• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Standing of the grape industry
 Location
 Preparation of soil
 Propagation
 Laying out the vineyard
 Planting, care after planting,...
 The fruiting habits of the...
 The Munson system of pruning and...
 Pruning and training muscadine...
 Cultivation and cover crops
 Fertilization
 Diseases
 Insects injurious to the grape
 Disease and insect control
 Fungicides and insecticides
 Spraying and spraying equipmen...
 A spray schedule
 Varieties and harvesting
 Marketing and prices
 Publications of interest to the...
 A list of the grapes most commonly...






Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 37. No. 4.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00023
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 37. No. 4.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: Artcraft Printers
Publication Date: October 1927
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Standing of the grape industry
        Page 3
    Location
        Page 4
    Preparation of soil
        Page 5
    Propagation
        Page 6
    Laying out the vineyard
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Planting, care after planting, pruning, training, and trellising
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The fruiting habits of the grape
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Munson system of pruning and training
        Page 13
    Pruning and training muscadines
        Page 14
    Cultivation and cover crops
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Fertilization
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Diseases
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Insects injurious to the grape
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Disease and insect control
        Page 23
    Fungicides and insecticides
        Page 24
    Spraying and spraying equipment
        Page 25
    A spray schedule
        Page 26
    Varieties and harvesting
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Marketing and prices
        Page 29
    Publications of interest to the Florida grape grower
        Page 30
        Page 31
    A list of the grapes most commonly grown in Florida, given in the order of ripening
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text





VOLUME 37 NUMBER 4


Grape Culture

in Florida









SUPPLEMENT TO
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OCTOBER, 1927







NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida


Arter---aft Printers, Tallahassee Forid
Arteraft Printera. Tallshaoseo. Florida


(l r Ce


VOLUME 37


NUMBER 4











.. ..- IE-. .


Fig. 1. Harvesting Grapes in Central Florida. Dickson & Truskett Vineyard, Montverde, Fla.










GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA


By E. L. LORD, Professor of Horticulture,
University of Florida

Recent developments in grape culture in Florida
have resulted in such changes in methods and
varieties that anything published before 1925 can-
not give a complete picture of present conditions.
The Commissioner of Agriculture has therefore
thought it desirable that the writer prepare this
bulletin, giving a resume of the present situation and
recommendations that might possibly be of value in
the extension of this promising industry. New
developments in grape growing will no doubt in time
produce many changes, and consequently this pub-
lication can expect to be superseded at a later date.
A careful survey made by the writer during the sum-
mer of 1927 showed that under certain conditions
grape culture returned reasonable profits, so that
some extension of the area devoted to grape plant-
ing may be expected.

STANDING OF THE GRAPE INDUSTRY
Early experimenting with grapes in Florida was
largely unsuccessful as the varieties were of north-
ern or European origin. Vines of these types have
root systems that are poorly suited to the soils and
climatic conditions of the state, and in order to grow
such varieties successfully for any length of time one
must graft them on resistant stocks. There are sev-
eral vineyards in the state which consist of northern
varieties, such as the Niagara and Concord, but even
when these varieties are grafted they have not been
generally profitable. Only two types of varieties
have been found satisfactory on their own roots in
most of the state, the Muscadine grapes (Vitis
rotundifolia) which include such varieties as the
Scuppernong, Thomas, and others, and the varieties
which have been derived from the Summer grape
(Vitis aestivalis) and the closely related Post Oak
or Piney Woods grape (Vitis linsecumi). These
grapes are found growing wild over a large portion
of the Gulf Coastal Plain, where the soils and










climatic conditions are markedly different from those
of the major grape areas of the world. The Sum-
mer grape is found wild over the Southeastern states
as far west as Louisiana, where it is replaced by the
Post Oak grape, a form which is considered by many
horticulturists as a subspecies, but is usually repre-
sented as a separate species by botanists. At any
rate there is little difference in the soil and climatic
requirements of the two species, and they both are
of great value to Florida. Of the two types of
grapes mentioned, muscadine and bunch grapes, the
muscadine is severely handicapped for commercial
purposes, because of the small bunches and poor
attachment of the berries, so that it is only of value
when edten fresh from the vine or when made into
various grape products. The other type, known in
Florida as bunch grapes, take practically the same
position in the local markets as the Concord in the
Northern United States, and some of the varieties
(hybrids between the wild species, V. aestivalis and
V. linsecumi, and the European and northern grapes)
are of distinct promise as table grapes for markets
out of the state. Not only are these hybrids im-
portant as direct producers, but experimental evi-
dence shows that it is possible to grow some of the
northern and California varieties by using hybrids
from the native species as rootstocks.
LOCATION
While grapes may be grown successfully in most
parts of Florida, the site for a commercial vineyard
should be chosen carefully, as the vine in some loca-
tions is much more subject to disease than in others.
The soil should be well-drained and as rich in plant
food as possible. Soils capable of supporting the
growth of hardwoods (high hammock) are more
desirable than high pine land. Good air drainage is
desirable for best results, and a slope towards the
southeast is a distinct advantage. Flatwoods lands
are not as satisfactory because of the tendency to-
wards poor drainage; even when well drained, the
fruit ripens later on flatwoods soil than on upland.
Another point against the use of such lands is their
lack of air drainage. A more or less compact sub-
soil is desirable, but not imperative. No opportunity









should be overlooked to add humus to the soil be-
cause of its waterholding capacity.
The prospective grower should keep in mind that
not all areas possessing the soils and conditions men-
tioned will be found suitable for commercial grape
growing; an examination should also be made con-
cerning transportation facilities, amount of commer-
cial acreage near at hand which will make carlot
shipments possible, and the facilities for reaching
early markets before grapes from other producing
areas are offered. Conditions in the state, especially
in Central Florida, are so much different from those
in other grape producing sections that the prospec-
tive grower will be wise in leaving the grape propo-
sition severely alone unless he is willing to give the
subject thorough study and to adapt his practices
to the conditions met here.
While the question of soil is important and lack
of plant food or of humus in the soil may be a serious
drawback, still the main causes of unprofitable vine-
yards in Florida have been, not infertility as found
in our upland soils, but rather poor air and water
drainage, improper cultural practices, lack of cul-
tivation, wrong methods of pruning and training, and
injudicious choice of varieties. It should be accepted
as a rule that no extensive commercial planting of
grapes should be made except in localities that have
been proven suitable. There is no doubt, however,
that grape growing may be successful in other re-
gions than where it is now a major project, but ex-
perimental plantings for local markets should pre-
cede any planting on a large scale.

PREPARATION OF SOIL

Not only is it desirable to clear the land of stumps
and roots previous to planting a vineyard, but after
this is done the land should be plowed as deeply as
possible, preferably using a tractor, and if there is
sufficient time remaining a covercrop of cowpeas
should be grown. The land should be disced
thoroughly in late November so that it will be ready
for planting by the first of December.









PLANTING STOCK
Good healthy one-year-old plants are much better
than older ones. They start off more vigorously,
and, if planted properly, make a more uniform vine-
yard. It is usually preferable to buy them from a
nursery, as it saves a year's time and they can be
grown better by a nurseryman than by a planter in
most cases. A vigorous one-year-old grape vine
should have two or three canes 3 to 6 feet long and a
heavy root system. Before planting the canes should
be cut back to two or three buds and the root system
trimnred. They should never be allowed to dry out;
as soon as received they should be heeled in in moist
well drained soil until time for planting. They
should never be left in the package in which they
were shipped longer than absolutely necessary.

PROPAGATION
Grapes are usually propagated by cuttings. The
varieties most commonly used in Florida root better,
as a rule, from fairly long cuttings (12 to 15 inches).
The lower end of the cutting should be made just
below the bud and the upper cut should be an inch
or two above the node in order to prevent injury to
the bud from drying out. These cuttings should be
made as soon after the first of December as practi-
cable. After cutting tie into bundles of 25 with the
butts even and bury them, butts up, in moist, well-
drained soil until the first of February. At that time
they should be lined out in the nursery. A good
friable garden soil should be chosen for this nursery
and the cuttings planted four to six inches apart in
31/ to 4-foot rows. They should be inserted with the
upper bud level with the top of the soil, in a furrow
made by a turning plow. After planting, the ground
should be thoroughly packed around them, tramping
it down or rolling with a heavy roller. They should
be fertilized rather heavily; on most soils a good
trucking fertilizer analyzing 5-8-3 may be used at
the rate of a thousand pounds per acre. The next
December they may be planted in the vineyard.
In many vineyards of the state varieties have been
planted that have not proven to be satisfactory. In
such cases the vineyard may be made over into one










of the right variety by grafting and only one year's
crop lost. If the root system of the old vine is vigor-
ous and long-lived, saw it off two or three inches
above the surface of the soil, split the stock, insert
a cion of the desired variety, and cover stock, union
and cion with soil until they have united.
If the old vine does not promise to be long-lived
and healthy, graft in the same way, but make the
union two or three inches below the soil level. In
the first case remove all roots from the cion and
sprouts from the stock, but in the second case allow
the cion to form its own roots, using the old root
system to nurse the top for a year or so. Train the
growth from the cion to a stake and over the trellis,
and a complete framework can be produced in that
season so that a full crop may be borne the following
season.
Some growers have found it profitable to grow
certain varieties, such as Niagara, President, Ellen
Scott and others on the more vigorous root systems
of such varieties as R. W. Munson, Carman, Herbe-
mont, etc. Some very fine table grapes have been
produced in this way, but we need more experi-
mental work before recommendations can be made.
We need to know much more concerning the resist-
ance of many stocks and their congeniality with the
different varieties as cions.

LAYING OUT THE VINEYARD

Under the climatic conditions found in Florida it
should be emphasized that the vineyard should be
laid out so that the rows run north and south. In a
large vineyard where machinery is used the rows
should be ten feet apart, although in a small vine-
yard eight or nine feet may be enough. This distance
applies to all varieties, and is based on requirements
for harvesting, cultivating, and spraying. In large
vineyards cross alleys should be left. If the rows run
up and down a rather steep slope, the cross alleys
should be terraces so that excessive erosion is pre-
vented. The distance apart that vines should be
planted in the row depends upon many factors, the
variety, the soil, type of pruning, etc. In general,
weaker growing vines should be planted closely (6










































Fig. 2. Vine pruned according to the Munson System. S-Spurs for renewal.









to 8 feet), while vigorous varieties should be planted
10 or 12 feet apart. Certain varieties, which are
quite vigorous, only bear well when pruned to short
canes, and these may be planted more closely.
PLANTING

As above mentioned, grape vines for planting
should not be allowed to dry out either before or
after planting. If they are planted in the winter,
preferably in December or January, very little fur-
ther attention is necessary. Simply make a hole by
removing one or two shovelfuls of earth, place the
vine in the hole so that the buds will be above the
surface, and tramp the earth thoroughly about the
roots. Watering is not necessary. Most vines are
lost because of drying out before planting or insuffi-
cient packing of the soil.

CARE AFTER PLANTING
Before the vine begins to grow in the spring it
should be cut back to two live buds. These will
usually start off vigorously. The strongest one
should be left, but the other should be topped above
the second leaf and kept as a reserve shoot in case
the first should be injured. The one allowed to
grow should be carefully trained along an upright
five-foot stake which has been driven into the ground
beside it. This is important, as if the trunk is up-
right and straight it will be much help in supporting
the weight of heavy crops. Under ordinary condi-
tions this shoot will grow very fast and should reach
a length of five feet by the last of June. Before it
reaches this point the trellis should be erected so
that the vine will be able to make sufficient growth
upon it to produce a satisfactory crop the following
season.

PRUNING, TRAINING, AND TRELLISING
The Munson system is the only one that the author
recommends for the bunch grape in Florida, as it is
the one best suited to our conditions. This system
of training requires for best results a three-wire
trellis called the Munson three-wire canopy trellis.





























































Fig. 3. Florida Beacon Grape on Munson Trellis.


1










The posts should be of heart pine or cypress, prefer-
ably split, and not less than four inches in diameter
at any point. The end posts should be much heavier.
They should be long enough so that five and a half
or six feet of the post may be above the ground, and
spaced sixteen or twenty feet apart, according to
the distance between the vines. The end posts
should be well braced and equipped with wire
stretchers. Metal ratchets will be found very satis-
factory.
The best wire for trellising is No. 10 or No. 12
galvanized smooth wire. It will require about 600
pounds of No. 10 or 400 pounds of No. 12 to trellis
an acre. The lower wire should be stapled to or run
through the post about four inches from the top
or six inches from the top of the finished trellis. The
top of the post should be sawn off square and a 24
to 28-inch section of 2x4-in. firmly spiked across the
top, with the four-inch side down. The outer and
upper wires should be run across the tops of the
cross-arm about an inch from each end. At the end
posts this cross-arm should be spiked to the outer
side of the post rather than to the top for greater
stability. While it is important that the first or
lower wire of the trellis should be up by the middle
of June it is not necessary to put up the cross-arm
and the other two wires until the following winter.

THE FRUITING HABITS OF THE GRAPE
Before the grower can prune and train effectively
he must understand thoroughly the fruiting habit
of the grape.
1. Fruit is borne only on wood of the current sea-
son (shoots). Not all shoots will bear. Bearing
shoots usually come from wood of the previous sea-
son (canes); shoots from older wood are usually
barren. In some varieties the buds at the base of the
cane are often barren; these varieties should be
pruned to long arms, that is, the rods or canes should
have 3 to 8 eyes. Most of the American vines belong
to this class, and pruning these varieties to spurs
(canes with two buds), reduces production heavily
and increases the number of imperfect bunches.
Some viniferas have fertile buds at the base of the










canes, and these may safely be pruned to spurs.
Even on the American varieties it is rarely profitable
to leave more than eight buds, as the buds beyond
this are usually much less productive; furthermore
it requires much more vigor to force out such long
canes and carry a crop upon them. Consequently
the bearing wood is divided into a number of canes
(2 to 4) containing 4, 6, or 8 buds, according to age,
vigor and variety.
2. The number of buds left is the measure of the
future crop; as most varieties bear two or three
bunches to the shoot, if one knows the average
weight of bunch and average number of bunches
per shoot (both characters very uniform with the
variety) it is a simple matter, when the grower is
sufficiently experienced, to regulate the crop accord-
ing to the bearing capacity of the vine. In this con-
nection it is wiser to err on the side of conservatism,
in order not to weaken the vine by too heavy bearing.
3. The productiveness of the buds (eyes) depends
upon the condition of the vine the previous summer.
The leaf which subtends the bud should be healthy
during the period when the inflorescence is forming,
and the vine should have adequate supplies of potash
without an overdose of nitrogen at this time. If the
foliage of the cane selected has been lost early in the
season the cane will usually be unproductive.
4. All pruning, except the shaping of the young
vine, the pinching out of the tips of the terminal
shoots, and the rubbing off of unnecessary buds
from the trunk, should be done when the vine is dor-
mant, preferably in December, if early crops are de-
sired. Late pruning gives late grapes and early
pruning early grapes, other factors being equal.
5. It is safer to wait until a good rain has fallen
in autumn or early winter, before pruning the vine,
as otherwise the pruning wounds do not heal well
and are easily infected by disease which may destroy
the vines.
6. Unless the vines are too vigorous, do not prune
until most of the leaves have fallen.









7. The removal of active developed leaves lessens
vigor. Consequently, in shaping the vine the laterals
and other undesirable shoots should be pinched out
at the growing tips, allowing all leaves that have
unfolded and developed a green color to remain.
8. The more nearly vertical a shoot is trained the
more vigorous it will be. For this reason the young
vine should be trained and tied in a vertical position
until it reaches the trellis. The aim should be to get
it upon the trellis as soon as possible, and this may
be done in a short time if it is kept vertical and if
the laterals are pinched out before they develop.
9. While many viniferas may bear well when the
canes are trained upright, most of the varieties hav-
ing a high percentage of native blood bear-best when
the canes are kept in a horizontal position or allowed
to droop.
10. In varieties that tend to set poorly, or if extra
fancy bunches are desired, better sized bunches may
be obtained if the shoot is pinched just before the
first flowers begin to open. This tends to divert an
extra amount of food into the inflorescence, thereby
favoring fruit setting.
11. The best canes to select for bearers should be
well-ripened (browned nearly to the tip). Prefer-
ence should be given to canes that have borne well
the previous season, as they usually carry more fer-
tile eyes than non-bearers.

THE MUNSON SYSTEM OF PRUNING AND
TRAINING
The Munson System of Pruning is a cane system
where the canes are all on one level and are renewed
each year from the head. The only old wood per-
mitted in the Munson system consists of the trunk.
Bearing canes are trained along the lower wire, and
the shoots are supported by the two upper wires.
The fruit, which is usually borne on the third, fourth
and fifth or sixth nodes of the shoots, according to
variety, is supported by the cane and shoot attach-
ment to the lower wire and the shoot attachment to
the lateral wires. In consequence, the fruit hangs
below the trellis, free from tangling with shoot or










cane, and protected by the foliage from sun scald.
It can be easily reached for spraying and harvesting,
and is sufficiently free from the remainder of the
vine so that it dries out easily in the morning (espe-
cially if the rows run north and south). This system
is in every way so much better suited to the needs of
the Florida grower that the use of any other is a
severe handicap in commercial grape growing. One
of the most serious mistakes which the beginner in
Florida is likely to make is the copying of systems
used generally in the north and west. These systems
are suited neither to our vines nor our climate.
The number of canes to be left depends upon the
vigor and fruit-bearing habits of the variety. Very
vigorous vines ordinarily will carry four canes of six
or eight eyes each; those of medium vigor may carry
best two canes of five or six eyes, while those of a
weaker tendency may require close pruning (three
or four eyes to each cane).
Not only is it important to estimate correctly the
number of canes and eyes to leave, but it is very
necessary that the grower realize the necessity of
leaving two or three short two-bud spurs as near the
head as possible, so that there will be a sufficient
number of renewal canes close to the head available
for next year's pruning. All old wood, with the ex-
ception of the amount in the trunk, should be re-
moved as soon as possible.

PRUNING AND TRAINING MUSCADINES
Muscadines, because the bunches are small, re-
quire a large amount of cane in order to produce
satisfactory crops. Usually they are trained on
arbors, and if attention is paid to developing suffi-
cient renewal wood, this method is very well suited
to the man who wishes this valuable fruit for home
use. They will also succeed very well when grown
on a three-wire vertical trellis. By using six arms,
three trained each way, renewing these arms
every three or four years, and pruning the previous
year's wood back to five or six-eye spurs each win-
ter, heavy crops may be produced. While it is a
generally believed fallacy that pruning muscadines
is injurious, it is a fact that regular and heavy crops










can only be produced on muscadines by the aid of
pruning. Contrary to the general idea also, bleed-
ing of these vines causes no appreciable injury, al-
though tender-hearted persons may prune them in
late November just after leaf-fall if they wish to re-
duce bleeding to a minimum.
CULTIVATION
The first year in the life of a vineyard it is very
necessary to keep up frequent cultivation, in order
that the vines may make even and vigorous growth.
All cultivation should be very shallow, not more than
two or three inches deep. An Oliver grape hoe is
very satisfactory for this purpose, because it enables
the grower to keep most of the soil under the trellis
clean without injuring the vines; furthermore, soil
may be thrown toward or away from the vine. A
one-horse Acme harrow is very useful when the soil
is free from weeds. After the vineyard is well estab-
lished cultivation should be frequent during .the dry
months of spring and early summer, but a cover crop
should be sown in the middles before the summer
rains begin.
COVER CROPS
The higher rolling lands which are best suited to
grape culture lack the plant foods found in most
grape soils, and it is not only necessary to fertilize
them but it is essential to grow cover crops in order
to supply the decaying vegetable matter which keeps
the vine healthy and vigorous. Cover crops not only
add plant food to the soil, but also make it more
easily handled. They increase waterholding capa-
city, aeration, and bacterial activity. On the amount
of humus and its character the life of a vineyard
often depends. While stable manure is exception-
ally desirable for grapes, it is almost impossible to
obtain. This forces the vineyardist to rely on com-
mercial fertilizers and cover crops. The frequent
cultivation that the grape requires when combined
with hot sunshine and almost daily rains oxidizes the
humus of the soil very rapidly, and, if arrangements
are not made for its replacement, soon makes the
soil of the vineyard sterile.










































Fig. 4. Florida Grapes as harvested from vine, showing compactness of cluster, and fine appearance when properly grown.










The best crops to use for adding plant food and
humus to the soil are legumes. Crotalaria, Brabham
cowpeas, bush velvet beans and beggarweed are very
satisfactory. Crotalaria will probably be the most
useful legume in central and southern Florida; it
adds a larger tonnage of material with a higher
nitrogen content than any other plant available. It
should be planted in every vineyard in central Flor-
ida. Even if it should not reseed itself, the cost of
seed for planting is a small item when compared to
the results gained.
Not only should a summer cover crop be planted,
but a winter one as well. Rustproof oats or Abruzzi
rye will help turn the soluble plant food in the soil
into humus and save it for the following year's crop.
In turning under a cover crop in the vineyard do
not attempt to cover it all at once by deep plowing.
This would be wasted effort and is based upon a
mistaken idea. Rather cut it in by using a spooled
disc harrow, as it is only necessary to kill the crop
and break up the stalks so that cultivation may be
continued. Even in the spring, if there is a large
amount of trash on the surface, it is a great advan-
tage in that it helps to keep the upper few inches of
soil in a moist condition.

FERTILIZATION

While the grape vine is usually classed as a poor
land crop, and flourishes well on light soils more or
less deficient in plant food, yet it is undoubtedly true
that in Florida vineyards will not be successful un-
less fertilized. While frequent and regular cultiva-
tion, as well as an even supply of moisture, favor the
growth of the vine, proper feeding beyond what is
already contained in the soil will give rich returns.
It is not out of place here to emphasize the fact that
it is much easier to keep up vigor and productiveness
by proper feeding than to restore wornout vines.
The elements most needed by the vine are nitro-
gen, phosphoric acid, and potash. The nitrogen
affects growth, and a vine receiving sufficient of this
element will be vigorous with leaves of a dark green
color. If the fertilization is one-sided, that is, con-
tains large amounts of this element with an insuffi-










cient amount of potash and phosphoric acid, the
bunches and berries will be large, but will tend to
ripen late, and the vine itself will be much more sub-
ject to disease injury. Nitrogen is the most essential
substance in wood and leaf production, and conse-
quently it is important that an increased supply be
present in the soil of a young vineyard, or of an old
one which tends to produce insufficient wood.
Phosphoric acid helps the vine to take up nitrogen
and other plant foods, assists in the setting of the
berries and the ripening of wood and fruit, favors
root development, and is invaluable in stimulating
the growth of the legumes used for cover crops.
Potash is very necessary to the vine; it increases
the sugar content of the fruit and total yield of the
vine, promotes the ripening of the canes, increases
the resistance of the foliage and the canes to disease,
and regulates the rate at which the vine can take
up nitrogen, giving a more even and firmer type of
growth.
If the grower has it available, no doubt the best
fertilizer for the vine is barnyard manure with
enough superphosphate added to bring up the phos-
phoric acid content. For vines bearing about four
tons per acre, 15 pounds per vine should be applied
before growth begins, and one or two pounds of
superphosphate or bone meal should have been ap-
plied to the vine the previous November. Unfor-
tunately barnyard manure is not usually obtainable,
and commercial fertilizer must be used. A commer-
cial fertilizer analyzing 5 to 6 % nitrogen, 8% phos-
phoric acid and 8 to 10 % potash will give good re-
sults if applied at the rate of 1 to 3 pounds per vine
to a bearing vineyard. Either the stable manure or
the commercial fertilizer should be applied in the
spring before growth begins in order to affect the
current season's crop, as the required nitrogen and
phosphorus are almost entirely absorbed during the
spring flush. If the leaves begin to show a tendency
to lose color in the late summer they will respond
well to a moderate application of nitrate of soda or
sulphate of ammonia.
The fertilizing of young vines should be radically
different from that of bearing vines. Here the de-
mand is for nitrogen with a comparatively small










amount of phosphoric acid and potash. A fertilizer
analyzing 5 to 6 % N, 8 % phosphoric acid and 2 to
3% potash will give good results. It should be ap-
plied before growth begins and again at the begin-
ning of the rainy season. Light applications of
nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia in early
April and again in late July will also be found ad-
vantageous, helping to keep the young vine in vig-
orous growth.
As to the source of fertilizer materials, part of the
nitrogen should be derived from inorganic and part
from organic sources; the phosphoric acid from bone
meal or superphosphate; and the potash from either
the sulphate or the muriate. Any good trucking fer-
tilizer of the analysis mentioned above can be used
with satisfactory results. In all fertilization it should
be kept in mind that with the grape vine no amount
of fertilizer will be of value if tillage, green manur-
ing, pruning, or disease control are in any way neg-
lected.
DISEASES
There are a number of fungous diseases which
attack the grape in Florida, but fortunately they can
be controlled by thorough spraying. Spraying is
absolutely essential to successful grape growing in
this state as in the other grape producing districts
of eastern North America. The most important
diseases of the grape in Florida are anthracnose
(Sphaceloma ampelinum), black rot (Guignardia
bidwellii), and downy mildew (Plasmopara viti-
cola).
Anthracnose.-This disease attacks the young
shoots, leaves and fruit. On the leaves and young
shoots it produces brown spots with a reddish mar-
gin, and on the fruit the spots are similar, and this
phase of the disease has received the name "bird's
eye rot." On the fruit these spots gradually enlarge
until the berry hardens and wrinkles. This disease
is especially dangerous to certain varieties, such as
Ellen Scott and Armalaga,.and is very serious when
it once gains a foothold. It may be prevented by
thorough spraying with Bordeaux mixture. Winter
treatment of the vines with a solution of bluestone
is also valuable.










Black Rot.-This disease is not as serious in Flor-
ida as in the more northern states. Niagara and
Concord are more susceptible to it than are the
Munson hybrids. Its cause is a fungus which pro-
duces summer and winter spores. The winter spores
are carried over in the diseased wrinkled berries and
infect the leaves, shoots and young fruit. Small
reddish-brown circular spots about a quarter of an
inch in diameter appear on the upper surface of the
leaves. A ring of black pustules can be seen near
the margin of each spot. The summer spores are
produced in these pustules. Whitish soft spots ap-
pear on the fruit; these turn brown, then black, and
the berry dries, shrivels, and becomes hard. Minute
black pustules now develop over the surface, produc-
ing in their turn the so-called winter spores. In con-
trolling this disease all old "mummies" and infected
shoots should be removed and burned. The vine-
yard should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture,
which will give good control if used before the dis-
ease develops to any extent.
Downy Mildew.-This disease attacks the foliage
and the fruit. Certain varieties, such as Delaware
and many containing a high percentage of vinifera
blood are quite susceptible to it. It usually first ap-
pears as yellowish spots on the leaves; these change
to a brownish color, and a downy, whitish growth
'a-pcis' oh- the undersurface. This growth consists
4Nl' e it6'))whlite cigar-shaped spores, which ripen
-i*idJly;aidfrFlt~ Acattered throughout the vineyard,
infecting all vines which are not immune to it. The
Ag;fI f4gugypak[f ksa,.)a, young fruit, forming a
-~~If ihp~v BIt,1iitl@_gr bRppmes gray and downy.
Jt4,p::ggg j igiial~ 4 grp'orot. On older fruit it
a;lIc]tf-ys.B9 8 41~1 r A A n iJtf f uit to fall off at
qhialig te-,S q 4 _ipaW Ml) be controlled
,Sr* .y t ru4deBfk 1 tu. l 91t9811g iBQfopjoffi ie varieties
~ ESrTjsehjbgrQWgII rlr, hartra foBarM lhi'gily esistant
tA a'jsibJay ris trnf9 of auo-yn!ifih v4llrsbi
noiRipejipRa (orimierieala .ci~pulrkan asdtfiliten Rot
,-Ia(Mdtnehoniqmtuui4imeidm l bAvreluiosnsdia(aseribhat
wtttia~&W thesibhrhy duria3grftreiling- ridsafi beirfaryAil-
'ing.ilches just as e the beJgin to coller with 'kpita1inm tAt
bunches just as they begin to color withialstooalbfaiai-










ing fungicide such as copper acetate. This treat-
ment will also help to control the other rots men-
tioned.

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE GRAPE

The Grape Phylloxera (Phylloxera vitifoliae) is
perhaps the most important of 'the insects with
which we have to deal, as it often is the limiting fac-
tor in a vineyard of viniferas or of certain labrusca
varieties such as Concord or Niagara. Native varie-
ties are rarely injured by it, rotundifolia and aesti-
valis being almost immune, while hybrids between
aestivalis and vinifera or labrusca show varying de-
grees of resistance. On this account the best method
of control is naturally to grow only resistant varie-
ties. However, susceptible varieties are being suc-
cessfully grown by grafting on resistant stock, as the
insects are in the soil and usually limit their activities
to the root system, although galls sometimes appear
on the leaves. A very sandy soil may make it pos-
sible to grow susceptible varieties for a few years,
while in a clay soil the same vines would be killed
in a very short time.
The larva of the Grape Berry-Moth (Polychrosis
viteana) attacks both the flower cluster and the
young fruit. The early brood destroys the buds and
flowers of the opening cluster and weaves a charac-
teristic web about the little stems which support the
fruit. The later brood feed upon the pulp of the ber-
ries, often ruining the whole bunch. The addition of
arsenate of lead to the Bordeaux mixture used for
disease control will cut short the damage due to this
insect.
Another destructive larva is the Grape Leaf-
Skeletonizer (Harrisina americana). The eggs are
laid by the moth on the under surface of the leaves.
The small yellow caterpillars marked by rows of
black tubercles, ranged in ranks like soldiers, eat
voraciously until they have devoured all the soft part
of the leaf and only the veins are left. Arsenate of
lead is also the remedy for this insect or hand pick-
ing may suffice if only a few vines are attacked.
Still another larva, the Grape Leaf-Folder
(Desmia funeralis), destroys the leaves. This one








































Fig. 5. Florida Grapes in standard Florida four-basket carrier.









first folds the two halves of the leaf together by
means of a weblike secretion and feeds from the in-
side of the fold. Leaves without a hairy or downy
surface are rarely attacked. The same treatment
as for other larvae is used.
The Grape Leaf-Hopper (Typhlocybe comes) ap-
pears on the under surface of the leaves in early
summer, sucking out the juices and causing them to
turn yellow and die. As this is a sucking insect,
arsenate of lead would have no effect, but a spray
containing a contact poison should be used before
the first brood can lay eggs. One-half pint of nico-
tine sulphate (nicotine 40 per cent) added to 50
gallons of Bordeaux mixture and sprayed on the
under surface of the leaves very early in the summer
will usually give good control.
The Grape Curculio (Craponius inaequalis) feeds
upon the leaves for about two weeks during the
blooming season, laying its eggs in the berries as
soon as they are large enough. When the larvae
hatch out they attack both pulp and seed. This
insect is also killed by arsenicals if they are applied
to the leaves at the proper time.
The tender shoots are often attacked by a small
brownish insect, the Brown Grape Aphis (Illinoia
viticola). Predaceous and parasitic insects usually
,keep these pests from becoming too numerous, but
if they threaten to become a serious menace, the
vines should be sprayed with nicotine sulphate.
Rabbits may be discouraged from eating the ten-
der new growth by the use of dried blood about the
vine as a fertilizer or by traps or guns, which must
also be used for the raccoons which are very fond
of the fruit. Cutworms are best controlled by plant-
ing on cleared land or by poisoned baits. Traps and
guns are used to check the damage due to birds,
although in the smaller vineyards, the fruit may be
bagged after the third or fourth spraying.

DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL
The most efficient method available for the con-
trol of grape diseases and insects is that of spraying
with fungicides and insecticides. However, spraying
must not be considered in any way a method of cur-










ing these troubles, but rather a method of prevent-
ing them by covering the surface of the vine with
substances which prevent the development of the
causal organism.
Other means are also of value if consistently car-
ried out. The vineyard and packing shed should be
kept free of rotten berries, mummied fruit, infected
prunings, etc. Such material should be burned or
buried as soon as possible. Tillage aids in covering
any such material that is too small to pick up easily.
Proper fertilization and cultivation aid also in keep-
ing the vine in a healthy condition so that it is more
resistant to disease.
Covering the vines, trellis, and wires immediately
after pruning, while the vines are still dormant, with
a solution of bluestone (copper sulphate) of a fairly
high strength (4 lbs. to 50 gals. of water) is a very
valuable agency in preventing the vineyard from
carrying injurious fungi over the winter and thus
avoids the infection of the new shoots.

FUNGICIDES

The most common and most valuable fungicide for
the use of the grape grower is 4-3-50 Bordeaux mix-
ture. This is the standard material for applying to
the vine throughout the season. It should be used as
soon as possible after mixing, as it is then more
active. As Bordeaux leaves a staining residue on all
parts of the vine, it is important to substitute some
other chemical on the ripening fruit. Probably the
best spray to use under these conditions is copper
acetate (verdigris). A solution of two pounds of
basic copper acetate to 50 gallons of water gives the
grape grower very valuable aid, as bunches that
have been sprayed thoroughly with this solution
carry well to market, because they are not as sub-
ject to the various rots which are liable to attack the
fruit after it has been harvested.

INSECTICIDES

In controlling the insects that are liable to attack
the grape, arsenate of lead should be added to the
Bordeaux at the rate of 11/-lbs. to 50 gals. of Bor-








25

deaux for chewing insects, and 1/2 pint of nicotine
sulphate to 50 gals. of Bordeaux for sucking insects.
The grape grower is fortunate in that he can control
all three troubles by the same spray when it is prop-
erly mixed. Of course phylloxera should be ex-
cepted, but it is of slight importance unless northern
or European varieties are grown. In this case the
desired varieties must be grafted on resistant stock.*

SPRAYING AND SPRAYING EQUIPMENT
While the grower with a few vines will be able to
control diseases and insects by using a knapsack or
barrel sprayer, the commercial grower requires a
power spraying outfit for satisfactory results. Un-
less the vine is completely covered with a fine spray
it is only partially protected.
Coimlletr discussion of the method of preparing these sprays, use, etc.,
will he found in Bulletin No. 178, of the Florida Experiment Station.











A SPRAY SCHEDULE


DISEASE OR INSECT


SPRAY MATERIAL


TIME OF APPLICATION


S1 Anthracnose.
-No. 1 Black Rot.

Anthracnose.
Black Rot.
No. 2 Downy Mildew.
Grape Berry-moth.
Various insects.


No. 3 Same as No. 2, for curculio
and leaf hopper.



No. 4 Same as No. 3.



No. 5 Fungous diseases, non-stain-
ing.


Bluestone, 4 lbs.; water, 50 gals. When vines are dormant.
Cover vines, posts and wires.


Bordeaux mixture, 4-3-50 formula,
to which is added 1 z lbs. of dry
lead arsenate.

Bordeaux mixture, 4-3-50 formula,
to which is added 1 V lbs. of dry
lead arsenate, V2 pint of 40%
nicotine sulphate and 1 lb. rosin
fish-oil (or 2 lbs. yellow laundry)
soap.

Same as No. 3.

Copper acetate, 2 lbs.; water, 49
gals. When thoroughly mixed
add a "sticker" (4 oz. gelatine
and 1 gal. warm water).


A week before the flower
buds open.




As soon as blossoms fall.




When fruit is half grown.



Just before the fruit colors.


~_~










VARIETIES
The question of varieties is still unsettled. In the
Peninsula the only varieties which have been found
satisfactory for market, especially if they are to be
grown without grafting, are the Florida Beacon and
the Carman. These will succeed on their own roots
wherever commercial planting is profitable. For
local markets earlier varieties may be grown, but
they must be grafted on resistant stock. Such varie-
ties as Niagara, Ellen Scott, Edna, Matilda, and
Csaba have been successful when grafted on such
vigorous stocks as Beacon, R. W. Munson, Herbe-
mont, or Lenoir. Several viniferas appear to be
promising when grown on the proper stock, but
sufficient experimental work has not been done to
justify commercial planting.
In West Florida, Carman has been more widely
planted than any other variety. Others that appear
to be profitable for local market are the Armalaga
and Muench on their own roots, and Brilliant, Pres-
ident, and Niagara when grafted on resistant stock.
Concord, Moore Early, and Worden have been tried
in North Florida, but ripen very unevenly and the
vines are short-lived unless grafted, so that they can-
not be recommended.

HARVESTING

Because of the unfamiliarity of the growers with
grape market requirements, many of our grapes
have been placed on the market in bad shape. This
condition was much improved this season (1927)
with the result that satisfactory prices were received,
especially on local markets, where the grapes have
become known. There is no doubt, however, that
harvesting methods can be improved.
For table grapes, it is important that the grapes be
sufficiently ripened, and that the bunches be full,
with the bloom undisturbed. This result can only
be obtained when the grapes are handled as little as
possible as well as carefully.
In picking, the bunch must be held by the stem
without touching the berries themselves. The stem
should be clipped with a pair of shears, never















































Fig. 6. Loading first car Munson Hybrid Grapes shipped out of Florida.


ooI

4 44cT










pulled from the vine. Grapes should not be picked
when wet, neither should the harvested fruit be
allowed to stand in the sun. As soon as possible they
should be carried to the packing shed.
Most table grapes should be sent to market in the
standard four basket carrier similar to that used for
California table grapes. While some markets will
take lugs or climax baskets, it is not to the advantage
of the grower to ship in either at the present time,
as this fruit goes on the market as fancy, early table
grapes, and the consumer is accustomed to buying
such grapes in the four basket carrier. If they are
presented in any other form they are heavily dis-
counted and go into competition with other grapes
and are associated in price with them. The culls and
varieties that are sold as juice grapes or for local
market may be very well handled from lugs if there
is no discrimination against this package.

MARKETING AND PRICES
Most of the grapes in Florida are sold on the local
markets as table grapes, but many of them have
been converted into juice and other grape products,
such as jelly, marmalade, etc. Over fifteen car-
loads of grapes were shipped out of the state during
the past season (1927), and, while there are no com-
plete figures as to production, it has been estimated
that about 700 tons were produced the past season,
most of it being sold locally. A large percentage
was disposed of at roadside stands, which saved the
retailer's profit for the producer.
The price received for No. 1 table grapes in the
Peninsula varied from 10 to 20 cents a pound, ac-
cording to the variety and season, average price
received by the producer for this grade being about
12 cents. As the cost of production is well below
this figure, profits have been very satisfactory, with
the demand much greater than the supply. In West
Florida the situation is much similar, although both
the price received and the cost of production are as
a rule lower in this section. Prices received there by
the producer ranged from 5 to 15 cents a pound,
averaging about 8 cents. If future prices hold any-
where near the level of the past season, it would
even pay to plant such varieties as Niagara on










their own roots with the expectation that they would
die out in five years, and still the industry would be
profitable. However, such a practice is not recom-
mended, as there are other varieties which are at the
same time long lived and satisfactory for the produc-
tion of table grapes. As the demand for Florida
table grapes has been steadily increasing for several
years, there is no doubt that enlargment of the in-
dustry may be expected, although it will be much
more satisfactory to let the demand remain ahead of
production.


PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST TO THE FLORIDA
GRAPE GROWER
Munson, T. V., Foundations of American Grape
Culture. New York, 1909.
Hedrick, U. P., Manual of American Grape Grow-
ing. New York, 1925.
Perold, A. I., A Treatise on Viticulture. London,
1927.
Rhoads, A. S., Diseases of Grapes in Florida.
Bulletin No. 178 of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station.
Husmann, G. C., Grape Propagation, Pruning and
Training. Farmers' Bulletin No. 471, U. S. D. A.
Quaintance, A. L., and Shear, C. L., Insect and
Fungous Enemies of the Grape. Farmers' Bulletin
No. 1220, U. S. D. A.
Dearing, Charles, Muscadine Grapes. Farmers'
Bulletin No. 709, U. S. D. A.
This list of publications is given for the benefit of
those readers who desire more information about
grapes than can be condensed in a bulletin of this
size.











A LIST OF THE GRAPES MOST COMMONLY GROWN IN FLORIDA, GIVEN IN THE ORDER OF
RIPENING


Origin


Europe


H dnnlik ht Texas
. . . .
T ,4 ; 1.-T v


Race


Vinifera


Aestivalis
Ihvhrid


Vigor


Medium


Size of Bunch Size of Berry Color


Large Medium White


I Medium Small


Small


Use

Dessert and
market


Dessert and
I Red market


Aestivalis Dessert and
Brilliant Texas hybrid Medium | Large Large Red market
Aestivalis Very I I Dessert and
Lomanto Texas hybrid vigorous Medium Medium Black market
---- Labrusca Dessert and
President Texas hybrid Medium Medium Large Black market
New Aestivalis I Dessert and
Delaware Jersey hybrid Weak Small Small Red market
Aestivalis ; I Dessert, juice
R. W. Munson I Texas hybrid IVery vigorous Large Medium Black and market
SAestivalis Dessert and
Mathilda I Texas hybrid Medium Large Medium Violet market
Labrusca I Dessert and
Niagara New York hybrid iMedium Large Large White market
Aestavalis I Very Dessert and
Beacon (Fla.) I Texas hybrid vigorous Large Largege Black market
Labrusca I 1 Dessert, juice
Concord Mass. hybrid MediumMedium M m Large I Black and market
I Labrusca | Very I Bright IDessert and


Variety


Csaba


I Mass. hybrid I vigorous Medium ILarge


I Red market


Goethe









Armalaga


Edna


Aestivalis Very
Texas hybrid vigorous Large


SAestivalis
Texas hybrid Vigorous Large


ILarge


White


I Medium | White


Dessert and
market
Dessert and
market


I Aestivalis Very I I Dessert and
Carman I Texas hybrid vigorous Large Medium Black Imarket
| Aestivalis Very I Dessert and
Ellen Scott Texas hybrid vigorous Very large Large Violet market
I Aestivalis Very Juice and
Herbemont Georgia hybrid vigorous Large I Small Violet market
Aestivalis Very Dessert and
Muench Texas hybrid vigorous Large Medium Black i market
Aestivalis Very I Dessert and
Fern ITexas hybrid vigorous Medium Medium Black market
SRotundifolia Very [ Dessert and
Eden .Georgia hybrid vigorous Medium Medium Black market
South Very Dessert, juice
Thomas Carolina Rotundifolia vigorous Small Large Red and market
North Very I Dessert and
Scuppernong Carolina Rotundifolial vigorous Small Large I Bronze juice
North Very I I Dessert and
James Carolina Rotundifolia vigorous I Small Very large Black I juice
North Very I I Dessert, juice
Mish I Carolina Rotundifolia vigorous Small Large Black and market


Flowers


North I
Carolina IRotundifolia Medium


SSmall


Medium
Medium


Dessert and
Black juice


' "I


I ht


,










A LIST OF THE GRAPES MOST COMMONLY GROWN IN FLORIDA, GIVEN IN THE ORDER OF
RIPENING-Continued

Variety Quality Distance Pruning Length Remarks
to plant System of cane_ ...

Csaba Excellent 8 feet Munson 1-2 feet Must be grafted on resistant stock

Headlight Excellent 8 feet Munson 2-3 feet Self-sterile. A very early Delaware


Good


8 feet Munson 2-3 feet Desirable for local market


II I
Lomanto I Fair 12-16 feet Munson 3-4 feet Very healthy and vigorous

President Good 8-10 feet Munson 2-3 feet Early and satisfactory if grafted
Upright
Delaware Excellent 8 feet or Fan 2-3 feet Fine quality

R. W. Munson Good 12-16 feet Munson 2-4 feet Self-sterile. Requires interplanting
I I 1
Mathilda Excellent 8-10 feet Munson 2-3 feet Satisfactory if grafted
Niagara Fair 8 feet Munson 2-3 feet hort-lived in Florida
Niagara I Fair 8 feet Munson 2-3 feet i Short-lived in Florida


Beacon (Fla.)

Concord

Goethe*


Good

IFair


S12-16 feet Munson


2-4 feet


8 feet Munson I2-3 feet


St I I
Excellent I10 feet I Munson 2-3 feet


Good shipping variety


Ripens unevenly and is short-lived in
Florida


Short-lived unless grafted


Brilliant


I









I Excellent I 10 feet


Munson


2-3 feet I Local market. A zood shiuner


Edna Excellent 10-12 feet Munson 2-4 feet Self-sterile. Good for local market

Carman Fair 12 feet Munson 2-4 feet A good shipper

Ellen Scott Excellent 8-10 feet I Munson 1-2 feet A good shipper

Herbemont Good 12-16 feet Munson 3-4 feet Fine for juice and as a stock

Muench Good 12-16 feet Munson 3-4 feet Good for late market

Fern Good 12 feet Munson 3-4 feet Self-sterile. Latest good bunch grape


Good


16 feet


Six-arm
renewal


6 feet


Self-sterile. Does well on clay; very W
early CA


Six-arm Self-sterile. Best for muscadine
Thomas Good 20 feet renewal 8 feet products
Arbor or
Scuppernong Good 20 feet six-arm 8 feet Self-sterile
Upright I
James Fair 16 feet or Fan 6 feet Self-sterile. The largest muscadine
Six-arm Self-sterile. The best muscadine in
Mish I Excellent 16 feet renewal 6 feet quality


Poor


16 feet


Six-arm I I
renewal 1 6 feet Self-sterile. The latest muscadine


Armalaga


Eden


Flowers




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