• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 The farmers' contribution
 The next 50 years of agricultu...
 Benefits to agriculture from...
 Man power
 Work and wages
 Farm price purchasing power
 Florida near bottom in forest fire...
 Valuation and taxes
 The corn borer
 Florida and the government
 Country agent's place in agricultural...
 Naval stores production
 Agricultural possibilities
 Gulf Coast resources
 Co-operative marketing (address...
 Live stock
 Remarkable work among dairymen...
 First great rush to Florida began...
 Florida must feed herself
 Florida trade
 1926 imports much greater than...
 United States foreign trade in...
 United States foreign trade,...
 Florida truck crop table






Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 37. No. 3.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00022
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 37. No. 3.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: July 1927
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
    The farmers' contribution
        Page 6
    The next 50 years of agriculture
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Benefits to agriculture from chemistry
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Man power
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Work and wages
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Farm price purchasing power
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Florida near bottom in forest fire protection
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Valuation and taxes
        Page 34
    The corn borer
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Florida and the government
        Page 39
    Country agent's place in agricultural program
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Naval stores production
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Agricultural possibilities
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Gulf Coast resources
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Co-operative marketing (address of Dr. Bradford Knapp)
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Live stock
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Remarkable work among dairymen of Florida
        Page 67
        Page 68
    First great rush to Florida began four hundred years ago
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Florida must feed herself
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Florida trade
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    1926 imports much greater than in 1925
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    United States foreign trade in flesh fruits
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    United States foreign trade, 1926
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Florida truck crop table
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
Full Text

VOLUME 37 NUMBER 3


COMPENDIUM

FOR

FARMERS


Quarterly Bulletin
of the
Department of Agriculture
July, 1927





NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
Entered January 31, 1908, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, author-
ized September 11, 1018."





VOLUME 37


COMPENDIUM

FOR

FARMERS


Quarterly Bulletin
of the
Department of Agriculture
July, 1927





NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."


NUMBER 3














TABLE OF CONTENTS



Subject- Page
P reface ............................................................................. ..................... 5
The Farmers' Contribution............................ .. ........... 6
The Next 50 Years of Agriculture ............................ ....... 7
Benefits of Agriculture from Chemistry...................... 13
Man Power ............. ........ ...................... ...............19
W ork and W ages ................... .... ........ .......... ................ 23
Farm Price Purchasing Power ........................ .. ..... 28
Florida Fire Protection....................... .... ........... ............. 32
Valuation and Taxes....................... .................. ... 34
The Corn Borer................................................ .. 35
Florida and the Government ............... ......... ......... 39
County Agent's Place in Agriculture........................ ... 40
Naval Stores Production......................... .. .................. 46
Agricultural Possibilities ........................ .............. .... 48
Gulf Coast R sources ............................ ......... ........................ .... 51
Co-operative Marketing (Address of Dr. Knapp) ............... 54
Live Stock ....... ............................. ........................ ... 63
Florida Dairymen ........................... ............. ............ 67
Florida as Seen by Forbes............ ....... ............................. 69
Florida Must Feed Herself.............. .... ............ 89
F lorida T rade .... ....... ..................... ................................... ... ........... 91
Im ports ........................... ...... ... ....................... 94
U. S. Foreign Trade in Fresh Fruits......................... ... .. 99
U. S. Foreign Trade, 1926.................... .......................................... 105
Florida Truck Crop Table.................................... .........109





















Preface
As it is the intention to present to the farmers
of Florida such information as will be service-
able and reliable, we are presenting herewith a
compilation of articles which it is hoped will
prove of interest and profit to the thousands of
readers of the Agricultural Quarterly. We wish
to express our thanks to all whose articles
have contributed to this issue.
NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.












The Farmers' Contribution

IN ancient times the Farmers gave
A hungry world the staff of life;
And strove humanity to save
In all its labors, toil and strife.

In all the thousand years that sped,
Through "Middle Ages" rent with wars,
The Farmers saw that man was fed
And kept the watch neathh sun and stars.

In modern times mid constant change
In all the works of striving man,
When Progress works its wonders strange,
The farmers by their mission stand.

They answer signals far and wide
Yet hold their hands upon the plow;
Their harvests must keep man supplied
With all the gifts the soils allow.

No frugal meal of milk and bread
But comes from Farmers' sweat and toil,
No bounteous board is ever spread
But comes from Plowmen's skill and moil.

The cities great where millions dwell,
With looms and lathes neathh towering spires
The burdens of the Farmers swell-
They look to them till life expires.

Beneath this burden they must stand
Or civilization's banner fall;
No matter what betides the land
The Farmers they must feed them all.
-T. J. BROOKS.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


The Next 50 Years of Agriculture
By WILLIAM M. JARDINE

(The Farm Journal)
CENSUS figures show that American agriculture pro-
duced more in 1924 than in 1919, on fewer acres and
with less labor. From 1919 to 1924 the country's
area of harvested crops was cut down about 5 per cent.
In the same period farm population declined nearly 400,-
000. Yet the output of nine principal crops plus the pro-
duction from pasture was greater at the end than at the
beginning of the half-decade.
I take this gain in efficiency to be an indication that
our farmers are laying a foundation for future agricul-
tural prosperity.
It is evident that our farmers as a whole have not been
deprived of all hope for the future by the low returns, the
heavy debts and the uncertain prospects of the last few
years. On the contrary, they have been prompted to im-
prove their uses of the land and to increase the effective-
ness of their labor.
They are economizing land and labor as never before.
As measured by production per man in agriculture, this
country has led the world for a century or more. Its way
of meeting the difficulties of the postwar readjustment
process is to set a new record in individual production.
The Cost of Efficiency
This fact gives us a good starting point in guessing
what the next fifty years may hold in store. Perhaps in-
creasing efficiency in production is prolonging the dis-
parity between the prices of farm commodities and indus-
trial goods. It seems to be maintaining the volume of
production at a higher level than consumption require-
ments justify.
That, however, is not an argument against efficiency,
but simply a reminder that the problem of the group is
not always the same as the problem of the individual. It
is a warning that production, to be profitable, must be
done not only at the lowest possible cost but with a
shrewd eye to market needs. Ultimately, success in









8 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

economizing land and labor, if coupled with skilful selling
and wisdom in adjusting crop enterprises to the wants of
consumers, is bound to bring prosperity.
Our increasing farm production on a reduced crop area
and with a reduced farm personnel is partly due to the
recent large-scale substitution of engine power for both
human and animal labor on the farm. The mechanization
of agriculture is going on today at a more rapid rate than
ever before. It made big strides after the close of the
Civil War.

More Crops for Human Consumption

Today, however, the mechanization process economizes
land as well as labor, because it releases land that would
otherwise be required to feed work stock. Power cultiva-
tion in the new cotton states and in the Corn Belt is cut-
ting down feed requirements enormously, and in the
wheat states the combined harvester-thresher, rapidly
spreading even as far east as Ohio, is helping to solve the
harvest labor problem.
What this mechanical revolution may mean to agricul-
ture in the next 50 years can not be imagined. It is amaz-
ing enough to reflect on what it has already accom-
plished. Agriculture today appears to be increasing its
production per person employed more rapidly than in-
dustry. With a tractor pulling gang plows, harrows and
seeders, it is not uncommon for one man to prepare and
seed from 80 to 100 acres a day. One man with a tractor-
cultivator can take care of 250 acres of corn. In Texas
last year there were many thousands of four-row cotton
cultivators in use. Ten years ago the combined harvester-
tractor was unknown east of the Rockies. There are now
more than 15,000 in the winter wheat states alone. Trac-
tors on farms have more than doubled since 1920, and now
number over 500,000.

Smaller Farm Population

Some of the things likely to result from this mechanical
revolution are obvious. By reducing the amount of land
necessary to maintain work stock, it will enable us to feed
more people without increasing our farm area.










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


It will mean, to be sure, that we shall not require so
many farmers for the job. The new machines now coming
into use for plowing and harvesting will certainly cause
a reduction in the necessary farm population. There will
probably, however, be an increase in income per farmer.
Farms, of course, will have to be larger. A hint of what
may be coming can be seen on the Staked Plains of
Texas, where, with modern cultivating appliances, five
men can take care of 400 acres of cotton.
Supporting people on land formerly used to feed work
animals simplifies our future food problem. It has been
estimated that our population, by its natural increase
alone and without any big addition from immigration,
will amount to 150,000,000 shortly after 1950.
Immigration and the Farmer

If there is any large increase in immigration in the next
quarter of a century, the 150,000,000 mark may be
reached earlier. Our available farm-land area will not
provide for 150,000,000 people and maintain our agricul-
tural exports unless important changes take place in our
present methods of crop production or in our standards
of consumption, or in both.
In all probability, of course, there will be changes in
both these directions. What we can expect in the release
of land from the production of forage crops is shown by
the drop in the number of horses and mules in the Unit-
ed States between 1919 and 1924. The decrease was about
2,500,000. It 'released no less than 10,000,000 acres of land
for the production of food and fibers.
Among many uncertainties as to the next fifty years in
American agriculture, one thing can be set down as fairly
certain. There will be increased pressure of population
on land resources.
All our good land that can be used for crops without
drainage, clearing or irrigation is in use. Most of our
fair land is in use, and a great deal of our poor land. In
the comparatively near future it will be imperative, if we
are to feed our increasing population without becoming
dependent on foreign food supplies, for us to increase our
yields per acre.
What is possible in this direction is indicated by the









10 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

fact that average yields in leading European countries
exceed ours by more than 40 per cent., and also by the fact
that in some sections, particularly in the northeastern
quarter of the United States, we have increased our yields
per acre greatly.
It may seem a cheerful augury to the farmer that we
are headed for a time when agriculture will have to hustle
to keep pace with the country's needs. It is, provided
farmers take full advantage of the opportunity they will
have. But let us not suppose that they can achieve pros-
perity simply by letting their production drop down to
or below the needs of our population. That looks like an
easy way to boost prices. It is really inviting foreign
competition in the home market. No nation can tolerate
a food shortage.
Canadian grain, but for the tariff, would be moving al-
ready into the United States in large quantities. If our
grain production drops much below our requirements in
the future, consumers will have a strong motive to remove
the tariff on wheat.
The same applies to all protected essential products.
Our farmers are entitled to protection in the home mar-
ket, but they will have a hard job to keep it if their pro-
duction falls too much below the country's wants. A se-
rious deficit of necessaries would force the country to
draw on foreign sources of supply, no matter how much
our own farmers were hurt.
I am talking, of course, about the comparatively dis-
tant future. Agriculturally, we are not on an import
basis yet, by a long way. In recent years approximately
13 per cent of the net product of our agriculture has been
marketed abroad. Fifty per cent. of our cotton crop must
find a foreign market annually. Last year nearly one-
third of our wheat went abroad, and a fair proportion of
our pork, tobacco and apple production.

The Downward Trend in Agricultural Export

It should not be forgotten, however, that the trend in
our agricultural export trade was downward before the
war and is downward again now, and seems likely to con-
tinue downward. Moreover, our imports of competitive
agricultural products, such as sugar, wool, mohair, hides










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


and skins, tobacco, dairy products, flaxseed and flaxseed-
oil, make up an increasing annual total. Imports of these
commodities last year, for example, amounted to more
than $582,000,000. Sooner than we think, we may be
heavily beholden to foreign countries for essential foods
and fibers.
It will be necessary long before 50 years elapse to in-
crease our crop yields. Transforming pasture into crop
land and increasing the production per man engaged in
agriculture will not solve our food problem. Larger pro-
duction per acre will be required because the area of land
that can be profitably worked is limited.
Changes in consumption habits may lessen the pressure
to some extent. There is likely to be increased consump-
tion of foods of vegetable origin and less consumption of
foods of animal origin, except milk. Nevertheless, the
pressure of population on land resources is bound to force
intensity of cultivation beyond what is now profitable.
Farmers will therefore be impelled to make closer con-
tacts with science. Improvement of plants by selection
and breeding, for better performance under different con-
ditions, is certain to make advances. There may be im-
portant discoveries in the laws of heredity, which will
give greater control over plant growth and development.
Now and then some epochal discovery will effect spec-
tacular results. But the main advance will probably come
from the sum of many small improvements painstakingly
developed by farmers. One can not speak with too much
confidence as to prospects for the control of crop pests
and diseases. Increasing knowledge of these things tend
to be offset by increasing opportunities for them to
spread. On the whole, however, it is fairly safe to predict
considerable improvement in the use of the land.

Organization is Necessary

There is another phase of agriculture that will develop
greatly in the next half-century. I mean organization.
Agriculture can not afford to remain unorganized in this
age of large scale business operations.
Organization is necessary in agriculture, not merely for
the purpose of regulating the movement of farm products
into consumption, but to give farmers more control over










12 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

the volume of their output. A million farmers acting in-
dependently in the production of a given crop are much
more likely to throw markets out of balance by overpro-
duction than is the case when the number of competing
units is small. Organization enables farmers to accom-
plish the double object of adjusting production more ac-
curately to anticipated market requirements, and feeding
supplies gradually into the market so as to prevent need-
less price fluctuations.
The co-operative movement is now so firmly established
in the United States that its future is certain. It affords
the best approach to the solution of the surplus problem,
through the two channels of merchandising and regulated
production. It lodges effective bargaining power in the
hands of farmers, and makes possible great economies in
distribution through the elimination of unnecessary
waste, duplication of effort and overhead expense.
Perhaps the greatest danger faced by the co-operative
movement is that it may not always be able to draw a
distinction in practice between legitimate price stabiliza-
tion and improper efforts at price control. But that mis-
take, whenever committed, will carry its own penalty. It
is therefore not likely to be made very often. My own
feeling is that organization in the next 50 years will do
as much for agriculture as any other one thing.
Two paths open before American agriculture. One
leads toward national self-sufficiency in essential foods
and fibers and the other toward dependence on a foreign
food supply. As to which path will be chosen, the coun-
try as a whole, of course, will have something to say. It
can favor the right choice by giving agriculture all due
protection and encouragement.
But the final word will remain with the farmer. If,
knowing that he can have the domestic market as long as
he continues to supply it adequately, he continues to in-
crease his labor efficiency and his crop yields per acre,
agriculture will regain and hold its place in the economic
scheme on equal terms with other producing groups. It
will be the surest guaranty of national progress and se-
curity.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Benefits to Agriculture From
Chemistry Are Reviewed by
Secretary Jardine


America Declared to Lead in Application of Scientific
Principles, But to Lag in Pure Science


William M. Jardine, Secretary of Agriculture, in an address
just delivered before the American Institute of Chemists' meet
ing at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., outlined the benefits
which scientific research has given to agriculture.

THE single-stalk cotton is earlier and more productive,
especially under boll-weevil conditions or in short
seasons. The yield are often increased from 10 to 30
per cent, or even from 50 to 100 per cent or more under
some conditions, by the new method.
Research in the field of soils involves physics, chemistry,
biology, and soil classification. The aim of the physicist
is to make the soil a more efficient medium physically for
the growth of plants. The business of the chemist is to
determine the chemical nature of soils and to insure that
the plants grown in the physically efficient soils are sup-
plied fully and cheaply with the nutrient elements re-
quired for the best growth. To the soil bacteriologist the
farmer looks when he wants to be sure that his soil will
grow a particular kind of legume, and to him the farmer
has not looked in vain, for science has made it possible to
inoculate soils by means of pure culture of nodule organ-
isms.
The investigators in pure soil science are engaged in
identifying individual soils and in classifying and mapping
them. In this field of endeavor the United States is far
in the lead of other countries, owing to the untiring efforts
of Dr. C. F. Marbut, Chief of the Soil Survey. The Soil
Survey is the only scientific institute which gathers facts
about soils of the whole country and shows their relation-
ships. It has taken numberless centuries for men to realize








14 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

that individual soils exist, and that the first step toward
understanding them is to classify them.
Enormous aid has been given to agriculture through
minute research dealing with insects that prey upon crops
or livestocks. Among the lines undertaken in parasitology
is the investigation of the life histories of parasites. Much
attention has been devoted to this by the Department of
Agriculture.
For example, the Texas fever tick was found to pass its
entire life from the seed tick to the engorged adult on a
single host animal, and hence it was found possible to
eradicate ticks by dipping cattle alone-which would be a
much less adequate procedure if the ticks passed parts of
their life cycle on other host animals, as many ticks do.
The sheep stomach worm was found to ascend grass
blades in the presence of moisture. This discovery directed
attention to the danger from wet pastures and short grass.
The parasite was found to reach the egg-laying stage in
the intestine in about three weeks, leading to a recognition
of the necessity of moving sheep to clean areas or else
treating them every three weeks to prevent reinfestation.
Valuable studies have likewise been made in the correla-
tions between the chemical composition and water solubility
of anthelmintics and the value of these drugs in removing
worm parasites.

New Drugs Developed To Combat Disease
A consideration of the chemical composition of chloro-
form as indicating that its value against hookworms was
due to its chlorine content led to the development of carbon
tetrachloride, a related compound, as an anthelmintic for
use against hookworms. Since 1921 this has been generally
used in veterinary and human medicine. It has been found
of value against many kinds of round-worms in animals
and has recently been found to be effective in destroying
liver flukes in sheep, being the cheapest of the effective
preparations known for this purpose.
Pursuing the same line of investigation resulted in the
discovery that tetrachlorethylene, another related com-
pound, is equally effective against hookworms and is ap-
parently safer. Further studies are being carried on with
a view to developing from a chemical basis a drug which
will be of value in removing several sorts of worm parasites









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


not at present susceptible to satisfactory treatment with
any one drug. It has been ascertained in connection with
these investigations that the water solubility is a factor of
importance and that there is a point of optimum solubility
which is approximately known at present.
The intimate structure of injurous insects, their physiol-
ogy, their ecology and their various reactions are being
minutely investigated.
These investigations have in many cases led to practical
results. A very recent one relates to the Japanese beetle,
an accidentally introduced pet which threatens great dam-
age to American horticulture. Investigations of the olfac-
tory sense of this species have led to the discovery of a
chemical attractant that makes possible ready destruction of
the adult beetles in great numbers.
Animal industry has profited greatly from the applica-
fion of science to its problems. The importance of the vit-
amins and of light to the growth and development of ani-
mals is recognized by all. The significance of vitamin E,
and possibly a vitamin which has an influence upon lacta-
tion, has not so far been generally realized in applications
to the industry.
The importance not only of the quantitive distribution
of foodstuffs, but of the qualitative character of the con-
stituents of an animal ration, has been discovered from
investigations in both general and animal physiology in
addition to direct studies of nutrition. Knowledge of the
importance of an adequate supply of protein of a good
qualitative character, and of the nature of the deficiencies
of certain proteins, has been derived from reciprocal rela-
tions between studies in pure chemistry and in nutrition.
Nutritive Factors Studied in Feeds
Destructive animal diseases have been brought under con-
trol by scientific means. Blackleg and hog cholera, for
example, are now preventable at a merely nominal cost for
vaccines.
The importance of meteorology to agriculture was early
recognized here at Yale University, where Elias Loomis,
who was professor of natural philosophy and astronomy
from 1860 to 1889, became recognized as the foremost mete-
orologist of the United States.
As a result of research in this field, our climatology is








16 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

now known, and it is possible to state where this or that
crop can or cannot be grown successfully. The relations
of the yields of various crops to the prevailing weather
conditions at their several stages of growth have been
studied, and in many cases helpful estimate of yields can
be made weeks and even months before harvest.
The duration and intensity of sunshine are of great im-
portance to all varieties of vegetation, but very unequally
so. Similarly the spectral quality of the light likewise is of
great importance, not alone to vegetable growth but also to
animal health. Studies of these relations are just begin-
ning-a field of investigation that offers endless opportuni-
ties in pure science, and promises significant practical ap-
plications.
The applications of science to agriculture are important
not only in production but in marketing-a field which is
growing rapidly in significance to the farming of this
country.

Science Influences Prices of Wheat
Pure science has a direct relation to the marketing of
grain, notably wheat. The protein content of wheat has
played an increasingly important part in the price paid
for this grain at the large terminal markets during the
past few years. The State of Minnesota maintains fully
equipped chemical laboratories at Minneapolis and Duluth.
Every car of wheat received at these markets is tested
for the protein content and certificates covering the protein
content of the wheat are issued by the State.
The State of Kansas and the State of Missouri maintain
a chemical laboratory at Kansas City for the same purpose.
At other important terminal markets where wheat is re-
ceived in large volume chemical laboratories are maintained
by either the State or the local grain exchange. In addi-
tion many commercial chemists find a field for business in
determining protein content of wheat.
In considering the interrelationships of prices, market-
ings, supply, plantings, breeding and other questions, there
is being developed a scientific approach in order to obtain
quantitative answers. We are no longer satisfied, for in-
stance, with the knowledge that bumper crops depress
prices, or that low priced feeds cause farmers to produce
more livestock. We want to know the effect on price of a









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 17

large crop (in dollars and cents), and the exact number of
pounds or the number of head of meat animals which will
be forthcoming as a result of given feed prices.
Many Problems Still to Be Solved

In working with these problems it has been necessary to
devise new advanced statistical methods-an example of
the application of mathematics to agriculture. The reason
that economists have not heretofore been able to express
their observations quantitatively is that they have not been
able to determine the conditions under which they made
their observations. Unlike the natural scientists, they have
not been able to take their problems into a laboratory to
observe facts undisturbed by varying outside conditions.
If, for example, they attempted to study the effect of
the size of the domestic wheat crop on price, they were
confronted by numerous complicating factors such as the
production of other grain crops, the production of wheat in
foreign countries, the charges in the general commodity
price level, and the fluctuations in business conditions.
Now, however, by the use of correlation methods recently
developed, these general factors can be isolated and their
separate influences on each other measured.
Yet there remains much to be done. The agricultural
field is full of problems, a large proportion of which depend
for their solution on the effectiveness with which under-
lying problems in pure science are dealt with.
American science, I am convinced, needs to concern itself
more with fundamental research than it has done hereto-
fore. No country in the world has made such progress in
applied science, but our record in pure science is not so
flattering.
Since 1900, when the Nobel prizes in physics, chemistry,
and medicine were inaugurated, 76 awards have been made.
Of these, 24 went to Germany, 11 to England, 10 to France,
6 to the Netherlands, 5 to Sweden, 4 to the United States,
3 to Denmark, 3 to Switzerland, 2 each to Austria, Canada,
Italy, and Russia, and 1 each to Belgium and Spain.
This is the situation despite the fact that we have vastly
more students in colleges and universities in proportion
to population than has any other country in the world.
The difficulty seems to me twofold: We are not laying
enough emphasis on pure science in proportion to our em-









18 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

phasis on the applications of science; and we are not stimu-
lating and training an adequate personnel in scientific re-
search.
Indeed, superior personnel is needed in every field touch-
ing scientific work. There is grave need, as I have pointed
out, for workers in pure science. There is need likewise
for those who can correlate and co-ordinate the facts dis-
covered.
There is demand also for those who can interpret and
apply to practical problems the results obtained through
scientific investigation.
Research Governs Progress.

The agriculture of the future will be successful in pro-
portion to the extent to which it is shaped and guided by
the basic facts revealed by scientific research, especially
research in the fields of natural science, economics, en-
gineering and business administration. If satisfactory pro-
gress is to be made in the solution of the diverse problems
of the farm, to the end that agriculture may be more pros-
perous, the facts developed by research must be intelli-
gently correlated and co-ordinated, superficials dis-
tinguished from fundamentals and the latter interpreted
in the light of practical knowledge as well as scientific in-
formation.
Of supreme importance is a sufficiently numerous per-
sonnel characterized by outstanding ability, through pro-
fessional training, and unstinted devotion to the search for
the truth. To the development and encouragement of such
a personnel every organization concerned with science may
wisely lend its hearty efforts.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Man Power


By T. J. BROOKS
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture

CIVILIZATION as we know it rests on highly de-
veloped man power. This is true in every line of
human endeavor. The final basis for all calculations
on productive capacity is individual man power. This
power is determined by the skill and efficiency of the
worker and the tools with which he works.
All data on cost of production are estimates based on
averages. Very few individual cases happen to strike the
average line-most must be either above or below the line.
This is why so few can calculate ahead their "expecta-
tions"-like life tables prepared by actuaries.
The purchasing power of income, as expressed in terms
of money, has to be taken on the basis of labor's purchasing
power of the materials of our economic life.
Past Labor Records.
The skilled laborer in England in 1350 earned 3 pence
per day. Measured in terms of American money this was
perhaps equivalent to about $1.20 during the latter part
of the nineteenth century. (Today this would have to be
increased to be equivalent because of the decrease of the
purchasing power of money.) This laborer paid a shilling
101/2 pence for a bushel of wheat and 4 shillings and 6
pence for the beef steer of that period. This means that
he paid eight days (14 hours per day) labor for his bushel
of wheat and 98 days for his steer.
Two hundred years later the same kind of laborer earned
4 pence a day. He paid a shilling 101/2 pence for a bushel
of wheat and 1 pound 16 shillings 7 pence for his steer.
In terms of time it would be about 80 hours for his bushel
of wheat and 110 days for his steer.
Another hundred years covered wars, pestilences and
famines. In 1795 we find the laborer receiving a shilling
51/2 pence per day. He paid 7 shillings 10 pence for a
bushel of wheat and 16 pounds 8 shillings for the steer.








20 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

He paid 70 hours labor for his wheat and 119 days for his
steer.
One hundred years ago it required 60 hours to make an
acre of wheat, as against about 10 hours at present. In
1882, working ten hours a day, the same laborer received
3 shillings a day. He paid 6 shillings for his bushel of
wheat and 12 pounds for his steer. The equivalent of 20
hours for his wheat and 80 hours for the steer.
The children of the English laborer crossed the Atlantic
and settled in America. Here the laborer of 1882 received
$1.50 a day, paid a dollar for his bushel of wheat and $40
for his steer.
Under a statute of Richard II, the laborer was forbidden
to move from one part of the kingdom to the other, or to
otherwise seek to raise the price of labor. It was again
reiterated in the reign of the seventeenth George II and
the thirty-second George III, along with fixed wages for
services rendered. Personal liberty was held to be the
privilege of the property class. By a statute of Henry
VIII (1536), children of five years and up were compelled
to labor. A man able to work and refusing a proffer of
work was stripped and whipped until his body was covered
with blood. For the second offense his right ear was cut
off and he received a bastinado. For the third offense he
was put to death. An act passed under Edward VI (1555)
provided that the able-bodied laborer refusing work should
be branded on the breast with the letter V and adjudged
to the informer as his slave for two years. The master
might fasten a ring around his neck or ankle with the name
of the master on it. Skeletons have been found with the
bands upon them.
The authority of rulers has been brought to such as the
ruled see proper to allow. But economic emancipation
came with inventions which increased man-power in farm,
factory, mine and transportation.
At present we reckon 1914 as the year of normal
prices. At that time the laborer could earn enough in 21/2
hours to purchase a bushel of wheat and his beef in pro-
portion. During and immediately after the World War
the relative purchasing power of a day's labor and of
farm products that it took a day to produce was such that
the laborer could purchase a bushel of wheat with one
hour's work.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


According to the reports of the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1926 the
purchasing power of a bushel of wheat as compared with
the purchasing power of manufactured articles was 93 to
100 in 1914. Of course the wages of labor varies so much
that the higher wages of the exceptionally skilled brings
the average rather high.
Source of Supremacy

In 1848 the tremendous exports from the United States
to Europe of agricultural products caused universal stagna-
tion in European agriculture. It was this crisis that
brought into existence the rural credit systems of Germany
that spread over the continent, varying in different nations
to suit their peculiar demands. Sixty odd years later we
sent a Commission to Europe to study cooperative credits
and later established three systems in this country to ac-
commodate farmers.
The one thing in which the United States leads the
world is man power production. This alone has made it
the greatest nation in all history in industry, agriculture,
commerce and finance. If it is to maintain its place in the
future it must keep ahead in man power production. Were
man power labor on the farm unaided by the tools of the
trade, it would take fifty million adult farmers to turn out
the present production. To allow four to the family-
man, wife, two children-our farm population would have
to be 200,000,000 to turn out the present farm crops and
they would have no surplus to sell to those in cities. There
would be little chance for cities. Our entire social scheme
is based upon an agriculture equipped with labor saving
machinery. It requires a snug fortune to own and equip
a farm that meets the requirements of present day farming.
All eastern countries are still laboring under the delusion
that it is an economic wrong to displace hand labor with
power labor. This is manifest when we compare man-
power production on the farm and in the factories of the
Old World with the man-power production of the United
States-this rule does not apply to all America.
There were 1,700,000 fewer people on the farm in the
United States in 1920 than in 1900. Yet the aggregate
crops increased from 20 per cent to 30 per cent and 40 per
cent. Some 30,000,000 people today get their livelihood









22 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

from industries that were only beginning twenty-five years
ago. The factory output in 1920 was 90 per cent larger
than in 1900. One-fourth of our population now live in
seven great city areas. Without a continued increase of
man-power production we are nearing the point of halting
population or of lowering the standard of living.
Large man-power production goes with large scale pro-
duction by the use of costly machinery. Small man-power
production goes with hand labor and a peasant class.
Peasant-mindedness is the greatest blight that can come
to a people.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Work and Wages


By T. J. BROOKS
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture


T HIS IS an age of wage-earning. Man has always
worked, but wage-pay is a product of civilization and
increases as civilization advances. At no period of
history has so large a part of the human family been on
the payroll. Wage-earning in the industrial sense is based
on contracts. The contract is a creature of law. Legal
relations are regulated by governments. Unorganized so-
ciety could not conduct industry under the wage-earning
system. The more complex civilization, the more general
is wage earning extended and the more intricate the eco-
nomic relationship of the wage-payer and the wage-re-
ceiver.
In the broadest sense, wages come from three sources
or conditions:
1. Remuneration or recompense which nature yields in
response to work.
2. Remuneration which society as a whole gives in re-
sponse for a service or product.
3. Remuneration which one party gives to another
under contract for service rendered.
In the first case, the rewards are dependent upon the
suitability of the work to the environment and of the
environment to the work bestowed.
In the second case, the recompense is dependent upon
the degree and extent of the appreciation shown by society
for the product or service rendered.
In the third case, the relationship of the worker to the
work, in point of efficiency, is essentially a determining
factor, but the basis upon which the remuneration depends
is the contract between the employer and the employee.
There is no justification for confusing these three princi-
ples of remuneration in discussing the subject of work and
wages. Both Thomas Carlyle and John Ruskin make this
confusion. Labor has had no stronger advocate than these









24 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

two literary geniuses, but they begged the question by
speaking of the different methods of remuneration inter-
changeably. Without drawing the proper distinction there
is no basis for proper discussion of the subject.
Carlyle says: "The 'Wages' of every noble work do yet
lie in Heaven or else Nowhere. Not in Bank of England
bills, in Owen's Labor-Bank, or in the most improved
establishment of banking and money-changing, needest
thou, heroic soul, present thy account of earnings. * *
Nay, at bottom, dost thou need any reward? Was it thy
aim and life purpose to be filled with good things for thy
heroism, to have a life of pomp and ease, and be what men
call 'happy,' in this world? * My brother, the brave
man has to give his life away.
'Fair day's-wages for a fair day's work!' exclaims a
sarcastic man. Alas, in what corner of this planet, since
Adam first woke on it, was that ever realized? The day's-
wages of John Milton's day's work, named 'Paradise Lost'
and 'Milton's Works,' were ten pounds paid by install-
ments, and a rather close escape from death on the gal-
lows. Consider that: it is no rhetorical flourish; it is an
authentic, altogether quiet fact, emblematic, quietly docu-
mentary of a whole world of such, ever since human history
began. Oliver Cromwell quitted his farming; undertook a
Hercules' labor and life-long wrestle with that Lernaean
Hydra-coil, wide as England, hissing heaven-high through
its thousand crowned, coroneted, shovel-hatted, quick-heads;
and he did wrestle with it, the truest and terriblest wrestle
I have heard of; and he wrestled it, and moved and cut
it down a good many stages, so that its hissing is ever since
pitiful in comparison, and one can walk abroad in com-
parative peace from it; and his wages, as I understand,
were burial under the gallows-tree near Tyburn Turnpike,
with his head on the gable of Westminster Hall, and two
centuries now of mixed cursing and ridicule from all man-
ner of men. * So speaks the sarcastic man, in his
wild way, very mournful truths."
So speaks Thomas Carlyle in his "Past and Present."
One of the brightest stars in the literary firmament is
John Ruskin. Economic justice has, perhaps, never had
a profounder advocate, and he says (Crown of Wild Olive,
sec. 36) : "There must be work done by the arms or none
of us could live. There must be work done by the brains,








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


or the life we get would not be worth living. And the same
men cannot do both. There is rough work to be done, and
rough men must do it; there is gentle work to be done and
gentlemen must do it; and it is physically impossible that
one class should do or divide the work of the other."
We doubt whether it is possible to state the creed of
aristocracy. in blunter language or plainer words. Here
we have the great apostle of the toiler admitting all that has
ever been claimed by the veriest despot, feudal lord or
slave driver. He proceeds: "Rough work, honorable or
not, takes the life out of us." This is true, if we have to
stay at the task too long, or repeat it too often.
Now what is the import of these words of Ruskin? It is
just this-and can mean nothing else-that the great mass
of mankind must live a life not worth having, and do work
that takes the life out of them, that a few parasites may
live a life worth living. If, as he says, life is not worth
having without brain work, and cannot exist without muscle
work, and those who do the one can have no part in the
other, then it follows that those who do the arm work
"which takes the life out of them" do not live a life worth
living, and then, he says, are following the law of "must."
So only they that have the gentlemen's jobs can be thankful
that they live. Sometimes the coarser clay polishes itself
at off hours and "turns the table" on the gentleman in
charge. No fact stands out bolder in history than that men
and women have done both "rough" and "gentle" work
in their lives. And it is not much of a gentleman who
can gloat over his good fortune, knowing that it comes at
the expense of another's misfortune.
In section 41 of the same lecture, Ruskin says: "It is
indeed very clear that God means all thoroughly good. work
and talk to be done for nothing." I consider that sentence
a slander on the Deity. If "God means that all thoroughly
good work and talk to be done for nothing," David and
Solomon must have been engaged in mighty sorry work,
for no one will say they were not paid. Shakespeare made
quite a snug little fortune out of his plays; so, I suppose,
he just palmed off his flimsy stuff on a gullible public;
either that or he thwarted God's intentions. Elias Howe
invented the lockstitch sewing machine, and made a boun-
teous fortune out of it. His invention disenthralled mil-
lions. Did he get ahead of God's decrees? Westinghouse








26 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

made millions out of his airbrake; was it no good? Washing-
ton was paid to the full extent of his desire; was his work
so bad ? Edison did good work and received good pay.
On the other hand, we all know full well that God does
not see that the best workers get best pay, or even pay at
at all, in the ordinary sense of the term. Christ, who
worked with his hands, did the "rough work that rough
people must do," and which "gentlemen must not do, for
"it takes the life out of them," and also did "talk work,"
got as pay a crown of thorns on a cross between two thieves.
Homer got nothing for his Iliad. The inventor of the tele-
scope got a dungeon; the discoverer of the Western world
got chains.
I would change Ruskin's words to read: "Inferior, un-
skilled work must be done, and inferior, unskilled men can
do it; superior skilled work should be done, and superior,
skilled men can do it. Overtaxing physical powers by ex-
posure or overexertion takes the life out of us, and they
who have this to do any very great length of time are de-
graded, are prohibited from developing."
As to remuneration for our work, that is left to nature
and to man. Each of us is placed here with an individual-
ity, in a given environment, and upon the relation of the
individual to the environment depends the rewards in this
world.
Poverty is a curse, else every worker and saver is a
criminal. It combines every kind of suffering physical,
mental, moral and in the end means degradation and death.
If one cannot be both a physical and mental worker it
would be better if some kindly wayward world might strike
this planet and obliterate the human race. If millions must
serve that a few may thrive, existence is not worth while.
A man who develops his brain exclusively tends toward
the eccentric, the unbalanced, while, if a man works with
his hands alone, his mind becomes dull and sodden, and
he soon finds himself brother to "the man with the hoe."
The development of the head and hand should go together.
Esthetics ennobles a man's labor, and the work with the
hands tests his fine esthetical theories for blowholes. This
is the correct view of life, or the system of caste and privi-
lege is the only one suited to the human family, and that
the many must live for the few is the inevitable fate of
the race.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 27

Epictetus, shackled as a slave, thinking thoughts that
were to live for all time, was far more wealthy than Croesus
hoarding his treasures. Who would exchange the reputa-
tion of a Shakespeare for a Rockefeller, of a Paul for a
Nero, of a Galileo for a Crassus. Humanity carries en-
shrined in its heart of hearts an altar of adoration for no
multimillionaire.
A fair day's wages for a fair day's work is not to be
measured altogether by gold. The noblest of work is not
done for sake of money, and the noblest work cannot be
paid in coin. There are other rewards which are much
more satisfying to the refined soul. The pay of accomplish-
ment ranks highest, to those worth while, in the scale of
remuneration.








28 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Farm Price Purchasing Power


Variations for One Hundred and Twenty-seven Years
Traced in Graph


(The Agricultural Review)


THE purchasing power or exchange value of agricul-
tural products as a whole has doubled in the past
100 years. This progress has by no means been uni-
form or constant. There have been eight major peak-
price periods, each of which has been followed by a pre-
cipitous decline. Price recovery following these declines
has been painfully slow as a rule. The average number
of years from the low depressions to the high peaks has
been about eight and one-half years. Minor fluctuations
have been constant, between the extreme highs and lows.
A hundred years ago, most farms were very nearly self-
sustaining. Most of the population was 'rural. There was
more trading of commodities between farms than be-
tween farm and city. Overhead expenses and taxes were
very low. Manufactured articles were comparatively
high, being mostly produced by hand labor. Farm needs
were few.
The price levels of farm products during the first four
decades of the nineteenth century, in comparison with
prices of other articles, were substantially a continuation
of what they had been for centuries.
During the fifth decade of the nineteenth century-the
ten years between 1840 and 1850-the purchasing power
of agricultural commodities was placed upon a higher
level, largely by the introduction of machine methods in
factory production. This had the effect of lowering the
prices of manufactured articles. It must be borne in mind
that reference is here made to the exchange value of farm
products, and not to their prices in dollars and cents. Any
decrease in the price of manufactured articles raises the









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


index price of farm commodities, even though the actual
price of the latter may not have risen at all.
The accompanying graph supplies an interesting study
of the progress of agriculture toward the position occupied
by other industries. Were it not for the increasing ex-
change value of the products of the farm, such progress
would have been impossible.
It will be noted the graph traces the average purchasing
power of all farm products from 1800 to 1927. The general
upward trend of these index prices is also shown, by the
dotted lines. There are three abrupt and wide breaks in
these general trends. The first occurred between 1840 and
1850, and was no doubt due to the cause just explained.
That break was upward. The next disjointure or break was
downward, just following the Civil War. The third and
last was also downward. This was the greatest of all three,
and followed the close of the World War. There was a
peak-price accompanying the War of 1812, and a severe
depression immediately following.
It will also be noted that a big drop in prices, with a
partial recovery followed by another drop, occurred be-
tween 1838 and 1845. It is probable that the rapid increase
in cultivated land west of the Allegheny Mountains about
that period had much to do with this.
The index numbers of farm products never remain con-
stant for any length of time. Purchasing power is either
ascending or descending, practically always. The cause is
apparent. High prices bring overproduction, which re-
sults speedily in low prices. On the other hand, low prices
discourage production, and prices rise. It has been well
said that the cure for high prices is high prices, and the
cure for low prices is low prices. The natural economic
law of supply and demand is inexorable in its operation. It
always brings an abnormally high price or an abnormally
low price back into line. The trouble is that the price
movement does not stop at the line of average and fair-
ness, but swings far above or below, as the case may be.
A factor which may affect the general levels and trends
of farm prices exactly opposite from what happened be-
tween 1840 and 1850 has recently entered. This was the
rapidly growing opportunity for farmers to operate side-
lines, or to profitably employ that portion of their time
which was wasted prior to the industrial era.












PURCHASING POWER OR EXCHANGE VALUE OF FARM COMMODITIES
Inde Covering a Period of 127 years
Numbers


1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910
Sources of Information: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce. National Industrial Conference Board.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 31

If a farmer has some source of revenue other than from
the sale of products of his land-if he can profitably em-
ploy his otherwise spare time-it follows that he can and
will operate his farm on a lower level of actual prices or
exchange value of its products. This makes it more diffi-
cult for the farmer who has no outside earning capacity
available. The effect, in a broad way, no doubt will be to
drive one-crop farmers out of business, unless they do have
some other source of revenue, or compel them to engage in
diversified agriculture, which will in itself give them year-
round employment.
The stabilization of farm commodity prices, at or near a
level fair alike to producer and consumer, is a problem
toward the solution of which the best economic thought of
the country is being directed. It is difficult to see how this
can be done unless production can be controlled. But with
production controlled by universal organized effort, and
imports held in check by adequate tariffs, this problem
might be solved.









32 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Florida Near Bottom in

Forest Fire Protection

LORIDA, which ranks fifth among States of the Union
in percentage of forest lands, runs neck and neck with
Arkansas for last place in what has been done to pro-
tect the forests from fires, according to this chart, compiled
by the natural resource production department of U. S.


PERCENT OF
STATE AREA
38.0 OREGON
63.9 ARKANSAS
40.3 MINNESOTA
5S.2 GEORGIA
60.9 ALASAMA
54.1 FLORIDA-
50.0 MICHIGAN
Is.5 CALIFORNIA
57.7 NORTH CAROLINA
50.3 WISCONSIN
.1.0 WASHINGTON
59.7 LOUISIANA
57.3 MISSISSIPPI
SO.6 IDAHO
78.4- MAINE
8.9 TEXAS
4-.9 MONTANA
1.4 MISSOURJ
39.7 NEW YORK
41.8 PENNSYLNANmA
4..9 TENNESSEE
44.6 VIRGINIA
81.2 SOUTH CAROLINA
36.5 KENTUCKY
55.3 WEST VIRGINIA
18.0 OKLAHOMA
15..3 OHIO
68.2 NEW HAMPSHIRE
15.Z INDIANA
8.8 ILLINOIS
47.8 VERMONT
43.6 MASSACHUSETTS
35 0 MARYLAND
4-1.6 NEWJERSEY
47.0 CONNECTICUT
28.8 DELAWARE
.41 0 RHODE ISLAND


FOREST LAND AREAS BY STATES
MILLION ACRES
4 Ie s1 20






I
-
-l J




*
I


=


U


=,


L











FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Chamber of Commerce, Washington. The chart shows that,
in the percentage of state area in forests, Florida runs
sixth, with 54.1 per cent forest lands. In the protection
column, however, Florida is shown to spend only about

ESTIMATED ANNUAL COST OF ADEQUATE PROTECTION
(100 PERCENT)
PERCENTAGES
0 ZO -40 60 d0 100


ARKANSAS
FLORIDA -
AISSOVRI
SOUTH CAROLINA
INDIANA
ILLINOIS
DELAWARE
OKLAHOMA
GEORGIA
KENTUCKY
MISSISSIPPI
NORTH CAROLINA
VIRGINIA
TEXAS
TENNESSEE
ALABAMA
MONTANA
VERMON'
WISCONSIN
LOUISIANA
MARYLAND
CALIFORNIA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
MINNESOTA
MASSACH US ETT
CONNECTICUT
PENNSYLVANIA
OREG6N
MAINE
OHIO
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
MICHIGAN
NEW YORK
RHODE ISLAND
IDAHO
NEW4ERSEY


Annual expenditures in perC'entages of estimated total costs

five per cent of the estimated annual cost of adequate pro-
tection. Consideration of these charts is recommended by
the National Chamber of Commerep as a significant part
of the observance of Forest Week.

2-Bulletin


WHAT
REMAINS
TO BE
DONE
-
-


WHAT
HAS

DONE


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I








34 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Valuation and Taxes

MUCH misapprehension exists concerning taxation
totals. Florida taxes are relatively low as com-
pared with taxes levied in other state. But taken
as a whole, the totals have increased constantly during
the last five years, and properly so. This increase has
been in keeping with mounting population totals, and has
been an inevitable result of the state's development.
The state's assessed valuation in 1923 was $445,095,559
and a 111/ mill tax yielded approximately $5,118,000.
The assessed valuation in 1924 was $475,197,304, and
a 103/4 mill tax yielded approximately $5,108,000.
The assessed valuation in 1925 was $620,902,028, and a
10/2 mill tax yielded approximately $6,619,000.
The assessed valuation in 1926 was $786,064,528, and a
71/ mill tax yielded approximately $5,795,000.
The millage levies, however, are only one source of the
state's income, the gasoline tax and the automobile li-
cense tax being the major sources, in addition to the mill-
age levies, from which the state monies are obtained.
The state's income for the year 1923 was $14,983,633;
in 1924, $19,114,951.
In 1925 a change was made in calendar year from fis-
cal year. The income of the state for the first six months
of 1925 was $13,617,414, while the income for the fiscal
year beginning July 1, 1925, and ended June 30, 1926,
was $40,713,321. The income from July 1, 1926, to De-
cember 31, 1926, was $12,716,328.
The increase in gasoline tax receipts illustrates the ex-
tent to which any decrease in the millage levy has been
offset by taxes secured from other sources. Gasoline tax
receipts in 1923 were $1,641,000; in 1924, $3,671,000. The
first six months of 1925 showed gasoline tax receipts of
$2,149,000, while the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1925,
and ended June 30, 1926, showed receipts in excess of
$10,000,000. Receipts during the last six months of 1926
were $5,315,000.
Receipts from automobile license tax showed a propor-
tionate increase. In 1923 the automobile license tax re-
ceipts were $1,957,000; in 1924, $2,418,000. The receipts
during the first six months of 1925 were $2,991,000, while
during the year beginning July 1, 1925, and ending June
30, 1926, they were $6,686,000.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Police Operations in Control of
Corn Borer Said to Be Based
Solely on State Authority


Assistant Secretary of Agriculture Explains That Federal
Government Can Only Provide Co-operation


T HE Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, R. W. Dun-
lap, has just issued a statement pointing out that
police operations in the enforcement of the Corn
Borer Control Act are based solely on State authority in
the five states where the campaign is being carried on to
eradicate the corn borer.
The statement was made following receipt of protests
against the control work, made under the misapprehen-
sion that the Federal Government was exercising police
authority, it was explained orally at the Department of
Agriculture. The full text of Mr. Dunlap's statement
follows:
Federal Government Can Only Co-operate
For some time it had become apparent that the corn
borer was making serious advances within the states of
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana.
The farmers within those states had seen what had oc-
curred in Ontario and were apprehensive that the same
thing would occur in the states above named. In order
that the farmers in these states would not face the losses
which the farmers in Ontario had experienced, commit-
tees from these states appeared before Congress last win-
ter and urged that Federal help be given.
The Federal Government is without authority under the
law to send its agents on any farm to destroy any agri-
cultural or horticultural product or to require the farm-
ers to perform any special type of ploughing or other
farm operation. Under the Federal plant quarantine laws
quarantines are established but such quarantines only re-









36 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

late to the passage of crops or other things from one
state to another state. It was realized and represented
by those in authority in the several states that this would
be insufficient to meet the emergency.
The remedy lay in the eradication of the pest where
it existed, that is to say, on the farm, by the state through
its police powers. The Federal plant quarantine law does
not confer upon the Federal officials and employes au-
thority to exercise within a state to compel any farmer to
clean up his farm; such authority must be derived solely
from the state law and must be exercised by state officers
and agents. The most, then, which could be expected
from the Federal Government was an appropriation of
money wherewith to pay, in co-operation with the state,
the cost of such eradication.

States Enacted Police Legislation
Congress apparently accepted the emergency as an ex-
isting fact and recognizing the necessity for the eradica-
tion of the pest at its source, on February 9, 1927, passed
an act appropriating $10,000,000 "to be expended in co-
operation with such authorities of the states concerned,"
but provided that no expenditures were to be made until
the states wherein the European corn borer existed shall
have provided necessary regulatory or police legislation,
recognizing that without such legislation any attempt to
carry out the eradication would be futile.
All of the states promptly enacted this necessary legis-
lation. A further limitation was placed by the Congress
to the effect that no part of the authorized $10,000,000 ap-
propriation was to be expended until a sum or sums ade-
quate to state co-operation shall have been appropriated,
subscribed or contributed by state, county or local au-
thorities, or individuals, or organizations.
On February 23, 1927, Congress appropriated the $10,-
000,000 authorized to be appropriated in the act above
mentioned.
Provisions Cited of Ohio Statute
On March 14, 1927, the legislature of Ohio passed an act
"providing for the quarantine and control of the Euro-
pean corn borer." Under section 2 of this act, the State
Department of Agriculture is authorized to promulgate









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 37

quarantines within the state and to make and enforce
rules and regulations supplemental to such quarantines.
Under such quarantine the State Department of Agricul-
ture is authorized to prohibit and prevent the movement
within the state without inspection of any agricultural or
horticultural product or any other material of any char-
acter whatever capable of carrying the pest in any living
state of its development.
Section 3 of the state law authorizes the State Depart-
ment of Agriculture or its authorized agents to have free
access to any farm, field, orchard, garden, elevator, ware-
house, building, cellar, freight yard, vehicle, vessel, boat,
container, or any other place it might be necessary for
such agents to enter, in order to carry out the provisions
of the act. It makes it unlawful to deny any such agent
access or to hinder, thwart, or to defeat such inspection
by misrepresentation, concealment of facts or conditions
or otherwise.
Section 4 of the act provides a penalty of not less than
$25 or more than $100, or imprisonment for not more
than five days, upon conviction for a violation of any
provision of the quarantine promulgated under this act
or of any rules and regulations issued supplemental
thereto.

Prescribed Destruction of Property Compulsory
Section 5 provides that wherever treatment or destruc-
tion of any agricultural or horticultural product, whether
in field, feed loft, place of assemblage, storage or else-
where or wherever any special type of ploughing or other
farm operation is required under the provisions of any
rule or regulation issued under the state law, the owner
or person having charge of such material or land is re-
quired upon notice from the State Department of Agri-
culture or its agents to cause the destruction or treatment
of such material in the manner designated by such notice.
In case the owner or person in charge refuses or neg-
lects to carry out such instruction within a time limit to
be provided the State Department of Agriculture or its
agent is authorized to take such action as may be neces-
sary and to assess and collect from the owner as taxes
whatever cost may be involved.









38 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

In order to carry out the provisions of the state law,
there was appropriated the sum of $200,000 and an
emergency was declared to exist, and the law made imme-
diately effective.
Thus it will be seen that all police operations in the
state of Ohio are performed under and by virtue of state
law. The Federal Government has merely appropriated
a sum of money to assist the states and to augment the
sums appropriated by the states.
The Federal Government has provided machinery,
farming implements and men to the states, but the offi-
cers engaged in carrying out the state legislation are state
officers and where the federal employes are exercising
any police authority they are doing so only by virtue of
their appointment as agents or deputies of the State De-
partment of Agriculture.
Neither the Secretary of Agriculture, the Assistant
Secretary, nor any other federal officer has any authority
or power to act until he is first authorized or deputized
to do so by the State Department of Agriculture, and in
the event this is done he can only carry out those rules
and regulations as laid down by the State Department
of Agriculture.
Under the state law the State Department of Agricul-
ture has promulgated rules and regulations for the pur-
pose of carrying out the provisions of the state law, which
have been submitted to, and approved by, the Secretary
of Agriculture. The closest kind of co-operation exists
between the state and federal governments in carrying
out the purpose of both federal and state laws. There
is but one purpose which actuates both state and federal
authorities, namely, the control of the corn borer and its
eradication so far as possible in certain areas.
The end in view is that we may save for the farmers of
America their most important crop.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Florida and the Government


FLORIDA exported merchandise valued at $30,475,385

during 1925, which was an increase of $3,015,399 over
the foreign shipments the preceding fiscal years. For
the nine months ending September, 1926, Florida's exports
were almost $20,000,000.
During 1925, naval stores valued at $10,726,000 pre-
dominated. Second place in importance was held by wood
and wood-manufacturers, with a value of $7,461,000, and
this classification was followed by phosphate rock, exports
of which were $5,500,000.
Among other exports from the State named in order of
their value were raw cotton, fruits, animals, leaf-tobacco
and mineral oil.
The appointment of foodstuffs trade commissioners to
cover the northern coast of South America and the Carib-
bean area by the department of commerce will indirectly
affect Florida. These representatives will aid in securing
reliable agents for American exporters of food products
and assist in overcoming the many difficulties involved in
carrying on export trade in points where facilities for pack-
ing, warehousing and transportation are inadequate. The
American exporter needs a great deal of help on these mat-
ters as well as on the methods of advertising and promot-
ing his products.








40 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


County Agent's Place in

Agricultural Program


President of National Association of County Agricultural
Agents Outlines Scope of Their Activities


Chicago, I11.-Addressing delegates to the annual meeting of
the American Farm Bureau Federation held in Chicago recently,
J. C. Hedge, president of the National County Agents' Associa-
tion, outlined the scope of their work, and its influence on the
development and improvement of the farming industry.
The full text of Mr. Hedge's address follows:

A AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION work had its begin-
ning somewhere near 1903 with the establishment of
some demonstration work in the South. In the be-
ginning the work was very much of an experiment. It
was not very well financed, so grew rather slowly. The
greater part of the finances for early Extension activities
came from private sources. By 1914 this work had grown
to such proportions that it attracted the attention of Con-
gress and the Smith-Lever Law was enacted. This law set
aside funds to be administered by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture and provided for co-operation
with the various states. The State legislatures soon enacted
laws which made the co-operative agreements effective.
From that time on the Extension Service developed very
rapidly.
The passage of the Smith-Lever Act and the various state
laws made Extension work a public educational service and
provided some funds for financing it. Various organiza-
tions continued to contribute towards its support. This
additional financial assistance narrowed down very rapidly
to that provided by the Farm Bureau, with a few excep-
tions in which other organizations provided some funds.
From that time up to the present the Farm Bureau has
continued to give liberally for the support of the extension
work.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


3500 County Agents

Prior to the passage of the Smith-Lever act there were
less than a thousand County Agents employed. At the
present time there are more than three thousand four hun-
dred County Extension Agents, this including Home Dem-
onstration Agents, and County Club Agents as well as
County Agents. Besides these Extension Agents there are
over eight hundred full time Subject Matter Specialists
who help the County Extension Agents in developing their
programs. This does not take into account the officials
who have charge of extension work. These extension agents
are scattered throughout the length and breadth of our
land. Every State in the Union has some of them within
its borders. They travel up and down their counties talk-
ing and demonstrating better agriculture, better homes,
and better communities. They travel the highways all
hours of the day and often long into the night. Many are
their ways of getting to their destinations. From broncos "
to "shanks horses," from autos to airplanes, so we are told,
although we cannot vouch for the latter. Their most popu-
lar mode of travel is by means of that well-known make of
car that is supposed to run on its reputation, but does not.
These extension agents are working in almost all of the
eighty thousand communities within their counties. In
more than fifty thousand of these they have definite pro-
grams developed. Last year they made more than one
million seven hundred thousand farm and home visits in
connection with their work. More than six and one-half
million people attended demonstrations conducted by these
agents in the many phases of farm, home and community
work. More than eighteen million five hundred thousand
people attended meetings that these extension agents con-
ducted.
A casual survey of the summarized reports of county ex-
tension agents as published by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture shows projects covering cereal, forage,
fibre crops, bush and tree fruits, truck and garden crops,
forestry, rodent and insect control, dairy and beet cattle,
hogs, sheep, poultry and other live stock, rural engineering,
farm management, credit, marketing, foods, clothing, nutri-
tion, home management, house furnishing, home health and
sanitation, and many others. These subjects often being









42 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

divided into many projects, corn alone having more than
one hundred projects on which agents were conducting
demonstrations during 1923. There are literally hundreds
of projects that are claiming attention of these men and
women.

Farm Boys and Girls
We have not forgotten the boys and girls in our program.
Any program of agricultural improvement that is built
without considering the needs of the boys and girls is not
on a solid foundation. "The boys and girls of today will
be the men and women of tomorrow." Through them our
hopes of reaching the ultimate goal of a more satisfactory
agriculture will have to be realized if it comes within the
next generation. Through boys' and girls' club work a
great deal of attention is being given to the rural youth
of our country. More than five hundred and sixty-five
thousand boys and girls were enrolled in junior extension
work last year. Even with this vast number enrolled we
are only reaching a small percentage of the boys and girls
that we should reach. Junior extension work is often the
means of securing the interest and cooperation of the
father and mother in adult extension work. We find ex-
tension agents giving more and more time and thought to
the problems of the boys and girls.
The county agricultural agents are not alone in doing
this tremendous piece of agricultural extension work. It
would be physically impossible for them to do this work
alone. More than one hundred and sixty thousand far-
seeing men and women have acted as local leaders in carry-
ing on this work. They have put their shoulders to the
wheel and with a long, strong and mighty push have shoved
toward the goal of better farm, home and community prac-
tices. Many of you folks here before me belong to that
group. I take off my hat to you, ladies and gentlemen, you
have done a noble piece of work. You have done it with-
out hope of material reward, you have done it because of
your love for your communities, you have done it because
you have faith in agriculture. 1 sincerely hope that the
day is not far distant when some public recognition will
be given to outstanding voluntary rural leadership. The
work that is being done by some of our agricultural papers
is a step in the right direction.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


The county agent's task is not an easy one. He is called
upon to do so many things and to cover such a large field
of endeavor that it is hard for him to keep ahead of the
procession. He has little time for study and must jump
from one thing to another so often that he cannot concen-
trate on any one subject for a very long time.
In the adult extension work the agent is dealing with the
"habit-fixed mind," the mind that does not take up new
ideas readily. As extension folks and farm organization
folks we need not become discouraged if we do not accom-
plish the thing we have set out to do in the time we have
allotted for the task. Perhaps we have been over-enthusi-
astic and have assumed that because we saw this problem
in this we could soon win others over to our viewpoint.
Perhaps we have gone -about the thing in the wrong way.
It may be that we have not given sufficient attention to
planning the details of the project. After all, is this thing
as important as we think it is? These are some of the
things we need to consider before we criticize the other
fellow too severely for not accepting our views.
We sometimes become discouraged and think that folks
do not appreciate the things we are attempting to do.
When we reach this point it is time to stop and take stock.
How about the progress we have made in the past decade?
How many folks have changed their practices because of
the things that we have advocated?
Farm Optimism
I often become discouraged over the progress of some
piece of work in my county. Then I think, after all, need
I be discouraged? There is the fellow who can't get his
crops harvested, yet he meets me with a smile. There is
the fellow who lost all his cows in the tuberculin test; he
does not say, "I am going to quit." There is that fine
chap who was gassed in the World War. He has lost a
lung and the other is in a bad way. There he is out there
on that little farm pegging away trying to make a living
and provide a home for the wife and three little children.
He meets me with a smile, too.
After all, things are not as bad as they seem for me.
I will not quit. I will keep on and do my best. I will
attack the problem from another angle and perhaps folks
will see it as I do. That is the determination that we must








44 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

have in our work with farm organizations. We must first
be sure we are right, then push forward with a determina-
tion that we will reach our goal. Not forcing folks to see
as we see, but leading them to think as we think. We have
been closely associated with the farm bureau movement for
the past decade and we know that that is the kind of people
we have in the organization.
In our work with farm folks we need ever to have in
mind those principles so aptly stated by Dean Vivian, of
the Ohio State University Agricultural College, in his dozen
attributes of the ideal extension worker. He says that he
must have:
"Abounding faith in the importance of the work;
"Infinite tact in meeting trying situations;
"Unlimited patience in overcoming community inertia;
"Endless good nature in face of all trials;
"A saving sense of humor when nothing else will meet
the situation;
"A large vision of the work to be done;
"Ability to lose gracefully and to rebound after each
defeat;
"Indomitable courage in standing for the right;
"A grim determination to see the work put through to
its completion;
"A contagious enthusiasm that inspires local leadership;
"Unquenchable optimism in spite of all discourage-
ments;
''Unreserved belief in the importance of the farm family
to the commonwealth."
We want to disabuse your mind of any idea that you
may have that the county agent's program of work is a
thing made out by him or handed to him by the State
College without having consulted local folks or studying
local conditions. On the contrary, his program is arrived
at only after consultation with leading farm folks and the
study of all available information. He determines the real
needs of the county, then the program is made up with
reference to the solution of these problems. Generally the
most pressing problems are given more immediate atten-
tion in the program. When extension work was first
started, most programs were for a short time only. Now
the tendency is to plan out a long time program and gradu-
ally develop the different phases of it.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


A Definite Place
As extension work develops, we find the county exten-
sion agent occupying a very definite place in the agricul-
tural program. He is the official representative of the
State Agricultural College and the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture in his county. He is a teacher of bet-
ter agricultural practice and a builder for a more perma-
nent agriculture.
The future possibilities of extension work are so vast and
varied that one can only hope to take a peep at them in
the brief time that we have left. We can see bigger and
better crops, more desirable fruits and vegetables, animals
and animal products that more nearly meet the market de-
mands, all produced more economically. We can see more
economical marketing systems, and we see better homes
and better communities. These are a few of the possibili-
ties of the future if we will cooperate and work together
for the same end. When I speak of these things as being
the future possibilities of extension work. I do not think
of extension work as being the only work done by the
county extension agents as representatives of the State
colleges and the United States Department of Agriculture,
but I think of it as the combined program of this agency,
the Farm Bureau, and all other farm organizations work-
ing toward a common end.
And now, in conclusion, ladies and gentlemen of the
American Farm Bureau Federation, as county agent, and
on behalf of the County Agricultural Extension Agents or'
the United States, we ask your continued cooperation and
support in developing the agricultural extension program
toward the goal of a contented, prosperous, happy and in-
telligent farm family in every American farm home.







46 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Georgia and Florida Now
Leading Whole Nation in
Naval Stores Production


Carolinas Producing Only 2 Per Cent. of Total-U. S.
Leading Entire World-America Exports a
Huge Amount to Foreign Lands


SCIENTIFIC measures of conservation and reforesta-
tion in the pinegrowing areas of this country must be
adopted if the American naval stores industry is to
maintain its present position, according to a trade bulletin
issued by the department of commerce. That the indus-
try is fully alive to the fact that it is facing a problem, the
solution of which may mean its continued existence, is in-
dicated by the recent formation of the Pine Institute of
America, composed of lumber and naval stores producers,
distributors, and consumers. France, the report points out,
affords a splendid example of the successful working out of
the principles of reforestation in connection with its pine
lands.
Florida Is Leader
Georgia and Florida, the report shows, now produce
about three-quarters of the naval stores in the United
States. The Carolinas which a half century ago accounted
for about 90 per cent of the total production now furnishes
a meager 10 per cent. As long as the forest reserves were
apparently inexhaustible there was little thought of refor-
estation, with the result that there are vast areas of cutover
lands in the South, that are non-productive. Under favor-
able market conditions it is stated, it would be possible to
obtain a considerable quantity of both rosin and turpen-
tine from the stumps and dead wood on these waste lands.
The United States supplies about 60 per cent of the
world's naval stores production, with France ranking sec-
ond with 20 per cent. During the five crop years 1922-1926.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


the report shows United States production of rosin aver-
aged about 1,850,000 barrels and 27,000,000 gallons of
turpentine. In 1925 France produced 450,000 barrels of
rosin and.10,500,000 gallons of turpentine. Production in
neither the United States or France is likely to be materi-
ally increased, it is stated.
In 1926 United States exported turpentine and rosin to a
value of $35,000,000 as compared with $30,000,000 in 1925.
About 60 per cent of our rosin exports and more than 75
per cent of our turpentine are destined to European
markets, chiefly the United Kingdom and Germany. In
1925 the former country took 250,000 barrels of American
rosin and 6,787,000 gallons of turpentine.
France Is Favored
France is particularly favored in its foreign trade in
naval stores because of its close proximity to European
countries. High prices in the United States are reflected in
French exports. In 1924, when American rosin exports
were very high, French exports amounted to only 200,000
barrels. This figure was increased by 50 per cent in 1925,
while the total for the first ten months of 1926.
The consumption of turpentine, it is pointed out, has
failed to keep pace with the progress of the paint and
varnish industries, the chief consumers. When the price has
been high these industries have turned to substitutes which
in many instances have permanently usurped the place of
turpentine. With rosin likewise, the high prices of the last
two or three years have forced consumers to seek cheaper
substitutes. The necessity of developing new uses for both
these products is apparent, for experiments are now being
conducted along these lines. Indications point to the fact
that the consumption of turpentine and rosin as raw ma-
terials will diminish. It seems probable, the report states,
that a new branch of chemical industry will be developed
for the purpose of separating from these materials the
constituents which are desired by the present consuming
industries, with the attractive possibility of finding even
more valuable by-products for which markets can be de-
veloped.








48 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Agricultural Possibilities Are

Unlimited


Strassman, of Red Book, Writes About Florida


By RALPH K. STRASSMAN
Vice-President, The Red Book Magazine


M Y experience when I have been traveling in various
parts of Florida have been a revelation to me.
We in the North have heard so much of
Florida's climate and advantages as a winter playground
that it comes as a surprise to most of us to learn of the
State's remarkable natural assets-the vast phosphatic de-
posits, forests which produce lumber, turpentine and resin
for naval stores and for commercial purposes; factories
producing $150,000,000 worth of articles each year.
Another important asset of the State which has never
received the attention it deserves is found in the agricultu-
ral possibilities. The raising of oranges and grapefruit has
been, and remains, the outstanding development in this
field, but it is not the only phase worthy of consideration.
The soil of the State is so diversified that there is hardly
any sort of field or garden crop that cannot be produced
in some section of it. In the districts most ideally located
with respect to soil, natural drainage and rainfall, three or
four crops are produced in one year. Florida is the coun-
try's greatest source of winter-grown vegetables-winter
tomatoes, lettuce, celery, etc. One-tenth of the fresh fruits
and vegetables used in the United States come from Florida
farms. In 1924, the value of the agricultural products
raised in the State was $20,000,000. The astonishing fact is
that only about two and a half million of the thirty-five
million acres which the Department of Agriculture esti-
mates are available for agricultural purposes are now under
cultivation. Calculate the increase in production as more
and more of this land is taken over and developed, and the
figures are staggering.










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


The Florida farmer does not need to fear over-production
and consequent loss, for the State's strategic position, near
the large shipping centers, with the best of facilities for
transportation by land and water, puts the great markets
of the country practically at the door.
Another indication of the enormous expansion which
Florida's agricultural industry may expect is the develop-
ment of co-operative organizations among the farmers them-
selves and the intelligent aid which the State government is
giving. Very few localities can offer so much in
the way of independence, comfort and adequate return for
investment of time and money as Florida offers her farm-
ers, and the fundamental soundness of her agricultural
industry cannot be undermined by temporary misfortune.
The people of the country as a whole can have confidence
in Florida because of the soundness of her economic and
industrial assets and their present and potential value. The
State has another important asset in the spirit and attitude
of her citizens. In watching the development of Florida
during the past two or three years, and studying the effect-
ive publicity which has been given it, I have been strongly
impressed by the youthful spirit behind it. By this I mean
the spirit of confidence, of adventure, of going ahead with-
out over-cautious conservatism. The Floridians have shown
that they have that rare quality of imaginative realism to
know how to put across their own enthusiasm with the con-
vincing note of assurance. *
It is frequently said that Florida is both the oldest and
the youngest State in the Union-the oldest from the stand-
point of settlement and the youngest because it has only
begun to develop its possibilities during the past few years.
It is a State in the making, and the free, whole-hearted, go-
ahead attitude of its citizens -is a tonic example to commu-
nities that have allowed themselves to grow stale and set-
tled. We can have confidence in Florida as we have confi-
dence in youth-for its citizens have the boundless enthu-
siasm, the vitality, the energy that makes for growth, de-
velopment and power.
So much public attention has been attracted by Florida's
remarkable growth during the past two years that some
people are apt to shrug their shoulders doubtfully or allude
cynically to "mushroom growth." But one of the convic-
tions which impressed me most strongly was that there is
nothing ephemeral about Florida's prosperity. The start-










50 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

ling development which the State has made recently, aided
by an effective national publicity campaign, has been so
phenomenal that it has overshadowed the fact that the
State has been growing and developing, not at such an
amazing rate, but steadily, both in population and in
wealth, over a much longer period. Before the recent
"step-out," it had built a solid foundation of industrial
and economic security and had acquired a stable popula-
tion to serve as a nucleus for the vast numbers of outsiders
who have been attracted by the State's advantages. Flor-
ida is in a position to attract new residents of the most sub-
stantial types. Its industries and business opportunities
are varied enough for everyone to find his place. Better
homes are to be had at lower cost. The climatic advantages
are unparalleled. Of course some of the drifter and ne'er-
do-well type, some seekers after quick and easy wealth, have
been attracted, too, but these are merely passing incidents
and have no effect on the permanent, substantial popula-
tion.
There is no doubt that Florida has a place in our national
industrial assets that entitles her to a leading com-
mercial life, besides being a matchless health and pleasure
resort. Publicity of the right type is needed to bring these
advantages to the attention of the general public. We have
already seen the effectiveness of publicity in selling the
idea of Florida's climate. Now, more people need to know
what the State has to offer as a commercial, agricultural
and commercial community. When these facts are ade-
quately presented, there will be no more talk of Florida's
prosperity being a pricked bubble, and the people as a
whole will realize that the citizens of that State are now
writing the first chapters in one of the century's greatest
romances of business.







FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Gulf Belt's Resources Are

Almost Beyond Imagination


Florida Has Much Territory in This Great Empire Which
Borders Gulf of Mexico-Opportunities for
Persons in All Walks of Life

By NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
(Pensacola Journal)

THERE is a belt of country bordering the Gulf of
Mexico, extending from Tampa, Florida, to Tampico,
Mexico, that is an empire within itself. Covering a
belt one hundred miles wide in a half moon circle, this em-
pire has within it resources and potentialities beyond the
dream of empire builders. Within this belt Florida has a
goodly share with the other four states and Mexico.
Facing the Gulf Stream as it runs its course toward the
British Isles, where it tempers the climate for millions of
Europeans, it carries potentialities not yet realized in agri-
culture, industry and commerce that stagger the imagina-
tion. With half a dozen fine ports it offers great opportun-
ities in ocean going shipping to all parts of the world,
bringing in a tremendous tonnage of imports which are con-
sumed by the inhabitants of the greatest producing center
of the South-the Mississippi Valley-and taking out to
all the world the surplus of this vast empire filled with
teeming millions of people.
Trade Routes
Trade routes follow the lines of production and consump-
tion. When the Gulf area puts on the market in a busi-
ness-like way its hundred agricultural products there will
be a golden stream that wiill make it one of the favored sec-
tions of the world. With superb climate, ample rainfall
and transportation facilities by land and sea the equal of
any, there is no reason why this part of America should not
flourish as the equal of any in the world. Heretofore the









52 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

great centers of population have been in the extreme north
and east. As great centers of population spring up in the
southern states and to the south of us, nearby markets will
take the output of field and factory without expensive
transportation charges.
Commodore F. Maury, "the pathfinder of the seas," pre-
dicted before the Civil War that when the Panama Canal
should be built the commerce of the world would center in
the Gulf of Mexico.
The Review of Reviews said last year that the place of
the South on the map of the world ought to make it the
heart of industry and civilization.
In Florida's part of this Gulf area are grown such crops
as the following: Corn, cotton, rice, oats, sugar cane, sor-
ghum cane, Japanese cane, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes,
peanuts, melons, hays, grasses, tobacco, beans, peas, toma-
toes, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, egg plants, strawberries,
plums, peaches, grapes, Satsumas, pecans, blueberries and
scores of other vegetables, berries and fruits.
It also raises cattle, horses, mules, hogs, sheep, goats,
poultry and other domestic animals. Poultry and dairy
products promise to be leading sources of agricultural in-
come.
Forest Products
The forest products of this part of Florida are among its
greatest assets, and under proper conservation should con-
tinue to be among the larger income producers. Even wild
game furnishes no mean revenue in this part of the state.
It is here, too, that both fresh water and salt water fish
furnish human food for millions. The oysters of Apala-
chicola are famed throughout the country.
For any country to have all these resources means that
it is capable of sustaining a teeming population.
One of the developments needed is ample marketing
facilities for farmers. This territory is one of the greatest
sweet potato producing sections of the world, and yet car-
loads of sweet potatoes are shipped into Florida from
Georgia and Tennessee, and truck loads are brought in on
highways.
The last legislature provided for cold storage plants to be
built jointly by the state and any county desiring a plant.
Were these established it would furnish a reservoir for









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


perishable crops and meats to be deposited and sold as the
markets could consume them throughout the year.
At present trucks are scouring the country in my county
-Marion-buying eggs, chickens, bacon and other farm
products, and hauling them to the towns and cities for
sale. Now were the storage plants in operation, they would
become the farmers' mart of deposit, and the buyers in-
stead of going over the county in search of these articles,
could go only to the storage plants and get their supplies.
Purchasers in distant cities could wire these plants and
make offers for supplies that could be filled by direct ship-
ments.
Available Markets
With a splendid system of highways and good railroad
facilities, all northern markets are available for our products.
For non-perishable products the ocean freighters bring us
in touch with the markets of foreign countries.
The development of West Florida has been gradual and
will continue to be. Not riding into prosperity on a wave
of speculation, it will be spared the aftermath of the same.
Slowly but surely this part of our state stands to be one of
the most substantial and prosperous of the South.








54 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Dr. Bradford Knapp's Address

Before the Annual Convention


By DR. BRADFORD KNAPP
President Oklahoma A. & M. College


MR. CHAIRMAN, Ladies and Gentlemen: What Mr.
Cordell said to you is a pretty good preface to what
I am going to say to you, and that is our very pro-
found interest in what you are doing. A good many of us
started out along about 1920 with the idea that co-operative
marketing was a means toward the solution of some of the
difficulties that farmers have. I had the opportunity of
sitting in the first meeting held in the South for the new
movement towards co-operative marketing.
I picked up a book the other day, Simms' History of Co-
operative Marketing, and in that book I found a reference
to the Oklahoma Cotton Growers' Co-operative Association
recorded there as a matter of history of the development
of co-operative marketing in this country, and while I was
reading it I wondered what the historian would write five
years from now about this association. Are they going to
write in a chapter in that book, which will be reissued some
day, that this association has gone on through its difficul-
ties, solving its problems, to furnish machinery for the
doing of the farmer's business, or is it going to have a chap-
ter "finis" or "finished" in plain English some of these
days, stating that again we have a record of the fact that
farmers cannot and will not co-operate?
Mr. Morley referred to some conditions that existed. As
you all know, there is a bulletin of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture now pretty well out of print,
which, if you will go back and read, you will find in the
first investigations made in this State they found that the
same grade and the same staple of cotton on the same local
market often sold for a difference of $20 a bale and as high
as $40 a bale. We have a cafeteria at the college and every
now and then somebody gets sore at the cafeteria and once
in a while we get discouraged after carrying it on, and that









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


situation goes and comes, but I am hanging on to it like I
hang on to co-operative marketing, because I know if we
let go of it the price of food sold to the students of the col-
lege will go up the very minute the college cafeteria quits
business.
I helped organize an elevator years ago, and they came
to me one day and said, "The elevator across the track
from us is paying a price for grain we can't stand." And
'I said, "Are you fellows pretty good co-operators? Will
you stick together? Will you stay friends and stay put?"
And they swore up and down they would, and I gave them
a little password and we got up a lot of fine interest in the
matter, and the truth of the matter is we sent the members
of that association over across the street, over across the
track there and sold our competitor our own grain and took
the money and went over and deposited it in our own ele-
vator and our own man kept the machinery oiled and his
feet up on a desk, and we went in and patted him on the
back and kept going, and they changed managers in the
rival elevator, the rival line elevator, they changed them a
dozen times and then came over and said, "We would like
to agree with you fellows on a price,'' and we told them to
go to a very much warmer place. That is what you can
do with a bunch that will stick together. I told them they
had to have their elevator, their elevator was the price of
their grain.
The A. & M. College not only helped to put this thing
over before I came to the State, but is still helping. I came
to the State committed to the co-operative idea, to co-opera-
tion among farmers and have boosted it for years past, and
I am not going to back out on it now. (Applause).
One day I was driving in my car and I picked up a man
that wanted to go from one town to the other. He
didn't know who I was at all, and in the course
of our conversation he said to me: "Say, I am off
of church members. I will never trust a man that goes to
church and wears a long coat and says 'amen' when the
minister prays." I says, "What has happened to you?
What has happened to you, anyhow?" "Well," he said,
"there is a fellow over here in this town where I live, in
this little city, that goes to church on Sunday and sits in
the amen quarter and helps take up the collection and says
amen when the minister prays, and yet," he said, "that
son of a gun has cheated me out of $5,000." And I said,









56 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

"On the strength of that you are off church members, are
you? You are never going to trust another church mem-
ber?" And he said, "You are right, I never will trust
another man that goes to church.' I said to him, "My
friend, your thinking is on wrong end, too. The church isn't
responsible for that; that is the poor cuss that failed; that
is all that is the matter with him. He is the man to settle
it on, and that doesn't prove there aren't thousands of good
honest people in the church. It is only the failure of the
individual and not the failure of the Christian religion."
So whenever a co-operative organization fails I am here
to tell you it is the failure of the folks and not the failure of
co-operation. (Applause).
I thought maybe you would like to know what folks think
of you. Now, the A. & M. College has taken quite a little
survey and I thought maybe some of you members would
like to know. I have read some of this same material to
the directors and to other folks that are interested, and I
thought some of you ordinary common members that are
up here would like to know about it. We went to a bunch of
farmers with some very pertinent questions, asked them
confidentially and privately, and we would not tell you
today if you would give us enough money to build two more
buildings up there at the college, we wouldn't tell you who
answered any of these particular questions. The answers
are locked up.
The first question we asked them was, "Would you like
to see the Oklahoma Cotton Growers' Association discon-
tinued?" Now, that is a very pertinent question, isn't
it ? Eight hundred and thirty farmers scattered over sev-
eral counties were asked that question, some of them were
members, 503 of them were members, signed up members of
this association, and 327 of them were not members. You
would be interested to find out what they said, wouldn't
you? All right. Out of the 503 members, 453 said, "No,
we don't want it discontinued." That is 90 per cent. (Ap-
plause.) Of the members of that association that we tackled
90 per cent said, "No." Here is what interested me about
as much as the other, however: Of the 327 non-members,
239 or 73 per cent said, "No."
"In what way do you think the association has helped
farmers?" we asked all of them privately-just the two
men there-the man asking the question who was going to
write down the answer and the man who was answering,








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


so that he wouldn't be prejudiced by answering in the
presence of his neighbors or anything else. That question
was asked of 265 farm operators, 66 of whom were owner-
members and 199 were renters. Ninety-four per cent of the
owner members said that they thought it made the cotton
price higher and 94 per cent of the tenants said the same
thing. Now, can you beat that? Ninety-four per cent of
both land owners, operating farmers and tenant farmers
said they thought the cotton association brought a higher
price.
"Do you think the association helps non-members get a
better price?" We have 332 non-members' answers to
that question. Eighty-five of those were owner-farmers
and 65, or 76.4 per cent, of whom said "yes" that it helped
them to get a higher price. Of the renters who are non-
members, 203 out of 247 answered "yes" or 82.2 per cent
of the renters non-members believed that the association
helped to get a'higher price.
"Do you think the association pays more nearly accord-
ing to grade than private buyers?" A pretty hard ques-
tion. But we put that up to 835 farmers also. Of the
members, 508 total, 381 or 75 per cent said, "Yes." Of
the non-members out of 327, 178 or 54 per cent said, "Yes."
Now, they are fellows that were selling their cotton not
through the association but who had to get their informa-
tion through the fact that they knew their neighbor mem-
bers' cotton and were judging it by comparison with their
own experience. I think that is a pertinent piece of in-
formation.
Then we asked the final question, "Do you believe the
association has helped farmers?" Eighty-two per cent of
the owners and 79 per cent of the non-owners said, "yes"
to that question.
We are making quite an investigation on the subject of
what circumstances there are that makes a man loyal to his
association. What makes for loyalty? I think we have got
to understand what co-operating is and what its object is,
and I hope that since I have no share in the turmoil or
controversy that you may have in the association whatever,
I can walk up to Sam Morley and shake him by the hand
and look him squarely in the eye and talk to him as his
friend and I can do the same thing with Sealey today, so I
am standing in between here on this proposition, but the








58 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

vital thing I am interested in is that this association should
live and perform its function. (Applause).
There is just one thing I think every member ought to
be warned about and I believe I am the best member in
the state of Oklahoma to warn them about it, and that is
government by rumors. I want to tell you that rumors, un-
substantiated rumors, can do more grief in this world than
anything I know of. They are the most difficult thing to
face. There isn't a man here, and I don't believe there is
a man in this association that wouldn't welcome the truth
laid on the table, on any matter. But, the hardest thing in
the world is to combat rumor and I have had to combat
some in my experience, some as rotten lies as were ever
circulated about anybody, and I have to deal with them
every day, so I know what it is to have the rumor game
played on you. The best thing in the world when a fel-
low hears a rumor is to say what old Uncle Joe Cannon
once said when a man came to him with a very important
rumor and Uncle Joe looked at him and said, "That is very
important if true." And I think that is a mighty good
answer to give to any man that comes to you with any-
thing about the association.
We have a little co-operative creamery up at Stillwater,
and the other day a good business man that has been in
Stillwater about thirty years said to me one evening, "Isn't
it too bad that the creamery is failing? That is too bad,
isn't it?" And I said. "Where did you get that stuff?"
He said, "There is a man that used to be a member of that
creamery association that tells me it is about to blow up."
And I was very much upset, but I said, "That is very im-
portant if true." And I said, "I am going over and find
out." I called Professor Baer and I said, "Give me a re-
port on the creamery." And he said, "What is the mat-
ter?" And I said, "About the blow-up." And he handed
me the balance sheet showing me he had the best year's
business they had ever had and the members were loyal and
they had a turnover of some sixty odd thousand dollars and
they were doing good work and some disgruntled fellow
circulating a thing that passes from mouth to mouth and
becomes magnified like that putting that out.
There are two duties in this proposition and the first and
the most important one is the duty of the member to his
association. This association can never succeed without the








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


loyal support of its membership, without their genuine feel-
ing for their common interest in the association.
The second duty is the duty of the officials to the mem-
bership to exercise their very best ability to put the in-
terests of the association always above their own inter-
ests; to absolutely scorn to take any advantage what-
ever; to so conduct their own affairs that they cannot
possibly be interested in the turn of a single thing in the
conduct of the business, and I believe that is a mighty
important thing for them to remember. I think it ought
to be a good deal like the man who goes on the Federal
Bank Board. Before he goes on there he must dispose of
his private business. He has to get himself entirely out
of any place where his decision could possibly be trans-
lated into any advantage for himself. And so, the em-
ployes of this association, who are the employes of every
member of it; the board of directors themselves, who are
the chief responsible parties; the management and every-
thing else must put themselves in the position that there
cannot possibly be any question about their decision being
in favor of the association, which means in favor of the
membership of the association.
I have put it a little bit stronger than that. I believe
that the success of the A. & M. College is so important to
the farmers of this state and to the people generally of
this state that its success and its opportunity to serve is
far and away more important than the job of any man or
any group of men connected with it. (Applause). And if
I thought I could make it more efficient for the people
of this state by doing so, I would lay my resignation on
the table of the board of directors tomorrow. Because I
love the institution itself far and away above any per-
sonal advantage there might be in holding the job.
The biggest thing I have found in fair dealing in my
own experience in business and otherwise is to lay all
cards on the table. It is an old expression but a mighty
good one. I often send for a man in the employ of the
college when there is a misunderstanding and tell him to
come there and let's talk it over, over the corner of the
table, and get it out of our system and put all of our cards
on the table and then have a good understanding, and
time and time again a man that feels wrong towards me
will go out of there shaking my hand and saying, "I un-








60 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

derstand you right now, and it is all plain to me now."
And the whole thing is over as far as I am concerned, and
you can patch up many a thing by pursuing that kind of
a policy.
I hope I won't be offending anybody and I don't mean
it as an offense, but I am wondering if I can't make the
comparison this way: You know sometimes we get an
attitude of mind, we American people, so that we trans-
late politics over into every other blasted thing there is
we do, but I am willing to bet two bits that you can't
pick a bank in the state of Oklahoma where they get a
contest and a political contest on among the board of di-
rectors, that isn't destined for the rocks. I am talking
plain facts. (Applause.) Because the moment you get
a controversy in that bank you have lost business and you
can't escape it. So, this is a business organization pure
and simple and I am even willing to go so far as to say
it is a cold-blooded business organization (applause) and
it has no interest whatever in anything there is in the
world except one thing, and that is the job of doing that
business as economically as it can possibly do it and pay-
ing back into the pockets of its members the largest pos-
sible proportion of what has been received for the cotton
and that is the only business in the world it had. (Ap-
plause.)
Now, I want to tell you it will set us back twenty-five
years if we fail, and this association just can't fail. It
would be a black eye to the hopes of the farmers that
they have entertained for years. The principle of this
thing is absolutely sound and absolutely right. It works
elsewhere and all we have got to do is to get the spirit
of co-operation and go on through with this thing and
make good at it, and I believe there is enough leadership,
enough good common sense, enough sincere love for the
success of agriculture in Oklahoma for you to do this.
I hope you will forgive me, as a kind of an outside
party, for coming in and talking to you as I have talked,
but it is with the profoundest friendship for what you
are doing, and in fact I will go further and say it is for
supreme anxiety about the welfare of this association.
If there is anything that the college can do or its experi-
ment station can do for your benefit, we stand ready to








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


take off our coats literally and help you do it. (Ap-
plause.)
We are coming to a great time in Oklahoma and the
fellow that doesn't see it is just going to lose out. I hope
you will forgive me for talking about two minutes more,
but I want to give you a vision of that. Do you know we
are going to stop picking cotton in this state? A man
asked me before a big commission in this state, he asked
me this question: "Where a new method of transporta-
tion comes in do you think it ought to wreck the old
methods and therefore we ought to throw away the in-
terurban lines?" And I said, "Any new method of busi-
ness that comes in that is actually better than the old
method will gradually drive out the old method, no mat-
ter how much you may try to hang on to it, and there is
no escape from that." Now, listen: The moment we get
-and we are going to get a new method of picking cot-
ton, or harvesting cotton, I would rather call it-then
there is a revolution in the whole cotton territory. Why?
In the Carolinas and in Georgia the average acreage of
cotton that one man with his tools and his team can take
care of is from a minimum of 12 acres to a maximum of 24.
You know there are men sitting right here that know that
we have men in Oklahoma with their tools and equip-
ment, that one man has prepared the land, planted the
crop and cultivated it, from two to three hundred acres.
Didn't they? I can pick you out men that did it. That
means we have from four to ten times the producing
power in the cotton world if we had the picking solved,
that they have back in the Carolinas.
There is one big firm today that is putting two million
dollars into research work to try to find a cotton har-
vester that will be a success, and they will find it. And
I have a man in our faculty that thinks he has got it, but
I don't know whether he has or not. Somebody will get
that just like this little captain sailed away from New
York City the other day when everybody said, "You
can't do it," and you say you can't get a cotton picker
but somebody will hop up like that boy did, going to Paris
the other day, and do it, and then what? Then the cot-
ton territory of the United 'States moves west, doesn't it?
And when it does we have got to go into the manufactur-








62 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

ing business also, because I think if we had in Oklahoma
a better idea about the cloth for which our cotton was
fitted we would be infinitely better able to judge how to
take care of that cotton. I don't know what the result
will be, but at the experiment station here we are trying
out a little experiment on a small scale this year of put-
ting snap cotton or sled picked cotton through a mill to
see what kind of cloth it does make, but I am satisfied
it will make as good cloth as cotton picked with the fin-
gers, and I don't think there is any question about that,
but there is some other research work to back up that
proposition and some day we will have the mills and have
them right in this state. (Applause.) And they are go-
ing to be near by and that is the job we have got to work
together on. Maybe some of those mills in that day and
time will be co-operative mills, and if we can make this
a success then we can turn, when the cotton seems to be
cheap to the outside world, we will hold a little bit of it
back and put it into our mills and hold it in cloth and I
don't think the cloth will fluctuate as much as the cotton
does, and if we make a success of this we can do the
other thing. Some day cloth will go out of Oklahoma
with the stamp of the Oklahoma Cotton Growers and
Manufacturers' Association on it and go to the markets
of the whole world, and that is not a dream but it is a
possibility if we grow the spirit of co-operation and mu-
tual confidence sufficient to make that thing possible.
We will hold a cotton school at the A. & M.- College in
July which is open to everybody, but I hope a large num-
ber of the members of this association will come to that
cotton school and learn all they can about growing a
staple and methods of production and what becomes of
the cotton, what its value is and all these other things.
It will be open during the month of July. We have had
lots of you folks up there and we have had help from
you in that school and we want to make it a bigger school
still and we have a better laboratory this year than ever
before in the top of the new building and I invite you to
come to that school and let us sit down and talk it over
during the summer. (Applause.).








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Division of Live Stock Aids

Producers and Distributors

Of Cattle, Sheep and Swine

Exhaustive Surveys Made to Bring About Greater Ef-
ficiency in Marketing and Distribution to Meet Chang-
ing Conditions and Increased Competition-Commercial
News Dispatch Grows in Favor Among Farmers and
Co-operatives

By JOHN L. RICHARDSON


LIVESTOCK farmers throughout the country have been
receiving valuable assistance from the Division of
Livestock, Meats and Wool for several years. The
aim of this division of the Department of Agriculture is
primarily to facilitate and assist in the solution of the
stockmen's marketing and economic problems.
Meat-grading service as rendered by this division has
been gaining prominence of late, while the growth and
demand for the livestock market news service has been
general. Congress provided for the beginning of work in
this division in 1916, and it has been expanding rapidly
since.
According to Charles V. Whalin, who is in charge of the
Division of Livestock, Meats and Wool, the work performed
by this branch of the Department of Agriculture is divided
into two main groups-research and service.
Nation-wide studies of the methods and costs of market-
ing livestock and meats have been made. Marketing prob-
lems of the South were studied for the purpose of assist-
ing in their solution, and Farmers' Bulletin 809, "Market-
ing Livestock in the South; Suggestions for Improvement,"
was published. Studies of local marketing problems were
made in a large number of States and regions and resulting
reports were furnished to State officials and others in posi-
tion to work out effective programs for their solution.







64 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

Central Market Surveys.
Surveys have been made of central markets, wholesale
meat consuming centers, concentration points, feeding and
finishing stations, feeding and grazing districts, municipal
abbatoirs, cooperative packing houses and cooperative ship-
ping associations to ascertain location, equipment, facili-
ties, services rendered and charges made, supplies, consum-
ing demand and the general efficiency of shippers and mar-
ket agencies.
Studies have been made of the methods, practices and
costs of local livestock buyers, cooperative shipping asso-
ciations and others to obtain information which will be
helpful to both producers and consumers.
Work has been done to ascertain location of herds of
purebred livestock and methods and practices in marketing
such stock for the purpose of assisting buyers and sellers.
These surveys included European and South American
markets and shipping facilities at Atlantic and Gulf ports.
The standardization work of this division includes
studies of grade standards in commercial use for livestock,
meats and wool to determine their suitabilities as national
standards and possibilities of refinement and adaptation
for general use. Tentative standards are first developed
and tested under trade conditions, after which they are
perfected as nearly as possible at the time, and promul-
gated as official United States Standards.
Many outstanding developments have been made in this
line of work during the past year. New official standards
of wool and wool top based on the numerical system became
effective July 1, 1926. Much progress has been made in
getting international wool standards put into effect.
Changing conditions, increased competition, and the
necessity for greater efficiency in marketing and distribu-
tion have necessitated study of the advantages and disad-
vantages of different marketing methods and practices.
A great deal of interest has been attracted to the prac-
tice of marketing hogs direct to packers. The division has
made extensive studies on this subject and has collected
material that will be of value in future treatment of this
subject.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Economic Information
The compilation, analysis, and interpretation of statis-
tics of market prices, supplies, receipts, movements, and
demand as related to livestock, meats and wool are being
given more attention because there is a growing demand
for economic information of this nature. Results of sta-
tistical research are made available to the public through
reports, bulletins, the press and other means.
Much interest has been shown in the development of the
livestock market news service. This phase of the work is
represented at 21 of the leading livestock, meat and wool
market centers in the United States, while others cooperate
in reporting market information, which is obtained by in-
terviews with buyers, sellers, producers, and others in the
various markets and is then given wide dissemination.
A leased wire circuit is operated by the Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics, and all but six of the division's offices
are connected with this circuit. This arrangement permits
the collection and dissemination of market news every day.
Reports are flashed over the wire, published by newspapers
and sent out by radio from these various offices. In 1926,
approximately 5,000,000 mimeographed reports were dis-
tributed to subscribers in all parts of the United States
and foreign countries.
Commercial News Dispatch.
Another feature of the news service which has grown
very important of late is the C. N. D., or commercial news
dispatch service. Under this arrangement, the telegraph
systems of the country carry a wire of approximately 100
words concerning the market situation of a certain com-
modity to any farmer or interested party once each day
for the small charge of $7.50 per month. If separate wires
are desired for three commodities they may be had for a
charge of $15 per month. This service has found much
favor, especially with managers of co-operative associa-
tions.
The associated and united press associations carry many
stories and summaries of market conditions as outlined by
the division. Especially since radios have become so popu-
lar on farms throughout the country, the livestock market
reports have gained much prominence, and farmers in
every locality keep well posted on all market conditions.
3-Bulletin









66 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

The most recent development promoted by the division
of Livestock, Meats and Wool is the grading of beef on
some of the leading markets. On May 2, 1927, this prac-
tice was started on the Chicago market, and a few days
later on the Omaha and New York markets. It consists
of grading and stamping the choice and prime cuts of
steers and heifers in order that the consumer may know
exactly what grade of the better cuts he is buying. This
is an experiment and if the public shows that it appreci-
ates and demands this service, it will be continued.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Remarkable Work Among

Dairymen of Florida


By JOHN M. SCOTT


THERE is but little to say about the past in the dairy
business of Florida. Ten years ago there were but
few real good dairy herds in the state. There was
no surplus of milk and cream in any of the Florida mar-
kets. The question then was: How and where can good
dairy cows be had? It was not possible to ship in cows
from above the quarantine line, as none of the state was
tick-free.
Today it is different. Many changes have taken place
that ten years ago did not seem possible in so short a
time. Several counties are now tick-free. As a result,
there is a very marked difference in the number of good
dairy cows now in the state, and there is also a very
marked increase in the production of these cows as com-
pared with former years. This increased production has
come about in two ways. In many cases better cows are
now kept. Better methods of feeding and caring for the
herd have been put into practice. These two improve-
ments have increased the milk production in Florida very
materially.
At the present time we have production records on 172
purebred dairy cows in the state. In this list are includ-
ed Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire and Dutch Belted cows.
These records show that the production per cow varies
from 4,564 pounds of milk (530 gallons) to 17,268 pounds
of milk (2,008 gallons) in one year or 365 days. Over
one-half, to be exact, 54 per cent, of the 172 cows men-
tioned above produced 1,000 gallons of milk and above in
365 days. Eleven of the above cows produced 1,400 gal-
lons of milk or more in 365 days. Yet some folks say
Florida is not a dairy country.
The facts in the case are that in the early development
of the dairy industry in Florida there were very few real









68 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

dairymen. With this kind of a combination it is next to
impossible for any state or community to build a pros-
perous dairy industry in a few years. Florida is not mak-
ing good, but has made good so far as dairying is con-
cerned. Today we find Florida produced milk in all
Florida milk markets. The truth is that in many of the
markets there is more Florida produced milk than the
markets can well consume.
The future dairymen of Florida may find it necessary
to be able to produce milk and sell it for what it is worth
for converting into butter. To do this we must continue
to increase the average milk production per cow in our
good dairy herds up to 900 o'r 1,000 gallons of milk per
year. Along with this we must reduce the present cost of
production by about 50 per cent. Some say this is im-
possible. It may be with some, but with others it will be
necessary if they continue in the dairy business.
A good number of our dairymen can reduce the cost
of production by producing more of their feeds at home.
At the present time in many cases the feed dealer is mak-
ing more profit than the dairymen. This must be
changed. Future dairymen can do this by putting in
permanent pasture grasses on the better types of soil and
growing more forage crops suitable for feeding the dairy
herd.









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


First Great Rush to Florida

Began Four Hundred Years Ago


By B. C. FORBES
(Forbes Magazine)


T HE first great rush to Florida began four hundred
years ago. The attention of the civilized world, in
the first decade of the sixteenth century, was focused
upon the peninsula which separates the Gulf of Mexico
from the Atlantic Ocean. Then, for four centuries, Flor-
ida attracted but casual and occasional interest from the
rest of the world.
Today, as everyone knows, the eyes of all America and
of a considerable part of Europe are turned Floridaward.
The feet (or, more accurately, the steering wheels) of a
considerable proportion of the owners of those eyes, are
also directed toward the southeast corner of the United
States.
What happened four hundred years ago to send pioneers
to Florida? What is happening now to make the peninsula
the Mecca of millions? Millions of people, millions of dol-
lars are migrating from northern climes to a land which,
for nearly 400 years after the first white man came to
America, lay almost uninhabited and generally regarded
as uninhabitable.
The expeditions to Florida in the sixteenth century were
part of one of the great, significant movements of peoples
who, taken together, make history. A new world has been
discovered, and adventurous men flocked to it in search of-
what ? Wealth, freedom from restraints of the old civiliza-
tion, excitement, novelty-all the things that make ad-
venturous men go adventuring. The lure of the exotic has
always sufficed to lift youth out of its environments and
transport it across perilous mountains, over stormy seas.
The migration to Florida today is another such great
movement of peoples, unparalleled in our generation. Here
is history in the making, the drama of a world movement
being enacted before our eyes. Is it not difficult for the









70 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

imaginative observer to feel himself in the unique situation
of having a front-row seat at a new creation?
What do they seek, this horde of emigrants trekking to
Florida as their pioneer forefathers trekked over the Alle-
ghenies and across the Great Plains? (For it is precisely
the same type of migration, with the motor car replacing
the covered wagon, that is moving to Florida today.) What
is there that men so eagerly desire
They seek in Florida today precisely what the Spaniards
sought for 400 years ago-health and wealth. The essential
difference between these quests, four centuries apart, is
that that of the Spaniards failed of its objects, while that
of today has found them. Otherwise the story of the Flor-
ida ventures of Ponce de Leon, Pamfilo de Narveaez, Her-
nando de Soto and the rest reads amazingly like a story of
modern adventurers. Human nature does not change.
The lure of Florida's climate, the luxuriant productivity
of its soil, the paradise which it presented to the hunter and
fisherman, had begun to attract settlers and visitors from
the North 100 years ago. It was not, however, until men
of vision backed by great financial resources saw the pos-
sibilities of the land and yielded to the urge to conquer the
wilderness and make it accessible that the real development
of Florida begun. To the memories of Henry M. Flagler,
the builder of the Florida East Coast railroad, and Henry
B. Plant, who pushed the Atlantic Coast Line into Tampa
and opened up the West Coast, Florida owes an eternal
debt of gratitude. Others might, and in time others would,
have opened up the shores of Florida settlement, beyond
doubt; the fact remains that these men did it. And they
have had worthy successors, such as S. Davies Warfield,
the construction genius who leads the Seaboard Air Line,
building greatly on the foundations which they laid.
Inventions Do Part.
Another element which must not be overlooked in any
consideration of the causes that have contributed to the
upbuilding of the Florida of today is the march of science
and invention in many different lines. To the work of the
pioneers in experimental medicine who discovered the
causes of yellow fever and malaria and how to prevent
them is due the removal of the last obstacle to the
permanent settlement of the State. To the invention








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


of the automobile and the development which the motor
car fathered, of the era of good roads in America, Florida
owes a huge share of its present unparelleled prosperity
and activity.
Florida, in short, has always been where and what it is.
Its climate has not changed since Ponce de Leon first set
foot upon its shores. Its soil is no more productive now
than then. Its hills and lakes, its keys and wide spread
beaches, its tropical verdure, and its life-giving sunshine
are no different in their essentials than they were before
the white man came.
The history of the Florida of today, then, is the history of
what the modern pioneers who have made it inhabitable
and accessible have done and how they have done it. The
history of the present world-wide interest in Florida is the
story of only a few years. The greatest development has
come since 1920. It is too soon to try to write the history
of these latest years, except as that is revealed in telling
the story of what Florida is today.
Any attempt to judge Florida intelligently, whether
from the viewpoint of the tourist, the prospective settler,
or the investor, must be based upon certain little under-
stood facts about the state. Two points concerning which
much confusion exists, even among visitors to Florida, are
its location and its size.
Florida's Location
Few realize, for example, that the eastern edge of Florida
is farther west than the western boundary of New York,
or that the western shore of Lake Michigan is farther east
than the western boundary of Florida. Chicago lies directly
north of Pensacola; the meridian of Cincinnati runs
through Tampa; an aviator flying directly south from Buf-
falo would skirt the coast of Florida a few miles out in the
Atlantic, east of Miami. All of Florida is farther west
than the west coast of South America, or the Panama
Canal. Because the maps of the United States show Flor-
ida at the southeast corner, it is difficult to realize how far
west it lies with reference to the rest of the country.
So, too, it is not easy to visualize the position of Florida
between the Equator and the North Pole. It will help to
remember that the northern edge of Florida is much farther
south than the southern edge of California, hundreds of








72 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

miles farther south than any part of Europe. An east and
west line around the earth, passing through Fernandina
and Pensacola, in the north of Florida, would cross the At-
lantic below Bermuda and the Madeira Islands, out across
North Africa 300 miles south of Algiers, cross the Indian
Peninsula to China, where it would run just south of Shang-
hai and thence across the Pacific to Mexico and Texas,
passing a little north of Galveston and New Orleans. All
of Florida lies more than 700 miles farther south than Rome
or Constantinople. The southern tip of Florida is almost
the same latitude as the Hawaiian Islands and Canton,
China.
Florida's Size.
Florida is big enough to contain the states of Maine, New
Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Rhode Island with-
out crowding. It is larger than Michigan, Wisconsin or
Iowa; larger than New York and Massachusetts together.
Georgia is the only state east of the Mississippi which is
larger than Florida. In square miles, the figures are
58,666; in acres, approximately 35,000,000. And of this
area, 3,805 square miles are lakes and rivers. We think
of Maine as the state of 10,000 lakes; there are 30,000 lakes
in Florida, where the fresh water area is 700 square miles
greater than that of Maine. Only Minnesota, of all the
states, has a larger area of lakes and rivers.
This great state of Florida has a coast line double that
of any other state. According to the United States coast
and geodetic survey, the coasts of Florida-Atlantic, Gulf
and islands-measures 2,276 miles from Fernandina around
to Pensacola. California's entire coast line, measured in
the same way is but 1,190 miles; the entire length of the
Pacific Coast, from Mexico to Canada, is several hundred
miles less.
The climate of Florida is not alone attributable to its
geographical location, for there are many other spots lying
in the same latitude which have a much less favorable cli-
mate. Were it not for the shape of Florida, almost an
island, lying between the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico
and the tempering expanse of the Atlantic, it is not to be
doubted that the climate of Florida, instead of being the
most delightful in the world, would be almost unbearable.
To Florida's insular situation is attributable its ample









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


rainfall; to this situation also it is indebted for the fact that
even in the warmest summer weather there is always a sea
breeze, which may be felt anywhere and everywhere. And
it is to the presence of the vast shallow basin of the Gulf of
Mexico that Florida owes the mildness of its winter cli-
mate.
The waters of the Gulf, warmed by the tropical sun, flow
eastward through the Straits of Florida, between Key West
and Cuba, at a speed of between three and four miles an
hour. Meeting the cold waters of the Atlantic, this broad
current, the Gulf Stream, turns northward and flows al-
most straight north for 1,000 miles, until it is diverted east-
ward, first by the cold waters pouring into the Atlantic
from the Hudson river and the Gulf of Maine, and then by
the cold Arctic current, sweeping down between Greenland
and Labrador. The Gulf Stream then travels across the
Atlantic to bathe London in fogs, and makes northern
Europe in the latitude of Hudson Bay, habitable for civi-
lized humanity. It is this gigantic ocean rover of warm
water that laves the shores of Ireland, and gives it the ver-
dure from which it derives the name of the Emerald Isle.
It is not a far-fetched comparison to conceive of the Gulf
Stream as the circulating element of a great terrestrial
steam heating plant, of which the Gulf of Mexico is the
boiler; Florida, snuggling up to this vast reservoir of heat
on one side, and bathed on the other by the warm stream
which flows from it, has been thus favored by nature
with a climate in which the extremes of heat and cold are
both unknown, where the summer sunshine is always
tempered by cooling breezes and refreshing rains, and
where the snows and chills of northern winters are un-
known.
For when all is said and done, Florida's greatest natural
resource of all is its climate.
It is to its climate that it owes its attractiveness to the
winter vacationists; it is to its climate that it owes the pro-
ductivity of its soil.
Soil Greatest Resource.
The greatest of all Florida's resources is the fertility of
its agricultural lands. Every intelligent investor in Flor-
ida property realizes that the value of his investment is in
a large measure based upon the development of the state's
agricultural resources.









74 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

To the man who has a genuine love for the soil, a taste
for its cultivation, sufficient industry and application to
give his undivided attention to making the soil produce
for him, agriculture in Florida can yield him a larger in-
come than he can obtain anywhere else in the United States,
and enable him to live under pleasanter and more healthful
conditions than he is likely to find anywhere else.
It is quite probable that the great agricultural develop-
ment of Florida will come about much as the great resi-
dential and resort development of the state has been
brought about, through the development of large agricul-
tural tracts, involving the investment of considerable capi-
tal, and their resale to the small farmer or grower under
conditions which insure him the best chance of success.
More and more, investors with large amounts of capital
are beginning to put their money and their energies into
the development of Florida farm lands. For many years
the citrus fruit growers of Florida have been developed in
large tracts and sold in small units, after development, to
individual purchaser, as well as providing a profitable
opportunity for the investor. It is only very recently,
however, that this plan of the wholesale development of
agricultural property and its resale at retail, fully de-
veloped and ready for the individual farmer, gardener, or
horticulturist to settle down upon, has been extended to
other than the slow-growing fruit and nut crops.
It is only within a comparatively short time that the
greatest agricultural value of Florida land has been really
discovered. This value is the possibility of growing every
kind of garden produce at a season of the year when no
other part of the United States is producing green vege-
tables, and so getting the top prices in the green markets of
the north. Now that it has been demonstrated that every
section of Florida will produce some crop or group of
crops which can be marketed at a large profit, the develop-
ment of agricultural lands on a large scale and by modern
methods has become as important a field for investment as
the development of town sites and resort subdivisions has
been heretofore.
Citrus Crops.
The most widely known phase of Florida's agricultural
development, past, present, and prospective, is its citrus








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


fruits-oranges, grapefruit, lemons and limes. The annual
value of the citrus crop of Florida is in the neighborhood
of $20,000,000, some seasons falling below this figure and
other seasons exceeding it. About three-fourths of the
total is from oranges, almost a quarter from grapefruit,
with the production of lemons and limes inconsiderable by
comparison with the two principal citrus products. Ac-
cording to the latest biennial agricultural census of Florida
there were approximately 7,000,000 bearing orange trees
and about 2,750,000 bearing fruit trees. Including nursery
stock and non-bearing trees, there were almost 30,000,000
citrus trees in the state in 1924. The number is probably
somewhat larger now.
The pecan grows throughout the Southern states along
the Gulf, and is sure of a firm commercial market at all
times. All of North and West Florida is well adapted to
pecan growing, and many pecan groves have been de-
veloped under a cooperative ownership in the same manner
that the citrus groves have been developed. It takes longer
for the pecan tree to come into full bearing than it does for
the orange. The commercial cultivation of the pecan calls
for at least as much attention and as high a degree of skill
as does that of the orange. The annual production of pe-
cans in Florida is in the neighborhood of 200,000 bushels,
with an average value, estimated by the state department
of agriculture, of about $2.75 a bushel.
The other tree crops of consequence in Florida are the
guavas, mangoes, Japanese persimmons, avocadoes, pears,
figs, bananas and peaches.
Pears and peaches are grown commercially in North and
West Florida, something more than 7,000 barrels of pears
and 85,000 barrels of peaches being the present annual
yield. The guava, the mango and the Japanese persimmons
and avocados are tropical or semi-tropical fruits, and are
grown only in the southern parts of the peninsula.
For the avocado, commonly known in the North as the
"alligator pear," a name of which Florida does not ap-
prove, there is a growing market throughout the United
States. That this market will become larger as the avocado
becomes better known is quite probable.
There is one tree crop of Florida of which it can be stated
definitely and emphatically that it thrives under all con-
ditions of weather, is immune to frost and yields an amazing








76 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

revenue. That is the blueberry. If it seems absurd to speak
of the blueberry as a tree crop, set that down merely as
another Florida phenomenon, for the appraisal of which
there are no standards outside of the state. At Crestview,
in Okaloosa County, Florida, in West Florida, there is a
blueberry grove of 13 acres where the bushes are veritable
trees, from 10 to 18 feet high.
Rubber Experiments.
Much has been said and written, some of it highly im-
aginative, about rubber as a potential Florida crop. Not a
pound of commercial rubber has yet been produced in
Florida. That is not to say, however, that rubber may not
become an extremely important item in Florida's agricul-
tural statistics in years to come. The hope that in the
southern end of the Florida peninsula may be found the
solution of the growing problem of where to obtain the
necessary rubber to supply the increasing demand for auto-
mobile tires is based upon the fact that Henry Ford and
Harvey S. Firestone have for several years been sponsor-
ing experiments with rubber cultivation around the town
of Labelle in Hendry county, midway between Fort Myers
and Moore Haven to Lake Okeechobee. To Mr. Ford's
holdings of about 18,000 acres of this Everglades land, Mr.
Firestone has added some larger tracts, on which various
species of the rubber plant have been set out, and the ex-
perience of the British rubber planters of Ceylon has been
drawn upon in the effort to determine whether or not,
under the existing conditions of soil, climate and cost of
labor, rubber can be grown in Florida to compete either
with the. plantation rubber of Ceylon or with the wild rub-
ber of Brazil, West Africa and the East Indies. In the
belief of experts, rubber can be successfully grown in these
regions; it is problematical, according to the same experts,
whether it can be produced commercially at a cost which
will make it a competitor in the world rubber market or
how the United States will fix the tariff on it.
One of the most interesting of Florida's tree products is
the papaya. This is a fruit having the appearance of a
small, elongated melon about five or six inches in length
when mature. It grows in clusters at the top of a tall,
slender tree, sometimes 30 feet or so above the ground.
The papaya tree is quite an ornamental object, as its








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


slender trunk sends off no branches except at the very tip,
and it adds to the tropical effect of the scenery wherever it
is found. The fruit of the papaya is highly prized as a
breakfast dish, not only because of its pleasant flavor, but
because of its decidedly medical qualities. It is from the
pulp of this fruit that the digestive tonic known as "pap-
ayans" is extracted by chemists and among residents in
Florida it is held that one who eats half a papaya for break-
fast every morning never suffers from any sort of digestive
troubles. The name of this fruit is corrupted in everyday
use to "pawpaw." It does not in the least resemble the
true pawpaw of the Ohio river valley, but is distinctly a
tropical fruit.
The pineapple, a perennial plant, must not be overlooked
in considering Florida's fruit products. Pineapples have
been grown in Florida since 1860 and by 1909 annual ship-
ment had reached 1,000,000 boxes. Then the crop was
attacked by a parasite which all but ruined the Florida
pineapple plantations. Several years were spent by agri-
cultural experimenters in discovering how to control and
combat this pest, and since 1917 the shipments have in-
creased again until now they run from 300 to 400 carloads
a year. It cost about $900 an acre above the cost of the
the land to bring a pineapple grove into gearing, which
takes two years. Then a yield of from 225 to 250 crates a
year per acre is the average, with a net profit of from $2.50
to $5 per crate to the grower.
Beef Cattle Country.

It comes as a surprise, even to most Floridians of the
present day, to learn that Florida is a beef cattle country.
It is even more amazing to those who think of the cattle
industry on a large scale as something pertaining exclu-
sively to the "great open spaces" of the West, to learn
that in Florida there are huge areas of open range over
which herds of as many as 25,000 head of beef cattle roam,
herded by cowboys having all the essential attributes of the
cowboy of fiction-sombreros, "six-guns," and the ability
to roll a cigarette with one hand-everything except the
lariat.
The largest ranch in Florida is the Horse-Shoe Ranch in
Polk, Highland and Okeechobee Counties, centering at







78 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

Kicco, which covers a territory of approximately 15 by 30
miles in extent with about 25,000 head of cattle.
The demand for dairy products-milk, butter and cheese
-in Florida today, especially when the state's popula-
tion is doubled by the presence of winter tourists, is far in
advance of the state's production. There are many splen-
did dairy farms in the state, some of them equal in size,
modernity of equipment and methods, and quality of the
milk produced to the very finest dairy farms of New
York or Wisconsin, the great dairying states of the North.
Hogs occupy an important place in Florida's economic
scheme of things. Without counting the wild razor-backs,
which roam around the state as freely as do the range cattle
and will continue to do so until every county has adopted
a fencing law, there were 454,430 head of hogs enumerated
in the last state agricultural census. Pork is a staple article
of diet for the native Florida farmer and the negro popula-
tion of the state. A large proportion of the state's annual
corn crop is devoted to the fattening of hogs and a still
larger proportion of the annual yield of peanuts, which are
regarded as superior to corn for making pork, yield a much
larger money return to the grower than they do when sold
as peanuts.
Poultry Raising Grows.
Poultry raising, like dairying, is rapidly coming into
major importance in Florida, and it is anticipated that
with the multiplication of cold storage plants, to enable
poultry men to carry over their eggs and dressed poultry to
meet market requirements, poultry farming will become one
of the very important phases of Florida agriculture. As
with dairy products, the demand, especially in the tourist
season, for eggs and poultry, is enormously greater than
the local supply.
It take time and plenty of it to develop a citrus grove
or a dairy farm, it takes patience and a genuine love for the
soil to be content with the moderate returns from general
and diversified farming, the production of the staple crops,
even though the average yield per acre of all these is
greater in volume and in money value from Florida land
than from the soil of any other state. Big money and quick
returns, however, are the rewards of the Florida grower
of garden truck. It is in this branch of agriculture that the









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


visitor hears of enormous profits quickly reaped, tales
which, when investigated, prove to be true, although al-
most incredible.
Sums of money which the majority of people would
regard as a fortune, garnered in cash in a few months time
from a few acres of land, have been realized so generally
and so widely throughout the state that it is no longer a
marvel to Floridians to hear of persons taking from $10,000
to $30,000 in a single season from five to six acres of land.
The Bonanza Crops.
The bonanza crops of Florida are the green vegetables
grown in the winter when the northern fields are frozen
and shipped to the northern markets when the people of the
cold countries are willing to pay almost any price for fresh
green stuff to eat.
Tomatoes, green beans, cabbages, peppers, lettuce, celery,
melons and strawberries head the list of these bonanza
crops which include practically every form of edible vege-
tables and small fruits.
In general, it may be said that five acres is regarded in
Florida as about the amount of land which one man can
take care of for truck farming, and that the grower unfa-
miliar with Florida conditions would be well advised not
to undertake to put more than that amount of land under
cultivation during his first season. And it can be stated as
another generalization that under intelligent cultivation
and good business management, the Florida truck grower
can count upon an annual net money return of from $1,000
a year per acre up, without counting the potential value
of his growing groves or other perennial crops.
Industrially, Florida is as yet practically unknown to
the rest of the world as a source of finished products ready
for the ultimate consumer. With a very few exceptions,
Florida's manufacturing industries are chiefly local in-
dustries, making products for local consumption, or are
merely converters of raw material into its first or semi-
raw state, to be shipped to manufacturing establishments
in other states for final fabrication into the finished pro-
duct. Chief among the exceptions to this general rule is
the cigar manufacturing industry of Tampa and Key
West. The commanding position of these cities in the man-
ufacture of the better grades of cigars is too well and








80 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

generally known to require extensive comment here. Such
other products as Florida distributes in complete form
are chiefly those, such as sponges, lumber, etc., whose con-
version from raw material to consumers' requirements
takes but a single and simple operation or process.

Industries Being Established.
The chief reason for this state of things is not difficult
to ascertain. It is that Florida, like every pioneer state,
is still short of man power. Labor is scarce, skilled labor
has to be imported from elsewhere for any industrial
operation on a considerable scale, and is correspondingly
expensive. Yet, in spite of these handicaps, industries have
been and are being rapidly established, especially in the
larger centers, employing skilled labor at high wages and
finding their operations on the whole less expensive per
unit of finished product than is precisely the same in-
dustries situated elsewhere.
Commercially, the rapid growth of the state, and the
enormous annual influx of winter visitors, have combined
to create for every sort of community a market with
which, in many lines, it is difficult for the existing whole-
sale and retail facilities to keep pace. Florida is not only
sharing in the general prosperity of the United States,
which prevails as this is written, in the early months of
1926, but is reaping a large harvest of dollars, in proportion
to population, than any section of the United States,
except in occasional limited instances incident upon the
discovery of oil or precious metals, has ever reaped.

Bank Deposits Tell Story.
The figures of Florida's bank deposits tell the story. In
1900 the banks of Florida had $10,627,495; in 1920 they
had $199,589,122; on June 30, 1925, the total deposits in
Florida's banks was $575,758,195. That is nearly $450
each for every man, woman and child, Indians and negroes
included, enumerated in the state census of 1925. Where in
the history of the world has there been a common-wealth
in which the actual cash assets of the population-not tak-
ing into consideration land, buildings, livestock, automo-
biles, jewelry or any other form of property except actual
cash credits in banks-has reached such a figure as that?









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Like everything else in Florida it is outside all human ex-
perience, almost unbelievable, because so utterly unfamiliar
that those who have not seen Florida with their own eyes
have no standards whereby to measure it.
The sources from which this money has come so rapidly
are chiefly the investors from outside the state, and the
winter visitors. Assuming the figure of $1,000 as an aver-
age sum which the winter vacationist spends in Florida,
more than $1,200,000 was brought into the state during the
season of 1925-6 and a large proportion of it remained in
the banks of Florida. Three hundred million dollars is an
extremely low estimate of the investments in Florida prop-
erty made during the last year by Northern people, buying
for homes or for development or speculation.
An important result of this banking situation in Florida
is that the banks are keenly on the lookout for opportuni-
ties to put this balance to productive use within the state.
This is to the advantage of the manufacturer or merchant
seeking opportunity to establish himself in Florida, and to
utilize his legitimate credit in the conduct of his business.
Transportation Improved
The enormous development which has been going on since
1920 in Florida is both the cause and the result in large
measure of improved methods of transportation and the
opening of new lines of communication to and through the
state. So long as it was difficult to get to Florida, few
persons went there; so long as any part of the state was
inaccessible it developed slowly or not at all. As soon,
however, as better railroad and steamship facilities began
to be supplied for getting to Florida, people began to plant
their homes there and to demand still better facilities for
the transportation of people and commodities to, from and
around the state.
As a result, there is going on in Florida at the present
the most native program of railroad construction under
way anywhere in America, ports and steamship lines are
adding to their facilities at an equally rapid pace, and a
program of highway construction, which can only be re-
garded as gigantic when the enormous area and the small
permanent population of Florida are considered, is being
actively and aggressively carried through from Pensacola
to Key West








82 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

In spite of the best efforts of the railroads, the movement
of freight into Florida throughout 1925, and to date, Feb-
ruary, 1926, has been so heavy that their facilities were
taxed to the utmost. There were long periods of time dur-
ing which the roads found it necessary to set up an abso-
lute embargo against carload shipments of all but perish-
able freight destined for points south of Jacksonville,
where the three principal railroads of Florida and the
Southern Railway converge. The movement of passenger
traffic through the Jacksonville union station during 1925
was so heavy and the facilities, which had been planned
to take care of passenger traffic until 1950, were so over-
taxed, that during the summer of 1925 the construction
of additional trackage, platforms and sheds for passenger
trains was begun on a scale intended to make the Jackson-
ville terminal the largest union station in the world, both
in actual track mileage and in the number of trains which
could be handled in and out daily. The new facilities were
completed and in use at the end of the year.
The steamship lines connection Atlantic and Gulf ports
with Florida are as active as the railroads in improving
their facilities and extending their service.
The development of Florida's ports to accommodate the
increasing volume of water-borne traffic, the improvement
of the state's railway facilities and the extension and com-
pletion of its motor highway system are the most pressing
problems which Florida has to solve today. There is no
transportation route to or through Florida which is not
over-crowded, and every highway leading to the state from
the North was literally black with Florida-bound cars
throughout almost the entire year of 1925 and is so today.
There is as yet no motor route from the North to Florida
that is hard-surfaced all the way.
It has been said that Florida is a pioneer state, and like
every pioneer community it has a greater freedom to try
political, social and economic experiments than is possible
in the commonwealths where conditions have become sta-
bilized and the minds of the population fixed in definite
directions. The political and social development of Florida,
is, therefore, in a state of evolution, and it is hardly pos-
sible to forecast accurately what the commonwealth's ulti-
mate contributions to the political economy of the United
States will be.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Florida has already put upon its statute books and writ-
ten into its constitution numerous provisions in keeping
with the progress of the times and in advance of the pro-
cession of the states along the line of progress. The most
notable of these is the constitutional provision proposed by
the legislature of 1923 and adopted by the vote of the
people of florida as a part of their basic law, forever pro-
hibiting the levying of a state tax upon incomes or in-
heritances. This was a long step in advance for Florida to
take, at a time when every other state in the union was
either imposing such taxes or contemplating their imposi-
tion. It was adopted with the frankly avowed purpose
of inducing persons of wealth to make Florida their legal
residence, so that their incomes would be relieved of any
possible burden of double taxation, and their assets would
go to heirs unimpaired by any tax levy except that of the
federal government. That this provision has already served
that purpose well is the unanimous opinion of Floridians
who are in position to know of many circumstances of
persons who have renounced their citizenship in other states
to become citizens of Florida. No precise statistics on this
point are available, naturally, but that the number of in-
dividuals who have taken advantage of the tax exemption
feature of the constitution is very large cannot be ques-
tioned.
Florida's financial system is based upon a fixed policy
of no state debt.
The state's income is derived in part by direct taxation,
fees, etc.; in large part from the sale of state-owned lands,
and for highway construction purposes from the pro-
ceeds of automobile licenses and the gasoline tax of four
cents a gallon.
Florida has more available funds for educational pur-
poses, without special taxation, than most other eastern
states. Under Florida's compact with the United States
government, whereby Florida took title to the submerged
lands, it was stipulated that a quarter of the revenue from
the sale of these lands should be devoted to educational pur-
poses. It is keenly realized moreover by Floridians gen-
erally that, if the state is to hope to attract and keep per-
manent settlers from outside, it must provide educational
facilities for the children of the newcomer comparable
with those which are available in the regions from which








84 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

they come. One result of this is a very high degree of
pride in local school systems, a pride which in most in-
stances is more than justified.
At the top of the educational system of Florida stands
the State University at Gainesville, with its students con-
fined to the male sex, and Florida State College for Women
at Tallahassee. These institutions are organized on lines
similar to those of the great state universities elsewhere,
and their graduates have at least had the opportunity df
obtaining as thorough an education as is provided in any
other American college or university.
In no other state does there exist such a complete and
effective system of Chambers of Commerce, each devoted
to the promotion of its particular municipality or county,
as Florida can boast. There is hardly a community in
Florida large enough to have a postoffice that has not also
a Chamber of Commerce, engaged in the effort to tell the
world of the superior advantages of that particular com-
munity. In this effort they are supported by an interesting
and unusual provision of the Florida statutes, under which
county and municipal governments may obtain from the
Legislature the privilege of levying a direct tax for pub-
licity purposes; the Legislature of 1925 enacted local bills
authorizing such taxation in twenty-one counties and six-
teen cities, the tax running as high as five mills on the
dollar of assessed valuation for Sarasota and Hardee coun-
ties, and up to ten mills on the dollar for the city of Mount
Dora.
The Chamber of Commerce spirit, which is essentially the
spirit of co-operation for the common good, manifested
itself on a state-wide scale in the spring of 1P25, when
steps were begun, at a conference of representative citizens
of all Florida, held at West Palm Beach, toward the en-
largement of the functions of the Florida Development
Board, and its elaboration into a state Chamber of Com-
merce, under which name, with headquarters at Jackson-
ville, it now functions effectively, having affiliated with it
practically all of the local Chambers of Commerce of the
state.
The question which skeptics are asking everywhere is
"When will the Florida boom collapse?"
Men asked the same question in George Washington's day
about the Ohio country, when Cincinnati was as young as








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 85

Miami is today. They doubted in Lincoln's time whether
Iowa land prices were not too high. Forty years ago one
could hear dire predictions of the imminent collapse of a
"boom" town on Lake Michigan called Chicago. Only
recently similar forecasts were being broadcast of the ulti-
mate fate of Los Angeles and all southern California.
Settler the Backbone
Florida's boom differs only in detail from all the other
land booms which added together, comprise practically all
there is of consequence in American history. Geography and
topography are different; principles and methods are un-
changed. The historical test serves, then, as the horoscope
to resolve one's doubt withal. Nobody who bought and
held on in Ohio, in Iowa, in Los Angeles or Chicago, lost;
all made profits. "Shoestring" speculators, investors who
lost faith, lost out on the temporary set-backs which all
the historical land booms have experienced. Many more,
those who acted on the time-honored Wall Street axiom
that nobody ever went broke by taking successive upward
waves, got in and got out, taking out more than they put
in. But the solid backbone of every land development is
the settler. Fluctuations in money value of his land do
not affect him, if the land yields him the comfort of the
livelihood he seeks.
The settler is the ultimate buyer. The peak of the boom
comes when there are no more settlers ready and willing to
pay the prices asked. The top price is the price the settler
is willing to pay for land for his own use. That price climbs
as settlers multiply and available land supply diminishes.
All the questions about Florida, therefore, are answered
when you have the answer to this one: "Have the set-
tlers stopped buying?"
And the answer is: "They have only just begun to
buy."
Florida's development thus far has only touched the
edges. Only a fraction of its wide-beached coast-line is
occupied as yet. Barely a tithe of its agricultural lands
has been put to the plow. The miracle-workers have so
much more pioneering work ahead of them than they
have yet done that it has been difficult to determine
what to do first.
The first steps is to make the land accessible, by build-








86 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


ing railroads and highways. That is the historical method
of pioneering, and the pathfinders profit by the rise in
the value. of lands which they have opened to settlement
and by the traffic which the settlers originate.
The fabulous fortunes we hear about have been made
by this simple process of buying a piece of wilderness and
building a road through it. Speculators pour in to buy
even before the road is finished or the palmettos grubbed.
Settlers follow and enrich the speculators in turn. More
than one Florida fortune has been made by sitting tight
and waiting for the other fellow to run a road past your
land to his. And every new settler in Florida increases
the value of every acre in the state.
It is very easy to ask the question: "Why pay a profit
to these builders and speculators?" Why can't the indi-
vidual farmer, health-seeker or vacationist buy his own
little piece of raw acreage for five dollars an acre and
clear and improve it himself? That is the way our great-
grand-daddies did, as they pioneered into the western
wilderness from the shores of the Atlantic.
The answer is that the individual settler couldn't do it
in Florida if he wanted to, and that he wouldn't do it if
he could.
A Complicated Job
It is too complicated a job and too expensive to be un-
dertaken on any but a wholesale scale. Our pioneer
great-grand-daddies were reared to a much more simple
method of living than we are, but they were willing and
able to do a great many more different things for them-
selves than this generation is either willing or able to do.
Take the matter of road building, for example; we de-
mand graded, paved roads, properly surveyed and en-
gineered. We must have them, in fact, for our automo-
bile, but the early pioneers got along with a wagon-track
through the woods. The individual settler finds the cost
of the road added, properly, to the price of his land. We
no longer take our own axes and clear off the virgin for-
est, but pay for having it done by capital which hires
the clearing of a thousand acres in a single operation: and
that adds to the price of our ten-acre farm and our half-
acre home site. Clearing and fencing, taking all Florida









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


as an average, costs around seventy-five dollars an acre,
more than that in spots.
If it seems out of proportion to charge current prices
for Florida residential sites, when the vast area of un-
touched acreage at absurdly low prices is considered, fig-
ure what it would cost you, if you were doing it yourself,
to make your home there. Main highway from the near-
est railroad; paved street to your lot; a water supply
system; an electric lighting line; sewers, drainage and all
the rest of the things which our grand-daddies got along
without but which we simply must have. And after you
had done all of that (if your money held out) you would
have neither police nor fire protection, no neighbors, no
place to buy your daily supplies, no newspaper, milk and
ice delivery, no mails, no movies to go to.
It's cheaper to pay the developer to do it all.
It is in the development of the raw land of Florida, the
creation of cities, of farm communities, of vacation re-
sorts, where nothing existed before, that the creative
genius of America is finding its highest and most satisfy-
ing expression; and the rewards are proportionate to the
creative effort and capital expenditure involved. These
are the men who are primarily responsible for millions to
live comfortably upon Florida's soil.
Opportunities Many
Generalizing, there are as many opportunities to profit
in Florida real estate as have yet been realized, and op-
portunities open as readily to the small investor who can
pay only a few hundred or thousand down as those who
have millions to pay with. This is true beyond doubt, be-
cause most of Florida is still undeveloped, and people will
not stop going to Florida. Just where these opportuni-
ties lie it would be foolish to try to tell; as foolish as to
contend that no piece of Florida land has been sold for
more than its actual worth. Florida realtors are not all
plaster saints; Florida tourists are human and have the
ineradicable human tendency to let their greed run away
with their judgment. It is hard, however, to see how
any one who buys Florida land intelligently and within
his means, can lose in the long run.
It is undeniable that the present movement of popula-
tion to Florida and the rapid development of the state is








88 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

one of the greatest social and economic movements of
population and capital in the history of the world. "It
is the forerunner," says "Florida in the Making," by
Frank Parker Stockbridge and John Holliday Perry, "of
the settlement of the country tributary to the Gulf of
Mexico to a density comparable with that of the popula-
tion which now borders on the Great Lakes."
Long before the middle of the twentieth century Flor-
ida is destined to be one of the three or four most dense-
ly populated states of the Union, with at least ten mil-
lion permanent inhabitants and a winter population of
as many more. All that needs to be done to bring this
about is the multiplication and perfection of transporta-
tion lines, already well under way, and keep advertising
to the world what Florida has to offer.
It may be rightly said that God created Florida; Ponce
de Leon discovered it and advertising has made it.








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Florida Must Feed Herself,

Says Noted Agriculturist Here


(Farm and Live Stock Record.)


F LORIDA needs, above all else, to learn to feed herself.
She has been eating from a tin can long enough."
This was the opinion expressed in Jacksonville by
Prof. P. G. Holden, for forty years one of the leading agri-
culturists of the United States, and the man who wrote the
first bill which created the county farm and demonstration
agent as an aide to the farmers.
Professor Holden, who is in Florida on a rest and to cure
rheumatism, has for many years been head of the agricul-
tural extension department of the International Harvester
Company. He visited W. L. Watson, Duval county agent,
and J. O. Traxler, assistant county agent, while in Jack-
sonville.
Here's His Recipe.
Professor Holden's recipe for a successful farmer fol-
lows:
One cow, two sows, 100 chickens, a truck garden.
"Then he can raise whatever money crop he desires,' he
said, "but first must be able to feed himself, even if his
big crop fails or if the market drops to nothing."
"No one-crop farmer ever gets rich," asserted the agri-
cultural expert, who has conducted thousands of meetings
throughout this country and Canada, urging diversifica-
tion. "The potato growers of Hastings, the tomato growers
of Homestead, the strawberry growers of Plant City, the
cotton growers of Alabama, the corn raisers of Iowa or the
wheat growers of Canada-none of them will succeed in the
long run unless they feed themselves instead of attempting
to make enough money on their one crop to buy their food-
stuffs."
Professor Holden has just completed a 5,000 mile auto
tour over Florida. He has visited every agricultural sec-
tion, talked with the farmers, with the business men and








90 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

the bankers, the chamber of commerce officials and the
county agents and home demonstration workers.

Much Yet to Be Done.
Professor Holden finds that Florida has not scratched
the surface of its 36,000,000 acres available for agriculture.
With only 2,000,000 under cultivation, he says that the
State has just begun to farm, but that it is now interested
and that the possibilities are enormous. "Of course ,you
need to get rid of the tick, prevent cattle from roaming at
large, stop forest fires and start reforestation and do various
other fundamental things to become an agricultural State,
but the foundation is here," he said.
The distinguished agriculturist said that after going over
all of peninsular Florida, he had come to Duval county to
find real grass growing. The growing of grasses for stock
is fundamental, he said, and that it can be grown is proven
here in Duval. "I found more pastures here, and in dry
weather, too, than in all the rest of the State," he said.
"But the big thing for the people of the State to learn is
that all business depends on agriculture,' he said. 'If the
amount of agricultural products is large, other businesses
will be similarly large. The ratio runs true throughout
the States. But the farmer must learn that he cannot make
a fortune off of citrus fruit alone, or celery, or tomatoes, or
peppers, or potatoes. First-he must feed himself."









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


Bureau of Immigration

Director is Optimistic

About Trend of Business


South and Florida in Line for Increases in Trade

By T. J. BROOKS
Director Bureau of Immigration

(The Pensacola News)

TO a great extent the commerce of the world is shifting
routes from east and west to north and south.
With apologies to Bishop Buckley's oft-quoted
poem, I would say:
Southward the course of empire takes its way,
The first four acts already past;
A fifth shall close the drama with the day,
Time's noblest offspring is the last."
Trade routes are not easily changed. Europe was first
to develop trade with Latin America. Most ocean going
commerce has been carried in foreign bottoms. Foreign
owned ships were operated in the interest of their owners.
None plied between the two Americas.
For many years the citizens of the United States who
wanted to visit South America had to go to New York
and ship to some European port and then to South America,
crossing the Atlantic twice. (The Grace Line has made it
possible to go to Chile on American owned ships. They are
engaged in the nitrate business).
Trade Idiosyncrasies
European trade catered to the idiosyncrasies of the Latin
American trade to an extent that the business men of the
United States refused to do. Instances without number
could be cited. I will mention one as typical. One of the
largest collar manufacturers in the world sent a representa-









92 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

tive to South America to secure orders. A large order was
turned in, but on condition that the numbers must con-
form to the system used in the country in which the order
was taken. The manufacturer turned down the order pre-
emptorily. Such arbitrary things as this and the lack of
direct shipping facilities kept us way behind European
countries in Latin American trade.
Things have changed since the World War.
Exports
Our annual average exports to Latin America for the
three year period of 1903-1905 inclusive amounted to $182,-
000,000. In 1914 our exports to these countries was $282,-
000,000. In 1923 they amounted to $678,000,000, in 1924
$683,091,973, in 1925 $814,139,957 and in 1926 $847,155,-
697. The two years of 1920 and 1921 were abnormal. The
world war destroyed the shipping of Continental Europe.
For each of these two years our Latin American exports
amounted to more than a billion dollars. This gave us a
lead which could have been kept but for the fact that
American vessels cannot compete with foreign vessels.
The reason for this is that the Federal requirements of
American ships set a much higher standard for the various
employees on vessels than is found in any other country.
Our coastwise shipping is protected. No ship flying a
foreign flag can engage in coastwise trade. There is also
a differential tax on foreign bottoms as against those of
the United States. In spite of all this we are vastly out-
distanced in the world's ocean-going shipping.
What makes New York City what it is ? Not agriculture,
not industries-it is shipping-commerce.
Now that trade advancement in the future is to be much
greater along north and south lines, the question comes
"What ports will get the lion's share of this vast shipping
business?" Unless the South sleeps upon its natural ad-
vantages, southern ports, among which those of Florida
should have a goodly share, will get this trade.
What We Need
What we need is direct passenger and freight service be-
tween southern ports and Latin American ports. It is a
case of two things developing together and each waiting on
the other. Were the trade already developed, the ships
would be supplied. Were the ships supplied, the trade










FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 93

would be developed. Were railroad builders to wait for a
country to be developed before tracks were laid, the de-
velopment would wait. Railroad builders do not wait. They
build the roads and wait for trade to be developed. The
government-owned merchant marine could very well be
operated at a loss for years in order to build up a Latin-
American trade.
Latin-American Exports
Some of our leading articles of export to Latin America,
as shown by the value of shipments during the ten months
ending with October, 1926, are shown in the following
table:
Meats and Lard. ............ .... $29,873,550.00
Condensed milk ................. 2,341,391.00
Evaported milk ................. 1,421,825.00
Eggs .......................... 5,345,066.00
Leather and leather goods........ 9,381,610.00
Grains and grain products........ 35,038,856.00
Sugar ......................... 2,212,374.00
Automobile tires ................ 6,814,859.00
Cotton lint products............. 37,722,207.00
Southern pine lumber............ 13,358,461.00
Coal .................. ...... 13,712,157.00
Petroleum products .............. 20,907,657.00
Kerosene ...................... 8,584,620.00
Gas and fuel oil...... .......... 12,420,794.00
Cement ........................ 1,977,575.00
Tin plate......... ... .......... 3,934,472.00
Railway rails ................... 2,526,677.00
Wires ................ ........ 4,413,019.00
Sewing machines ................ 4,237,116.00
Typewriters .................... 3,295,590.00
Tractors and trucks. ............. 16,041,195.00
Automobiles .................... 37,403,229.00








94 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


1926 Imports Much

Greater Than In 1925


Decline of $10,000,000 Is Shown in Export Figures


By DR. JULIUS KLEIN
Director Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Department of Commerce

U NITED STATES imports from all of Latin America
in 1926 (with the exception of a few islands in the
West Indies for which figures are not yet available)
increased by 31/2 per cent over 1925, reaching a value of
$1,044,884,000 as compared with $1,009,188,000 in 1925.
On the basis of 1925 figures it is conservatively estimated
that our imports from the islands of the West Indies not
taken into consideration in the above figures amounted to
approximately $30,000,000.
Exports from the United States to Latin America, on
the other hand, declined by more than 1 per cent, falling
from a value of $882,320,000 in 1925 to $872,800,000 during
the past year.
From the above it is apparent that in 1926 we bought
from Latin American countries approximately $200,-
000,000 more goods than we sold them. It must be remem-
bered, however, that a large proportion of our imports
from Latin America consists of petroleum, sugar, bananas,
copper, silver and other commodities, shipped to the United
States by American producing companies established in
Cuba, Mexico, and certain South and Central American
countries. The value of such commodities cannot be re-
garded as a complete debit, since out of the proceeds of
the sales are derived not only the dividends paid to the
American shareholders of such enterprises but also the
overhead expenses of the organizations maintained in the
United States, and selling expenses in the United States.
On our large investments in Latin American government
obligations as well as in petroleum, sugar, banana, mining,








FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


and manufacturing enterprises in Latin American coun-
tries, large sums must be received each year to cover inter-
est and dividends. These payments are paid largely in
goods, although they may be covered out of new loans.
Trade Balances
Other sources of invisible income from Latin America
which operate as offset to this "unfavorable" trade bal-
ance, are ocean freight charges paid by the Latin American
purchasers of goods imported in American bottoms, bank-
ing, insurance, and other similar commissions.
With the single exception of 1918 which, because of in-
flated war-time prices, was the peak year in Latin Ameri-
can trade values, exports to the United States in 1926 from
the Latin American republics were the largest of any
single year, and if measured in volume or quantities their
shipments to us during this period were the largest in their
history.
Effect of Canal
The steadily growing proportion of Latin American
products exported to this country is indicated by the fact
that last year we took 39 per cent of all their export ship-
ments, as compared with 30 per cent in 1901. The stimu-
lating effect which the Panama Canal has exerted on the
trade of the republics of the West Coast of South America
with the United States is shown by the fact that the ratio
of their exports which come to us has risen from 8 per cent
of their total sales abroad in 1901 to 35 per cent in 1926.
In the case of the more northerly republics-Mexico, the
West Indies and Central America-no less than 69 per
cent of their entire export shipments are destined for this
country.
The United States increased its purchases from the South
American mainland last year by $50,000,000 or 91/2 per
cent, as compared with 1925. This was the largest relative
increase of any continent in our import trade. The total
value of our imports from South American countries last
year amounted to $568,000,000 as against $518,000,000 in
1925.
With the exception of four countries-Cuba, Mexico,
Chile, and Ecuador-all of the southern republics sold us
more goods last year than in 1925. Brazil's exports to the








96 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

United States increased by $13,000,000-from $222,000,000
to $235,000,000-while those of Columbia increased by
$27,000,000 to a total of $90,000,000, due in each case to
increased coffee exports with enhanced prices. Both these
countries increased their purchases from the United States
in 1926, those of the former rising from $87,000,000 to
$95,000,000 and of the latter from $41,000,000 to $49,-
000,000.
In 1926 we bought $23,000,000 worth of Venezuela's
products, as against $20,000,000 in 1925. Our sales to this
republic last year rose to $40,000,000, an increase of $15,-
000,000 over those of 1925. Increased petroleum produc-
tion is responsible for the rise in Venezuela's exports to
the United States and the same reason accounts for her
greatly enhanced purchasing power. Larger petroleum
shipments also'accounted for the rise in Peru's exports to
this country from $17,000,000 in 1925 to $22,000,000 last
year. Our exports to Peru in the same period increased
from $23,000,000 to $29,000,000.
Argentine Exports
Argentina's exports to the United States rose to $88,-
000,000 in 1926, an increase of $8,000,000 over the 1925
figure, although during the same period her imports from
this country dropped from $149,000,000 to $144,000,000.
The purchasing power of Argentina last year was particu-
larly affected by conditions in Europe, notably the British
coal strike with attendant unemployment and diminished
demand for meats and other foodstuffs. Uruguay's exports
to us of $18,000,000 in 1926 were $2,000,000 greater than
in the previous year. In turn, her purchases from the
United States rose from $21,000,000 to $23,000,000.
Central America last year sent us almost $49,000,000 of
her products, an increase of 15 per cent over 1925. At
the same time the republics increased their purchases to
nearly $76,000,000, a gain of approximately 4 per cent.
Referring to the four Latin American countries whose
export trade with the United States declined in 1926, it
should be noted that in each case this decline was due to
adverse economic conditions which are of a temporary
nature. In Mexico the decreased production of petroleum,
silver and other minerals is responsible for the drop in
export trade to the United States from $173,835,000 to









FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN


$169,369,000. However, we still purchase about $35,000,-
000 more from Mexico than she takes from us. Our ex-
ports to Mexico in 1926 aggregated $135,000,000, which was
a drop of $10,000,000 from the previous year. Cuba's
lowered exports to the United States were accounted for
by the drop in sugar prices. Last year our total purchases
from the island were valued at $250,000,000 as compared
with $261,673,000 in 1925. Our exports to Cuba, in the
samo period, dropped 14 per cent or from $199,000,000 to
$160,000,000. Lowered production and exportation of
nitrates caused Chile's exports to us in 1926 to fall to a
value of $81,000,000 or $8,000,000 under the figure for
1925. While Chile's purchasing power declined in 1926,
nevertheless she imported $49,000,000 worth from the
United States, which was $10,000,000 more than in 1925.
Ecuador's exports to this country declined by $2,000,000 in
1926 as compared with 1925, a loss chiefly attributable to
the increasingly serious blight which has devastated her
cacao fields.
Steady Growth
There is occasionally an impression that sundry barriers
have been imposed in the United States to obstruct im-
portations from Latin America which should therefore
"buy only from those who buy from it." If the latter
declaration was literally observed, the tendency will be
clearly in favor of the United States as against Europeak
competitors, since, as has just been indicated, the trend of
Latin American sales is more and more in a northerly
direction and we now take nearly two-fifths of their total
exports, with a formidable annual average of a billion dol-
lars during the past few years and a steady growth in
volume each year.
Nevertheless, international trade very seldom moves
along the simple two-way lines referred to in this assump-
tion; the commerce between any two countries is almost
never on such a completely equipoised footing since their
respective industries and resources could only by the rarest
coincidence be completely reciprocal and counterbalancing.
It might also be pointed out that if we exclude sugar,
which is on a special footing because of the preferential
tariff arrangements existing between Cuba and the United
States, we find that more than 80 per cent of the total
4-Bulletin









98 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN

imports of the United States from the southern republics
enter free of all duties. In the case of the West Coast of
South America, the free portion is 96 per cent of their ex-
ports to the United States and on the East Coast the share
is 82.7 per cent. This is an obvious development since so
large a portion of the total shipments is made up of essen-
tial raw materials for American manufacturers and of
exotic tropical and subtropical products in no way compet-
ing with native American industries.




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