been waged against any move toward the estab-
lishment of a permanent and adequate merchant marine owned,
controlled, and operated by the American people. It is high
time that they realize that most articles which have been pub-
lished opposing the up-building of our merchant marine are
nothing more or less than artful foreign propaganda.
American ships of commerce are an economic necessity, and
an indispensable factor as an auxiliary to our Navy in times of
national emergency.
70 PERCENT FOREIGN
It is inconceivable that the richest nation in the world, with a
wealth of $400,000,000,000 and an international trade of almost
$10,000,000,000 annually, with freight revenues for transporting
this trade amounting to $600,000,000 per annum, can not support
a merchant marine of the best equipped and most suitable types
of vessels sufficient to carry the greater portion of its commerce.
The fact is that today 70 percent of our international trade is
carried in foreign-flag ships.
Flag-waving arguments have no effect in influencing Ameri-
can shippers to use American-flag ships and will have none until
such time as our flag waves from the ensign staff of a ship offer-
ing the same advantages in speed, regularity and frequency of
sailings as that offered by our competitors. Not until that time
can we be assured of the full support of American shippers; nor
is it fair or reasonable for us to expect them to accept inferior
commercial service under the guise of patriotism.
The postwar trend has been toward cargo-liner service-that
is, a port to port service-in contradistinction to tramp service;
and this service now represents 75 percent of the world's mer-








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 37

chant tonnage. Our competitors were quick to recognize this
trend and have either built or acquired modern tonnage with
increased speeds and other economic advantages, so that today
we are far behind in this respect.

1921-1926 NATIONAL TONNAGE

During the period from 1921 to 1926 the principal maritime
nations built for trans-oceanic service vessels of 2,000 gross tons
and over, totaling approximately as follows:

Country Vessels Gross Tons
Great Britain .... ....... .. ..... 600 3,500,000.
Germany ................... ..... 172 950,000
Italy ........ .... . .. .... 63 506,000
France ............................. 72 450,000
Japan ......... .............. ..... 52 250,000
United States .. ...................... 14 137,000

Total ...... . .............. 973 5,793,000

Or for every single ship of this class that the United States has
built Great Britain has approximately 42, Germany 12, France
5, Italy 4, and Japan 4.

PRESENT BUILDING OUTLOOK

Of ships building or contracted for at the present time, of the
same class and service, the records disclose the following:

Country Vessels Gross Tons
Great Britain ..... .... ...... ....... 142 980,000
Germany ............ .... ....... 49 395,000
Italy ..... ..................... .... 28 300,000
Japan ................ .. ........... 19 100,000
United States ...... ........... .. 4 63,000
France ............... .............. 8 58,000

Total ....... ..................... 250 1,896,000

Or for every single ship of this class that the United States is
building or has contracted for at the present time Great Britain
has 35, Germany 12, Italy 7, Japan 5, and France 2.








38 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


OUR COMPARATIVE STATUS


Another striking comparison is in the number and speed of
vessels, suitable for trans-oceanic service, registered under the
flags of the principal maritime nations.
Ships of 12 knots and over:
Great Britain ....... 1,308 Japan ................ 189
France .............. 255 Italy ................. 188
United States ........ 237 Germany ............. 180
In this class we rank third, being outclassed by our principal
competitor, Great Britain, 5 to 1.
Ships of 14 knots and over:
Great Britain ........ 432 Italy ................. 56
United States ......... 103 Japan .. ........... 53
France ............... 71 Germany ............... 31


We rank second in this class
Britain, 4 to 1.
Ships of 16 knots and over:
Great Britain ......... 152
United States .......... 39
France ................ 25

Here we rank second, Greai
4 to 1.
Ships of 18 knots and over:
Great Britain .......... 35
Italy ....... .... ..... 10
France ................ 7

We rank third in this class,
5 to 1.
Ships of 20 knots and over:
Great Britain ......... 16
Italy .. .. .. ......... 8
France ................ 5


s, being outnumbered by Great



Japan ................. 25
Germany ......... 10
Italy ................. 8

t Britain outclassing us about


United States ........... 7
Germany .. .. ....... 3
Japan .................. 2

outnumbered by Great Britain



United States .......... 3
Japan ............... 2
Germany ............... 2


And in this class Great Britain attains an advantage of 5 to 1.
The foregoing illustrates very definitely our weakness in effi-
cient ocean carriers compared with our principal competitor
nations. Even Germany has been able to establish herself as a
formidable competitor in the world's trade routes. In her fleet








AGRICULTURAL THEMES


of today over 60 percent of her total tonnage is less than 5 years
old, with the economic supremacy that implies.
We seem to be content to operate ships which were constructed
to meet a war emergency, and unless a policy of replacement is
adopted immediately we shall soon fade from the picture and
again have to rely on our active competitors to carry our com-
merce to and from the ports of the world.

U. S. COSTS GREATER

American shipping costs more, due to higher construction and
operating costs; and we are adding to that handicap by operat-
ing obsolete types of vessels in competition with the faster and
more modern types of our competitors.
It is vitally necessary to embark immediately on a new con-
struction program to provide our nation with competitive types
of commerce carriers and at the same time save our shipbuild-
ing industry from absolute failure.
Shipyards of our country have long been on a starvation diet
and we can not, either from an economic or protective point of
view, permit this industry to decline.

GOOD SHIPS SCRAPPED

It seems rather inconsistent for this nation to have scrapped
850,000 tons of naval vessels (many of them the most modern
types of fighting ships), and with it world naval supremacy, at
a cost of almost $400,000,000 and then hold on like grim death
to obsolete types of merchant ships while other nations have
disposed of their inefficient ships without delay.

THE WASHINGTON CONFERENCE

At the Washington arms conference in 1922, the United States
made a sincere effort to assist other nations to curtail their ex-
penditures by acquiescing in the apparent desire for world dis-
armament; and we proved our absolute sincerity in agreeing to
and complying with the scrapping program.
We even consented to one of the Washington treaty nations
constructing capital ships after the Washington conference,
thereby providing work for its shipyards. In addition to this,
when we glance over the world's shipbuilding activities for the
past five years, we find all the nations who participated in the
treaty have far outbuilt this country in combatant types of
vessels. And today we are considerably below the naval strength
agreed to at the Washington arms conference, which in spirit








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


and principle was intended to cover all types of fighting ships.
The American people most certainly felt that the strength of
their Navy should be, at least, the equal of that of any of the
Washington treaty nations. But after five years we find that
we are trailing far behind.

AMERICAN DOLLARS AID COMPETITORS

It is astounding the progress our competitor nations have made
in the upbuilding of their merchant and naval fleets, particu-
larly since the signing of the Washington treaty; and it would
be rather interesting to know how far American dollars have
aided other nations in the strengthening of their sea power.
Of the $12,000,000,000 in private American loans it is reason-
able to assume that American dollars have aided these nations
considerably in furnishing their shipyards with work in the con-
struction of modern commerce carriers with which American-
flag ships must compete; and American dollars, no doubt, are
playing an important role in the strengthening of their navies.
Added to these activities in foreign shipyards, we are still
further aiding them by numerous contracts which have been
placed abroad for American account.
Under these conditions, how can our shipbuilding industry
survive?
It would seem that, after all, "Uncle Sam Shylock" is a most
liberal individual in assisting his friends across the seas and it
is high time that some consideration be given to our problems
at home, particularly that of our sea power, which vitally affects
the welfare of the entire nation, both from an economic stand-
point as well as that of national security.
CONCLUSIONS

If our nation is to continue to prosper it is highly essential
that the American people awaken to the fact that American ships
of commerce are an absolute necessity, not only to insure Ameri-
can industries uninterrupted ocean transportation in carrying
their surplus products to the markets of the world, but to in-
sure the continuous flow of our inbound commerce which is
essential for the maintenance of many of'our industries.
In the matter of national defense it is obviously necessary
that we have an adequate fleet of commerce carriers to support
our Navy, as it is the combined strength of both the naval and
merchant fleet that reflects the sea power. They are one and
inseparable and if we are to live up to the American traditions
and ideals our sea power must be second to none.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 41


Kitchenette Beef
Demand for Quality Beef in Small Packages Has Changed the
Beef Situation to Cow-and-Calf Basis

By C. D. LOWE, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in the
Farm Journal.


"(4O, THAT'S too much for my family." Such was the
IN reply of the housewife to the butcher when he tried to
sell her a porterhouse steak from a choice 1,500-pound
bullock. The story is apt to be the same when roasts or other
steak cuts from similar carcasses are offered.
Just what is responsible for this situation? Does the beef-
buying public not know good beef when it sees it? Or are the
beef producers not familiar with the changes that have come
about in our living habits during the past few years? The
butcher, if he stays in business, must cater to the demands of
his customers, but unless he can obtain the product they desire
he is helpless.
There can be no doubt that the majority of beef purchasers
in our metropolitan centers prefer light-weight cuts of beef,
with all the quality it is possible to get. This situation has been
brought about largely by the modern tendency toward small
families, apartment homes, motor transportation, labor-saving
devices and greater variety in the menu. Under the conditions
that prevail, a quality steak of small dimensions, or a tender,
juicy, small-sized roast from a well-bred, well-fed young beef
animal, becomes an appropriate companion piece to the tasty
salads and dainty desserts so common to the present age.
The manufacturers of other food products have been quick to
sense the trend of things. The quarter-pound stick of butter,
the two-pound bag of flour and the tiny size of canned goods are
evidence of attempts to cater to the whims of the trade.
Some may say that these evident tendencies on the part of
modern man to live from "hand to mouth" are not based on
true economy; but nevertheless they are facts that must be faced
by all food producers, including the beef-cattle farmer.

A SHORTER ROUTE TO BEEFSTEAK
Farmers are no less manufacturers than makers of automo-
biles; their farms no less factories than the automobile makers'
plants. The farmer is in a more advantageous position, how-







42 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

ever, than are many other manufacturers, for most of his prod-
ucts are necessities of human life. If he will but study the
preference of his market, he can add further to the prestige of
his position.
In the ease of beef, the ultimate consumer wants quality in
a small package. It is therefore in order for progressive farmers
so to adjust their beef-cattle operations that they can take ad-
vantage of this situation.
For some years the tendency to market beef cattle at younger
ages and lighter weights has been manifest on the range as well
as in the farm states. Some farmers have taken definite steps
to intensify beef production more completely by marketing
grain-finished beef at the age of under a year. In brief, the plan
is that of supplementing the dam's milk by feeding a grain
mixture to the calf while both are on pasture, and marketing
the calf at weaning time or soon after.
Let me state that the use of purebred beef bulls of outstanding
merit, and prolific beef-type cows of good milking qualities, is
a prime essential in this program. Intelligent management also
is a necessity, otherwise the calf may turn out to be a "feeder"
rather than a slaughter animal, and bring a much lessened price.
It is apparent, also, that early calves of uniform ages are re-
quired, in order that their dams may have the maximum milk
flow at the time it is most needed, and to permit the sale of the
calves on the late fall markets.
The supplemental feeding is started as soon as the calves
are old enough to eat grain. The grain mixture is placed in a
trough or self-feeder located in a "creep" in the pasture, so
that it is protected from the cows, and the calves have free
access to it.
Equal parts of shelled corn and oats, by measure, is the be-
ginning ration, but after the calves are five or six months old
the proportion of oats is reduced and some linseed meal is added,
making a ration of six parts of corn, three parts of oats and
one part of linseed meal.

ADVANTAGES OF BABY BEEF

This method of beef production has these advantages:
It provides grain-finished beef at a minimum cost for the
grain fed.
It gives a rapid turn-over of operating capital.
It requires less labor.
It affords an opportunity to use unsalable farm roughage by
feeding it to the breeding herd during the winter.







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 43

It reduces to the minimum the number of cattle kept through
the winter.
It enables a single operator to have full control of both breed-
ing and feeding practices, and thus increases his opportunity
for profit.
It furnishes a wider choice of time of marketing.
Twenty-two Missouri farmers who followed this system with
their 520 cows kept records of the costs involved. The average
annual cost to keep a cow was $25.30, which was divided as
follows: Feed, $19.10; bull service, $2; interest and taxes, $4.20.
Winter feeds were charged at the market prices at the farm, and
summer pasture at $1.25 to $1.50 per head per month. No labor
charge was made and no manure credit given.
The average value of the calves produced on eight of these
farms that furnished complete records at weaning time (when
calves are from eight to ten months old) was $55.35 per head.
These calves ate $11.46 worth of grain per head, and after
paying for the keep of their dams for a year, their own feed,
bull service, interest and taxes, returned an average of $16.97
per head to the owners.
An official survey in the Corn Belt gives the following relative
costs of feed necessary to produce equal gains on steers of
different ages:
Calves, $1; yearlings, $1.05; two-year-olds, $1.26; three-year-
olds, $1.60.
One important thing to remember in catering to the demand
for kitchenette beef is this: The animals must not lose their
original calf fat. They must be kept growing from the time
they are born to the time they are sold for slaughter. It is ever
so much harder to get fat back on an animal than it is to keep the
fat already there.
There still remains a market for heavy-carcass beef, but it
can easily be glutted, and an oversupply results in heavy penal-
ties on all agencies involved in producing and selling it.








44 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Florida Park System


By (Mrs. W. S.) May Mann Jennings, President Florida Legislative
Council, in Florida Society of America.


THE NEW Park System law enacted by the regular session
of the 1925 Legislature was the direct result of the work of
the Beautification Committee of the Florida Development
Board. A resolution adopted at the spring meeting embodied
the main features of the law. Mrs. A. B. Whitman, of Orlando,
a member of the Beautification Committee, was asked to draft
a bill. In response to her request, the bill was drawn by S.
Bryan Jennings of Jacksonville. Senator M. O. Overstreet, of
Orlando, introduced the bill in the Senate, while Hon. W. P.
Watson, of Orange county, sponsored the bill in the House, the
President of the Florida Legislative Council being in charge of
the bill during the session. The bill would have been killed in
the House had it not been for the foresight and quick work of
Dr. W. A. Mackenzie, representative of Lake county, who
changed his vote and moved for a reconsideration of the bill.
A special committee was then appointed by Speaker A. Y.
Milam from the House to bring in amendments which were
deemed necessary to secure favorable action, Hon. Edgar W.
Waybright of Duval offering the amendments for us.
The provision for ten thousand dollars for clerical force, the
5,000 acres of land as a nucleus with which to purchase desir-
able park area, were stricken from the bill, the House passing
it in its present form.
The Senate accepted the House Bill, and while Senator Over-
street engineered the bill through the Senate, he found himself
over-burdened with local bills at the close of the session and we
are indebted to Senator J. J. Swearingen of Bartow for the final
passage of the bill. We are not unmindful of the many others
who supported the bill, evidenced by the fact that it became a
law and a good one. However, we need both funds and park
area, but the latter we need most of all.
The law not only provides for a State Park System but for
a County Park System and authorizes the county commissioners
of the several counties to co-operate with the trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund, who are to have charge of the State
Park System. The trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
are: The Governor of the State of Florida, the Attorney Gen-






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 45

eral, the Comptroller, the State Treasurer and the Commissioner
of Agriculture.
The full text of the law follows:

CHAPTER 10277-(No. 255)

AN ACT Creating a Florida State Park System Owned and
Operated by the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund;
Authorizing Them to Accept Gifts of Land from Individuals
and the United States Government and Its Agencies; and
Authorizing the County Commissioners to Purchase and Main-
tain Parks and Co-operate with the Trustees.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. There is hereby created a Park System to be known
as the Florida State Park System, which shall be owned, oper-
ated and controlled by the Trustees of the Internal Improve-
ment Fund of the State of Florida in such manner as is now
provided by law for the ownership, operation and control of
other lands and funds now held in trust by the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund.
Sec. 2. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund be
and they are hereby authorized and empowered to acquire title
to lands by gift, devise or purchase, lands suitable for park
purposes from individuals, corporations, United States Govern-
ment or any of its Departments or Agencies; all of said lands
shall be accepted in the name of the Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund, and shall be set aside and used exclusively
for public park purposes.
Sec. 3. The State Park System shall be operated by and under
the supervision of the Commissioner of Agriculture and under
such rules, regulations and conditions as may be prescribed by
the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of the State of
Florida.
Sec. 4. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund be
and they are hereby authorized to employ such park superin-
tendents, secretaries and other employees and assistants, includ-
ing engineers, architects and custodians as they may deem neces-
sary and shall determine their duties and compensation.
See. 5. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund shall
use all of the lands acquired for Florida State Park System for
the free use of the public for the purposes of public recreation
or for the preservation of natural beauty or historic association.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Sec. 6. The County Commissioners of any County in the
State of Florida are hereby authorized and empowered to acquire
by gift, devise, or purchase out of the general funds, from indi-
viduals, corporations or the United States Government or any
of its Departments or Agencies, any lands which are suitable
for public parks or for the preservation of natural beauty or
places of historic association, and operate the same as public
parks.
Sec. 7. The Board of County Commissioners of any County
is hereby authorized to convey to the Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund for Florida State Park System, any lands
acquired for park purposes on such conditions as are acceptable
to the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund.
Sec. 8. Should any portion or portions of this Act be declared
invalid, it shall not affect the remaining portion or portions
hereof.
Sec. 9. This Act shall take effect upon its becoming a law.
Approved June 11, 1925.

Royal Palm State Park with a total area of 4,000 acres; 960
acres granted by the 1915 Legislature; 960 acres donated by
Mrs. Henry M. Flagler the same year, and 2,080 acres granted
by the 1921 Legislature, is owned and managed by the Florida
Federation of Women's Clubs. It is the only tropical jungle of
its kind in North America-botanically West Indian-and is
located in Dade County, 47 miles below Miami.
The writer was among the first to advocate a state park on
the Suwannee River, and hopes that the people in that section
can secure a suitable tract for the purpose.
Who will be the first to donate either the land or the funds to
purchase the second state park for Florida? A group of inter-
ested people could join in such a project.
Florida should have many county parks. While we all admit
that it is possible to make beautiful parks in numberless places
throughout the State, there are also priceless rare tracts with
especially fine and unique attractions which should by all means
be conserved.
"In 1850 the Congress of the United States granted to Florida
the swamp and overflowed lands, which in turn were granted
by the State to the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund,
irrevocably for the purpose of aiding in the drainage and
reclamation of lands of the character designated as 'Swamps
and Overflowed.' Quoted from Governor W. S. Jennings'
message to 1903 Legislature, in which he was the first to recom-
mend the drainage of the Everglades, giving those due credit
who came before him.


46






AGRICULTURAL THEMES


Beautifying the Florida Farm Home


Many Ornamental Plants Are Available


By J. P. GRIFFITH, M. S., Wauchula, Florida, in Florida Grower


A GREAT many Florida farmers have neglected a fine op-
portunity of beautifying their home grounds with suitable
ornamental plants. The rural and urban home owner in
California was quick to realize the splendid effects that could
be obtained by the use of many of the best sub-tropical and
temperate plants, as settings for their homes. The favored
climatic and soil conditions of California caused such plants to
develop luxuriantly, with the result today that nearly every-
where one goes in California, he is confronted with homes sur-
rounded by beautiful palms, shrubs, trees and other plants, a
large proportion of which are exotic. The rural homes as well
as the city homes have been made attractive through the well-
considered planting of ornamentals.
Florida farmers have an advantage over their California
'brothers in that here, in the lower part of our state at least, we
have a large number of excellent strictly tropical plants which
may be grown for ornament and which will not thrive in Cali-
fornia. Many of the towns and cities of Florida have awakened
to the great possibilities connected with the use of ornamental
plants in their parks, along streets, etc., and some of our counties
have done much to beautify their roadsides with shade trees,
shrubs and other plants. But from the result of travels about
the state, the writer believes that the average farmer, especially
the old settler, has not been awake to what can be done towards
beautifying the home grounds in Florida.

GREAT VARIETY OF PLANTS
It might seem difficult for the average Florida farmer to
decide on just what plants are most suitable for beautifying the
home grounds, with such a vast collection of tropical and sub-
tropical ornamentals to draw from. Mr. G. M. Randall of Day-
tona, in his article, "How We Get Plants" (Florida Grower,
May 29, 1926), has hit upon the reason why Florida has, today,
such an unusual number of fine ornamental plants, when he says,










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


"A greater variety of plants can be propagated in Florida than
in any other state in the Union." Ornamental plants now avail-
able in Florida have been brought here from all parts of the
world and thrive under our varying climatic and soil conditions.
In the extreme southern part of the state conditions are almost
tropical, and as one goes north, they change to sub-tropical, until,
in the upper part of the state many hardy and deciduous plants
are perfectly at home.


Tree Fern in Orlando.


In the course of six years spent as horticulturist and plant
breeder in the tropics, the writer has become familiar with a long
list of ornamental and also economic plants. From the results
of his experiences there and from observations made in nearly
all parts of Florida (excepting the northwest), he will discuss
what he considers some of the plants most likely to be of service
in beautifying the farm homes of Florida.
The summer months in Florida constitute our rainy season
and this not only allows favorable conditions for propagating
and growing plants, but it is also a time when farmers are not
so rushed with work and are apt to have more leisure for de-
veloping ornamental stock.









AGRICULTURAL THEMES 49

PRECAUTIONS ON PLANTING

It is well to keep in mind a few simple precautions in setting
out plants. They should be placed in well-drained locations,
raising the ground, if necessary, in hills or banks, allowing a
basin around each plant in which water may be poured if the
weather becomes too dry. One should use enough barnyard
manure and commercial fertilizer applied when setting and at
intervals thereafter, to keep the plants growing rapidly. It
will be well also to mulch the plants with grass or leaf mold
and shade them at least until they become well established.


Phoenix Canariensis Palm in Orlando.


The groundwork of any ornamental planting is grass. There
are several good lawn grasses available for planting is Florida.
Mr. W. E. Stokes, grass expert for the College of Agriculture
at Gainesville, says that St. Augustine grass makes up 90 per-
cent of the lawns of the state. Other grasses which he recom-
mends for lawn purposes in Florida are Bermuda grass, Carpet
grass and Centipede grass.
If one desires to use either the St. Augustine or Bermuda
grass for the lawn, vegetative planting material (as cuttings)
should be planted. It is also possible to use vegetative material
for the other two grasses, but they also grow well from seed.
Where the grasses are planted vegetatively, it is a common prac-
4-Agri.
















^ffi


r 4 -


Trees Draped With Moss-Ornamental Yard.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES


tice to prepare the ground thoroughly, mixing in what fertilizer
is necessary. Most any good truck fertilizer at the rate of 1,000
to 2,000 pounds per acre will give good results. After the fer-
tilizer is worked in and the ground levelled off, the grass is
usually planted in rows 12 inches apart, setting the plants every
8 or 10 inches apart in the row, keeping the ground moist until
the grass becomes established. Where seed is used, Mr. Stokes
recommends planting 30 to 40 pounds of seed per acre, sowing
broadcast, half the seed being planted one way and half at right
angles to the first, planting so as to get an even distribution.
After the seed are planted it is usually best to rake them in
lightly and keep the ground moist until the grass becomes estab-
lished. A great thing in favor of the St. Augustine grass is its
ability to thrive in shade. Bermuda grass will not thrive in
much shade. Anyone interested further in grass planting here,
either for forage, pasture or lawn purposes will do well to read
Mr. J. B. Thompson's Bulletin No. 28, "Some Florida Grasses,"
published by the College of Agriculture at Gainesville.

CULTIVATION OF PALMS

One of the most striking features of the landscape in tropical
and some oriental countries is the distinctive and beautiful char-
acter of those unusual plants, the palms. In those countries the
palms grow generally wild and so are planted naturally. The
Californians have demonstrated in a wonderful way what can
be done with the cultivation of this artistic class of plants.
There are at least 16 native species of palms in Florida, a few
of which are beautiful and well worth wider cultivation. We
also have a large number of strictly tropical palms that can be
grown in the extreme southern part of our state and then there
are the more hardy types.
Farmers who wish to beautify the homestead with a class of
plants which generally do not require excessive room (though
many are more effective at a distance from the house) would
do well to consider some of the following species of palms. Most
of the palms which do well in this state will succeed on ordinary
pine land. On poor soils it will be necessary to use a good
fertilizer and it is an excellent plan to apply one rich in potash
to harden up the growth for winter.
The California fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) is a fast
growing, beautiful ornamental. It is well adapted to all parts
of Florida. Fine large specimens may be found throughout the
state from Miami to Jacksonville and on the west coast. This
is the palm which has been used more extensively than any other
during the last few years of intensive landscaping in our state.


















































Ferns on Porch, Lawn in Front Yard-Ornamental Fence.






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 53

It makes a fine appearance in all stages of growth and has ability
to thrive under more or less unfavorable conditions. The Wash-
ingtonia palm grows somewhat like our native palmetto, making
in time a massive trunk crowned by a compact head of tough
fans to which many white threads are attached. Young plants
of the Washingtonia palm are particularly attractive with their
stiff, fanshaped, bright green leaves. Every farmer interested
in the beauty to be gotten from palms would do well to have one
or more of these plants on his place.
Another popular palm for Floridians from Key West to
Gainesville, and especially popular in such sections as those
around Miami, Palm Beach, Fort Myers and Orlando is the
plumy coconut (Cocos plumosa). At Gainesville it is considered
advisable to grow the palms in sheltered spots to protect them
from the cold winds. In Fort Myers there is a beautiful shady
avenue-a double row of these graceful palms so planted along
either side of a walk that they arch overhead. The palm does
not require much space but because of its tall growing habit
shows up better along drives, etc. We have lately set two
specimens-one on either side of the entrance gate to our farm.
The plumy coconut makes an erect and column-like trunk
sometimes reaching a height of 40 feet and is crowned with a
plumy crest of long feathery, swaying dark green leaves. In
extreme south Florida the plumy coconut is used artistically
together with Royal palms (Oreodoxa regia), those majestic
wonders of the tropics which I have seen growing by the hun-
dreds along the hillsides.

CANARY ISLAND DATE PALM

Still another palm which may be used anywhere in Florida is
the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis). This Phoe-
nix palm is large growing and spreading. Unless the farmer is
provided with plenty of lawn space, he would do well to use
some of the other species, rather than this one. The Canary
Island date palm is commonly seen in the southern part of
Florida and is one of the conspicuous features of the land-
scapes in central and northern Florida where hardiness is essen-
tial in the culture of such plants. The Phoenix canariensis is
one of the tallest growing species of the genus (to which the
common date, Phoenix dactylifera, belongs). It makes an erect
massive stem, topped with a crown of large, elegant, slightly
curving leaves which may reach 10 or 12 feet in length. For
those who admire the habit of growth in Phoenix palms, it will
be interesting to know that Phoenix sylvestris, P. reclinate, P.
rupicola, P. farnifera, P. pumila, beautiful dwarf species with






































Ornamental Fence.


~ui


,.






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 55

very delicate rich green leaves, may be grown effectively here
in the state.
The golden feather palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) which
is often grown in the North as a pot or tub plant, is used a
great deal for lawn planting in the more southern parts of
Florida. This palm does exceptionally well in the tropics, where
it is often used to border large white-walled buildings and is
sometimes also planted in clumps out on open lawns away from
buildings.
In Fort Myers, the golden feather palm is very popular and
appears on the lawns of many homes. A single clump of this
palm planted where it will show the feathery gracefulness to
best advantage-say near the corner of a building-becomes an
object of admiration. The feather palm suckers freely even
when very young and produces a bushy or feathery clump of
arched pinnate leaves which are graceful and attractive. In
time, unfortunately, as the palm gets old it assumes a "leggy"
or straggling appearance when it had best be removed and sub-
.stituted by some other good ornamental. The feather palm as
well as the Washingtonia and plumy coconut palms may be
readily grown from seed. The feather palm may also be propa-
gated from suckers.
One other palm which calls for a brief discussion and one
which we have used on our Wauchula farm is the Chinese fan
palm (Livistona chinensis). This palm is a hardy species which
can be planted over the entire state. It has the drawback of
making a comparatively slow growth, and to be at its best re-
quires a rich moist soil. Beautiful fan-like leaves, almost exactly
round in shape and 4 to 6 feet in diameter are produced. It
makes a fine decorative plant for either indoor or outdoor cul-
ture. In the tropics they develop well and are amongst the most
attractive of exotic palms there.

OTHER PALM VARIETIES

There is such a long list of palms available here in Florida
(some 200 species having been introduced) that space does not
permit the discussion of each species individually. The Coco-
nut (Cocos nucifera), a native of the American tropics, makes
a fine growth in extreme south Florida, as does also the Royal
palm (Oreodoxa regia), which is native to Cuba, the home of
one of the most beautiful species in existence. The Royal palm
is also native to Porto Rico, where they have the species "borin-
quena" which, while a handsome palm, is not as tall growing as
the Cuban. It seems that both the coconut and Royal palms
have become naturalized in Florida and are to be found growing








56 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

wild in many parts to our extreme south. These two palms have
become very popular for use in city street and park planting in
south Florida, often large specimens being carried from place
to place for this purpose. The coconut palm is comparatively
easy to transplant and the fine effects they get from land-
scaping these palms seem to fully justify the time and expense
necessary. Coral Gables has some beautiful examples of what
can be done with these palms in her landscape planting scheme.
It may be said in general, with the exception of such palms as
have been mentioned above, the majority are native to tropical
regions and therefore most of the species could not be expected
to thrive at their best except in extreme south Florida.
A few species with which the writer is familiar and which he
considers especially worthy of wider planting wherever they
will grow in Florida are the following: Seaforthia elegans, the
European Fan Palm (Chamaerops humilis), the Fishtail palm
(Caryota Urens), Cohune palm (Attalea cohune), Pritchardia
pacifica, a magnificent fan palm from the South Sea Islands
which is fortunately being used in the Miami district now; Acro-
comia sclerocarpa, and that hardy palm, Cocos australis. One
of the most noble of all palms is the Talipot palm (Corypha
umbraculifera) from southeastern Asia, a wonderful specimen of
which I have seen in the tropics. Attempts to cultivate it in
Florida have so far been unsuccessful.







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 57



Hbw to Plant Citrus Fruit Trees


By W. T. MILLER, Sales Manager Glen St. Mary Nursery Co., in
Seald-Sweet Chronicle


TO MAKE a planting of five acres or more requires some
careful planning to insure a perfect job at a low cost per
tree. Planting the trees is like laying the foundation for any
business enterprise. The trees are the production machinery
in your food factory. So your first problem is to be sure that
your tree machinery has been properly designed at the nursery
to turn out a high class product in paying quantities with as
few "seconds" as possible.
Your next problem is to get the tree machinery properly in-
stalled so that the expected volume of production will be reached
and overhead held down to a minimum. Each good tree is worth
to you at least $50 in future capital. If at maturity it is de-
signed to bear say five boxes or more of fruit per annum, it
should with proper management pay you a good net return each
season on the $50 valuation. If you look upon future values in
this light, you are or will become a keen advocate for careful
planting. A good many dollars are lost each season through
improper planting and inferior trees.
If your land is flat and water will stand upon it for long
periods during wet seasons, provide an outlet for excess water
and mound the tree locations. Make the mounds high enough
so that the hair-like feeder roots close to surface of soil will not
rot off in high water and cause the trees to suffer for food and
moisture when water recedes in dry seasons. A tree so damaged
is thrown out of balance in relation to top and root area and
hence cannot function properly.
The stakes used in laying out the grove should be designed to
serve two purposes: as markers and to provide holes large
enough and deep enough to admit tap root of trees when set. A
stake about 11/2 inches square by three feet long will, if driven
to proper depth, prevent any delay in planting.
Here it is necessary to explain that on most citrus soils, ex-
perienced planters do not dig the tree holes to a depth equivalent
to length of tap root, because a larger area of soil is disturbed
in the tree holes than is necessary. Also the tree is likely to
settle more and there is greater danger of air pockets remaining
around the roots.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


The newer method is to hoe or spade out a circular V-shaped
channel around the stake. The idea is to form a rather flattened
cone around the stake without distrubing the soil immediately
adjoining the stake. Thus the peak of the cone would be on a
level with the surface of the ground while the base of the cone
will be six to ten inches below the ground surface, depending
on the size of the tree to be planted. The diameter of the cone
base will be as great as the diameter of the feeder and crown
root area of the tree. The stake remains in its original position
and with the cone completed it should project vertically from
peak of cone. The cone acts as a prop for the layers of feeder
and crown roots and insures a natural placement for the roots,
whereas if a deep hole with flat bottom is dug a good portion
of the feeder roots are likely to be planted vertically instead of
in a horizontal fashion.
The stake is now moved back and forth until the soil around
it is firmed sufficiently to form an open cavity when stake is
drawn out from the cone. The planting foreman has already
given the tree a final trimming to remove any broken roots and
he hands it to the planter, who is down on his knees. Planter
inserts tap root into cavity formed by stake and proceeds to firm
the cone tightly around the tap root. Then he spreads out care-
fully the lower feeder roots, packing clean top soil all around
them. They rest in a sloping manner along the sloping wall of
the cone.
Each successive layer is placed in like manner, but with slope
diminishing until the uppermost roots are placed practically
horizontal. In fact, the crown or top roots if properly grown in
the nursery will project horizontally from the base of the main
stem or trunk of tree when received from nursery. When all
roots are thoroughly packed in by hand and the tap roots cov-
ered with about one inch of packed soil, then the ringer man
comes along with a hoe and forms an elevated circular rim of
soil around tree equal to diameter of root system. This forms a
basin into which is poured from five to eight gallons of water,
depending upon moisture conditions of the soil.
At least five gallons of water is needed to properly settle the
soil even where moisture conditions are good. Failure to use
sufficient water at planting time has caused much of the trouble
and loss after planting.
Another mistake often made and one that cannot be remedied
except by doing the job over is to plant the trees, as a whole,
too deep. Each tree should be elevated so that when all settling
takes place after transplanting, it will stand at the same height
in your grove that it stood in the nursery. To determine the
proper level, look for the earth collar mark or dark ring around






AGRICULTURAL THEMES


base of tree trunk, as this mark indicates the soil level in nursery.
If collar mark is not visible, plant the tree high enough so that
the top horizontal roots will be one inch below the level of the
ground after the tree has settled (generally from one to two
inches).
After water is applied and has settled, the planter should use
his boot or shoe to tread or press down the soil inside of the
water basin. Point the toe of the boot to tree and press first
and heaviest with the heel to avoid breaking off any of the roots
and to keep the ends of the most horizontal roots from turning
upward. The next operation, generally performed by another
helper, is to draw the loose earth of the water basin rim in
around the tree until all is level and an earth mulch is formed
over the watered area to prevent rapid evaporation of moisture.
Thus far we have used six men or completed six operations in
planting the tree.
To speed up the work, two planters may be used with a con-
sequent speeding up of the other helpers to keep the work going
smoothly. The number of water men necessary will depend upon
the distance of water supply, kind of equipment used to trans-
port it and the speed at which it can be made to run into and
away from the water tanks at points of loading and unloading.
Do not dig the holes before the planting crew arrives, because the
holes will dry out and more water will be needed at planting
time than is necessary. Do not at any time permit the tree
roots to become exposed to wind or sunlight. When trees are
received from nursery, protect them carefully and cover with
wet burlap or other suitable covering until the trees are planted.
The same protection should be given them when they are
hauled to the field where planting takes place. A careful fore-
man will not remove the trees from the tree wagon until the
planters are about ready to place them in the ground. He should
however allow himself sufficient time to examine each tree care-
fully in order to determine whether or not any slight root or
top pruning is necessary. Nurserymen who know their business
will prune the trees ready for planting before shipping them
to their customers; however, a few roots are sometimes damaged
in packing and shipping.







60 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Feeding Habits Among Insects and
Their Relation to Control

Measures

By PHILIP GARMAN, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,
New Haven, in American Produce Grower


HOSE OF us who have dabbled in insect control-and how
many have not at one time or another-may or may not be
familiar with the principles upon which these controls are
based. Varied as our species are, they fall usually into two or
possibly three well-defined classes, namely the chewing, sucking
and lapping insects. There are many, like the Colorado potato
bettle, that bite off portions of the food plant and swallow them;
there are others, like the fruit flies and some of the bees, that
lap their food from the surface of the plant, and there are many
more sucking insects, like the aphids, which insert a beak into
the tissues of the host and take their food from below the surface.
From this it would seem necessary only to determine the feed.
ing habits of the particular pest and apply the remedy-but the
problem is not quite so simple. For example, the habits of some
chewers such as borers and curculios, make them virtually suck-
ing insects, since little or no feeding is done upon the surface
where the poison is placed.
There is still another exception in the case of Japanese beetle,
this insect being repelled by the action of ordinary arsenates on
the digestive tract, and leaving the plant before a fatal dose is
consumed. Certain aphids or plant lice curl the leaves on which
they feed, hiding within the curled portion so that they cannot
be reached by the necessary contact spray. Other sucking forms
leave the plant on the approach of the sprayer, returning only
after the effectiveness of the insecticide is gone.
Furthermore, some workers advance the theory that resistant
strains of a given species subjected year after year to the same
insecticide may be developed, thus destroying the value of the
treatment for that particular pest. And then we have the prob-
lem of mixing materials when both chewers and sucking insects
are present on the same plant. Will the components fight among







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


themselves or will they live together peaceably without reducing
the effectiveness of the spray? If a fungicide is needed, will it
be compatible with the insecticides employed?
INTELLIGENCE AND THOROUGHNESS

Besides these there is the economical phase of the question to
be considered, and, finally, the all-important question as to
whether the material used to combat sucking, chewing or lapping
forms may not prove injurious to the plant itself and the ulti-
mate consumer, man or his domestic animals, for whom it is in-
tended. In terms of the diplomat then the law of chewers and
suckers may be "accepted in principle" but must be modified
to suit the party or parties concerned. Whatever method of con-
trol is used it must be applied thoroughly if success is to be
attained.
We have mentioned contact sprays and stomach poisons. There
is another means of combating insects, fumigation, which affects
all types equally well. A modification of this method of treat-
ment is found in the lately developed impregnated dusts which
are designed to give off enough poisonous gas to kill insects in
close proximity. Our more common nicotine sprays, formerly
considered to kill only by contact, are now thought to act largely
in this manner. However, there are some forms of insects which
offer considerable resistance to this method of control, and only
the most powerful gases applied under exacting conditions are
able to produce a complete mortality.
CLASSES OF INSECTICIDES

Insecticides naturally fall into several classes, as follows: (1)
the true contact materials; (2) those which give off sufficient
toxic gas when applied to kill the pest; (3) fumigants; and (4)
stomach poisons. In addition there are supplementary ma-
terials used either for dilution or for increasing effectiveness by
improving the physical properties, such as sticking powers,
spreading powers, and palatability.
The problem becomes narrowed to: (1) a consideration of the
economics-whether it is worth while to treat: (2) determination
of type of mouth-parts and feeding habits; (3) consideration of
life history habits in order to apply the remedy at the proper
time; (4) selection of materials to be used and consideration of
their effect upon the crop, as well as the consumer of the crop.
If under (2) we find a pest of such habits that it cannot be
reached by ordinary contact sprays, we may resort to other
means, such as application of a fumigant or fumigant dust, or
we may have to fall back on control of the insect in some stage








62 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

more easily killed. If under (4) we find that the particular
spray selected will burn the plant we would like to spray, we
must hunt for the solution either in a more vulnerable stage as
above or an insecticide kinder to the affected plant crop. Most
of these points are usually covered in spray calendars, but lack-
ing these, or if these lack the necessary information, there are
various agents connected with universities and state experiment
stations that are only too glad to furnish the desired informa-
tion regarding any particular pest. It would be well, however,
to mention here some of the insecticides used, together with a
few of the commoner truck crop insects, with facts bearing on
control.
CONTACT INSECTICIDES

Nicotine sulphate-most useful against aphids and safe in
most combinations in lime-sulphur, arsenate of lead or Bor-
deaux mixture. Nicotine is volatile and quickly disappears,
making frequent applications sometimes necessary. Various
dolomite and lime dusts containing nicotine are often used and
are fairly effective.
Derris extract-a newer contact material not extensively used
but having about the same killing power as nicotine sulphate.
Trade names, Derrisine, Derrisol.
Pyrethrum powder and extracts-this is the effective principle
in widely advertised fly killers, these being an extract in de-
odorized and decolorized kerosene or light oil. Volatile principle
is effective in limited or closed spaces, or when applied directly
to the insect concerned. Too expensive for extended operations
in plant pest control.
Calcium cyanide-effective because of the evolution of poison-
ous hydrogen cyanide from the compound. On the border lines
between a contact insecticide and a fumigant. Acts about like
nicotine dust-if anything, more quickly-but there is, under
some conditions, danger of foliage burn.
Carbon bi- or disulphide-although commonly employed in
fumigating, this material may be emulsified and applied to
soil-infesting larvae. Used effectively against certain grubs
and the root form of the wooly aphis.
Mercuric chloride-of limited use; mainly for control of cab-
bage maggot; possibly a stomach poison also.
Hot water-treatment of bulbs by hot water must be regarded
as a treatment by contact. Government recommendations for
treatment of bulbs call for immersion in water at 110 degrees
Fahrenheit for several hours.
Dry heat-also useful in treatment of seeds, not for planting.







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


Lime-sulphur-adapted to fungus control as well as insects.
Used against scale insects while trees are dormant. Not exten-
sively used by vegetable growers because of burn.
Sodium-sulphide-similar in action to lime-sulphur. More
dangerous in combination with arsenicals or other compounds
and cannot be used on foliage.
Sulphur-has little or no insecticidal action, but is a useful
fungicide. Said to volatilize slowly at higher temperatures.
Miscible oils and oil emulsions-principally used against scale
insects but also effective against certain mites, aphids, etc., in
dormant stages. Highly refined white-oil emulsions are safer
on summer foliage and are being used in some sections as a
spreader for arsenates. They are effective in the control of
red spider.
Soaps-various soaps have some action, probably due to the
fatty acids. As a rule they must be supplemented by other ma-
terials to be effective. Nicotine sulphate is commonly used in
combination.
STOMACH POISONS
Arsenate of lead (acid)-most effective stomach poison in
common use. Will burn foliage of some plants under certain
conditions but safe for the most part. Addition to soaps and
miscible oils or oil emulsions not recommended.
Arsenate of lead (basic)-not quite so rapid in killing power
but safer on foliage. Not on the market in the East but used
extensively in some sections of the West.
Calcium arsenate-not safe on some foliage because of de-
terioration when exposed to atmosphere; may be used on potato,
cotton, etc.
Zinc arsenate-used on potatoes; similar in action to lead
arsenate.
Fluosilicate of sodium-a recent discovery; acts much like an
arsenical. Said to be also a contact insecticide but of this there
is some doubt. Developed for use on beans against the Mexican
bean bettle and is proving effective against such pests as blister
bettles.
Sodium fluoride-a stomach poison used mainly against
roaches and lice of domestic animals. Not safe on plants. Used
in Africa as a grasshopper poison instead of white arsenic.
Roaches lick poison from legs and antennae and get enough to
be killed.
Hellebore-a weak stomach poison of use against a limited
number of pests, such as currant worms, rose slugs, etc. Much
weaker than arsenate of lead and without its sticking prop-
erties.









64 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

FUMIGANTS

Hydrogen cyanide-produced by action of sodium or potas-
sium cyanide and sulphuric acid or exposing calcium cyanide to
the air; most useful in greenhouses or closed spaces, especially
against thrips, white flies, aphids and certain flies; will burn
plants if operator is not careful of dose, length of exposure, and
time when exposure is made.
Paradichlorobenzene-a soil fumigant thus far useful mainly
against the peach tree borer.
Carbon bisulphide-useful for protection of seeds from weevil
attacks; recently replaced in commercial practice by a mixture
of carbon tetrachloride and ethyl acetate; fire hazard consid-
erable.
Sulphur dioxide-produced by burning sulphur; very de-
structive to plant life and can only be used In clean-up work
after their removal.
Tobacco-tobacco stems or impregnated papers are burned,
giving off fumes of nicotine; useful in greenhouse fumigation.
Naphthalene--recently proved to be of value in red spider con-
trol; material is vaporized over a lamp or by other means; a
greenhouse fumigant.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS AND INSECTICIDES
OF DOUBTFUL ACTION
Lime-commonly used as a diluent of arsenate of lead and
other materials; freshly slaked lime is valuable in reducing spray
burn from arsenicals, but if carbonated or containing dolomite
may not be successful in this respect; often used as a carrier for
nicotine, and probably has some repellent action when applied
in large quantities.
Casein-lime-a common spreader used to distribute the spray
evenly on the surface of the bark or foliage; value disputed.
Molasses-or other sugar-containing materials are used in
baits, being commonly mixed with bran or similar materials and
a poison and distributed by broadcasting. Fruits such as or-
anges are sometimes used in the bait in addition.
Bordeaux mixture-of considerable value in control of flea
bettles and leaf hoppers; nature of its action doubtful.

SUCKING INSECTS AND RELATED FORMS
Cabbage aphid-nicotine sulphate commonly used in control.
Cabbage maggot-small maggots found about roots and stems
of young cabbage plants; remedy for cabbage, mercuric chloride
around the roots; adult flies are of the lapping type.







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 65

Harlequin (cabbage) bug-very resistant to contact sprays
that are safe; trap crops used, both plants and bugs being de-
stroyed with a strong insecticide.
Garden springtail-doubtful if this is a sucking insect, but is
soft-bodied and easily killed by contact; nicotine sulphate used.
Melon aphid-plant louse occurring on under side of leaves;
nicotine sprays or dusts successful.
Millipedes-though not insects, they succumb to contact poi-
sons, such as nicotine dusts; most troublesome in greenhouses.
Onion maggot-Bordeaux oil emulsion has proved successful
in Illinois. Adult flies are of the lapping type. Larvae or
maggots are killed by saturating soil around plants.
Onion thrips-difficult to kill, partly because of habits, the
insect hiding within the sheath of the plants. Nicotine sulphate
and soap claimed to be successful if driven in with a special
nozzle; several sprays necessary.
Pea aphid-a plant louse that multiplies very rapidly; con-
trolled successfully with nicotine dusts or sprays.
Potato aphid-green or pink louse, sometimes very injurious;
nicotine dusts or sprays are recommended.
Red spider-not an insect; very minute mite responding to
treatment with contact materials; white-oil emulsions, linseed
oil emulsions or lime-sulphur are successful summer treatments;
naphthalene fumigation in greenhouses has recently been shown
to have some value in control. Sulphur dust not always suc-
cessful.
Spinach leaf miners-not easily killed by ordinary insecti-
cides in the active stages; other stages must be considered, but
no control has yet been proved to be satisfactory; adult fly is a
lapping insect.
Tarnished plant bug-small, brownish bug flying readily;
breeds in nearby weeds; habits prevent use of insecticides; no
remedy known.
White flies-most troublesome in greenhouses in the North
where they are easily killed with hydrogen cyanide; in the South,
where they occur outside, miscible oils or emulsions are used.

CHEWING INSECTS
Asparagus bettle-killed easily by arsenate of lead; spreader
desirable.
Bean weevils-several species; most easily killed by heat if
seed is not to be planted; otherwise fumigation with carbon bi-
sulphide should be used, or the seed protected by mixing with
hydrated lime; extreme cold (zero Fahrenheit) is said to kill
some species.
5-Agri.








66 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

Imported cabbage worm-arsenical dusts or sprays may be
used, since the plants head up from the inside, allowing the re-
moval of the outer leaves.
Colorado potato beetle-the common potato bettle, easily killed
with various arsenicals.
Corn ear worm-large worms only in the tips of the ears;
dusting silk with arsenicals has been shown to be of some benefit.
Corn stalk borer-infests corn and other plants, boring in
the stalks; recognized by usual dead-looking section in the
middle of the worm or larvae; only remedy is to dig out and
destroy.
Striped cucumber bettle-a beetle with two yellow stripes;
less easily killed than the Colorado potato beetle; calcium ar-
senate and lead arsenate have proved useful.
Imported currant worm-a sawfly larva easily killed not only
with afsenicals, but also with hellebore.
Cutworms-various species that work by cutting off young
plants near the ground; worse in recently sodded areas; hide
during day under clods, etc.; best handled by protecting plants
with collars or distributing poisoned bran mash on which worms
will feed.
European corn borer-not easily killed by any known insecti-
cide; clean-up measures and plowing under stubble important.
Flea beetles-several species; small hopping beetles, common
on potato, tomato, eggplant, etc. Bordeaux mixture is most
effective remedy known.
Grasshoppers-several species; plants may be protected with
lead arsenate, but poison baits containing molasses and an ar-
senical have proven most successful; large areas may be treated
by broadcasting the material.
Japanese beetle-not killed by the usual poisons because of its
aversion to eating enough to kill; special preparations are being
devised by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Melon and pickle worms-borers that cannot be reached by
any spray or treatment in the active stages.
Squash borer-not killed with usual poisons, but it is claimed
that the eggs may be killed with strong nicotine sulphate.
Tomato worms-easily killed with arsenicals.
Wire worms-several species; young of the common click
beetles or skip-jacks; have a very tough skin and not easily
killed; feeding done beneath the surface; latest means of attack
seems to be to plant trap crop before the main crop is planted,
which, together with the larvae that collect, is destroyed by
drilling calcium cyanide close to the trap plants.








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 67


Check List of U. S. Standards for

Fruits and Vegetables, Feb. 24,1928


Date of last issue
Apples .......... ............... .... .June 30, 1927
Apples, export .............. .... November, 1927
Artichokes ............................. Feb. 10, 1926
Asparagus ............. . .......... .March 3, 1927
Beans, String (wax or green) ........ ..... March 31, 1927
Beets, bunched.. ... ...... .. .. .. .. ..Aug. 9, 1927
Cabbage ........ .. .... ........ ........ Oct. 1, 1924
Cantaloupes .... .............. ........ May 20, 1927
Carrots, bunched ................. ...... .. .Aug. 9, 1927
Carrots, topped ..... .............. .... ..Oct. 14, 1926
Cauliflower ................. .......... .. Dec. 10, 1925
Celery .......... ........ ............... Jan. 6, 1925
Cherries, sweet ......... ..... .... ........ J. une 2, 1927
Citrus fruits ......... .. ....... .... ...... Oct. 28, 1927
Corn, green .......... .... ..... ........ . an. 20, 1927
Cucumbers, slicing ...................... April 25, 1927
Dewberries and Blackberries ..... ......... .Feb. 13, 1928
Eggplant ................... ...... .... April 14, 1925
Garlic ..... ...... .. .................... Sept. 12, 1927
Grapes, American (Eastern Type) Bunch .. . June 27, 1927
Grapes, Juice ................. .... ..... April 21, 1927
Grapes, Table ....... .............. .. April 21, 1927
Grapes, Sawdust-pack ............. .... .. April 21, 1927
H oney ................ .... ........ .... December, 1927
Honey Dew and Honey Ball Melons .. .. .... June 2, 1927
Lettuce ............................... ....Dec. 1, 1926
Onions, Bermuda .. ..... .... ..... March 31, 1927
Onions, Creole ...................... ...... May 6, 1926
Onions, Northern Grown ............... .. .June 26, 1925
Peaches ......... ........................ May 5, 1924
Peanuts, Farmers' Stock ......... ........ Sept. 30, 1925
Peanuts, Shelled White Spanish ...... ...... July 26, 1925
Peanuts, Runner .......... .......... ...... July 26, 1925
Pears ........................ .......... July 28, 1925
Peas, fresh ..... ............... .... ......May 6, 1926
Peppers, sweet .................... ... .Nov. 19, 1923
Pineapples ......... ...... .... .... ..March 31, 1924
Plums and Prunes ............... .... .... July 8, 1926






68 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

CHECK LIST OF U. S. STANDARDS FOR FRUITS AND
VEGETABLE S.-Continued
Date of last issue
Potatoes ........... ...................June 30, 1927
Potatoes, sweet .......... .......... .....May 12, 1926
Radishes, bunched ............ .. .... ...Feb. 25, 1926
Shallots, bunched .... ......... ....... .March 3, 1927
Spinach .............. .................. Aug. 9, 1927
Strawberries ...... .............. ...... April 7, 1926
Tomatoes, cannery ............. ...... .. .March 1, 1926
Tomatoes, fresh.. .................. ..... March 11, 1925
Turnips, bunched ............. .............Aug. 9, 1927
Watermelons .. .. .. .. ........ Aug. 12, 1925



Standards of Weights and Measures

The Florida Farmer, March 16, 1928. Copied from the Revised General
Statutes of Florida (Vol. 1), 1920, Chapter 2372.


TIIE following standards of weights and measures shall be
the standard weights and measures throughout the state
of Florida:
One standard liquid gallon shall contain 231 solid inches. The
weights and measures shall be as follows:


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Corn, shelled ........... 56
Corn, on cob with shuck . 70
Sorghum Seed ....... 56
Barley Seed .. .. .. 48
Oats .. ..... ........ 32
Bran ..... ...... ..... 20
Corn Meal ......... .48
Beans, shelled ....... 60
Beans, Velvet, in hulls .. 78
Beans, Castor, shelled .. 48
Millet Seed ........... 50
Beggarweed Seed ...... 62
Irish Potatoes .......... 60
Sweet Potatoes ........ 56
Turnips ..... ........ 54


Pounds
Per Bushel Avoirdupois
Onions .. .......... 56
Salt ..... ............. 60
Peanuts .......... 22
Chufas ........... 54
Rye ................. 56
Apples, dried ........ 24
Apples, green ...... 48
Quinces ......... 48
Peaches, dried ........ 24
Peaches, green ....... 54
Cotton Seed ........ 32
Cotton Seed, Sea Island .. 44
Plums .... ........ 40
Pears ...... ....... 55
Guavas .. ....... 54








AGRICULTURAL THEMES


Scale of Weights and Measures Used

in Marketing Farm Crops


THE following, from Section 8060 of the Consolidated Stat-
utes, is a scale of weights and measures used in the market-
ing of agricultural products in North Carolina. This is a
corrected list and conforms to the latest regulations.
"Standard weights and measures, exception; penalty. The
standard weight of the following seeds and other articles named
shall be as stated in this section, viz.:


tbs.
Alfalfa, per bu ......... 60
Apples, dried, per bu. .. 24
Apple seed, per bu. ..... 40
Barley, per bu. ......... 48
Beans, castor, per bu... 46
Beans, dry, per bu ...... 60
Beans, green in pod, bu. 30
Beans, soy, per bu ...... 60
Beef, net, per bbl.......200
Beets, per bu. ......... 50
Blackberries, dried, bu.. 28
Blackberries, per bu. .... 48
Bran, per bu......... 20
Broomcorn, per bu. ... 44
Buckwheat, per bu ..... 50
Cabbage, per bu ....... 50
Canary seed, per bu. .... 60
Carrots, per bu. ......... 50
Cherries, with stems, bu... 56
Cherries, without stems,
per bu. .......... 64
Clover seed, red and white,
per bu. ............ 60
Clover, burr, per bu. .... 8
Clover, German, per bu... 60
Clover, Japan, Lespedeza,
in hull, per bu. ..... 25
Corn in ear, shucked, bu.. 66
Corn, shelled, per bu. .. 56
Corn in ear, with shucks,
per bu. ............ 70


lbs.
Corn, Kaffir, per bu ..... 50
Corn, pop, per bu. ...... 70
Cotton seed, per bu. ..... 30
Cotton seed, Sea Island,
per bu. ............ 44
Cucumbers, per bu. ..... 48
Fish, per half-bbl .... ..100
Flax seed, per bu ... .... 56
Grapes, with stems, per bu. 48
Grapes, without stems, bu. 60
Gooseberries, per bu. .. 48
Grass seed, Bermuda, bu. 14
Grass seed, blue, per bu. 14
Grass seed, Hungarian, bu. 48
Grass seed, Johnson, bu.. 25
Grass seed, Italian rye, bu. 20
Grass seed, orchard, bu... 14
Grass seed, tall meadow
and fescue, per bu... 24
Grass seed, all meadow and
fescue except tall, bu. 14
Grass seed, perennial rye,
per bu. ............ 14
Grass seed, timothy, bu. 45
Grass seed, velvet, per bu. 7
Grass, redtop, per bu .... 14
Hemp seed, per bu ...... 44
Hominy, per bu. ........ 62
Horseradish, per bu. ..... 50
Liquids, gals. per bbl.... 42








70 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

SCALE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED IN MAR-
KETING FARM CROPS.-Continued


lbs.
Meal, corn, bolted or un-
bolted, per bu. ..... 48
Melon, cantaloupe, per bu. 50
Millet, per bu ........... 50
Mustard, per bu. ...... 58
Nuts, chestnuts, per bu... 50
Nuts, hickory, without
hulls, per bu. ...... 50
Nuts, walnuts, without
hulls, per bu .. .... 50
Oats, seed, per bu. ...... 32
Onions, button sets, bu... 32
Onions, top buttons, bu... 28
Onions, matured, per bu.. 57
Osage, orange seed, bu.... 33
Peaches, matured, per bu. 50
Peaches, dried, per bu. .. 25
Peanuts, per bu ........ 22
Peach seed, per bu...... 50
Peanuts, Spanish, per bu. 30
Parsnips, per bu. ....... 50
Pears, matured, per bu.. 56
Pears, dried, per bu. .... 26
Peas, dry, per bu. ...... 60
Peas, green, in hull, bu... 30
Pieplant, per bu. ....... 50
Plums, per bu. ......... 64
"But this section shall not b
chase and sale by measure.


lbs.
Pork, net, per bbl. ......200
Potatoes, Irish, per bu.. 56
Potatoes, sweet, per bu. .. 56
Quinces, matured, per bu. 48
Raspberries, per bu. ..... 48
Rice, rough, per bu. .... 44
Rye seed, per bu. ...... 56
Sage, per bu........... 4
Salads, mustard, spinach,
turnips, kale, per bu. 10
Salt, per bu. .......... 50
Sorghum, seed, per bu... 50
Sorghum, molasses, per bu. 12
Strawberries, per bu. ... 48
Sunflower seed, per bu. .. 24
Teosinte, per bu. ...... 59
Tomatoes, per bu. ..... 56
Turnips, per bu. .. ..... 50
Wheat, per bu. ....... 60
Cement, per bu. .. ..... 80
Charcoal, per bu. ..' ... 22
Coal, stone, per bu..... 80
Coke, per bu ....... 40
Hair, plaster, per bu. ..... 8
Land plaster, per bu. .... 100
Lime, unslaked, per bu... 80
Lime, slaked, per bu. .... 40
e construed to prevent the pur-


"If any person shall take any greater weight than is specified
for any of the items named herein, he shall forfeit and pay the
sum of twenty dollars for each separate case to any person who
may sue for same."








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 71



Watermelon Loading Rules


Georgia Market Bulletin, July 5. 1928


FIRST-Cars shall be ventilated on sides and ends. No cars
shall be deemed standard loaded without such ventilation.
SECOND-Melons shall be carefully handled, stacked and
piled tightly.
THIRD-No cars shall be deemed standard loaded unless
papered around the side and ends to the full height of the
melons. The floor shall be properly bedded with either excelsior,
pine straw or other suitable bedding. In no event will sawdust
or shavings be accepted. Do not close vents with paper.
FOURTH-Melons shall be graded as follows:
Average Min. Weight Max. Weight Depth Count
18 lbs. 16 lbs. 20 lbs. 5 deep 1600 melons
20 lbs. 18 lbs. 22 lbs. 5 deep 1500 melons
22 Ibs. 20 lbs. 24 lbs. 4 deep 1150 melons
24 Ibs. 22 lbs. 26 lbs. 4 deep 1050 melons
26 lbs. 24 lbs. 28 lbs. 4 deep 1000 melons
28 lbs. 26 lbs. 30 lbs. 4 deep 960 melons
30 lbs. 28 lbs. 32 lbs. 4 deep 880 melons
32 lbs. 30 lbs. 34 lbs. 4 dssp 840 melons
34 lbs. 32 lbs. 36 lbs. 4 deep 800 melons
36 lbs. 34 lbs. 38 lbs. 4 deep 720 melons

FIFTH-Melons shall be fresh clipped from vines and loaded
into cars within 24 hours from time clipped. No illshapen,
diseased, specked or otherwise imperfect melons to be loaded
in standard cars. Melons to be taken from healthy green vines
only. No melons shall be loaded while wet or on wet bedding.
SIXTH-All melons shall be treated for stem-end rot with
a paste made from a formula approved by the Bureau of Plant
Industry of the Department of Agriculture of the United States.
SEVENTH-No cars shall be deemed standard loaded unless
all of the foregoing rules are complied with, and shippers and
growers are urged against loading any cars which will not con-
form to the above standard.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Tupelo Honey


By GOODWIN BLACKSHEAR


"How doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey all the day
From every opening flower!"

BUT Mrs. Bee wisely chooses Tupelo whenever she can get it.
Tupelo-the White and the Black-stand at the top of all
honey producing plants. They are both trees, and grow in
swamps. The White Tupelo is bushy, the Black Tupelo is a tall
tree, standing in the midst of cypresses, with a trunk very
straight and tall, and long-leaved branches that bear infinitesi-
mal white flowers, succeeded later by berries, which are of no
use.
Sometimes the Tupelo blooms in March, sometimes in May-
it has no stated season, but goes according to the weather, bee
men say. It grows in the swampy woods of the Apalachicola
river in great abundance, and bee men bring their colonies from
Georgia and Alabama on barges or boats to let them get Tupelo
honey. A good and up-and-coming apiary owner always has
this at the top of his letterheads: 'Tupelo Honey a Specialty.'
It brings him custom.
The honey from Tupelo blooms never granulates; it is clear
amber, of exquisite flavor, and is used extensively in making
syrups for medicines, though of course if one wants de luxe bee
products, food for the Queen bee herself, one gets it spread on
hot cakes and waffles, regardless of medicinal needs.
You remember the schoolboy who defined salt as "the stuff
that makes potatoes taste bad when you leave it off." Tupelo
honey is the stuff that makes the children's medicines taste bad
when you leave it out. So be careful about using too much on
the waffles.
If one wants it for wholesale druggists, or laboratories, the
"gums are robbed" when Tupelo blossoms are gone, and before
the numerous swamp flowers come into bloom. Honey that never
granulates is valuable stuff, and worth good money.
Late in May and into June another honey flower that is, in
most people's opinion, the equal of Tupelo comes into its own.
This plant is Ti-Ti-pronounced with the I long-don't say







AGRICULTURAL THEMES


''tee-tee." It is a shrub, and grows along creek banks, in marshy
places, anywhere near water, though it does not thrive in the
river swamps like Tupelo. Ti-Ti is white, fragrant-smells like
honey-and hangs in long tassels, very beautiful and effective
in a vase. Unlike the Tupelo, its flowers are the best thing about
its appearance. Ti-Ti, like Tupelo, makes honey that does not
granulate.
The Sugarberry tree is also valuable for honey; it, too, grows
in the Apalachicola swamps in great abundance. So, also, does
the Wahoo, or Basswood, which flowers in summer, and which
Mrs. Bee is particularly fond of.
Saw palmetto blooms make fine honey, but they are capricious
about blossoming, sometimes missing a year, so the bee men can-
not depend upon them.
Bees love wild grape and muscadine blooms, too, and they
make' good honey, and are very plentiful in the river woods.
Magnolias, one would think, would make fine honey, but bee
men say they do not care for them. There is such a plenitude
of the enormous trees, loaded with great urn-like blooms, that
it seems a pity.
There is a bush called by the natives "spider-bush" which is
a great honey flower. It is a bush, covered with soft green
thorns and bearing clusters of lavender and white trumpet
blooms, shaped like woodbine flowers. It is a pretty bush and
would look well in any flower garden.
Buttonwood grows on ereekside, in moist places, like ti-ti, and
it is also a beautiful flowering shrub, with great clusters of
snow-white balls for blossoms. Bee men say it is not very good
for honey, though the bees like it.
The French Mulberry blossoms in June, and its delicate sprigs
of tiny, clustering lavender flowers make good honey. It is
plentiful in the woods of West Florida.
Willow is also desirable for honey, and dense growth of willow
means plentiful food for bees.









74 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Feeding and Marketing Ducks


Methods Used by the Large Commercial Duck Farms in Feeding
and Taking Care of Breeding Ducks-How to Fatten
and Prepare "Green Ducks" for Market--
Advice on Killing, Dressing and Packing
Ducks for Shipment


By ALFRED R. LEE and SHEPPARD HAYNES, United States Bureau
Of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., in Poultry Success.


D UCKLINGS to be sold as green ducks are kept in small
pens and are fed heavily and forced for rapid growth.
The commercial duck farms on Long Island market their
ducks when 10 weeks old.
The ducks to be used for breeders are separated about July 1
from the growing ducks and kept in separate pens. Whole corn
is fed to these breeders in the morning, giving what they will
clean up in about an hour. In the evening a mash of 2 parts
bran, 1 part middlings, 1 part corn meal by weight, and 20 per
cent of green forage is fed. Breeding stock should be fed lightly
until about October 1, when meat or fish scrap is gradually
added to the ration. The meat or fish scrap is gradually in-
creased to about 12 per cent by October 15, which is the maxi-
mum amount desirable in a laying ration for breeders.
Another good ration for egg production for breeding ducks
consists of the following, the proportions being by weight: 1 part
bran, 1/2 part middlings, 1/2 part low-grade flour, 1 part corn
meal, 1 part green feed, 1/2 part meat scrap, and 1/4 part cooked
fish or 1/8 part fish meal. The breeding ducks should be fed
twice daily-in the morning and at night. Green feed consists
of creek grass, clover, young corn, rye, cowpeas, etc., cut up by
machine in about 1/2-inch lengths and mixed in the feed. Ground
alfalfa may be used if no other green feed is available,
using only about half as much ground alfalfa as of the fresh,
green feeds. Rye is the first green feed in the spring, followed
by oats, and then fodder corn in the summer. In August rape
is sown and is available until freezing weather.
Breeding ducks are given all they will eat. The feed should
be wet enough to hold together when squeezed, somewhere be-
tween sticky and crumbly, but it must not be crumbly. It is not







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 75

advisable to feed entirely with fish and no meat scraps, as fresh
fish is not always available and changing the ration is apt to
cut down the egg yield. Cooked small potatoes are a desirable
addition to the breeding ration during the winter months. Oyster
shell and sand should be kept before the breeders all the time.
Breeding ducks, which are laying, should be shut in the house
about 4:30 p. m. and not released until about 10 o'clock the next
morning, so that they will lay their eggs in the house. Indian
Runner ducks are used to produce commercial eggs, so if kept for
egg production they should be fed laying rations throughout the
year.
FEEDING THE DUCKLINGS

Ducklings should be allowed to range only about 21/ feet
from the hover for the first three or four days, until they learn
to run under the hover for heat. The pens should be bedded with
straw. Water should be given them at each feeding time in
protected fountains, arranged so as not to wet the straw or
bedding. Brooder-house pens should be cleaned out about every
10 days and fresh straw added. The first week, feed five times
daily, a moist mash of 2 parts bran, 1 part corn meal, 1 part
middlings, and 12 part green feed. No grit is used in the feed
except a little clean sand which can be sprinkled over the feed.
Keep sand in a little box in each pen.
Other good feeds to start young ducks on are soaked stale
bread, shredded-wheat screenings, or commercial cracker crumbs,
part of which could be used in this ration in place of the mid-
dlings. Feed about 5 percent meat scrap in the mash from the
seventh to the tenth days. After 10 days feed 2 parts bran (by
weight), 1 part corn meal, 1 part middlings, 2 parts green feed,
and 1 part meat scrap, or 1 part cooked fish, if obtainable, in
place of meat scrap. Gradually increase the corn meal as the
ducks grow older until the ration at 4 weeks is 2 parts bran, 2
parts corn meal, 2 parts middlings, 21/2 parts cooked fish or 2
parts meat scrap, and 2 parts green feed. Feed this mash four
times daily.
Ducklings can be allowed out of the brooder house during the
winter months after they are 10 days to 2 weeks old whenever
the weather is good. If it is necessary to confine the ducklings
to the house all or most of the time, 2 per cent of cod-liver oil
should be added to the mash. If little direct sunlight is available
during the winter months, it probably would be advisable to add
the cod-liver oil. The cod-liver oil should be omitted from the
ration for at least two weeks before the ducks are marketed, as
it will affect the flavor of the flesh.







76 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

FATTENING DUCKS

Ducks between 7 and 8 weeks of age are moved to the water
front and fed a fattening ration, until marketed, of 4 parts corn
meal, 2 parts bran, 2 parts meat scrap, 2 parts middlings, and
1 part green feed by weight. Keep the feed troughs near the
water in the fattening pens to reduce exercise. Fish should be
left out of the ration for market ducks four weeks before they
are to be killed, so that no fishy flavor may be given to the flesh.
Feed should not be left before the ducks and allowed to sour, as
it is apt to cause convulsions and death, especially among young
ducklings.
Ducklings and ducks are usually fed mash on flat feed boards
rather than in troughs. The drinking water should be near the
feed, so that the ducks can eat and drink at about the same time.
Water fountains for ducks should be deep enough to allow the
latter to get their bills into the water to wash sand or grit out
of their nostrils. All mashes for ducks are fed moist. Green
ducks are marketed at from 8 to 12 weeks of age, according to
their condition and weight. Semi-solid and dried buttermilk is
being used in the feeding and fattening of ducks.
The loss in rearing ducklings under good conditions is usually
from about 8 to 10 percent, and both ducklings and breeding
ducks are comparatively free from diseases if properly managed.
The losses in growing ducks usually occur before the ducklings
are 1 month old. Although ducks are comparatively free from
diseases they are subject to the same diseases that affect chick-
ens, and similar methods of treating diseases are used.

PREPARING DUCKS FOR MARKET

At the New York market preference is given to ducks weighing
about 5/2 pounds, and no ducklings should be held after the
long wing feathers have reached their full length, as the ducks
reach their best condition at that time. The ducks are hung up
by their feet in a row and a weighted hook is caught through the
nostrils to facilitate bleeding. The ducks are stuck in the roof
of the mouth or through the throat, cutting the artery, with a
knife which has a narrow blade about 4 inches long, and stunned
by piercing the brain, turning the knife slightly. The blood is
saved and mixed in the mash for the growing ducks. The ducks
may be either scalded or dry picked, scalding being the most
common method and the method used exclusively for the New
York market.
The water for scalding should be just below boiling, as too
hot water discolors the flesh; the ducks should be scalded just







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 77

as soon as they are through bleeding. The long tail feathers are
left on the ducks, the wings are picked to the first joint, and the
neck halfway to the head. Long pinfeathers usually are re-
moved with a dull knife, and the down sometimes is rubbed off
with the moistened hand, or it may be burned with alcohol or
shaved with a very sharp knife. Large duck farms usually have
pickers who devote their time entirely to the dressing of ducks
during the marketing season and are very proficient in the work.
The average duck picker picks about 40 ducks in half a day.
After the ducks are picked they are usually washed and put
into ice water for an hour or two to cool and plump. Each
layer of ducks is packed flat in ice, in barrels, usually with the
keels or breasts down. A layer of crushed ice is placed on the
bottom of the barrel on which is put a layer of dressed ducks,
and alternate layers of ducks and ice are added until the barrel
is nearly full. The top of the barrel is filled with a layer or
header of ice. Boxes holding 12 dry-packed ducks are also used
in a few cases.
These dressed ducks should be graded according to their size
and thoroughly chilled before they are packed in barrels or
boxes. It costs from 5 to 6 cents apiece to pick ducks, but the
feathers almost pay for the picking. Each duck yields about 2
ounces of marketable feathers. The feathers must be dried by
spreading them out in thin layers in a loft, and they should be
turned several times until they are thoroughly dried. Then they
are sold to feather dealers and shipped in large burlap sacks.
The large duck farms figure on marketing from 40 to 50 ducks
for each breeder.
Green ducks are marketed from April to November and bring
from 20 to 45 cents a pound when sold at wholesale to commis-
sion men. The highest prices are paid for the ducks marketed
early in the spring and they decrease as the season advances and
the supply becomes more abundant. The demand for green
ducks has been built up in large cities in the East and on the
Pacific coast, but there is very little demand for such ducks in
small cities and towns. Many farmers market their ducks in the
fall as spring ducks at a lower price per bird than is received
for green ducks in the spring.

MARKETING DUCKS' EGGS

The demand for ducks' eggs at a good price is limited and not
nearly so general as the demand for hens' eggs. A good demand
for ducks' eggs exists about Easter time at prices usually several
cents a dozen higher than for hens' eggs, but during the rest of
the year the average price for ducks' eggs has been about the








78 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

same as for hens' eggs. Since three ducks' eggs weigh about
the same as four hens' eggs, duck eggs do not appear to be so
profitable for the production of market eggs as hens. A trade
is gradually being established in some markets for fancy near-by
ducks' eggs, which bring higher prices than hens' eggs, and the
demand seems to be increasing. Pure-white eggs are preferred
and usually bring the highest price. These eggs should be mar-
keted frequently, as they depreciate in quality more rapidly
than hens' eggs, especially during hot weather. The market for
eggs should be carefully investigated by anyone who intends to
raise ducks for eggs alone.







Poultry Raising

GREEN FEED CROPS FOR POULTRY
By PROF. N. R. MEHRHOF in Florida Grower

AMOUNT OF )AYS TO INSTANCEE
CROP VARIETY WHEN TO SEED 'ER IIARVEST APART ROWS
PLANT AcRE (PASTURE) AND IN Rows
CABBAGE (Copenhagen. Market. Early
Flat Dutch Sept.-March 1 11. 50 (days (00 days
to head) 2/2'-3'x2'
(HINESE ('CAeRBAEI'ao(till (Wong Bok Type),
Peking (Pe Tsai Type) Sept.-March 0-8 oz. 40-45 days
(s0-0n days to
head) 2%'-3'x2'
('COLARDS True Georgia. Whitehead Any Season 1h% l. b50 days 2/%'x2'
KALE Imperial Long Standing,
Dwarf German, Curled
Scotch Aug.-Aliril 8 lbs. 40-45 days 18"x6"
MUSTARD Southern Giant Curled, Chi-
inese Broad Leaved Fall (Sept,-Oct.) 5-0 lls. 3.-40 days 18"
Spring (Feb.-Apr.)
IAPE I warf Essex Sept.-Jan. 8-20 Ils. 40-45 days 2'
TURNIPS l'urple Top, White Egg Fall (Sept.-lec.) 2 lbs. tops in 6-8 weeks 2'
Spring (Feb.-Apr.)
COWPEAS Brabham Iron. Couch Whip-
poorwill, Clay Mixed Mar.-Sept. %-1 lu. ;0 days 2' drilled
(ATs Fulghum Rust Proof, Burt Oct.-Nov.-)ec. 2-4 liu. ( weeks Broadcast
RYE Abruzzi, Georgia-Florida Rye Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 3-0 pks. ( weeks Broadcast
BERMUDA 'Colllio111 Giant Any Season Plant roots Apr.-Nov.
CoRN Any Variety Mar.-Sept. 1-2 lu. 6-8 weeks Broadcast
aMILLET Cattail. Pearl Mar.-Sept. 10-20 lbhs 6 weeks
NAPIER GRASS Any Time Plant roots Begin to cut
Mar.-Sept. or canes when 18" high








80 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Water Birds


By ISABEL GOODHUE


F LORIDA'S hundreds of miles of seacoast and her bays and
salt rivers, as well as inland lakes and streams, attract
many kinds of sea-birds and wading-birds in winter. Resi-
dent species were originally represented in the state by great
numbers of birds, its southern location making it the home of
brilliant tropical and semi-tropical varieties. Several of the
most beautiful species are not now to be found anywhere upon
the mainland nor north of the small Keys south of Key West,
and others are rapidly passing away. It used to be a common
practice for male travelers of a certain type to stand on the
decks of little river steamboats and shoot the birds along the
route, leaving their victims dead or dying in the vegetation on
the shores. Moreover, traffic in plumes and stuffed birds for
women's hats has wrought quite as much havoc as the slaughter
indulged in by men and boys.
Of late years the federal and state governments have set apart
islands or portions of the mainland as sanctuaries where birds
may pass the breeding season in safety, and upon which it is a
prison offence to shoot any feathered inhabitant. The bird reser-
vations in Florida are the Dry Tortugas, Pine Island, Key West,
Pelican Island, Island Bay, Mosquito Inlet, Passage Key, Mat-
lacha Pass, Palma Sola Key, Indian Key and Orange Lake, the
Julia A. Hanson reservation and Royal Palm State Park. And
these serve chiefly as sanctuaries for wading and water birds.
For several miles around a bird reservation one may observe
more water birds than in ordinary localities and generally speak-
ing we also find them in greater numbers and variety in the
parts of Florida that are still undeveloped. The Gulf coast, the
Gulf islands, the Everglades and a few inland points furnish
unique opportunities. The wading and sea-birds that undoubt-
edly breed in the state are the Great Blue Heron; Ward's
Heron; the Black-crowned Night Heron; Yellow-crowned Night
Heron; Great White Heron; Louisiana Heron; Little Blue
Heron; Green Heron; Snowy Heron; American Egret; Reddish
Egret; Whooping Crane, now very rare; Standing Crane; Scar-
let Flamingo-none now north of Key West; Scarlet Ibis, none
reported for several years; Roseate Spoonbill-rapidly decreas-
ing; White Ibis; Wood Ibis; Glossy Ibis-not common; Limp-








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 81

kin; Least Bittern; Cory Bittern-very rare; King Rail; Scott's
Clapper Rail; Little Black Rail; Purple Gallinule; Florida Gal-
linule; Black-necked Stiff; American Woodcock; Wilson's
Snipe; Spotted Sandpiper; Willet; Killdeer; Plover; Wilson's
Plover; Florida Duck; Hooded Merganser; Wood Duck; Ruddy
Duck; Long-billed Curlew; Pied-billed Grebe; Laughing Gull;
Black Skimmer; Greater Shearwater, casually; Yellow-billed
Tropic Bird; Blue-faced Booby, casually; Red-footed Booby,
rarely in Florida; Anhinga or Snake Bird; Florida Cormorant;
American Oyster-catcher; Brown Pelican; Frigate Bird and the
Bridled, Cabot, Royal, Common, Least, Sooty, Noddy and Rose-
ate Terns.
Among the birds that are of especial interest to visitors and
ordinary observers are the herons. The Great Blue Heron is a
handsome bird about four feet in height and is in color bluish
gray with white crown, black crest and primaries and black
patches on the sides. As Great Blue Herons range from South
America to the Arctic Circle we may meet them almost anywhere
but they are commonly seen in Florida. The Ward Heron is
similar to the Great Blue, the difference being in the Ward
Heron the underparts are lighter, the neck darker and the legs
olive.
The plumage of the Little Blue Heron is slaty blue in color
except the neck, which is dark maroon, so dark, indeed, that the
entire plumage at a distance looks slate color.
The Louisiana Heron is dark, bluish gray, the chin, throat
and underparts are white, the aigrette plumes are short and of
a dingy gray and the legs dark. The neck is long and slender
and the entire effect of the bird is light and graceful. Brad-
ford Torrey writes of it as "the dainty Louisiana," more poetic-
ally known (and worthy to wear the name) as the "Lady of the
Waters," and says of it "The heron with which I found himself
especially taken was the Louisiana, a bird with an air of dainti-
ness and lightness that is all its own and quite indescribable.
When it rose upon the wing, indeed, it seemed almost too light,
almost unsteady, as if it lacked ballast, like a butterflyy' But
Captain K, who piloted us during a two days' cruise among the
Island waterways, said of the Louisiana, "It's the most despic-
able bird going when you are hunting game birds, for the Louisi-
ana will warn the other birds of danger every time."
The Green Heron is the very smallest of the herons and green
is but one of the many colors it wears. Though the "Little
Green" and the "Golden Crowned Night Heron" often nest in
colonies with the others, they sometimes rear their young apart,
in pairs, and have been found nesting quite far from water,
even in apple trees.
6-Agri.







FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


The body of the Reddish Egret is bluish gray, the head and
neck reddish and the back adorned with gray aigrette plumes.
However, the most beautiful are the white herons and egrets.
The Great White Heron is a magnificent creature as large as
the Great Blue Heron and is only found in the southern part of
Florida. It is devoid of the aigrette plumes which are quite a
feature of the other varieties. American Egrets are resident in
the southern parts of the United States and rarely found in
more northerly latitudes. These very beautiful birds are pure
white and have about fifty white aigrette feathers growing be-
tween the wings and the middle of the back. The legs are black.
The American Egret is on the verge of extermination because of
the havoc made in its ranks by plume hunters. The Snowy
Heron is a smaller bird than the American Egret and has re-
curved aigrette feathers on its back. It has also been slaughtered
in great numbers. The aigrette plumes are worn by both male
and female American Egrets and Snowy Herons and are only
perfect and desirable during the breeding season. These birds
nest in colonies and to obtain the plumes for millinery purposes
plume hunters have been accustomed to raid the nesting haunts,
slaughter the parent birds and leave the young to die by slow
starvation. Traffic in these feathers is now forbidden by law.
Roseate Spoonbills are still infrequently seen. In September,
1916, friends on Captiva Island and Buck's Key sent word to
the author's host and hostess that "Pink Curlews" had been
noticed feeding at evening time on the sand bars near the shores
of one or the other of these islands. The beautiful flock proved
to be Roseate Spoonbills and made an exquisite picture against
the gray-green background of the shores. The Great Artist had
arranged that they and Scarlet Ibises and Scarlet Flamingoes
should often be seen in this region, lending a touch of vivid and
thrilling beauty to surroundings wonderfully adapted to them
in coloring and in peculiar charm, but ornithologists say that
there is no recent record of the appearance of the Scarlet Ibis
in this state and though less than twenty years ago Scarlet
Flamingoes were commonly seen almost all over Florida and
casually as far north as South Carolina, they do not now breed
north of the keys south of the mainland.
A retired boat captain residing on one of the Gulf Islands told
us that in the winter of 1901 and 1902 a single Scarlet Flamingo
was often seen as far north as Useppa Island in the Gulf of
Mexico, opposite Captiva Pass. Some of its human neighbors
were hoping that it might attract a mate and rear young in the
vicinity but tourists came that way with a guide and one of the
party, a New York man, coveted the bird that he might have it
stuffed as a souvenir of his trip and finally bribed the guide to







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 83

shoot it. These splendid birds, nearly four feet in height, whose
plumage nature has washed with charming rose and rose-red
tints, seem never to fail to awaken the latent poetry in orni-
thologists writing of visits to the flocks in the Bahamas and West
Indies. In the grand meting out of justice what shall be his or
her portion who assisted in destroying the earth's beauty ?
The Ibis family, excepting the distinguished Scarlet Ibis, is
well represented along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Ibises are
commonly found on the shores of lakes, lagoons and marshes.
They make but little outcry and fly with neck outstretched.
When disturbed the White Ibis utters a loud, hoarse hunk, hunk,
hunk and the Wood Ibis a gutteral note. The White Ibis is a
striking beauty with its bill and legs orange red in color and its
plumage all white except the primaries, which are black. Fortu-
nately it does not wear aigrette plumes and so may be found in
large numbers. The most striking in appearance is the tall
White Wood Ibis; it is also to be found along the Gulf Coast of
Florida. The Glossy Ibis is a somewhat rare and beautiful
species. When going up the Caloosahatchee river on one of the
little river steamboats I saw a small white heron with Nile-green
legs, an exquisite color combination. I failed to find it listed in
the bird book which I had with me. Later I learned it was the
fully grown young of the Little Blue Heron mentioned previ-
ously. One of these lovely birds flew before us up the river,
alighting and flying on as we approached. The young of the
Reddish Egret are white also but they do not wear light green
stockings.
A Florida Gallinule and chicks is sometimes seen along this
river. Indeed, no one ever knows what interesting birds may
chance to be visiting its shores and beyond LaBelle, which is at
the end of the usual river trip, is a canal opening into Lake
Okeechobee and in the shallow marshy places along its sides all
of the herons, and a great number of other wading birds, are
frequently to be seen, standing singly or in groups, feeding.
Brown Pelicans are highly valuable for their picturesqueness
and never fail to interest a stranger. They look at a distance like
huge kingfishers. Small flocks fly in single file, flapping their
wings in perfect time, then by common impulse soar upward.
Pelicans dive from quite a height, usually coming up out of the
splash of spray triumphantly with a catch of fish. Young peli-
cans feed by thrusting their bills into their parent's pouch,
selecting from its varied contents what they wish.
Frigate, or Man-of-War birds, are of great interest to bird
students unfamiliar with southern seas. These birds are said
by some authorities to breed not only in the Bahamas but on the
Florida Keys south of the mainland. They are frequently seen








84 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

soaring splendidly over South Florida waters. They seldom use
their weak and delicate feet except in perching and remain in
the air for long periods.
Probably the verdict would be that the most beautiful Florida
sea-birds are Roseate Terns and the Yellow-billed Tropic Birds.
Roseate Terns in form and grace of movement suggest the swal-
low. In color this tern is most lovely. The back is pearl gray
in tint, the forked tail wholly white, the crown black, the bill
black but red at the base and the underparts white flushed, in
summer time, with shell pink. The yellow-billed tropic bird is
tern-like in shape, graceful and enduring in flight, and its plum-
age is white with black outer and inner wing feathers. Besides
the resident wading-birds and sea-birds, many migrant water-
birds visit the Atlantic and Gulf coasts during the winter
months, among them Gulls, Gannets, Terns, Petrels, Plover,
Grebes, Ducks, Geese and Wild Swans. Indeed, Florida's blue
waters are rimmed by skimming wings of white, pearl and gray
and should reflect the glory of flashing pinions of red and rose.






AGRICULTURAL THEMES 85


The Florida Keys


By HELEN HOLLAND in National Magazine


SOLATED, detached, mysterious with the subtle fascination
of the tropics, reeking with romance, aloof from the rest of
the world, with their marvelous charm of opalescent seas and
sunny skies, the Florida Keys yet are doing more to publicize
Florida than any other section of the state in its construction
of the only Over-Sea Highway in the world.
This unique automobile road is now in process of building
from Key West to the mainland of Florida. It has already
crossed several islands on its way to meet the northern terminal
somewhere along the central Keys. The latter link is now pro-
gressing rapidly down Key Largo, the first and longest island in
the chain. This great undertaking is a county enterprise, Mon-
roe county having already issued bonds to the sum of $2,360,000
for the purpose of financing initial stages of construction. The
completion of this wonder highway with its infinite variety of
scenic beauty, its panoramas of sea and sky, indented by the
emerald isles of the Florida Keys, will undoubtedly intrigue the
interest of the nation in its departure from conventional high-
way building as it is known upon the mainland. Inevitably it
will be the instrument of bringing increased prosperity to this
isolated group of sunny islands.
Long ago when the Indian reigned supreme over America, the
Florida Keys were also populated by the Red Man. Many of
these islands still bear Indian names, pretty with the liquid
euphony of their language. Game was plentiful then, the climate
was ideal, fishing and hunting all that these tawny sons of
nature could desire-a "happy hunting ground" in fact.
In the early part of the nineteenth century a bold bad man
appeared on the Florida Keys-the pirate. There for years he
held sway, domineering southern waters, burying his ill-gotten
treasures on various Keys in the chain where he was wont to hold
rendezvous with others of his ilk. Spanish galleons bearing car-
goes of spices and Mexican gold or English ships laden with
textiles and fruits from far-distant colonies were despoiled alike
of their riches, much of which doubtless remains in its secret
cache upon those islands until this day. Some of this pirate
booty, placed there ages ago by greedy hands, has been dis-
covered from time to time, and one never knows but that still







86 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

greater riches shall be unearthed some fine day when the de-
veloper's dredge and shovel begin to excavate Florida Key soil.
If it be true that the spirits of the dead linger on earth after
they have passed into the Great Beyond, then it is certain that
the shades of long-deceased pirates must still hover around the
beautiful Florida Keys, reluctant to depart from the scene of
many an ancient rendezvous. Perched upon the sands of its
sunny beaches they doubtless sit, reminiscing among themselves
in ghostly voices of the good old days when they fought and
conquered many a gallant prize.
The passing of the pirate was heralded by oncoming home-
steaders who were induced to settle there by the warm climate
and unusual fertility of the soil. Though beset continually by
warring Indians, enduring massacre and devastation at their
fiendish hand, these sturdy pioneers remained obdurately upon
their beloved Keys, farming, fishing and sponging in between
battles with the Seminoles. With the suppression of Indian
hostilities brought about at the close of Florida's long and tedi-
ous war, homesteaders populated the Florida Keys from end to
end, dwelling upon these isolated islands in peace and plenty.
But this Elysian bliss was soon to be disturbed by the invasion
of industry. Thrust forward by the indomitable will of that
great financier and dreamer, Henry M. Flagler, the Over-Sea
Railway crept slowly and tortuously down the Florida Keys,
this great builder emptying the coffers of a Croesus in his de-
termination to span the emerald chain as it curved gracefully
out to form the Florida Straits some one hundred and eleven
miles from the coast of the peninsula. Neither men nor money
were spared, for the ruthless hand of destiny had written success
against the struggle of accomplishment thus undertaken, and
accomplished this great achievement must be.
In 1912, with a great fan-fare of music and a grand celebra-
tion, the Over-Sea Railway was completed, and so strung into a
scintillating necklace the magic chain that is the Florida Keys.
The era of the homesteader is passing. There are a few of
him left yet. But with the invasion of the Over-Sea Railway his
days began to be numbered, although he and his brothers reeked
little of that then. With the conception and actual construction
of the Over-Sea Highway which was begun a few years ago, the
tiller of the soil is rapidly disappearing; in his stead is the mod-
ern Goliath, the resort-developer. Yesterday the Florida Keys
were the peaceful homes of honest sons of toil, the agriculturist,
the fisherman and the sponger. Today these islands are the sites
of countless winter-resort developments. Tomorrow?-well, of
tomorrow who can say?
But it may be safely prophesied in the light of present elabor-








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 87

ate development inaugurated for the Florida Keys that they
shall come to rival the resorts of the world in point of magnifi-
cence and beauty. Enhanced by the artifice of man who has
only to wave the wand of achievement over its surface and
presto!-the natural charm of these islands is transformed into
a glorified playground destined to become the entertainment
center of America.
Venetian canals overhung with rustling coconut palms gestur-
ing languorously to one another as they are swayed by the
gentle sea-breeze, the blue-white luster of pearly globes at dusk,
with their highlights of flame magnified in limpid depth be-
neath into huge opals of wondrous fire, at eventide. The gay
red tiles and turrets of Granada crowning a distant stone palace
lending the happy illusion that grand and magnificent old Cas-
tile stands again in all its ancient glory; laughter, sunshine, or
sharp moonlight-the carnival spirit of a Mardi Gras-com-
bined with "the splendor of the tropics" might picturize the
magic possibilities of this amazing emerald chain-a potential
fairyland of beautiful homes, sea-shore boulevards, bathing
casinos, Roman pools and amusement centers to draw the world
like a magnet finely sensitized to every alluring whimsy of
entertainment.
The Florida Keys get their name from the Spanish "Cayo,"
meaning "island." This has been corrupted by time into the
more English "Key." The Florida Keys possess a strange
title, peculiarly apropos since it reflects the combined Spanish
and American influence which has figured so graphically in the
history of the emerald chain. There are approximately two
hundred of these islands which are found in the waters of the
Florida Straits and Bay of Florida about fifty miles south of
Cape Sable, the southernmost promontory on the coast of the
peninsula, as the crow flies. Key West, county seat of Monroe
county, is located upon the last island in the chain. This city
is about 111 miles from the mainland, following a route across
the principal keys in the chain to the peninsula.
More than thirty islands are joined into one continuity by the
Florida East Coast Railway, and it is the intention of Monroe
county to construct the Over-Sea Highway parallel to this rail-
road except where the latter deviates to pass along the ocean
front of some of the larger Keys.
The formation of the Florida Keys is of coral rock. Three
types of soil are found upon these islands-in the swampy sec-
tions there is a marl mud or silt; upon the higher portions of
the principal Keys is found a particularly fertile soil, pebbly,
but nevertheless profitable in its richness. Almost every island
is composed of substantial, high land, fringed with mangrove







88 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

swamp upon its Bay of Florida side, a little of this swamp being
noted also upon the ocean coastline, although fine beaches are
possessed by numbers of Keys on the Atlantic and Straits of
Florida shore lines. Both of the Mattecumbes, Plantation Key,
Big Pine, No Name, Sugar Loaf, Ramrod, part of Cudjoe, Boca
Chica and Key West have good beaches upon the ocean side.
Mangrove swamp lands are almost always paralleled by sub-
marine beds of marl rock, a sticky substance like glue that makes
the finest natural fill known. This deposit is also used to sur-
face highways, and is incomparably superior to other materials.
This rock is pumped by means of dredges or draglines into low
areas, the machine performing the twofold purpose of deepening
channels and at the same time raising land elevations. The roots
of the mangrove tree which covers areas subjected to inunda-
tion make an ideal mattress for this fill, and are therefore an
asset to property owners.
Anyone who has lived in Miami for the past twenty years
knows that Miami Beach was once similar to the present topogra-
phy of the Florida Keys; the fact is, that island was, if any-
thing, poorer in substantial land area than the majority of
islands of the Florida chain is today. What developers have
done with Miami Beach may be done again with these emerald
Keys, possessing as they do a much more substantial soil forma-
tion than that originally owned by Miami Beach.
Waterways threading these islands are comparatively shallow,
with the exception of Niles Channel, Tavernier Creek, and
Pelot's Creek. Those paralleling the Keys afford passage to
yachts and small craft along the inner channel, which occurs
between these islands and the Bay of Florida. These boats find
easy passage; the outer channel along the oceanfront between
the Keys and the Florida Reef permits safe navigation to vessels
of light draught; and the highway of trade, which is beyond the
reef, is but forty-five minutes from the chain, making them
easily accessible to the commerce of the world. Light-houses,
beacons, buoys and markers define these marine routes, protect-
ing mariners from unseen dangers throughout either course.
Notable harbors along the Florida chain are Rock Harbor,
Turtle Harbor, Spanish Harbor near Bahia Honda, New Found
Harbor south of Big Pine Key, and Key West Harbor, one of
the finest natural deep harbors in the state.
The climate of the Florida Keys is the most equable in the
United States. Frost never touches this chain of magic Keys,
the range in temperature being about 15 degrees within a
twelvemonth. Average winter temperatures are 69; average
summer temperatures, 84 degrees. Vegetables, fruits and flowers
mature quickly in this climate and crops upon the Keys are an








AGRICULTURAL THEMES 89

endless cycle of harvests. Because of the equability of climate
there, very little sickness exists, pneumonia and other virulent
diseases being practically unknown. Winter upon the Florida
Keys is a succession of blue and gold days with the sun coming
up out of the Atlantic like a ball of gold to wend its way west-
ward across cloudless azure skies, descending at dusk amid
twilight shadows and brilliant sunset hues into the purple
waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Then down comes the dark upon
the Florida Keys in all its dusky star-strewn beauty, the bright
moonlight sharply silhouetting the rustling coconut palms into
gigantic fans murmuring softly in the night. Lights glimmer out
upon the sable waters like giant fireflies beaconing to the passer-
by that the yachting fleet has once again dropped anchor off the
Florida Keys-"the yachtsmen's paradise."
Because of its superb winter climate, the Florida Keys offer
continuous life in the open to all who halt upon its threshold.
A multiplicity of outdoor sports await those who visit this land
of enchantment, and summer raiment elsewhere is winter rai-
ment there. In its balmy air, the weak and the robust, the child
and the athlete alike find pleasure in play; unlike other sections
of the country which are wrapped in snow "when winter comes,"
the Florida Keys are a land of perpetual sunshine and blossom-
ing flowers, a place where winter is summer and summer is
year 'round.
Industrially, the Florida Keys are important. They con-
tribute vitally to the needs of the nation through their sponge,
fishing and cigar manufacturing interests. Approximately
$1,000,000 is realized annually from the fishing, sponging and
crawfishing done in these waters. This does not include the in-
come from the turtle-soup canning business which is the only
plant of its kind in the United States. Approximately five
million pounds of fish are shipped from this section every year,
not to mention crawfish exports, which are sent to far-away San
Francisco, alive in barrels of ice. (These latter compare favor-
ably with the northern lobster and are considered by some to be
superior to that crustacean.)
Limes, tomatoes, cantaloupes, oranges and other members of
the citrus family which are raised on the Florida Keys net
handsome incomes to farmers there. Limes average $8.80 a
crate. One farmer on Sugar Loaf ships annually 500 crates
from his place, which brings him in a yearly sum of $4,400. Bees,
chickens and hogs are raised on these farms and supplement
incomes from produce very substantially. Asparagus grows
wild there, and sweet potatoes require absolutely no care; so
prolific is this tuber that the farmers welcome inroads from
raccoons, declaring that there is plenty left for them, and they








90 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

do not have to go to the effort to dig the surplus because of the
'coon's industry 1
Farming methods on the Florida Keys would compare favor-
ably with those of the Thibetan plateau. A stick, possibly a
hoe, and a packet of seeds or a sufficient stock of plantlets is all
that is needed. The farmer scratches a hole among the pebbles,
plants his plant or his seed, covers it and goes his way; at harvest
time he reappears to gather in the mature crop. That constitutes
the story of agriculture on the Keys. So rich and fertile is the
soil that no artificial fertilizer or cultivation is required. Possibly
a weeding or two, and the product is ready to garner. Cauli-
flower have been seen there growing two heads on one stalk, and
pepper plants produce three crops in a single season. Tomatoes
have netted farmers one thousand dollars an acre when condi-
tions were favorable, and cantaloupes cannot be raised in suffi-
cient quantities to meet the demand.
Aside from these commercially valuable crops, large quantities
of tropical fruits are grown for sale in Miami and Key West.
Grapes and dates are also being produced on the Keys with
splendid results. Vines mature in six months and a two-year-old
plant has borne as many as two hundred clusters of fruit at one
time. With the construction of the pipe line across the Florida
Keys, made possible by the special session of the state legislature,
bringing its inexhaustible supply of fresh water from the main-
land, there is no limit to the agricultural possibilities of these
magic, tropical islands. *







AGRICULTURAL THEMES 91


TOBACCO

(From "Tobacco Magazine," Jan. 5, 1928.)

TOaGCCOc P/ODL'UC/VG JFECT/ONVS
Br 7-Pej e z7>

~, //9 F/u.C&Lc4~c
,31-J7 4ir C u e 4
41-46 Cipc.I-FeC(e7
61-5SCi Sa?- i.pe,
61-65 CjS a Y- Vi-erppep


Outline Map Tobacco Producing Sections









TOBACCO

(From "Tobacco Magazine," Jan. 5. 1928.)
Table Showing Revenue Derived from Tobacco and Tobacco Products Since 1862--(Continued)


Year
Ending
June 30
1863................-
1864-..........--.....
1865--------------
1866---..............
1867--..............
1868................
1869.................
1870.................
1871-. ..............
1872..................-
1873.................
1874.................
1875..................
1876..................
1877 ..................
1878..................
1879...............
1880...........-.....-
1881..........-.......
1882...............-..
1883........-.........
1884..................
1885.................
1886..................
1887-............
1888..................
1889........--........
1890............-.....


Manufactured Tobacco
---------- A--
Aggregate Pounds
Collections Tax Paid
. $ 2,578,972.42 23,680,056
.... 7,086,684.74 63,372,426
8,017,020.63 36,639,020
.... 12,339,921.93 35,748,351
.... 15,245,477.81 45,635,582
.... 14,497,107.53 44,900,879
.... 16,845,479.77 62,662,576
.... 23,926,698.90 89,120,005
.... 25,133,521.71 93,801,073
.... 24,073,683.10 93,655,905
.... 22,315,809.62 111,407,806
... 20,900,509.67 104,502,548
... 24,133,726.48 116,101,396
.... 25,694,312.56 107,063,516
.... 27,053,072.38 112,722,055
.... 25,320,158.08 105,500,736
.... 24,703,874.90 116,975,223
.... 21,170,154.40 132,309,526
.... 22,833,287.60 142,706,011
.... 25,033,741.97 156,458,033
.... 22,136,402.53 165,077,186
.... 13,488,047.41 168,593,419
.... 13,953,410.31 174,415,619
.... 14,834,095.42 185,426,193
.... 15,995,019.46 199,937,743
.... 16,154,049.06 201,925,613
.... 17,076,899.94 213,461,249
.... 18,325,481.36 229,068,517


Cigars

Aggregate Number
Collections Tax Paid
$ 476,589.29 199,288,284
1,255,424.79 492,780,700
3,072,476.56 693,230,989
3,474,438.94 347,443,894
3,661,984.39 483,806,456
2,951,675.26 590,335,052
4,957,679.67 991,535,934
5,697,353.87 1,139,470,774
6,569,568.02 1,313,913,604
7,535,074.61 1,507,014,922
8,899,732.98 1,779,946,596
9,289,896.49 1,857,979,298
10,140,384.11 1,926,661,780
10,969,787.28 1,828,807,396
10,799,459.20 1,800,009,256
11,430,144.60 1,905,063,743
12,115,468.29 2,019,246,764
14,206,819.49 2,367,803,248
16,095,724.78 2,682,620,797
18,245,852.37 3,040,975,395
16,895,215.15 3,227,888,992
10,368,805.27 3,455,619,017
10,077,287.50 3,358,972,633
10,532,804.05 3,510,898,488
11,364,916.33 3,788,305,443
11,534,179.95 3,844,726,650
11,602,156.92 3,867,385,640
12,263,669.95 4,087,889,983


Small
Cigars
Aggregate
Collections


$ 1,993.01
*550.05


All Tobacco
Cigarettes
Number
Tax Paid


616,984
:55,005

............... .......









.....................
------------------.---
----------------------
-----------------. -....







-----------.-.-.-----.
---------------------.
--------------.........
------.---------------


..................
................. I
............. -
............
................ -
................ -
............ --
.................
............
..................
.............
..................
...........
............
...........
..................

.......... -







..................

..........








1891................................ 17,080,632.67 243,505,848 13,424,678.30
1892................. ............ 15,237,742.32 253,962,021 13,646,398.25
1893.............. ................. 15,143,984.91 252,399,749 14,442,591.35
1894............. ................... 14,127,108.31 235,451,805 12,200,752.30
1895....................................... 14,896,178.31 248,269,628 12,491,917.32
1896................ .................. 15,220,028.25 253,667,137 12,713,267.83
1897 ..................................... 15,644,088.75 260,734,812 12,189,507.29
1898.................................... 17,657,276.45 288,160,613 13,626,049.71
1899............................. ....... 28,453,989.26 237,132,710 16,307,108.05
1900......-...-.................. 33,477,244.26 278,977,035 19,138,584.82
1901.......... ---....... ... 35,292,205.76 294,101,715 20,775,363.73
1902............... ....... 28,612,644.15 298,048,339 18,311,142.25
1903...................... ............... 18,640,071.95 310,667,865 20,359,014.43
1904................................. 19,719,042.61 328,650,710 20,122,415.59
1905.................................. 20,069,346.60 334,849,110 20,582,743.73
1906......................... 21,294,929.95 354,915,499 21,524,415.67
1907... ----................ ... 22,151,178.16 369,186,288 22,470,434.38
1908.......................--- .......... 21,846,563.72 364,109,398 20,714,315.84
1909.........----...................... 23,325,446.52 388,756,941 20,257,728.90
1910.......... ........ ........... 26,207,885.12 436,798,085 21,197,795.95
1911....................................... 30,463,573.87 380,794,673 21,755,714.06
1912........................... ........ 31,502,811.71 393,785,146 21,769,170.91
1913. .............................. 32,349,009.59 404,362,620 23,097,112.63
1914.................. ............ 33,000,417.05 412,505,213 23,012,496.69
1915 ..............-....-....... ......... 32,197,939.64 402,474,245 21,174,366.97
1916.................................... 33,378,874.25 417,235,928 22,170,549.51
1917...........---....~...-........... 35,661,056.49 445,763,206 24,800,311.78
1918........................................ 47,485,437.44 417,647,509 30,034,476.95
1919..............------ ....... 57,491,383.95 376,959,091 36,086,247.16
1920.........--............. 74,663,767.60 414,737,116 55,423,813.93
1921............................ ...... 59,330,627.08 329,177,988 51,076,563.24
1922..... .................. 66,341,838.88 368,563,368 44,183,575.34
1923...... ---.............. .. 68,857,707.29 382,539,213 47,272,570.61
1924. ~~.~.................. 66,700,455.74 370,557,690 45,205,165.45
1925.............................. 66,922,388.87 371,788,251 43,346,812.37
1926.............................. 67,710,773.30 376,176,881 38,319,343.39
1927........................... 65,070,195.26 361,697,797 23,544,681.81


4,474,892,767
4,548,799,417
4,814,197,117
4,066,917,433
4,163,972,440
4,237,755,943
4,063,169,097
4,505,260,517
4,529,872,304
5,316,273,561
5,770,934,369
6,103,567,265
6,786,338,043
6,707,471,863
6,860,914,577
7,174,805,223
7,490,144,794
6,904,771,947
6,752,576,300
7,065,931,984
7,251,904,686
7,256,390,303
7,699,037,543
7,670,832,230
7,058,122,323
7,390,183,170
8,266,770,593
7,784,300,180
7,110,877,600
7,732,628,697
7,151,359,545
6,621,173,340
7,128,020,859
6,794,147,793
6,530,914,967
6,534,124,988
6,576,710,857


.405,676.88 405,676,880
547,415.52 457,415,520
646,896.82 646,896,820
684,504.05 684,504,050
410,903.48 760,932,370
345,869.39 640,498,870
376,296.25 696,844,907
393,348.22 728,422,630
483,768.41 895,867,426
622,152.05 1,152,132,850
545,049.16 1,009,350,296
556,599.33 1,030,739,461
580,748.13 1,075,459,499
917,294.25 1,223,192,333
820,296.60 1,093,728,800
775,333.62 1,033,778,160
777,594.75 1,036,793,000
729,197.46 972,263,280
710,653.02 947,537,360
712,597.89 950,130,520
875,727.20 947,618,961
925,016.61 788,529,823
992,113.89 648,409,260
1,013,510.07 676,721,446
968,526.71 645,684,473
865,010.01 576,673,340
756,138.85 504,092,566
730,852.73 487,235,153
532,749.74 419,427,047
352,665.55 469,159,880









TOBACCO

Table Showing Revenue Derived from Tobacco and Tobacco Products Since 1862-(Continued)
Cigarettes Snuff Special
Year ______Taxes Total Collec-
Ending Aggregate Number Aggregate Pounds Aggregate tions from
June 30 Collections Tax Paid Collections Tax Paid Collections all Sources
1863...- ......... --... ...... ... ..................... ....................... $ 34,466.18 172,331 $ 7,592.57 $ 3,097,620.46
1864..... ....... ............... ... ................... ........................ 240,934.24 1,204,671 9,055.21 8,592,098.98
1865 .............................. $ 12,951.94 19,153,526 283,351.92 1,002,802 13,579.04 11,401,373.10
1866 .............................. 1,247.87 175,360 698,173.80 1,745,434 16,675.24 16,531,007.83
1867 ........................... ............... ... ................... 798,364.69 1,995,912 59,321.52 19,765,148.41
1868 ................................................ .. ................ 745,308.24 1,863,271 86,004.29 18,730,095.32
1869..................... .......... 3,273.00 1,751,495 525,583.87 1,642,450 1,098,691.26 23,430,707.57
1870................................ 21,426.17 13,881,417 373,784.52 1,168,077 1,331,444.42 31,350,707.18
1871...................... ............ 28,605.22 18,930,753 427,017.96 1,334,431 1,420,194.27 33,578,907.88
1872..................................... 31,082.25 20,691,050 497,092.49 1,553,414 1,599,238.07 33,736,170.52
1873. .................... ........ 40,658.50 27,088,050 1,082,048.60 3,381,402 2,048,053.39 34,386,303.09
1874.................................... 43,695.75 28,718,200 1,038,445.92 3,245,143 1,970,327.79 33,242,875.62
1875...................... .. 65,443.42 41,297,883 1,067,033.03 3,334,478 1,896,874.84 37,303,461.88
1876....................... .... 135,485.17 77,420,586 1,061,467.64 3,317,086 1,934,287.26 39,795,339.91
1877................................. ... 261,818.95 149,069,257 1,095,695.52 3,424,048 1,896,500.87 41,106,546.92
1878....................... ........... 289,081.79 165,189,594 1,063,714.22 3,324,107 1,988,655.98 40,091,754.67
1879..................................... 416,984.43 238,276,817 902,135.35 3,423,235 1,996,539.68 40,135,002.65
1880 ................. ............. 715,269.39 408,708,366 634,609.34 3,966,308 2,143,287.46 38,870,140.08
1881 ................ .............. 992,981.22 567,395,983 689,183.03 4,307,394 2,243,814.68 42,854,991.31
1882.... ......................... 972,570.10 554,544,186 778,650.87 4,866,568 2,361,173.60 47,391,988.91
1883 ... ............ ...... ...... 929,974.73 640,021,653 736,022.82 5,284,372 1,406,634.56 42,104,249.79
1884............................ 454,409.01 908,090,723 448,211.58 5,602,645 1,302,926.71 26,062,399.98
1885............................... 529,535.88 1,058,749,238 508,943.52 6,361,794 1,337,911.27 26,407,088.48
1886..................... .............. 655,5b9.55 1,310,961,350 493,283.80 6,166,047 1,391,609.71 27,907,362.53
1887..................... .............. 792,279.60 1,584,505,200 524,912.26 6,561,778 1,430,909.48 30,108,067.13
1888........... .................... 931,363.05 1,862,226,100 594,959.13 7,436,989 1,447,880.34 30,662,431.52
1889...................................... 1,075,830.68 2,151,515,360 645,089.57 8,063,620 1,466,883.31 31,866,860.42
1890..................................... 1,116,627.34 2,233,254,680 737,731.27 9,221,641 1,515,481.14 33,958,991.06
1891........................... ........ 1,342,269.38 2,684,538,760 726,155.39 10,390,194 222,535.23 32,796,270.97







1892 ................. .................. 1,446,491.42
1893 ....................-...... ....... 1,588,361.85
1894-................. .... .......... 1,592,412.49
1895......... ................ .. 1,666,923.58
1896..... ........ .............. 2,025,417.11
1897................................... 2,080,583.01
1898 ............ .............. 3,599,705.16
1899 .......... ..... ............... 4,213,215.25
1900--..--........ ......... 3,969,191.30
1901.... ....... ........ ... 3,427,043.83
1902 ..-...-..... ........ .. 2,687,139.55
1903 --.........-- ............ 3,038,061.66
1904..-- ................... 3,228,599.50
1905---.......... ............. 3,346,549.39
1906..-- ..... ................. 3,757,431.04
1907 ................. ....... 5,163,233.31
1908............ .................. 5,403,960.54
1909...... .--------- .. ...... ......... 6,126,228.92
1910 ...----------........ ............. 7,979,727.51
1911....... ........................ ... 11,617,621.76
1912..... ................ ............... 14,091,513.78
1913.................-..... ........... 17,911,211.47
1914.................... .............. 20,574,791.89
1915 .... ..... .... ........... 20,982,127.16
1916.................... .............. 26,410,363.30
1917.................... .............. 38,226,019.15
1918.............-..... ................ 66,492,267.57
1919..............-.................. 90,603,155.84
1920 ..........-...-..... ........... 151,494,415.b2
1921..............-.... ..... .......... 135,409,627.81
1922.............-- .... .......... 150,245,992.81
1923................... ............... 182,715,735.93
1924 ................... .... .. 203,77 1,498.18
1925........................ ... 225,142,225.41
1926 ............................... .... 254,951,590.42
1927..................................... 279,015,556.35

* Special Taxes repealed June 30, 1926.


2,892,982,840
3,176,698,700
3,183,783,130
3,328,477,677
4,043,798,737
4,153,252,470
3,753,697,908
2,805,130,737
2,639,899,785
2,277,069,818
2,651,618.797
3,043,030,604
3,235,103,871
3,376,633,673
3,792,759,903
5,166,941,756
5,402,345,198
6,105,424,173
7,874,239,863
9,254,351,722
11,239,536,803
14,294,895,471
16,427,086,016
16,756,179,973
21,087,677,077
30,539,193,538
36,959,334,804
38,104,738,310
50,450.793,231
45,064,777,796
50,058,250,357
60,878,259,907
67,900.196,740
75,025,064,791
84,957,206,342
92,985,586,782


669,861.08
714,773.63
697,625.52
649,888.42
752,915.92
796,118.37
931,869.04
1,751,797.44
1,790,090.14
2,003,021.32
1,696,429.02
1,130,455.00
1,209,454.80
1,267,911.66
1,362,452.31
1,404,071.79
1,352,965.75
1,621,177.66
1,923,194.98
2,251,746.62
2,406,358.60
2,656,757.44
2.621,339.30
2,387,125.95
2,653,654.38
2,830,220.05
4,049,402.14
5,134,366.30
6,948,931.23
5,795,401.75
6,947,630.94
7,005,089.46
7,175,216.54
6,753,619.76
6,917,718.62
6,907,664.64


11,164,351
11,912,894
11,627,092
10,831,474
12,548,599
13,268,640
15,225,134
14,627,106
14,917,418
16,691,844
17,671,136
18,840,917
20,157,580
21,131,861
22,707,538
23,401,197
22,547,764
27,019,631
32,053,249
28,146,833
30,079,482
33,209,468
32,766,741
29,839,074
33,170,679
35,377,750
35,036,561
34,895,173
38,756,266
32,643,408
38,597,950
39,862,314
38,917,164
37,520,110
38,440,167
38,151,993


.................. 31,000,493.07
..... ......... 31,889,711.74
................ 28,617,898.62
................ 29,704,907.63
.................... 30,711,629.11
......... 30,710,297.42
9,945.13 36,230,522.37
1,219,682.12 52,493,207.64
333,076.93 59,355,084.27
299,768.44 62,481,907.13
219,666.74 51,937,925.19
1,193.39 43,514,665.82
... ........... 44,655,808.75
.................... 45,659,899.60
........... ...... 48,422,997.38
---............. 51,811,069.69
--.. ............ 49,862,755.01
......... ........ 51,887,181.33
.......... ...... 57,889,351.69
.................... 67,005,950.56
......... ........ 70,590,151.60
........ ......... 76,789,424.75
........ 79,986,639.68
2,486,616.36 79,957,373.54
2,739,853.05 88,063,947.51
346,792.78 102,576,998.14
538,486.76 156,188,659.90
789,109.03 206,003,091.84
1,032,304.15 295,809,355.44
1,229,286.37 255,219,385.49
988,274.81 270,759,384.44
1,004,959.16 325,638,931.14
1,137,148.36 309,015,492.98
1,125,914.41 345,247,210.96
1,132,155.97 370,666,438.87
*None 376,170,205.04


All other 1,279,441.43








TOBACCO


Char ,-r
PRODUCT7O1 OrC/GARJUC/CARErrJ AND TOBACco
Af fAe rde rl- reeaP-Y PC. o4
/900 -91-5


aCiparws


13A /1 / O0 e r of-


















/0



A900 /90$ Aft* /9/S 19*0


PRODUCTION OF CIGARS, CIGARETTES, TOBACCO
AND SNUFF


huhahht

00 C

ao
7S

70


5r
0
5S





So
20
is




0


1925..................
1924 ------------
1924..............
1923. ..............
1922.................
1921..............
1920..................
1919..................
1918..................
1917..................
1916..... ...........
1915--... .............
1914.-...--....... ...
1913..-.......... ..
1912.......-.......
1911.................
1910.................
1909.................
1908.................
1907..................
1906..................
1905.......-..........
1904..................
1903.................
1902................
1901..................
1900..................
1899.................
1898..................
1897..................


Cigars-No.
6,501,000,000
6,597,000,000
6,950,000,000
6,722,000,000
6,726,000,000
8,096,000,000
7,072,000,000
7,053,000,000
7,559,000,000
7,042,000,000
6,599,000,000
7,174,000,000
7,571,000,000
7,044,000,000
7,048,000,000
6,810,000,000
6,667,000,000
6,488,000,000
7,302,000,000
7,147,000,000
6,747,000,000
6,640,000,000
6,806,000,000
6,231,000,000
6,139,000,000
5,565,000,000
4,909,000,000
4,548,000,000
4,135,000,000


Note: Table 17-Bulletin
and Bureau of the Census.


Cigarettes-No.
81,925,000,000
72,708,000,000
66,715,000,000
55,763,000,000
52,085,000,000
47,430,000,000
53,119,000,000
46,656,000,000
35,331,000,000
25,290,000,000
17,964,000,000
16,855,000,000
15,555,000,000
13,167,000,000
10,469,000,000
8,644,000,000
6,818,000,000
5,742,000,000
5,255,000,000
4,501,000,000
3,666,000,000
3,426,000,000
3,360,000,000
2,961,000,000
2,722,000,000
3,254,000,000
3,742,000,000
4,384,000,000
4,631,000,000


Tobacco and
Snuff-Lb.
413,000,000
414,000,000
412,000,000
419,000,000
386,000,000
412,000,000
424,000,000
497,000,000
482,000,000
466,000,000
442,000,000
440,000,000
443,000,000
435,000,000
424,000,000
447,000,000
431,000,000
407,000,000
387,000,000
391,000,000
367,000,000
353,000,000
351,000,000
347,000,000
313,000,000
300,000,000
294,000,000
275,000,000
297,000,000


159, Department of Commerce













LA IM^


COUNTY MAP OF FLORIDA
Showing Northern, Central and
Southern Subdivisions.


M m: C3 Pq cm I




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