DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
630.5 ISSUED BY
F 6 L NATHAN MAYO
V6 37, Commissioner of Agriculture
0. I 1 f [b entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter under Act
I0 | | bf Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage pro-
S| ided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3. 1917. authorized September 11, 1918."
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
FLORIDA EXTENSION DIVISION, HOME DEMONSTRATION
Miss Flavia Gleason .
Miss Virginia P. Moore
Miss Lucy Belle Settle
Miss Mary E. Keown
Miss Ruby McDavid
Miss Mary A. Stennis
Miss Isabelle S. Thursby
Miss Eloise McGriff .
De Soto .
WILMON NEWELL. Director, Gainesville.
SState Home Demonstration Agent
SAsst. State Home Dem. Agent .
SDistrict Home Dem. Agent . .
SDistrict Home Dem. Agent .
SDistrict Home Dem. Agent .
SHome Dairy and Nutrition Agent
SFood and Marketing Agent .
. Substitute Dist. Home Dem. Agent
Mrs. Grace F. Warren . .
Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore .. ...
Mrs. B. L. Vaden . . .
Mrs. Mary S. Shook . .
Miss Pansy Norton . .
SMrs. Nettie B. Tucker . .
SMiss Pearl Lafitte . .
SMiss Louise Pickens . .
SMiss Josephine Nimmo . .
SMiss Elise Lafitte . . .
Miss Motelle Madole . .
Mrs. Mary S. Allen . .
SMrs. Bettie A. Caudle . .
.Miss Mary Sue Wigle . .
SMiss Marie Cox . . .
SMiss Sallie B. Lindsey . .
.Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum . .
Miss Margaret Cobb . .
SMiss Christine McFerron . .
.Miss Pearl Jordan . .
SMiss Bertha Henry . .
SMrs. Nellie W. Taylor . .
SMrs. Edith Y. Morgan . .
SMrs. Harriette Ticknor . .
Miss Helen Kennedy . .
SMiss Lois Godbey . . .
Miss Mosel Preston . .
SMiss Bernice Lyle . .
SMiss Anna E. Heist . .
SMiss Ethyl Holloway . .
Miss Corinne Barker . .
SMrs. Anabel P. Powell. . .
SMiss Orpha Cole . . .
.Miss Agnes D. Yeamans. . .
Miss Albina Smith . .
West Palm Beach.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Home Demonstration Work a Contributing Factor in Florida's Development:
Counties Maintaining Home Demonstration Agents ......................... 9
Early History of Home Demonstration Work in Florida .................... 11
Main Project Activities .......................................... 11
State Short Course for Club Girls ...................................... 15
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week...................................... 17
Outstanding Results ............... ...................................... 17
Cooperation with Other Organizations ....................... ............. 27
Cooperation with Foreign Countries ...................................... 27
Rural Home Improvement:
Home Improvement Campaign ................. ......................... 32
One Girl Leads the Family. .................. ............................ 33
Better Rural Homes in Escambia County .................................. 36
Holmes County Home Improvement ...................................... 39
Yard Improvement in Nassau County...................................... 46
Home Demonstration Work as Training for Citizenship:
Club Organization and Program-Making ................................ 49
County Councils .................................................... 51
Rallies ...................... ...................................... 59
Team Work ............. .............................................. 59
Demonstration at National Meeting .................................... 63
Individual Stories of Successful Home Demonstration Club Members in South
Florida ............... ...................................... 63
Obtaining Results Through Opportunities Afforded Rural Home Life:
Exhibits ....................... ............................. 76
Contests ...................... ................... .... ............ 83
Individual Stories of Successful Home Demonstration Club Members in North
Florida ........................ .............. ..... .............. 88
Scholarships ...................................................... 95
Cam ps ................................................... 97
4 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued.
Nutrition Program, Home Demonstration Department:
Food for Health Work in Girls' Clubs. ...................................... 109
Food for Health Work in Women's Clubs.. ... .... ......... 117
Home Dairying ............................. .......................... 121
Nutrition in Short Courses and Camps. ............... .................... 125
School Nutrition Dem onstrations ............... ...... .................. 131
F lorida H health Contest ................................... ............... 135
State Nutrition Contest ................................................ 141
Fruit and Vegetable Production and Conservation in Florida:
Fruit and Vegetable Project in Club Girls' Program of Work ................ 147
Florida Garden Calendar ................................................ 148
Excerpts from Home Demonstration Agents' Monthly Reports on Gardening.. 150
Some Florida Fruits Other than Citrus. .................................... 154
Fruits that Florida Has to Offer the Preserve-Maker. ........................ 167
Introducing Florida Fruits to Florida Folks .............................. 176
Two Efficient Community Kitchens. ......................................... 193
M marketing .............................................................. 195
Profitable Poultry Farming:
H om e Poultry ............................................................ 199
Club Girl Finds Poultry Pleasant and Profitable Work...................... 200
Commercial Poultry Farming is Profitable. ................................ 203
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
SHE beginnings of civilization were in rural homes. The first
homes made by human hands were in some form of tent.
Nomadic peoples, such as the Gypsy, the Bedouin, or the
North American Indian, prefer this sort of dwelling-place
to this day. The Hebrews lived in tents from the time
Abraham left the land of Ur until long after they finally
settled in Palestine, except during their stay in Egypt. A home is a place
where people live, but it does not necessarily follow that every habitation is a
home. Home is more a matter of the heart than it is of a mere place of
abode. Happiness is of the mind and not of economics. Satisfaction is
not solely dependent upon the size of the bank account. The character of
the home is the best criterion of the character of the people, but the char-
acter of the home is not to be measured by the cost of the house. The
meaning of a home is determined by the members of the household.
Domestic felicity is largely determined by the ingeniousness of the mem-
bers of the family. This is where the Home Demonstration Agent comes
in. She aids in the cleverness of the feminine members of the household,
primarily, and through her personal touch with the family she also helps
in molding opinions of the whole family on questions pertaining to the
welfare of all, a matter which is largely affected by domestic economics.
The personal equation is the greatest force in human conduct. The
most effective approach is the personal, when properly conducted. More
than 4,500 workers, including agricultural agents, home demonstration
agents, specialists in different lines of work and leaders in boys' and girls'
club work, are employed in the United States. These agents, supplemented
by specialists, supervise and conduct demonstrations on the farms and in
the homes, hold meetings and give suggestions and assistance by personal
visits, correspondence, telephone messages, distribution of printed matter,
and in any way that promises good results.
Knowledge of all that it takes to make home life desirable and happy
is necessary on the part of home-makers. Physical comforts, cultural
attractions, domestic conveniences, educational advantages and recreational
opportunities, all play a part in rural civilization. The study of nutrition,
cooking, preserving, canning, clothes-making, art-craft and sanitation are
certainly worthwhile. The introduction of numerous domestic conven-
iences, such as cooking utensils, washing machines, churning machines,
refrigerators and running water in kitchen and bathroom, is often the
result of the suggestions and insistence of the Home Demonstration Agent.
These things came first to the city dweller. Before they had been intro-
duced to any considerable extent among the farmers, there had begun a
trek from the country to the cities. The introduction of improved farm
6 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
machinery kept the volume of production up to the standard despite the
exodus from the farms. Efficiency makes for profits, and especially is this
apparent when the general level of prices is below the profit line.
There needs to be a training in the art of home-making, just as in
other arts. The properly equipped Home Demonstration Agent is especially
adapted to this work. It is a character of teaching by exemplification that
appeals to the young. One of the leading services rendered by the demon-
stration agent, whether man or woman, is the kindling of inspiration in
thousands of youths to do the unusual. It is the ambition to go beyond the
commonplace, to be exceptional, that marks the beginning of a career. The
finest fields are those of the household. The greatest crop produced on the
farm is Young America. The prizes won by children in contests are grati-
fying to the winner, but even more so to the parent. The winner enthuses;
the parent exults.
Civilization can march forward only on the feet of bright, healthy
children who are interested in things worthwhile.
Woman was the first builder of the home. She had to do those things
which automatically initiate the home life. Her duties with children in-
evitably led to this-the maintenance of a habitation and place of abode,
from which evolved the home.
Woman was the first farmer. The life of the savage was such that she
did the tilling of the soil near the cave, wigwam or hut, while the man
roamed in search of game.
Woman was the first school-teacher. The child was with the mother
and learned its first lessons from her. It learned her language, was taught
the use of the bow and arrow, how to do the small chores, and to help lay
in the supply of small berries and other food fruits.
Woman was the first physician. The ills of the children made her
think of doing things for the sick. Her diagnoses and ministrations may
have been far from orthodox, but such treatment as the sick received, she
Woman was the first artist. Having her preference as to the ones she
was to attract, she was induced to make herself attractive. This includes
personal appearance and personal qualities.
Woman was the first evangel of religion. Her ties of offspring being
the stronger, she was the more grieved at the loss of a child. She longed
to see it again, to live with it again. The wish was mother of the hope.
and from this desire to fathom the riddle of existence sprang religion.
Men and women are the chief products of the world. The enrichment
of mind is of far more importance than the enrichment of the soil. The
latter is of importance only as it contributes to the former. Stimulation
of thought, of purpose, of effort, is of far greater value than stimulation
of plants. Little can be expected of the unambitious youth. There must
be something of the heroic involved in the life of growing boys and girls to
enlist their enthusiasm. Where there is no exemplary hero there will develop
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA 7
the evil hero. The romance of heroes has a special appeal to the young.
We need to attach heroism to more walks of life than in the past. Few
historians have been philosophers. They have dwelt on the heroism of the
soldier, and have said too little about the heroism of those who devote their
lives to preventing wars. We need to put forward the heroism of construc-
tion, rather than the heroism of destruction. We need to extol the heroism
of accomplishment that is not stained with human blood. The nursery, the
kindergarten, the school and the forum should each present the glories of
enlightenment, rather than the glory that rests in the clouds of smoke
that hover above battlefields.
The home is the unit of social life. No more important theme can
engross the minds of statesmen and philosophers, of sages and poets, than
the welfare and sanctity of the home. We are born at home, we live at
home, and we prefer to die at home, therefore the comfort and economy
of home are of more heartfelt and personal interest than the extraneous
affairs of all the nations of the world. The administration of government
is important because it affects the economy and the daily life of the home.
Says Robert Burns:
"To make a happy fireside clime
For children and wife,
Is the true pathos and sublime
Of human life."
Destroy all the industries, professions, arts and sciences, but leave the
home intact, and civilization would rise again as if by magic. Leave all
industries, professions, arts and sciences intact, but destroy the home, and
civilization would perish from the earth. They who build the home serve
In the language of the poet Edwin Markham, in the June 10th issue of
"We are all blind until we see
That in the human plan
Nothing is worth the making if
It does not make the man.
Why build these cities glorious,
If man unbuilded goes?
In vain we build the work unless
The builder also grows."
T. J. BROOKS,
Director, Bureau of Immigration.
December 20, 1926.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
State Home Demonstration Agent
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN
By FLAVIA GLEASON
State Home Demonstration Agent.
Florida with its beautiful hills, streams, lakes, trees, flowers, numerous
plants and birds, enticing climatic conditions, agricultural possibilities,
excellent fishing and hunting along with numerous other attractions affords
interesting natural surroundings for rural home life. Realizing, however,
that natural conditions are only a part of the necessities for the develop-
ment and progress of humanity, this great state is building good roads,
better schools, developing its agriculture, and improving living conditions
through various organizations. Since it is realized that the great force that
readjusts the world originates in the home and that home conditions ulti-
mately mold peoples' lives, Florida has an organization devoting its entire
time to the upbuilding of rural home life. This bulletin will deal largely
with the work done by that organization, the home demonstration division
of the Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics.
Home demonstration work is conducted cooperatively between Florida
State College for Women, College of Agriculture, University of Florida and
United States Department of Agriculture. Its object, as has been well stated
many times, is the fullest and finest development of women and girls
through the use of all the many resources of the farm home and farm com-
munity. Its chief means of realizing these aims is the initiative aroused by
the demonstration which the individual makes as an object lesson for her
family and community.
Mrs. Fletcher Burnett, President of the Twentieth Century Woman's
Club, Gainesville, Florida, in extending a welcome to home demonstration
agents assembled in Gainesville a short time ago, said: "I interpret your
classification of 'Home Demonstration Agent' as an agent demonstrating to,
teaching in, and helping uplift and upbuild the homes of our rural popula-
tion, and if there is a nobler work than this then it has never been brought
to my attention."
The home demonstration division has 35 county home demonstration
agents, a state home demonstration agent, assistant state home demon-
stration agent, who is also leader of the home improvement project; three
district agents, one foods and marketing specialist, a dairy and nutrition
specialist and a poultryman who works with both county and home dem-
onstration agents. Dr. Wilmon Newell is Director of all Florida Extension
Work in Agriculture and Home Economics and Mr. A. P. Spencer is vice-
The work is being conducted in an organized and effective way in the
counties that are financially supporting one or more county home demon-
stration agents. They are as follows: Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Columbia,
Dade, De Soto, Iuval, Escambia, Gadsden, Hillsborough, Holmes, Jackson,
Lake, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Marion, Nassau, Okaloosa. Orange, Osceola, Palm
TWENTIETH CENTURY CLUB
Home Demonstration Agents assembled in Gainesville for agents' annual meeting.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Suwannee, Taylor,
In these counties programs of work show that 5,605 women and 7,754
girls in 893 communities are carrying definitely outlined programs of home
Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, the father of demonstration work, said that the
best advancement of people is along the lines of profit, comfort, culture,
influence and power. It is along these lines that Florida's home demon-
stration work is progressing.
A brief history of the first several years of home demonstration work
in Florida is set forth in the following paragraph taken from a paper pre-
pared four or five years ago by Miss Harriette Layton: "In 1912, the work
was started as a canning club work, our emblem was the tin can, and we
were known as canners. Canning was then taught throughout the state
and, incidentally, better varieties of food, better preparation of it, and more
sanitary conditions and greater conveniences in homes was the result.
When war was declared, although we were beginning to broaden out our
program of work and had cherished plans and aims in mind, these were set
aside for the two big problems open to us at this time-increased produc-
tion and conservation. All our endeavors were concentrated to accomplish
these things. After war was over, we heard on every side, 'There is no
further need for home demonstration work; everybody has been taught to
can, and the need for conservation is over.' But we remembered the goal
we had in mind-plans for developing poultry and dairy work, better nour-
ished children, sewing, home beautification and recreational advantages,
and these we began to set forth."
This splendid work was under the direction of Miss Agnes Ellen Harris,
State Home Demonstration Agent 1912-1919, and Miss Sarah Partridge,
State Home Demonstration Agent 1919-1923.
Perhaps the way that home demonstration agents are helping the indi-
viduals and communities today can best be illustrated by mentioning some
of the things that these fine, unselfish, untiring women are doing. Poultry
work is one of the most popular productive projects and furnishes a splen-
did avenue for women and girls to increase the family income. Increasing
interest is shown by the fact that during 1925 four times as many women
and almost three times as many girls carried definite poultry demonstra-
tions through the year as in 1924. The profits on these result demonstra-
tions in 19 counties amounted to $157,822.
Vegetable gardening is stressed in order that a variety of vegetables
may be had for the family table and the surplus used in canning and
marketing. The interest in this phase of the work was twice as great
during the past year as the previous one.
R U R A L HOME LIFE IN F L O R I D A
KEY WESTf oO*0
Shaded Counties Indicate Those in Which There Are Home Demonstration Agents.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT 13
The home dairy work has somewhat the same aims and purposes as
the poultry work. It is slower in developing than the others. However,
the home demonstration agents are working toward increased production
largely through club members who keep records of the feed and other cost
of the cow in comparison with the number of pounds of milk produced
which is resulting in better feeding and the purchase of better cows. San-
itary production and care of milk is stressed. Women and girls are also
learning how to make standard packs of butter and cheese.
Through foods and nutrition work women and girls have learned how
to use fruits and green vegetables in the diet, the value of more milk and
other dairy products and the importance of poultry and poultry products
as well as of unrefined cereals in the proper planning of meals for the
family. Not only have better meals been prepared and better food practices
adopted in the homes, but improper school lunches are being replaced with
food that helps instead of hinders normal development. Teachers have
reported gratifying changes in children as the result of hot school lunches.
Surplus products are being standardized and marketed, making it
possible for a larger number of farm boys and girls to continue their edu-
cation, many houses to be remodeled, and innumerable home conveniences
to be added, including water, heating and lighting systems.
Women and girls are all enthusiastic over making and working over
house furnishings. They are learning to plan household work in a syste-
matic way, rearrange equipment for convenience, to use improved laundry
practices and some are making budgets and keeping accounts. Home
improvement and foods work lead to improved conditions in home health
Planning and planting of home grounds finds a place on almost all home
demonstration programs. This work demands more attention because of
the interest that clubs and state organizations are taking in landscape
gardening, community and highway beautification.
Clothing work consisting of improved methods in selection, construc-
tion, remodeling and renovating, and millinery is a part of the home demon-
stration program in each county which appeals to every woman and girl as
she feels a direct need for it.
During the past year 1,453 women and girls learned the value of con-
verting such Florida materials as pine needles, wire grass, honeysuckle and
palmetto into attractive baskets, vases, trays and other articles.
Among the outstanding demonstrations showing the value of each organ-
ized woman's home demonstration club including in the year's program
something of mutual interest to the community, one can see church build-
ings, churchyards, school grounds and driveways improved, parks created
or improved, new community pride created through socials and picnics,
hot school lunches established and community club houses built.
Details and specific results of most of the project activities that have
been mentioned will be given elsewhere in this bulletin by the various
project leaders. However, some idea of the general interest in them may
HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Making wall vases and baskets of pine needles and wire grass at the State Short Course. (2) Home
Demonstration Agents learning new points in millinery during agents' meeting.
14 R U A
W; A p Mir4i~SC
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT 15
be obtained from the following summary showing the number of homes
reporting improved practices during the past year and the number of com-
munities and counties from which the reports came:
Number of homes
PROJECTS. reporting improved Counties Communities
practices. Reporting. Participating.
Home Garden ............................ 2,983 27 242
Home Poultry ............................ 2,480 22 349
Home Dairy .................. ........... 404 5 68
Beautification Home Grounds............ 1,880 21 242
Rural Engineering-Home ................ 260 10 66
Home Marketing ......................... 408 11 77
Foods ................................... 5,369 23 391
Nutrition .............................. 4,652 18 407
Clothing ................................ 6,101 30 440
Home Management .................. .... 1,094 24 129
House Furnishings ....................... 3,040 23 369
Home Health and Sanitation................ 3,111 16 368
M miscellaneous ............................ 3,912 29 219
Agents' Annual Meeting: In order that a knowledge of subject matter
may be thorough, instruction uniform, and methods of instructing leaders
approved, all county and state home demonstration agents come together
in joint conference annually, most of which time is given to discussion of
administrative matters dealing with methods, results and plans for future
work. A portion of each annual meeting is spent in joint conferences with
county agricultural agents, discussing phases of the work which both men
and women develop jointly. Subject matter instruction is given in some
phases of the work during these meetings.
State Short Course for Club Girls: Club girls who do the most out-
standing club work in the various counties are rewarded with trips to
Tallahassee where they attend a week's course of instruction arranged for
them in the Florida State College for Women. This is the outstanding
event in the club year and proves to be an invaluable stimulus in securing
the best type of work. Short course scholarships are provided by club
members themselves, county commissioners, school boards, rotary clubs,
women's clubs, banks, merchants and individuals interested in the work.
During the short course the girls receive instruction in gardening, poultry
raising, nutrition, home improvement, clothing, food preparation and pres-
ervation and leadership development. Some of the high points in short
course programs have been the formation and meetings of the state junior
home demonstration council, demonstrations given by county teams of two
girls each, contests in bread-making, canning, health and selection of the
girl with the most perfect foot, playing of games and singing of songs which
could be taken back to the various communities, the reception by Governor
and Mrs. Martin, picnic at Goodwood, with Senator and Mrs. W. C. Hodges
entertaining, and visits to the Capitol. Some idea as to inspiration and
knowledge obtained during the short course may be had from the following
extract from a club girl's letter regarding the short course. After describ-
ing the short course in full, including its many activities, Josephine Boyd-
16 RURAL HOME LIFE IN
(1) Learning the true appreciation of a hat. (2) Eagle Lake Home Demonstration Club, Eagle Lake, Fla.,
sewing and keeping records of expenditure and savings. (3) Three club girls of Clermont Club showing
dresses made in second year sewing. (4) Mrs. Haynes, a dressmaker and Home Demonstration woman in
Citrus County, upon learning how to make baskets out of native materials, found that she could make more
money by making and selling baskets than by sewing. Baskets in this photograph are made of honeysuckle,
wire grass, pine needles, and reed.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
ston of Palm Beach County closed her letter as follows: "This wonder-
ful short course from which we derived so much fun and education has
meant much to all the girls from each section of the state who have had an
opportunity to meet and know each other personally and learn varied lines
of work. It gives us enthusiasm and ideas to take home to our clubs and
communities. It makes us ambitious to be prize-winners, good club mem-
bers, and come back next year bringing new girls with us and to look for-
ward to the time when we will be in school at the College."
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week: Women seem as eager and enthu-
siastic over their annual meeting during Farmers' and Fruit Growers'
Week, University of Florida, as do the girls over attending the course men-
tioned above. For this occasion programs are arranged to cover various
phases of home work and the women choose the courses in which they are
most interested. University professors, speakers from other states and the
United States Department of Agriculture with friends of the work in the
state give valuable assistance in the development of the programs. The
state home demonstration council, consisting of two representatives from
the various organized counties, meets during the week, when reports of
work in the counties are given and plans for future development of the
work are discussed and agreed upon.
A summary of the ways in which home demonstration work is helping
in the upbuilding of rural home life is briefly stated in the following
paragraph taken from United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin,
"Cooperative Extension Work With 10-year Review":
"Home demonstration work in the 10-year period can be justly credited
with the wide adoption in American farm homes of improved practices in
feeding and clothing the farm family, household management, maintenance
of family health, and the improvement and beautification of the home and its
surroundings. Farm women whom this extension influence has reached have
been enabled to set up and maintain a higher standard of living for their
families. They have acquired greater pride in their homes and their house-
hold duties. They have increased their personal incomes through the intel-
ligent standardization and marketing of surplus home products. They have
learned to use the funds which they have for family expenditures more
wisely and in terms of a more comfortable and attractive home life. They
and their children are more simply and attractively dressed. Their family
diet is more wisely and economically selected. Home conveniences, such as
improved water supply, improved sanitation, better means of heating and
lighting the house, have aided many farm women in doing away with much
of the drudgery and monotony of farm life and have given them more time
for recreation and for companionship with their children and neighbors.
"Participation in extension activities has helped the farm woman to find
a more active and important part in community life and improvement.
Through extension influences she has learned to study and solve with other
women of her locality the problems of the community of especial interest
to them. Through constructive local leadership development among the
County delegations travel via bus, train and automobile to the Florida State College for Women to attend the State Short Course.
Poultry Specialist and Home Demonstration Agents showing club girls in attendance at the State Short Course how to select hens for egg production.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Club girls attending the State Short Course receiving a cordial greeting at the home of Senator Hodges.
Those in the receiving line and in order in which they are standing are: Senator W. C. Hodges, Mrs. W. C.
Hodges, Governor John W. Martin, Mrs. John W. Martin, Mrs. J. J. Hodges, Mr. P. K. Yonge, Mr. Fred H.
Davis, Mrs. Fred H. Davis, Dr. Edward Conradi, Mrs. L. P. Wilson, Mrs. Wilmon Newell, Dr. Wilmon
Newell, Mr. J. G. Kellum. (2) Governor and Mrs. John W. Martin with a group of club girls who were
first to greet them during picnic given at Goodwood for club girls in attendance at the 1926 State Short
Course, Florida State College for Women. (3) Club girls in attendance at the State Short Course enjoying
Senator Hodges' swimming pool. (4) Short Course Club girls learn the right type of shoe that each should
wear and why.
~-r~ ~5i~-~ ~5f~-.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
farm women, through their learning to plan and act together in local affairs,
through the influence it has exerted in making the life of the farm and of
the country community attractive and desirable, home demonstration work
beyond question has made a substantial contribution to American national
Through home demonstration work rural girls are learning the best
practices in farm home work, developing a better appreciation of country
life and a broader vision of the possibilities of rural life. In their club work
they are becoming leaders in doing something on the farm or in the home
or community that is worthwhile, and through it they are brought in con-
tact with live problems and with inspiring men and women who are encour-
aging and helping them find a way to finish school, go to college, or other-
wise better fit themselves for life's work.
Mrs. C. L. DeVane, Springhead Senior Club, says of home demonstra-
tion work in Hillsborough County: "If a person could have visited all the
rural homes in East Hillsborough county five years ago and this year
revisited the same homes, they would not be able to believe it possible that
so much improvement could be made in so short a time. The first question
that would come to mind would be what the influence could be that had
brought about the change. In the minds of those who know, the Home
Demonstration Club Work has been the strongest influence in bringing
about this progressiveness.
"The grounds of the rural homes are well kept, the interiors are usually
simple but harmonious, the clothes are in good taste and well made, and
the meals are nutritious and attractively served. All this has been brought
about through the untiring work of 'our agent.'
"The home demonstration club was the first club to be organized in the
rural sections of this county. At first the women knew nothing of parlia-
mentary rules and the meetings were little more than social gatherings,
but since the women have learned rules of procedure, the business meetings
are conducted in as efficient a manner as are the women's clubs in town.
The rural women have gained knowledge and experience and with them
have come poise which is necessary to women of refinement and culture.
"The club members have been anxious to pass to neighbors and tenants
the good things they have learned, especially the things that make life
easier and more pleasant for the women and children. The desire to help
the children has led them to the schools and the result has been the organ-
izing of Parent-Teachers' Associations which have brought to the rural
schools such benefits as exhibits of best pictures, circulating libraries, and
most important, the lunch room.
"Much equipment has been placed in the schools and interest in music,
art, and literature is being stimulated. Bands are being organized, scout
troops organized, and a spirit of progressiveness noticed in every phase of
life. No longer are country people conspicuous as hay-seeds; they are able
to take their place among their city friends because they have been made
to realize the dignity and importance of their work. There is no more
wholesome influence in a community than the Home Demonstration Club
22 RURAL HOME LIFE IN
(1) Mr. and Mrs. M. S. Pickett's home, Route 5, Jacksonville, Florida. This home was built last year. From a
financial standpoint Mr. Pickett is one of the successful farmers in the County. Mrs. Pickett is a member of
the Home Demonstration Club. (2) Mrs. Jacob Johnston's home in Suwannee County, Live Oak, R. F. D. A.
"Twin Oaks Farm," where this home is located, has 25 acres of pecans, peaches, Japanese persimmons, blight-
proof pears, plums and grapes. Its poultry farm of 800 White Leghorn chickens yielded a profit from Janu-
ary to September, 1926, of $1,295.00. Three good milk cows supply the family with plenty of milk and sur-
plus which is marketed. (3) Hillcrest Farm Home near Laurel Hill, Okaloosa County, is equipped with water-
works and electric lights. (4) In Leon County, eighteen miles from Tallahassee, is this beautiful, convenient,
modern and well-equipped rural home of Mr. and Mrs. Saunders.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
(1) A group of former Home Demonstration Club girls who are now students at the Florida State College
for Women and active members of The College 4-H Club. (2) Representatives from senior clubs from various
sections of Columbia County making plans for Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. (3) Home Demonstration
Club girls of Columbia County entertain at a luncheon some of the friends of club work.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
Mrs. Minnie H. Robinson gives the following statement in regard to
home demonstration work in Citrus County: "A glass of milk is an innocent
looking thing, but it served to start something in Citrus County, when Mrs.
E. W. Moore, our Home Demonstration Agent, arrived a little over two
years ago. Of course, some showed signs of having been well-fed, but there
was an appalling number of school children who were underweight, and
after surveying the entire county, Mrs. Moore decided that to push a nutri-
tion program in all the schools was about the best way to begin her work
among us, and while doing this she would at the same time get such projects
in home demonstration work as dairying, poultry, gardening and food con-
servation under way.
"The results have been gratifying, but many are just coming to recog-
nize the tremendous scope of her plan, therefore, future reports from Citrus
County along all lines of home demonstration work will rival any in the
state. In this short time 465 children are drinking milk as a result of her
nutrition work. Eighty-eight persons have secured better cows and all are
using the best feed they can buy or produce. Eighty-six of the above
number are purebred cows. From two small commercial dairies, each less
than a year old, which Mrs. Moore has been instrumental in establishing in
this county, 14,566 gallons of milk have been sold at 80 cents per gallon,
which amounts to $11,652.80, and this surplus has all been consumed by
local townspeople who can no longer keep cows. The aim is that every
person in the county shall have his share of milk. Another small but mod-
ern dairy is being established in the center of the county.
"Poultry is beginning to come into its own, 75 senior club members
being in the game for home use and some for profit. Citrus County is an
ideal location in point of air and water drainage. One rarely sees a sick
chicken, and with something over 7,000 purebred fowls for a starter, we
should begin to make a better showing along this line in another year.
"Although it is entirely possible to raise three crops a year in Citrus
County, it is not always possible to keep the same things growing, so we
have contrived through the medium of the pressure cooker, Burpee sealer,
hot-water canning and other up-to-date conservation methods to lay by in
store many vegetables, fruits and meats for use when their season is past.
Below are some figures covering a period of about six months; this does not
by any means cover all the conservation work done by the agent and indi-
viduals in the county, but will serve to give an idea how this work mounts
up when given any attention at all:
Persons doing food conservation ................................. 82
Number result demonstrations ................ . .. ...... 82
Number persons improving in canning ........................... 500
Fruits and vegetables canned ................................ 11,056 quart,
Meats and fish canned .......................................... 2,220
Jelly and preserves.... ...................................... 650
Juices ............... .................. .... .............. 456
Pickles ............... .................... ..... ......... ..... 436
Fruits and vegetables dried................................... 150 pound,
Meat cured ..................................... 1,200,000
Lard .................. ............. ...................... ... 2,000
Honey ................ .............. ...... ... ............. 100 gallon.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
(1) A group of County Home Demonstration Agents representing several states, and including Misses Lois
Godbey and Mosel Preston of Polk County, Florida, studying in Denmark with Miss Ulla Christensen.
(2) Mrs. M. A. Love, Quincy, Florida, Chairman of Home Demonstration Work, Florida Federation of
Women's Clubs. (3) The nurse in Taylor County recommended the use of certain vegetables and fruits in
the diet. The Home Demonstration Agent showed the women how they might have them. The women,
canned the products.
R. W. Dunlap, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, and other representatives from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., confer with County Home Demonstration
Agents before their departure for study in France, May, 1926.
DEMONSTRATION WORK A FACTOR IN FLORIDA'S DEVELOPMENT
Home improvement has not been overlooked; although we did not enter
the state contest, we have done considerable work which the following
figures will demonstrate:
Kitchens rearranged ........................................ 14
Individual budgeting ....................................... 12
Number labor-saving devices ............................... 290
Fireless cookers .......................................... 10
Kitchen sinks ........................... ............... 111
Power vacuum cleaners ..................................... 5
Kitchen cabinets .................... ...... ...... ........ 30
Electric or gas irons ................ ......................... 58
Food choppers ............................................. 22
Dilvers .............................................. ..... 7
Pressure cookers ................................ ......... 15
Burpee sealers ............................. ............. 12
Steam cookers .............................................. 8
Electric refrigerators .................. ..................... 8
Washing machines and wringers ............................ 4
Number installing sanitary toilets. ......................... 84
Number homes screened .................................. 175
Number homes using other control methods for flies, mosquitoes
and other insects .................... ................. 75
COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
The home demonstration organization could not carry its great up-
building program forward were it not for the valuable assistance that
it receives from other agencies in the state. County and city officials, cham-
bers of commerce, business men's organizations, fair associations, health
and education departments, the press, women's clubs, county and state
federation of women's clubs, business and professional women's clubs,
along with other organizations and innumerable individuals, have been
instrumental in developing the work by encouraging the workers through
moral and financial support.
COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COUNTRIES
In 1921 Madame De Vouge, Paris, France, spent several days in Florida
studying home demonstration methods with a view of better developing
home demonstration work in France.
In 1925 Miss Ulla Christensen, Copenhagen, Denmark, spent three
weeks in the State of Florida studying individual demonstrations and the
organizations and conduct of home demonstration club work with women
and girls. Because of her particular interest in food conservation she was
given special demonstrations and practical work in the conservation of fish
and citrus products. She was especially impressed with the interest shown
in home demonstration work by the people as a whole throughout the
State of Florida.
In 1925 Misses Lois Godbey and Mosel Preston, home demonstration
agents in Polk County, and in 1926 Miss Orpha Cole, home demonstration
agent in Volusia County, went to Europe with groups of other home dem-
onstruction agents from the southern states and took special courses per-
taining to home industries. Arrangements for these courses were made by
Mrs. Ola Powell Malcolm and universities in England, France and Denmark.
Mrs. Malcolm is a member of the U. S. Cooperative Extension Service Staff,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, and supervises home demonstration work
in the southern states.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
VIRGINIA P. MOORE
Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
By VIRGINIA P. MOORE
Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.
The tourist usually "passes through" North Florida, little realizing
that some of the richest agricultural land of the state is in this section.
This region has a natural beauty, but little has been done for beautification
by man in recent years.
Before the war of sixty years ago this was a wonderfully developed
agricultural section, rich in its rural life with its stately mansions, and
beautiful grounds and well-tilled plantations. Slaves were plentiful, the
land yielded bountifully and the country homes were of the ideal Southern
type. North Florida suffered with the whole South in the Civil War and
the Reconstruction. One must briefly survey this period in order to under-
stand why this section has stood still for so long while the other sections
of the state have made such rapid advances.
With the man power killed off in the war and the slaves freed, the proud
and poverty-stricken landowners sold off their land to rich men who still
maintain great hunting preserves and give little thought to agricultural
development. However, many of these large tracts of land have been sold,
have had the timber sold off, the land has been cleared, and the small
farmers, the "native born," are gradually getting a new foothold and
making the "best better" with their little farms. One wealthy woman from
the North, who owns a large tract of land, made a practical demonstration
of what can be done in dairying and agriculture in Leon County.
The native people of this section belong to that same fine, sturdy stock
that came down from Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia and
Tennessee and settled for life on the hills and in the valleys or in the ham-
lets or small cities of this beautiful North Florida.
The rapid division of the large fertile estates into small farms where
grasses and grains are being grown to feed the cattle, the dairy cow, the
sheep and the chickens, the building of attractive and convenient rural
homes that are beautified both on the interior and exterior, the improvement
of the rural schools and the building of paved roads are creating a "new
Florida" in this section. The person who wrote that Florida is one foot
high, certainly did not know either this section or central Florida or
certain sections of the West Coast with its beautiful hills and fertile valleys.
The big stock-raiser and manufacturer is just now seeing the possibility in
this "oldest" yet "newest" section of Florida. It is in this particular section
that the Home Improvement Project of work has been stressed to a
greater extent than in other sections of the state.
A state-wide campaign has been on in the state for over two years. In
this campaign it has not been the plan to take all the time of the home dem-
onstration agents in putting on a "high pressure" campaign but instead to
teach definite lessons in certain sections of their respective counties where
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) The painted house and fence has its influence in the community of Suwannee County. (2) Commissioner
Winn. one of the first to improve his home by cleaning up and then painting. The trees are citrus, oranges,
grapefruit, etc. The interior was changed for convenience and made a very attractive living place. The
Winn home is several miles from Crystal River. Mr. Winn is a staunch supporter of Home Demonstration
work now, but has not always been. He has purebred chickens along with the home project work. (3) Grapes,
pecans, persimmons and vegetables, as well as poultry, are helping to improve this rural home of Mr. and
Mrs. Petree in Nassau County.
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
(1) Homemade rugs are making homes more beautiful. This shows women and girls working in Gadsden
County. Home Demonstration Agent, Miss Elise LaFitte, teaching rug-making at Woman's Club building,
Quincy, Florida. (2) Rug-making in Holmes County. New Hope girls. Ten are improving their rooms.
All doing garden work. The hooked rugs were made by the girls. (3) Short Course girls learning how to
do "little things" to beautify the home (1925). Learning how to make inexpensive home furnishings.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
the demonstrator learns by doing, and the people of the community are
stimulated to do likewise, and accomplish even greater things. One house
painted, water, lights, and conveniences in it has caused many people to
think and act, and accomplish. Homes with new fences, outbuildings, well
painted, and plans for beautification are spreading. Rearranged, clean,
convenient and attractive kitchens, bedrooms or dining rooms get the
attention of the girls and women, who put these ideas into practice; the
boys and men do, too, for that matter.
The wise Home Demonstration Agent is developing this concrete inter-
est, and other phases of work, such as gardening, poultry-raising, is being
coordinated with the Home Improvement Project, for the demonstrators
see there is a way to make "more money" to make more improvement.
INAUGURATION OF THE HOME IMPROVEMENT CAMPAIGN
At the State Short Course for Home Demonstration Prize Winning
Club Girls at the Florida State College for Women in June, 1924, a state-
wide home improvement campaign was inaugurated, with these 184 club
girls as leaders from their communities from all sections of the state. In
order to stimulate the interest of these girls in improved homes, they had
for one of their lessons while at the short course, the actual doing over of a
cottage home, which was loaned by a mother and her daughter. This home
was typical of hundreds of homes in the state, "unsightly" and "unhomey."
A tour of all the five rooms was made by each club girl upon her arrival at
the short course, and when they were told that the cleaning, painting and
papering, redoing furniture, rearranging this unattractive home, would be
their "Home Improvement Course," there were many to say the task was
impossible in ten days.
A Home Demonstration Agent was made chairman of each room, a
well-thought-out plan of work to be accomplished each hour each day by
each group of girls was placed in the hands of each chairman. Everything
went according to schedule and the entire project was completed one hour
and thirty-five minutes before the appointed time for the reception, when
all the girls, the faculty and interested friends passed through the house to
see the finished results after improvement. Some of the painting, such as
floors, had to be done at night by hired help, also the papering, but girls
did over the furniture, woodwork and had instruction in hanging wall paper.
The drapery committee made the curtains and shades of unbleached
domestic and old sheets dyed. The accessories committee made attractive
things for the dresser, mantel, writing desk, lamp shades and sofa pillows
and passe partouted the beautiful pictures which were cut from magazines.
The group leaders assisted in hanging the pictures suited to each room,
and arranged flowers to give a particular accent of color.
The finished home with its cleanliness and beautiful, inexpensive and
artistic furnishings was a revelation to thousands, for every girl took the
message home, and small demonstrations in a girl's bedroom, or a mother's
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT 33
kitchen or living room were put on, patterned after the one at the State
Short Course with its committees, and detailed plans for work to be ac-
complished. The girls who were doing this became local leaders without
ONE GIRL LEADS THE FAMILY
Lanie Padgett only heard about what the girls at the Short Course did
and it created in her a desire to improve her old "ramshackled" home. She
spent the $200 she had saved since she had been in club work for four years.
Her mother and big boys listened, followed, helped her with her plans. Her
father rigged up the old sawmill and cut out more lumber and had it planed
to weatherboard the outside of the house which did not match the inside,
after Lanie, the boys and her mother ceiled, refloored the rooms, cut more
and larger windows and converted a waste space in the roof into two nice
The father and boys piped the water into the house, and later into the
bathroom after Lanie won the complete bathroom outfit as a prize. No one
is happier than this mother and father who always hoped for better things
but it seemed so far off, "some day when they laid up some money," but
Lanie and her county agent, Miss Josephine Nimmo, led the way that was
within reach of them now, and they have yet a program of work on exterior
as well as interior beautification, that may be carried over a long period
There are many more concrete demonstrations in all sections of the
state of what can be done at small expense to make the rural home more
convenient and attractive, both on the interior and exterior.
REPORT OF 1925 INTERIOR:
There were 2,606 individuals adopting improved practices in the interior
of the home.
In bedrooms, 2,515 improved.
In living rooms, 381 improved.
In dining rooms, 407 improved.
Women and girls in 3,043 homes improved their house furnishings.
Women and girls in 3,111 homes adopted improved practices in sanitation
89 sanitary toilets installed.
212 houses screened.
335 that made flytraps for yards.
CONVENIENCES ADDED IN 1925:
38 water systems installed.
37 lighting systems installed.
44 washing machines added to the home.
177 fireless cookers added to the home.
121 steam pressure cookers added to the home.
43 dilvers added to the home.
27 can sealers added to the home.
147 kitchen sinks added to the home.
39 vacuum cleaners added to the home.
151 kitchen cabinets added to the home.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Lanie Padgett's home, before improvement. (2) "Before and After" water was put in the Padgett
home. (3) Lanie Padgett's home after improvement. (4) Mother at spring before it was cemented. (5)
Mrs. Padgett has time to drop down in an easy chair for a little reading. This room was ceiled by her and
the boys and girls. New large windows instead of the tiny one. (6) The Padgett boys think the bath room
is an improvement over the "old swimming hole." (7) Water in Mrs. Padgett's kitchen saves many a backache.
I^ II ft IIAJiI Jl 1Jl WJL Ji
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
All the foregoing is a direct work of the home demonstration agents in
fourteen different counties. During the past year this report is more than
doubled. For a concrete example of what can be done, I am selecting the
following reports from some of the counties of North Florida, where the
women and girls entered the state home improvement contest. The County
of Holmes is rich in agricultural possibilities, but its financial rating is low
compared with other sections of the state. Due to the splendid work of
the county home demonstration agent, Mrs. Bettie Caudle, the light of a
better day is coming and my prediction is that in the next several years this
county will be regarded as a leading agricultural county with many beauti-
ful and improved homes.
The thirty-five home demonstration agents in Florida are doing excel-
lent home improvement work and many are truly described by using the
words of Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, when he spoke of the teacher, "who enters
into country life and seizes its opportunities for developing the resources of
the country, for increasing the harvests, improving the landscapes, bright-
ening the homes and flooding the people with knowledge about helpful
things." This is the true description of our home demonstration agents in
Many girls and women in all sections of the state are setting aside a
certain number of chickens, a certain garden space and a certain amount
of jellies, marmalades or gift packages to get "home improvement money"
with which to make home more attractive, convenient and beautiful on the
inside and outside. (Notice pictures in Polk, Citrus and Suwannee counties
where good work has been done.)
Ellie Ruth Bryce, Nassau County, who is starting a permanent garden
by starting grape-vines, has the promise of more ground and will have more
grapes and more money to improve her home, and will no doubt have a
college fund by the time she is ready to enter college.
ELLIE RUTH BRYCE
of Nassau County will make money to im-
prove her room by growing grapes in the per-
manent garden which she has started.
36 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
Through the home improvement work that the women and girls of
Florida are doing, it is hoped that the rural life of Florida will be so out-
standingly fine that there will be an exodus out of the cities of our land into
the great out-of-doors of our even-tempered climate. On account of roads
and cross roads, life need not be lived in isolation.
Though there is much to be done, many home demonstration agents
are starting their home improvement work in a definite way, and as result
demonstrations will follow month after month, we hope in a few years to
have all sections of the state to come up to the best anywhere. The follow-
ing are stories that should inspire all to take a renewed interest in making
the "best better."
BETTER RURAL HOMES IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY
To Miss Floresa Sipprell, former home demonstration agent of Escam-
bia County, and Mrs. E. J. Roberts should go the credit of establishing home
improvement work in the county. Mrs. Roberts, with the assistance of the
agent, put on the first home improvement demonstration. As a result the
idea has spread. Many homes have been improved and many improvements
made in homes. Indications are that it will be one of our most popular lines
of work the coming year.
(1) Outdoor living room and sun parlor of Mrs. Roberts, Escambia County. (2) Indoor living room of Mrs.
Roberts, Escambia County.
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
Mrs. Roberts says of her home: "Long before the minister said, 'Wilt
thou' we had dreamed of and planned our home, and today we have a livable
and workable home, made from an old farm house."
The original house was thirty feet wide with a breezeway through the
center. On the north side was a long porch, on the west side the same. They
enclosed a room eight by nine feet to be used for the washroom, saving the
muss of farm men "cleaning up" in the kitchen or bathroom.
The kitchen, the joy of the housekeeper and the pride of her husband,
contains three windows and a glass door. The room measures thirteen by
twelve feet, the space divided thus: North wall, glass door, built-in cab-
inet, table underneath on castors, window with sink beneath; on east wall,
built-in cabinet with zinc-covered work-shelf alongside of coal range and
door leading into dining room; south side, double windows beneath same,
fireless cooker; on west wall, kerosene oil range and door leading into bed-
room. The windows and doors are exactly opposite, creating cross-currents
of air that keep the room pleasant at all times.
The bathroom has a built-in medicine cabinet of ample size and a
towel cupboard placed just above the tub where plenty of towels are within
the reach of the bather.
The living room is twenty-four and one-half by sixteen feet, and has
a glass door and triple windows on the east or front, a large brick mantel
and fireplace on the north side with windows on each side.
The sun porch is sixteen by twenty-one feet on the southeast corner
of the house and is all glass, affording a real flood of sunlight. According to
my idea the house must be a home with a big capital "H". To be that, it
must be attractive, convenient with every working device, the right height
and design to suit the housewife, not some one else.
To me the ten necessary things in a home are, namely: running water,
plenty of light and ventilation, accessibility to every room, closet space,
bath and toilet, good drainage, house screened throughout, good stoves, a
comfortable chair in easy reach of the magazine stand so one might rest
and snatch a few minutes' reading while a meal is cooking and last but not
least, a good, comfortable bed on which one can spend the night in comfort
and awaken refreshed ready for another day's work.
The words of Edgar Guest, "It takes a heap o' livin' in a house to make
a home." are indeed true:
Home ain't a place that gold can buy,
Or get up in a minnit;
Afore it's home,
There's got to be a heap o' livin' in it.
Ye've got t' love each brick an' stone
From cellar up t' dome;
It takes a heap o' livin' in a house
To make it home.
This home won second place in the 1925 contest and was awarded a
second prize by "Save the Surface Magazine" in 1926.
38 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
One of the outstanding demonstrations of this year was that of Mrs.
Parazine, also of Ferry Pass. Mrs. Parazine says: "A new house for a
family of five costs a bit of money, and while we were saving enough to
build a new house, I made up my mind that the old one could at least be
"With the vision of that new house before us, we did not want to spend
so very much, so this is the plan we worked out:
"We had the ceilings painted a colonial yellow and the doors, windows
and baseboard leather brown. The old plaster board on the walls was tacked
back into place and new plaster board put on. The new board, however,
was put on with panel strips, covering all the seams. We also had the strips
put on like a picture moulding, a foot down from the ceiling, and two strips
about four inches apart around the room at the height of the window sills,
making a very pretty paneled effect and preventing the paper from sagging.
The strips are painted brown to match the rest of the woodwork and the
floor is also stained.
"And I just wish that every one that has some dingy room or corner
could see ours for they look so well and cost so little.
"The whole expense was not quite $35.00:
"Labor ......................................................... $15.00
"Two rolls paper (including freight) ............................... 5.00
"Panel strips ................................................. ... 6.00
"Total ................................................... $26.00
"The paint used came to a little less than $9.00. We have taken a world
of comfort in our dressed-up rooms the past winter and now, to me, comes
the best part of all, for the 'Boss' man of the family has decided that if a
little money, wisely spent, can accomplish so much-instead of waiting to
build that new house, we will use what we have and make over this one."
Mrs. Parazine won third place on her living room in the State Contest
and has already entered her house as a whole for 1927.
Mrs. Haynes of Ferry Pass, the mother of twelve children, most of
whom have been outstanding club members and winners of several trips
to State Short Course for girls and boys, has entered the contest and is
busy making her house over.
When her house was built it was long and narrow, the long side facing
the road with a narrow porch across the front. Since the road has been
changed and the end became the front, she decided to change the house,
converting it into the bungalow type. The porch was torn off the side and
a larger porch, cement steps and brick pillars put on the end. An ell was
added across the back for kitchen, bedroom and bath. Many windows have
been put in to give light and air.
The house has been painted green on the outside and a harmonizing
color scheme is being worked out on the inside.
The walls of the living room are wall-boarded, painted cream. Panels
and woodwork are walnut, and it is furnished with reed furniture, stained
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
walnut. The draperies are blue and gold, the rug in tones of blue. The
dining room opens into the living room and is finished and furnished to
The walls of the guest room are tinted green, furniture ivory and
curtains of white dimity ruffled in green.
The girls' room will be in ivory white and old rose. Mrs. Haynes' room,
blue; the boys' room, blue-green; bath, white, and kitchen, gray with
yellow or blue.
Mrs. M. J. Reeves of Myrtle Grove has added a kitchen and screened
porch to her home, painted the outside and papered inside.
Mrs. Tom Cobb of Ferry Pass has done over her bedroom and kitchen
and is now working on the living room and bedroom.
Eight women and girls have entered the contest for 1927. There
will be many more before the time for entry has passed.
HOLMES COUNTY HOME IMPROVEMENT, 1926.
My New Five-Room House.
The old three-room log house that we lived in for three years was very
uncomfortable and ugly. It had very few windows. It was so run-down
(1) The home of Mrs. Carlton Sykes, before improvement. (2) Home of Mrs. Carlton Sykes after im-
provement. By sacrificing the car Mrs. Sykes was able to have this new home.
40 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
that it was not worth repairing, so we determined to build a new one. We
had very little money but had a good bit of timber, and as there was a saw-
mill nearby we started sawing and hauling to mill enough timber to build
the house. Then it was sawed and hauled to the planing-mill to be dressed.
We used what money we had to buy doors, windows and roofing. Our flock
of ninety White Leghorn hens (purebred) paid our living expenses as well
as buying a lot of smaller things for the house. We had several fat hogs
to sell that helped out. When all the necessary material was ready to com-
mence building we had no money to hire a carpenter, and as my husband
could not possibly build the house that we had planned, there was nothing
left to do but trade our car to a carpenter in exchange for the labor with
my husband helping. We decided that we had rather have a pretty home
and no car than to go on living in the old house with a car to ride in.
First we wanted to build a house that we would always like. We
selected a five-room house with nice front porch, a screened-in sleeping porch
and a tiny back porch to eat on on hot days. We used a brick foundation
and instead of setting our house down near the highway as so many do,
we set it upon the hill that slants down beautifully to the road, with a lot
of pretty pines on it.
The living room is long and narrow with a cased opening into the
dining room and the little hall that leads into the two bedrooms. It has
five large windows and a fireplace. The large bedroom has four windows
and fireplace. The small bedroom has three windows and fireplace. Both
bedrooms have large cedar-lined closets. All the windows have sash
weights and we have screened the whole house. I have painted and var-
nished all the floors, and we shall paint the outside of the house gray. The
inside of the house is papered and trimmed in enameled ivory. The kitchen
has two large windows and two sets of casement windows. I have a built-in
kitchen cabinet, a large kitchen stove and an oil stove, also have a steam-
pressure cooker. I expect to can a lot of vegetables for home use and to sell.
Now we have a beautiful home which cost $1,100 not including the
car and our labor, but we have not much furniture. I hope to furnish it this
fall, as we have five hundred small chicks that will commence to lay in the
fall, and with the many beautiful things that my home demonstration agent
will show me how to make at small cost, it will not be hard.
MRS. CARLTON SYKES,
I joined the Home Demonstration Club at Ponce de Leon in January.
1925, with Mrs. Bettie Caudle as our agent, and she taught me many things,
one being a more convenient home, and especially a well arranged kitchen.
So this spring we decided to remodel our home, which was only a rough
lumber house that had not been completed about four years ago. It consisted
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
of four rooms and reception hall with only a front porch and a back porch
screened in for sleeping porch. There were only two ways of our getting in
or out of the house. One was a door in the front and one in the back.
The kitchen and dining room were together in a room 15x15, very much
crowded, and I walked many miles daily just in that one room getting a
small amount of work done. We began by putting a porch on each side of
the house, which gave a very good bungalow roof, had banisters all around
the porches and four sets of steps placed in convenient places leading to
front gate, pump, chicken yard and garden.
Entering the reception hall, we ceiled the walls with gip-rock and over-
headed with wall boards. To the right, I had living room made 15x15 with
book cases set in on each side of casement opening; the living room we
ceiled with gip-rock and overheaded with wall board. It has four large
windows and a pair of French doors leading to the dining room; the dining
room was ceiled and overheaded the same as living room and is 15x15.
There are double windows at the right and I also had a door put in leading
to the porch on the west side. Then I had a part of the old screened porch
cut off for the kitchen, about 10x14, had two casement windows, one on
the west side and one in the back, and a door put in leading to the west
porch. On the wall on the left I had a pantry built in with shelves for storing
canned fruit and vegetables, and by it I had placed the ice box. Across
from the ice box is the kitchen cabinet and to the right of the kitchen cab-
inet I had a work cabinet made and closed with doors across the front.
This takes the place of a cook table and gives me place to hang pots, dish
pans, and other things to keep off the wall. To the right of the work
cabinet is the oil stove. One of the casement windows is right over the
work cabinet and the other window by the stove so I have plenty of light and
We used gip-rock for the walls and overheading in the kitchen. Lead-
ing from the kitchen is the sleeping porch. Here in the wall between kitchen
and sleeping porch, we had clothes closet put in, also a broom closet. The
room has been weatherboarded on the outside wall just half way up and the
remainder of the wall had screen wire tacked across it, so I had five case-
ment windows put in the outside wall and one in the end of the room and had
them made to let down in lower half of the wall. We had screen frames
made and put on hinges for the windows. We had a door cut leading to the
east porch. This room was ceiled with gip-rock and overheaded with wall
board. A large bedroom 15x25 is next to the sleeping porch. In this room
I had the doors changed to more convenient places, and had two large win-
dows put in and as there were already double windows on one side it has
plenty of light and air. We had this room also ceiled with gip-rock and over-
headed with a wall board. Between this bedroom and company bedroom
was a stack chimney, on one side of which I had a clothes closet built with a
small window in outside wall to give light and on the other side I had a
small closet built in for bed clothes and quilts.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
The next room was to be a company bedroom. Here we only ceiled with
gip-rock and overheaded with wall board, and at the fireplace had a very
pretty brick mantel put in. This room is 15x15 and has four windows in it,
so now we have a very pleasant, comfortable home inside and expect to paint
both inside and out as soon as we can, and also put in water and lights.
I did not list my house with Mrs. Caudle until May, so have not had
time to do all that I will do.
STATEMENT OF THE COST OF REMODELING
Gip-rock and wall board.................. ........................ $152.00
Lumber, doors and windows....................... ........ 180.00
Bookcase, French doors, screens and door for the front ................. 54.00
Roofing, hardware, screen doors for side door ....................... 57.00
Brick for pillars and mantles................. ..................... 15.00
Truck hire for wall board and lumber ............................ .. 45.00
Labor ............................................................ 226.00
MRS. W. L. MANNING.
.. -.^" ^ -.-
(1) Improved kitchen in home of Mrs. W. L. Manning, Holmes County. (2) Home of Mrs. W. L. Manning,
Holmes County, after improvement.
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
MY REMODELED HOME
Before we remodeled our home a narrow porch, six feet wide, extended
across the front and one side and was screened in. There was a narrow
porch on back of house. The foundation and roof had almost rotted down.
The fence had fallen down and part of it was gone. The whole place looked
We tore the porches away, also the old roof. We put a new roof on
of heart cypress shingles. We built new porches, one across the front ten
feet wide and one on the back the same width and fixed a breakfast room
there. We put a brick foundation and brick pillars on front porch. On
the south and west side we made a sleeping porch with sixteen windows.
We built a bathroom to join sleeping porch and bedrooms. We have painted
the house inside, which adds much to the looks, and are painting the outside
Color scheme: Living room, walls buff with cream ceiling and ma-
hogany woodwork and floors; sewing room, a pretty shade of gray with
white ceiling, mahogany woodwork and floor; guest room, pink walls, white
ceiling, mahogany woodwork and floor; one bedroom, white walls and ceil-
ing with mahogany floor; sleeping porch, white walls, green ceiling, mahog-
any floor; dining room, tan wall, cream ceiling, mahogany woodwork and
floor; kitchen, wall a pretty shade of brown and cream ceiling, mahogany
woodwork and floor; back porch or breakfast room, white walls and green
ceiling, mahogany floor. We built some nice porch boxes for flowers and
have flowers growing in them.
To beautify the grounds around my home I planted flowers and lawn
grass. We have a large lawn. The garage is back of the lawn and we
have a driveway through it. We have built three trellises for vines. We
built a new style picket fence of cypress, in front of the yard. The road
which is in front of the house had bad washes in them. We filled them in
with sand and clay. In back of house and lawn we built a poultry yard.
We built a new poultry house, and have planted several fruit trees, peaches,
figs, plums, pears, apples, grapes and raspberries. We have several large
pecan trees which make a nice shade in the lawn.
We have a deep well and a pump which pumps water in a tank made of
cypress and have running water in the house. We have two telephones, one
extends to one town and one to another town on the other side of our home.
We tore down several old buildings that stood in front of the house,
built new barns and put new wire fence around one hundred acres of culti-
vated land. This work has been done under the supervision of our County
Home Demonstration Agent, Mrs. Bettie Caudle. The cost of material and
labor was near $1,000. MRS. R. K. McKINNA,
R. F. D. Bonifay, Florida.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
HOW I IMPROVED MY HOME AND YARD
The house before improvement was as follows:
The house is turned east and west and is 14x30 feet, making two rooms,
one 20x14 ft., the other 10x14 ft., with a long veranda on north, south, and
west of this. There was a small bedroom on east end of north and south
veranda. South of this was another room 10x16 ft. (which is kitchen) with
a shed on the north and south side. The shed on south is walled up and
the north side left an open veranda connecting to the other veranda. There
were small 2x3 undressed posts around veranda.
When remodeling was begun the small north bedroom was removed
and north veranda then screened in extending as far as body of house and
turned into a sleeping porch 14x30 ft.
The room on south veranda was enlarged and then the other veranda
was screened in from this room to the kitchen door, leaving a small back
veranda. Then the other side was screened in from kitchen across these
two verandas to the room 14x20 ft., making a summer living room. All
doors and windows have been screened.
The small posts around veranda have been removed and large 4x4
dressed posts put up instead.
The room 14x20 ft. (which is my room) I have painted, using alabas-
tine. The ceiling is painted white, the walls gray with a blue stenciling for
border. The furniture is painted to harmonize. Window curtains, dresser
scarfs and table runners are dyed blue; a bedspread and pillow cases are
embroidered in blue.
For the kitchen I have made a fireless cooker, kitchen cabinet, and fruit
cabinet. These I have varnished a golden oak color.
I have removed an old leaky gutter where the two verandas come
together and replaced with gutter of tin.
The yard I have planted in carpet grass. This I got out of woods here
and planted 6 in. apart with no fertilizer. This was planted in early spring
and has already covered the yard. On north side of house I have chrysan-
themums beside the fence, and gladiolus on south side; on west side (or
in front of house) there are jonquils and the lily of the valley around the
veranda. There are the palms (these came from woods); cannas are
planted against the kitchen. On north and south side of house I have the
Chinese wisteria. This will run on the fence. In the back yard I have a
large bed of verbena, some crepe myrtle, a banana tree, cedar trees, rose
bushes, four-o'clocks, chrysanthemums and Johnny bells. In the front yard
I have sweet fennel, bridal wreath and hibiscus.
As the kitchen does not extend out as far in front as the rest of the
house I have a square in here which I planted in flowers. I have bachelor
buttons, balsam, splendens, cosmos, China asters, sweet alyssum, carnation,
Chinese wool flower, shasta daisy, double English daisy, phlox, petunias,
and zinnias. There is a rambler rose in this square. I have made a trellis
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
for this and an arbor for one in back yard. I have a Southern smilax climb-
ing front veranda (this is from the woods).
Below is cost of materials used on house and yard:
Lumber for porch and dining room................................ $12.60
Screen wire for sleeping porch, dining room, doors and windows........ 11.00
N ails ............... ........................ .. ............ .... .50
4x4 posts for veranda ............................................. 2.00
Paint for room ..................................................... 1.80
Dye ........................................ ...................... .15
Kitchen and fruit cabinet ......................................... 6.00
Fireless cooker ................................... ............. .00
Varnish ........................................ .................. .35
Flower seed ............... ....................................... .50
Gutter tin ....................................................... 3.20
Cost of all ................................................... $38.10
This work was done by my daughter and myself with very little outside
MRS. N. M. BURGESS,
Dady, Holmes County.
HOUSE REMODELED AND MADE "HOMEY" AND ATTRACTIVE.
I have been a member of the Home Demonstration Club for two years
and think it is just simply fine.
The first thing I did was to improve my kitchen and to put in a sink. I
used a large funnel for this, and next made a fireless cooker out of a goods
box and a lard stand. I made a kitchen cabinet of a goods box and covered
the top with zinc, also covered the cook table with zinc. I made curtains of
old sheets dyed for the windows.
There was just a 6 ft. porch on the back. We tore that away, built
and screened a 10 ft. porch, added a bedroom on one end and a living room
on the other.
I made shades for the dining room out of domestic and put fringe on
the bottom of them. Also made a rug for the dining room of guano sacks
and dyed them with red oak and hickory leaves.
I took a wall down that was between a bedroom and the old dining room,
moved it, and made a large bedroom. I took the old dining room and turned
it into a dressing room. I built a closet at one end of this room and a shoe
shelf under the closet. I used an iron rod and put across from one wall to
another to hang coat racks on, and dyed curtains for the dressing room and
to cover the shirt-box. I fringed this cover and tied it, then lined the box
The living room I had to use for a bedroom, but now we have taken
the bed out and have taken a cot for a day bed, padded it and made a spread
of cretonne for it. Also made new curtains for the windows, tore away the
mantel and built a new one. I made shades of domestic, scalloped and put
fringe on the bottom. The cost of the remodeling was about one hundred
dollars. MRS. V. R. MYERS,
46 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
We live on a very high place with real sandy soil. There is very poor
yellow sand under the top sand and when we have dry seasons it is almost
impossible to keep moisture in the soil.
The sand blew away from the blocks or pillars until my husband had
clay hauled in and put around them, but that soon washed away. Then he
had shell hauled in and put over most of the yard. It packed so hard that
it was almost out of the question to think of having flowers, but I would
try a little now and then to get something to grow but didn't have any
success, so I had almost decided there wasn't any use for me to try any more.
I attended Farmers' Week in Gainesville last summer with our Home
Demonstration Agent and heard so many good talks on Home Improvement
and how to beautify your home that it gave me great courage and a desire to
exert every effort to try again and a determination to do more than I ever
did. But I'll be honest, I just didn't know just how it ought to be laid off or
how to arrange the plants. But at the beginning of our club work for this
year, our home agent, Miss Pearl Jordan, wanted all of the ladies that
would to enter the Home Improvement Contest, and she told me she knew
I could improve my home and have flowers too. She said she would come
and help us to lay off the yard and help us to set out the plants, which
(1) A mantel before improvement in the home loaned for the Short Course. (2) The same mantel after
improvement was made by the Short Course girls.
RURAL HOME IMPROVEMENT
Right in front of the house was an old peach orchard with nearly all
of the trees dead and it had grown up in briars and dog fennel weeds.
Next to the gate was a large pile of trash swept from the yard week after
week. The first thing we did when our home demonstration agent came was
to take a picture of the home, then she and I went to one of my friend's
flower yard and got lots of different kinds of cuttings. Next morning we
had early breakfast and began working. We laid off eight borders and had
the boys to haul brick from two old chimneys here on the premises so they
didn't cost us anything. Then we placed the brick, had the boys haul in
compost and we chopped it in with hoes. We got the soil in good shape
before putting the plants and seed out. We kept them watered as well as
we could and now we have sixteen rose bushes, lots of gladioli, several
kinds of lilies, four kinds of verbena, several pineapple shrubs growing
besides shrubs placed around the house. Several of the cuttings are bloom-
ing and we feel very proud of them all.
We figure the cost of it all was no more than $1.50 or $2.00 as we did
most of the work. Well, I haven't told what we did with the trash pile and
the old peach orchard. We cut all the dead trees out and pruned the live
ones. Then we cut the briars and weeds down and cleaned all the trash
off, plowed it under, cleaned up the trash pile and set some flowers out there.
We also opened up a road or lane through the field for a driveway.
Then we sent and got one-half dozen pecan trees and set them alongside
of the driveway. We expect to plant more trees and flowers later on. Of
course, the cost of the pecans are not included in the cost of the flowers
as they were planted along the driveway. I feel that most of the credit
should go to our home demonstration agent. Miss Jordan, for her able
assistance in doing and planning it, also for taking me to Farmers' Week
last year, which proved very beneficial to me.
MRS. L. L. OWENS,
Yulee, Florida, Nassau County.
We have tried to meet the situation as we find it, and inspire the
people to do something "now," however small. If "so much" can be done
with "so little," surely the people who have money will spend wisely, so
that their rural homes may have every comfort and convenience of the
city home. See the pictures of kitchen improvement where little was spent
and where more was spent.
Notice types of rural homes in Suwannee, Nassau, and Citrus counties
that have been improved in 1926.
Rug-making is being done well by girls and women; after they learn
well to do plaited or hooked rugs, they find a ready market, and money is
earned to buy paint and other things with which to improve the home.
As stated previously, we have tried to build from the "ground" up in
our home improvement work.
The founder of Demonstration Work said: "Teach the girls to adorn
the simple home and make it appear like a palace; how by a single arrange-
ment the environment of the home can be transformed into a place of
48 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
beauty." This has been truly demonstrated in Florida through the efforts
of the county home demonstration agents.
We have only started on our way to the great work to be done in rural
betterment. However, if each demonstrator in home improvement will
really demonstrate, it will not be many years until it will be a strange thing
to see unpainted houses, a woman packing water, or traveling miles a day
because of poor kitchen arrangement. With electricity coming into all
sections, the rural home-maker can have even more than her city sisters,
in health, comfort, and beauty in the home.
Through the teaching of our college of agriculture, and its army of
extension workers, and the State Department of Agriculture and its various
agencies, the tiller of the soil is being well instructed and he is molding the
soil to his profit; he is becoming free from the vassalage of mortgage and
the bondage of debt and he is in many instances becoming a toiler for pleas-
ure, for home and for knowledge.
These agricultural agencies are building solidly, and meeting a situation
as it is found in all sections of the state, helping to solve the problem of
poverty and increasing the common measure of happiness and the universal
love of country.
(1) Home Demonstration women and the Agent, Miss Mosel Preston, at work in the home of Mrs. Ethel
Swearingen, Eagle Lake, Polk County. Winter Haven Civic League, Home Demonstration Department
demonstration French cooking taken at Mrs. Swearingen's kitchen. (2) A "hectic" kitchen was turned into
this clean, convenient and orderly kitchen by two club girls, Winona and Sarah Page of Nassau County.
(3) Built-in cupboard in the farm home of Mrs. Ethel Swearingen, Eagle Lake, Polk County. Notice the
sliding doors and the "toe room" making a comfortable work table.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP
LUCY BELLE SETTLE
District Agent, South Florida
Home Demonstration Work as a branch of Extension Work in Agricul-
ture and Home Economics is making its contribution to the state in helping
those with whom it deals to live in happy relation and to fill a useful place
in the community of which they are a part. As to how this is accomplished
is perhaps best told by a brief review of some phases of work as it is con-
ducted in Florida. The plan of organization will first be discussed.
CLUB ORGANIZATION AND PROGRAM-MAKING
Women trained in the science and art of home-making are employed as
county home demonstration agents and state specialists. They make direct
contacts through local groups which the women and girls themselves may
create. The agent studies with these groups the needs of the respective
homes of the members of the group. Programs for home improvement are
based upon these needs. They furnish the program of work for the agent
and for the women and girls themselves.
Volunteer leaders are sought in each community in which work is
carried on. These leaders are given special training, not only in subject
matter but also in the method of presentation. Particular credit and com-
mendation is due this group, who have unselfishly given their time and
service to community upbuilding.
Believing that it is better to start with right ways of doing things
and with correct habits, the service begins with girls of ten years of age
and extends through their eighteenth year. These girls are organized into
clubs. Programs are based on home work such as sewing, food work, dairy-
ing, home beautification and other kindred subjects. As a result of the train-
ing given they find satisfaction through accomplishment, develop habits of
thrift and orderliness, form friendships through cooperative effort, learn
valuable lessons in leadership, and make vital connections with home and
Gardening and poultry raising constitute the main phases of produc-
tive work carried on as home demonstrations. Club meetings are fre-
quently held at these demonstrations in order to have vital illustrative
material at hand to make clear the information presented by the leader.
Much club work is done outdoors under the shade of trees, sometimes
under an orange tree in full bloom.
One of the favorite packages put up by the canning clubs is the "Florida
Gift Package," composed of a number of fruit products.
If the purpose be to give instruction in the culling of poultry the group
meeting is held in the poultry yard.
When a demonstration that does not call for more than hand equip-
ment is to be given in clothing, the club combines pleasure and business and
RURAL HOME LIFE IN
(1)Hillshorough Home Demonstration Club. Plant City, Florida-putting up fruit products for gift packages.
(2) Hillsborough Canning Club-from patch to can. (3) Hillsborough Home Demonstration Club, Plant City,
Florida-packing the gift package.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 51
hikes to some favored spot for a meeting. Such a spot on the border of a
lake is not hard to find, and a swimming suit constitutes a part of every
One girls club in Hillsborough County has provided itself with a perma-
nent meeting place by building a club house. This involved quite a bit of
business for an organization of young people, and stands as a monument
Women's meetings are held oftentimes in some member's kitchen and
if the county is fortunate enough to have one of Florida's three home
demonstration agents who have made "study tours" abroad, planned by the
Washington office, the club may receive light on the mysteries of French
cooking. A pleasant, conveniently arranged kitchen is a boon to such a
In home demonstration work the agent feels the responsibility of
developing through her work the principles of citizenship. She has this in
mind as her main purpose in holding a camp which may cover a period of
several days. Camps are club meetings extended in time so as to cover
more completely the essential factors concerned in living together in a prop-
erly balanced community life. They round up for members all activities of
Polk County club girls have been given a permanent camp, comfortably
furnished and happily located on a small lake, which the girls call in endear-
ment, Lake Midget.
Senior Councils: The governing body for the home demonstration
work of the county is termed the county council. The council is composed
of the president and one elected member from each local club. The officers
of the council, with the home demonstration agent, compose the executive
committee. One of the functions of the county council is to strengthen
weak local organizations. A striking illustration of this was shown in the
following instance: A home demonstration club of thirty-two members had
its membership reduced to five when the fever of selling farm lands spread
through the neighborhood. Had it not been for a strong central organiza-
tion into which the club's right hand could be extended to steady itself,
doubtless the weakened organization would have been swept off its feet. In
borrowing strength from the council during this time of stress the club
held together and is once more a strong organization.
Another value of a council is in training members in leadership. There
was a period of a few months when help was not available from the state
staff of home demonstration work in securing appropriations in the coun-
ties. In a certain county the agent's appointment of service expired July
first at the time the new budget for the county was being made. There was
good reason for the strictest economy in the county, for the legislature just
past had divided the county three ways. This left the original county with
about thirty per cent of its former territory from which to draw taxes and
seventy per cent of the schools to maintain. A meeting of the women's
RURAL HOME LIFE IN
(1) Poultry judging, Lake County. (2) Club House built by Lutz (Rainbow Club). They bought two lots,
mortgaged them for lumber and had all work except that of foreman donated. The building is to be ceiled in
and have windows all around. (3) Clermont Home Demonstration Girls, sewing lessons, members of club
present. Marie Cox, Home Demonstration Agent, Lake County. (4) Winter Haven Civic League, Home
Demonstration Department, demonstration French cooking, taken at Mrs. Swearingen's kitchen. Polk County.
*- -~ -L
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 53
council was called and the president instructed to appear before the meet-
ing of county boards in an effort to have the work continued.
This president was a home-maker and a mother and wholly unused to
public appearance in such meetings, but her experience in club work served
in this call for resourcefulness. She presented herself not as an individual
but as the representative of 350 women in the county. She made it clear
to the board members that she knew nothing of budget making, the levying
of taxes and all it entailed, but she knew what it meant when they spoke of
discontinuing home demonstration work in the county. She presented
simply the wishes of the home demonstration women and her concise state-
ment of the value of the work and the fact that she approached the board,
as one of an institution formed for service, served its purpose and the ap-
propriation was made.
The county organization of Hillsborough County is one of the oldest in
the state and in fact one of the oldest in the history of home demonstra-
tion work in America, having been organized in the early days of extension
work. If one is looking for genuine cooperation in a county project that has,
from its inception, been entirely and astoundingly successful, then he need
look no further than this council of home demonstration women. It gave to
the state council its first president and was among the first to invade the
commercial field by establishing in Tampa an exchange where home demon-
stration members marketed their products to add to the family income.
A part of the contents of the shop was displayed at the South Florida
Fair, the members of the council assuming the responsibility of displaying
and marketing the products.
In Escambia County the council of home demonstration women is feat-
uring an all-day session once a month at which a specialist in some line of
home-making gives a demonstration lecture. This council fostered an en-
campment for women and girls during the past summer, and is arranging a
county exhibit for the state fairs. The members of the council will act this
year as local leaders for the girls' clubs. This council sent its official repre-
sentative to the annual meeting of the state council for home demonstra-
The Citrus County Council for Women exemplifies the saying that the
world belongs to the young. Still less than a year old, they have accom-
plished as much in the duration of their existence as any council in the
state. Due to the accomplishments of the council, home demonstration
work is highly regarded and on a good economic basis. From their repre-
sentation sent to the annual meeting of the Senior State Council of Home
Demonstration Women, held at the University of Florida during Farmers'
Week, was elected the state president, Mrs. Minnie Robinson of Lecanto,
Junior Councils: To Palm Beach County credit is due for the first
council of home demonstration girls organized in 1921. The conduct of
business of this organization of girls would do credit to a similar organiza-
tion of adults.
Members of Hillsborough County Home Demonstration Council, Representing Senior Home Demonstration Clubs of the County.
Front row-Mrs. Mary Allen. Agent of West Hillsborough County; Mrs. Krist of Seffner; Mrs. Caldwell of Riverview; Mrs. Hull of Lake Magdalene; Mrs. Demplin of Oak Grove;
Mrs. Brant of Lutz; Mrs. Bates of Jackson Heights: Mrs. Donaldson of Tampa Heights.
Second row-Mrs. Burts. Sr.. of Ballast Point: Mrs. Barrentine of Ballast Point; Mrs. Keyes of Brandon: Mrs. Lease of Sulphur Springs; Mrs. Barr of Limona; Mrs. Scofield of
Riverview; Mrs. Dennison of Lutz; Mrs. Carty of Lake Magdalene; Mrs. White of Lake Magdalene; Mrs. Hunt of Jackson Heights; Mrs. Holstine of Tampa Heights.
/ I /
=o n -
State Boys Club Agent, R. W. Blackloek, talking to club boys and girls assembled on Fair Grounds. Dade City, Pasco County, Florida, April 10, 1926. Mrs. Harriet Ticknor, County
Home Demonstration Agent; W. T. Nettles, County Agent.
56 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
Their work is carried on through committees. The committee reports
are made at every meeting of the council held four times a year. These
girls issue a monthly publication, "The Junior News Sheet."
Because of Palm Beach County's splendid contribution to the organ-
ization of the state, Thelma Jordan, Lake Worth club girl, was elected vice-
president of the State Council of Home Demonstration Club Girls and will
next year succeed to the presidency.
Gadsden County girls report unusual interest in productive work,
stimulated by the council. Gardening, poultry, dairy, pig, and corn clubs
are at work. From this organization of girls comes another officer in the
State Junior Council, Ruth McKeown, State Treasurer.
Senior: Every county council of adult and junior work has two mem-
bers on the State Council of adult and junior work. There is one meeting
annually of each of the state organizations, that of the women being held
during Farmers' Week at the University at Gainesville and the meeting of
girls held at the Girls' Short Course at the Florida State College for Women.
Mrs. Robinson stated in her speech of acceptance as president of the
State Council for Senior Home Demonstration Work, "My goal for the com-
ing year will be a senior council in each of the thirty-four counties now
having home demonstration clubs. I shall strive at all times to enlist other
counties to join the ranks of this progressive, educational movement."
Junior: The State Council for Junior Home Demonstration Work is
the result of an idea conceived by Jocie Maddrey, former club girl of Alachua
County, who has given us this history of its beginning:
"In 1919 there were sixty-two girls at the State Short Course. Some
counties sent as many as four girls. Alachua County had never sent more
"During this Short Course I suggested to Miss Partridge that we form
a state organization. She said, 'I had just been thinking of that.' Lois
Hawkins of Quincy (now of Florida State College for Women) was to be
secretary and I was nominated for president. This must have been the
beginning of the now flourishing state organization. The glimpses I had
of college life during the short courses at Florida State College inspired
me to return there for a college degree. I met a number of the former club
girls in college and the 4-H spirit characterized their college life."
Council night during Short Course is the most important night of the
week. County reports are made on the accomplishments of club work since
the last meeting. The ambition of the president, Mary LaFuze of Clermont,
Florida, is to establish a scholarship for an outstanding club girl to the
Home Economics Department of the Florida State College for Women, and
she is working now to bring this to a realization. She sends this message
to the club girls of Florida:
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 57
(1) Lake County Club Girls. (2) Palm Beach County, News Sheet Editors-Kathleen Thomsen, Charlotte
Nettletin. Inset-Jocie Maddrey.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Palm Beach County Dress Contest. May I. 1926. Ten of the twenty-six in contest. Four entered in Ladies
Home Journal Contest in New York, May 17. (2) Home Demonstration Shop, South Florida Fair. 1925.
][ : r
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 59
"Dear Club Members: We are beginning a new year in club work, so
let's make it the greatest we have ever known. Our goal should be higher
and our work better than ever before. If only each one of us will try our
best to get some new girl interested in our work our forces will be twice as
great. I wonder how many club members live in counties without councils.
Remember our State motto, 'Every County a Council.' Let's make Florida
club work something that our representatives at National Meetings can
be more than proud of. What do you say? Let's go!"
Miss Marie Cox, home demonstration agent in Lake County, inaugu-
rated the custom of holding an annual rally of all junior club members.
Among interesting features is a parade of floats, each representing a girls'
club. The girls themselves, because of their achievements, are the most
arresting exhibit in such a parade.
On May 22nd of this year Marion County club girls gave Ocala quite a
lively interest with their rally-day parade. Prizes were offered to the club
having the best decorated float and having all members present. The boys
and girls worked with enthusiasm on their school busses and private cars
and twenty clubs with 200 girls were represented in this parade.
Pasco County is as proud of her twelve hundred girls and boys who are
engaged in club work as of any other dozen assets in her richly endowed
county. In their annual rally club ideals are reviewed, accomplishments
brought to the attention of all, and goals are set for another year.
While the women have not yet begun to compete with the girls in the
matter of parades, one of the strongest ties holding the women together
is their rally day. Hillsborough County views this day as one of the most
important of the year.
Teams of girls have been trained by home demonstration agents to
give public demonstrations. One of the features of the extension exhibit
at the Jacksonville Fair are the demonstrations by club teams.
Canning: Hazel Tipping and Coletta Ridenour of Duval County, trained
by Miss Louise Pickens, were declared the winning canning team in 1925.
Judging Poultry: At the same contest Lillian Sistrunk and Leila
Rogers, trained by Miss Corinne Barker of Suwannee County, were declared
the winning team in poultry judging.
Bread-Making: In a series of contests in bread-making conducted by
Miss Marie Cox, home demonstration agent, Marjorie Colson and Maxine
Poeth became Lake County's prize-winning bread team. They entered the
state-wide contest at Short Course and in carrying off first honors there,
became Florida's prize-winning bread team.
Citrus Fruits: A signal honor was extended Ruth Tatom and Mildred
Sevon of Palm Beach County in being asked to give a demonstration in the
uses of citrus fruits at the State Horticultural Society at Cocoa.
(1) Lake County Club Girls. (2) Marion County Club Girls.
Attendance at a Hillsborough County Rally of Senior Home Demonstration Club Members.
62 RURAL HOME
LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) The winning canning team, Florida State Fair, Jacksonville, 1925-Hazel Tipping, Coletta Ridenour.
(2) The winning poultry judging team, Florida State Fair, Jacksonville, 1925-Lillian Sistrunk, Leila Rogers.
(3) Lake County Bread Team. (4) Palm Beach County "Citrus Team," 1926-Ruth Tatom, Lake Worth;
Mildred Sebon, Lake Worth.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP
Canning: Mildred Black and Helen Everett of Ozona compose Pinellas
County's first canning team. With their demonstrations this fall they
have assisted Miss Helen Kennedy, home demonstration agent, in interest-
ing other club members in conservation work.
Demonstration at National Meeting: The culmination of team work in
Florida was reached when Letha Fender and Beulah Felts, fourth year club
girls representing Florida club work, put on a demonstration in the preserv-
ing of citrus fruits at the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress at Chi-
cago. Twelve hundred state prize winners attended this meeting.
The girls gave their demonstration on a cold, bleak afternoon, at the
club building in the stock yards. It was grey overhead and cold and slushy
and grey underfoot. Inside the building fruits, flowers and palm trees made
the setting for the Florida demonstration. Letha, with her charming
Southern voice, brought from Florida a greeting that radiated sunshine,
wellbeing and friendliness to Chicago and to the girls and boys from every
state. Beulah gave just the right balance required for a practical demon-
stration, with her skill of manipulation and her excellent and accurate store
of information on Florida fruits and their uses.
No less important than the sending of our young men to France to
make the world safe for democracy, is the task of training citizens to make
life safe for democracy. Home demonstration work has assisted hundreds
in mastering the principles of citizenship.
It is not possible in this short space to give stories of all of the club
members who have attained a high degree of achievement in their club life,
so only a few members will be cited as types.
Alma Faber of Benson Springs, Volusia County, won the privilege
of representing Florida in 1926 at the National Meeting in Chicago. Alma's
trip was given her by the South Florida Fair Association and the
award was made last February at the Fair. Alma's story, related by her-
self, was a triumph. Her club work had been done in an orphan's home, and
it portrayed the growth of a remarkable service to the children of the home.
She had not learned to sew for herself alone but had made garments for
others, and still better, had taught them to make their own. She had learned
to can and so saved all the surplus from the garden for use in maintaining
a good mixed diet throughout the year.
Alma has an all-year garden which she cultivates herself, and this
spring started a small poultry enterprise, purchasing purebred stock with
money which she had realized from exhibits made at the county fair.
When a group of extension workers went to the home to photograph
some of the results of Alma's work, one of her greatest gains was made
clear which might have escaped notice otherwise.
At one corner of the front porch stood a tall loquat tree with ripe fruit.
One member of the party asked one of the little boys, who had gathered
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Dairy and poultry farm of Mr. and Mrs. William McDowell, Alachua County. (2) Seven Oaks-Home of
Mrs. R. G. Hoyt, Pinellas County. (3) Modern Marion County home. This house is made from Marion
County flint rock, and made entirely of material from this county. It belongs to Mr. George Carlton, Sparr,
Florida. It has a Delco Light system, and running water pumped in the house by gasoline engine. It is
located about fifteen miles from Ocala near a large orange grove.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 65
around in their interest over the picture-making, to break off for her a
branch of the loquats that it might be given to the photographer to whom
the fruit was unfamiliar. The child willingly procured the branch. Just as
he was on the point of presenting it to the woman who had asked for it,
Alma joined the group, at which wholly unconsciously and without hesita-
tion he handed the fruit to Alma, who in turn presented it to the woman.
That was his mute but expressive tribute to Alma's recognized leadership.
If one were to go into Citrus County as a stranger and there happened
at that time to be no home demonstration agent on duty, the answer to any
inquiry made of the work would be a direction to Letha Fender and from
her receive the information. Letha began club work in 1919 and since then
has instructed four home demonstration agents, making known to them the
territory and people with whom they were to work. She has been for
seven years the efficient intermediary between the state office and the county.
Letha's club ventures have been varied. Starting with a tomato
patch she included room improvement. She put into use principles
learned in sewing and made a complete bedroom set, besides painting walls,
floor and furniture. Since that demonstration her entire home has been
The making of permanent plantings being one phase of club work, she
planted a lime tree in the back yard which now supplies the family with fruit.
Four years ago she planted an avocado. This bore fruit this year.
From her flock of purebred Rhode Island Reds she sells eggs for hatch-
ing at $2.50 a setting. In her flock are several prize-winning birds.
Letha was one of Florida's representatives to Chicago in 1925.
Beulah Felts and Ida Smith of Manatee are as skillful girls in sewing
and canning as are found in Florida. Beulah began work a year earlier
than Ida, so has scored ahead of her in winning a trip to the National Meet-
ing at Chicago. Their work, however, in the last three years has been con-
ducted in such close cooperation that it is of like excellence, and furnishes
a perplexing problem to the judges who are called on to decide between
them. Their service to their home demonstration agent in giving team
demonstrations has been invaluable and Miss Cobb feels that her effort in
training them has brought fruitful results. Early in Ida's club career she
established a fund into which the proceeds realized from club work are
deposited. She calls this her "Go-to-College Fund" and has in it $184.50.
She has made $90.85 on crystallized grapefruit peel.
In a lovely subtropical setting Beulah has her garden, which occupies
most of her time after school hours.
Her canning for home use is done in her own kitchen and the specialized
exhibit work she does in Miss Cobb's demonstration kitchen. When Beulah
displayed some of her products at Chicago, in illustrating her talk, she im-
pressed her listeners so completely with their excellence that she sold them
after the demonstration at very good prices.
RURAL HOME LIF
(1) Manatee County Demonstration Team showing use of grapefruit in demonstration kitchen. (2) Alma
Brooks Faber, Benson Springs, Florida. Her club garden showing seven kinds of vegetables. (3) Canning
Team-Demonstration, canning of peaches. Mildred Black and Helen Everett of the Ozona Club, Pinellas
E I N F L R D
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 67
Down in Sumter County a club girl has taken her club training and
experience into the business world at the age of fifteen years.
When Miss Uarda Briggs was home demonstration agent in Sumter
County she caught Mary Foster's interest in club work. She taught her to
sew. With this training she began to make her clothing and that of the
neighboring children. She received remuneration from the sewing which
she did for others and with this money bought fruit jars for use in her
second year's work.
She was also taught bread-making, which led her into the next pathway
of her evolution as a business woman. She won a trip to the State Short
Course where she put on a public demonstration in bread-making.
In her third year a lunch room was opened in Bushnell and Mary
secured the place of assistant, working during the hours when free from
This spring she bought a half interest in the lunch room and assumed
full management of it.
Mary learned in her club work that a business run without accurate
accounting of expenditures is like running a clock without hands and she
reports that she even keeps a record on the cost of the salt that goes into
She does her own buying, makes the bread and pastry used in her
lunch room, and serves her guests when not otherwise engaged.
Her books show a good profit with an encouraging increase in receipts.
The pride and justification of Home Demonstration Work is the type
of girl developed under the training given through this channel. They may
be found throughout our state presiding in homes of their own and proving
vital factors in the development of their communities.
68 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Terra Ceia Estate, Terra Ceia, Florida. (2) Home of Mr. F. S. Howell, Palm View. Florida. (3) Country
Home in Polk County.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR
11) A home on Orange River, near Buckingham. (2) Home planned and built, all but framing, by a Club
woman at Lutz. Interior all made by her. (3) Farm home of Mrs. H. J. Nordman, DeLand, Florida.
70 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
Officers and Members of State Home Demonstration Council for Women.
(1) Mrs. Ira Spivey, Citrus County. (2) Mrs. Blair Rudd, Escambia County, Second Vice-President State
Council. (3) Mrs. E. A. Carter, member of Redlands Home Demonstration Club and President of the
Dade County Senior Home Demonstration Council. (4) Mrs. Hugh Thornton, Lee County, President of
the Home Bureau. (5) Mrs. Minnie H. Robinson, Citrus County, President of State Home Demonstration
Council. (6) Mrs. Joy Belle Hess, Lee County, Vice-President State Home Demonstration Council. (7) Mrs.
Made Keizar, President Nassau Senior County Council. (8) Mrs. E. J. Roberts, Escambia Council President.
(9) Mrs. P. E. Pournelle, Columbia County, member State Home Demonstration Council.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 71
*l-- 11 1
(1) Irma Chapple, President Dade County Junior Home Demonstration Council. (2) Letha Fender. First
President of the Citrus County Junior Home Demonstration Council. (3) Prue Clark, President Junior County
Council, Gadsden County. (4) Margaret Cason, Nassau County, President Junior County Council. (5) Janet
Stanley, Citrus County, First Vice-President of Junior County Council. (6) Ruth McKeown. Gadsden County.
Treasurer Junior State Home Demonstration Council.
72 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Mary LaFuze, Lake County, President State Home Demonstration Council. (2) Thelma Jordan, Palm
Beach County, Vice-President State Home Demonstration Council. (3) Josephine Williams, President Polk
County Junior Council. (4) Sara Ethel Jones, Escambia County, President Junior County Council. (5) Mary
Effa Bradley, President Leon County Council.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AS TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP
(1) Fannie rilkenton, Marion County.
(2) Evelyn Kent, Lee County.
(3) Elizabeth Griffin, Suwannee County.
(4) Irby Clay, Lee County.
(5) Dorothy Fussell, Lee County.
(6) Martha Rae Braddock, Orange County.
(7) Alvina and Clara Masters, St. Johns County.
Prize winners of trip to Chicago.
(8) Viola Yates, Hillsborough County.
(9) Gwendolyn Bozeman, Suwannee County.
(10) Dottie Mae Barksdale, Lake County.
(11) Edith English, Hillsborough County.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Myrtice Bell, Santa Rosa County. (6) Lillian Weissenger, Orange County.
(2) Marielie Graf, Duval County. (7) Mildred Black and Helen Everett, Pinellas County.
(3) Frances Christian, Marion County. (8) Aurelia Hurlbert, Duval County.
(4) Elloree Haynes, Santa Rosa County. (9) Mary Katherine Manship, Dade County.
(5) Mildred Sevon, Palm Beach County. (10) Louise Arnold, Columbia County.
(11) Maggie Nicholson, Escambia County.
RURAL HOME LIFE
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 75
District Home Demonstration Agent.
76 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
OBTAINING RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED
RURAL HOME LIFE.
By RUBY McDAVID.
District Home Demonstration Agent for North Florida.
An idea as to some of the successful ways and means used in securing
satisfactory results may be obtained from the following paragraphs:
The date of the first agricultural exhibit is not known, but for many
centuries the Englishmen have been staging fairs and exhibiting products
raised on their estates in England.
Education was the main purpose of these exhibits. These landlords
wanted to learn better methods and to produce better quality products and
they wanted their tenants to do likewise. While the name fair is often used
it is really a short course in agriculture and home economics. People attend
them to be together and to learn, both of which are good. The aim and
purpose of exhibits today remains the same as it was centuries ago.
Extension workers are rapidly becoming more interested in the pos-
sibilities of using educational exhibits to supplement other methods of
extending better practices in agriculture and home economics. Since ideas
presented in exhibits are more readily grasped than those given in news
articles or bulletins, it behooves the extension worker to endeavor to pre-
sent new material or old material in new form. Oftentimes old subject
matter can be presented in exhibits with new life and increased force.
Extension exhibits acquaint people with the results of demonstrations
or other extension work. It is through these exhibits that the taxpayers
are shown the importance and also the possibilities of the extension
Fairs are considered agricultural show windows. They show to the
public the best products of the community, county or state. First of all
they should be educational. Sometimes they are regarded merely as exs
hibitions, which in a measure they are, but the main purpose is to show
what can be done along certain lines of industry, agriculture and home
economics. Back of all that is shown is information that, if followed up and
practically applied, can be made very useful and helpful.
The majority of the fairs held in this state are practically agricultural,
and they should be since we have the soil and the climate to produce such
a variety of fruits, nuts, grains and vegetables. They are the means of
bringing people together in a common cause, and various communities are
brought in closer relationship with each other by the friendly rivalry shown
at the fairs put on in the communities, counties and the state. They also
bring the people together for the purpose of seeing and believing what is
being said about the wonderful productive soils.
They not only interest the people of our state, but they cause a great
many visitors who attend these fairs to become interested. They see and
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 7'
learn what is being done and they cannot help but be impressed with the
evidences of agricultural possibilities. Very often it is through visits to
the fairs held in the state that visitors eventually become permanent resi-
Aside from the many community and county fairs held in the state
each year there are two large fairs, the one held in Jacksonville in Novem-
ber, known as the "Florida State Fair," and the other held in Tampa during
the month of February, known as the "South Florida Fair and Gasparilla
Carnival." These institutions are worthy of very high commendation and
they are lending a helping hand in making a greater and better state, not
only agriculturally but in many other ways.
The Florida exhibits that have been sent to Madison Square Garden,
New York, and Toronto, Canada, have met with very favorable comment
and attracted a great deal of attention.
More attention is being given to exhibits by extension workers to try
to make them more educational each year. The exposition managers are
becoming more interested in this department from year to year. They are
making the work more worthwhile to home demonstration club members
by putting up good premiums for their club work. They consider this
department one of the most educational and worthwhile.
When it is realized that visitors usually spend on an average of one
minute at each booth, exhibits should be made so interesting that even the
casual observer will stop to study them. Exhibits with motion always
Sm rar W01 Yoar Meals Carr Yo
Coll _k ". ,
5 7 .
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
attract much more attention than one that is absolutely still and motion-
less. At one of the fairs held in the state recently there was a striking
device used to illustrate the difference in the strength and muscle of a boy
who drinks coffee, one who drinks tea, one who drinks cold drinks and one
who drinks milk. Four boys were stationed on a circular revolving plat-
form. Each boy was holding a mallet in his hand and as the platform
revolved each one would strike a weight and try to drive it up to the top
of the pole and ring the bell. Crowds were gathered around this exhibit
at all hours of the day, both grown-ups and children were very much inter-
ested and they understood very readily the object of the device.
Another exhibit which splendidly illustrated the value of a well-bal-
anced diet for the growing child, is shown in the picture on the preceding
page. This was exhibited at the Jacksonville Fair, fall of 1925.
The well-nourished girl in the center shows that proper foods, together
with good health habits, will make a well, strong and healthy child. Every-
thing is hard for the undernourished child and he is not able to climb as
high, nor with as much ease, on the ladder of life as the child who eats plenty
of good fresh fruits and vegetables and drinks plenty of milk. In other
words, the child who has the well-balanced daily diet is the child who is
able to forge ahead and make his mark in the world while the poor little
undernourished child finds everything harder and not even half a chance.
The "Life Saving Station" is an electrically equipped kitchen where
work is made lighter and everything made easier for the housewife by
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 79
(1) Hazel Tipping with her canned products. (2)Conservation Booth, Jacksonville Fair, 1925.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Home Demonstration girls learn to make their own clothing. The picture shows some of the well-made
garments on display at the 1925 Florida State Fair. (2) State-wide food conservation exhibit at the Tampa
Fair. One of the most attractive exhibits of its kind in the South is the work of the Home Demonstration
Club girls and women of the state of Florida. Not only do they show quantity, but a very high quality is
shown in their conservation work.
: ''~ ~C~!
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE
4 m^ 1
(1-2) "Use More Milk" is the slogan used in the Health and Nutrition Exhibits at the South Florida Fair.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN
(1) Many phases of Home Demonstration work are very hard to exhibit, but in the accompanying picture of
a general exhibit conservation, basketry, millinery, thrift, rag rugs, sewing and picture frames can be seen,
but there are many, many more phases of the work which cannot be exhibited. Tampa, 1926. (2) A display
of hand-made baskets and many other useful articles at the State Fair in Jacksonville. This is the work of
the Home Demonstration Club members. Most of the articles in this exhibit are made from the native
materials of Florida, such as pine needles, wire grass and honeysuckle vine. 1924.
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 83
Right next to the "Life Saving Station" you will see a cemetery,
"Sacred to the memory of countless women who died of overwork from
lack of conveniences." Some of the epitaphs read as follows:
Here lies the body
Who died carrying water
From well to kitchen.
Here lies the wife of Hiram Green,
Whose hubby wouldn't buy her a washing-machine,
But now that her life over a wash-tub she has spent,
He hastened to buy her a monument.
Carrying buckets of water each day
Washed dear Mother to Heaven away.
Here lies the wife of Solomon Penn,
Died doing the weekly wash for ten.
In memory of Hetty Burk
Who died of overwork.
At the close of the club year, each home demonstration agent is re-
quested to hold a county contest for juniors. At this time each club mem-
ber is required to give the history of her year's work and to hand in the
record book that she has been keeping during the year, also to make an
exhibit of the work she has undertaken.
County-wide campaigns are usually brought to a close on this day.
Judges decide on the prize winners of the county from the records and
exhibits displayed and premiums are awarded to the club members making
the highest score in the different phases of home demonstration work.
A program is given in the morning where club members and leaders
participate. Besides the display of exhibits, canning and judging teams,
bread-making, health and dress contests, pageants, plays, parades and
singing of club songs and giving of club yells are part of the day's program.
In the afternoon some form of amusement is provided for the entertain-
ment of the club members.
The club conforming to the following twelve requirements is considered
a standard club and on contest day is awarded a standard club certificate:
1. Minimum of five members.
2. Minimum of nine meetings.
3. Average of 80% attendance at meetings for the year.
4. 80% of members handing in complete record books.
5. 60% of members exhibiting at contest.
6. Officers of the club to collect record books from members and to
assist in filling in secretary's book.
RURAL HOME LIFE
(1) More than one hundred club girls exhibited and attended the Suwannee County Contest held in Live Oak.
(2) Maitland Club. Orange County. (3) Two hundred and twenty-five Pasco County club boys and girls in
the Home Demonstration Club parade at Dade City on Contest day.
I N F L R D
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE
HOME DEMONSTRATION DEPTk
(1) A Home Demonstration exhibit on display at the Marion County Fair. (2) Orange County exhibit at
International Exposition in Toronto, 1925. Orange County has exhibited for two years at the International
Exposition. This year one million people visited this booth; people from almost every country attended and
were interested in Florida. The preserved and canned exhibit was put up by the girls and women in the home
Demonstration Clubs of the county, under the direction of Mrs. Nellie Taylor, County Home Demonstration
Ll -, -
86 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
7. All organized clubs to secure their own membership and revise the
club enrollment for the year.
8. Club to hold annual election of officers in December or January.
9. Club to show reasonable profit and material results by majority of
10. At least one member to attend some county or state club meeting
during the year-camp, annual rally, or short course.
11. 80% of members shall be up to average weight for height and age.
12. Each home demonstration club, after being standard for one year,
must develop demonstration teams from second, third and fourth
year members, and third and fourth year members must develop
judging teams for local use, at least.
Although the goal is high, a number of standard clubs are in existence
today among the home demonstration clubs of the state. The Secretary of
the Maitland girls' club writes as follows:
"The Maitland club of Orange County was organized five years ago with
only four members, but as the number increased in school our club mem-
bership increased until the past three years we have had a membership of
"The second year of our club the girls gave a play and with the pro-
ceeds from this play bought a sewing machine. Each year the girls have
a flower garden in the school yard.
"We have girls doing first, second, third and fourth year club work.
This includes gardening, canning, poultry-raising and sewing.
"We meet twice a month during our school term with home demonstra-
tion agent and have many all-day meetings during the summer at which
time we have canning demonstrations.
"Every year at the contest and fairs our girls bring in their exhibits
and record books. For the past three years our girls have been one hundred
per cent in these exhibits and we are very proud of the distinction of being
the best standard club in our county.
"In addition to our regular club work for the past three years we have
been helping others. The first year we pieced and quilted a quilt and sent
it to the orphanage at Benson Springs. The next year we played Santa
Claus to a family of six, giving them clothing, blankets, sheets, pillow
cases, toys, candies, nuts and fruits. Last spring we gave thirty-eight
garments to the Benson Springs orphanage."
The home demonstration course for girls consists of four years of work.
When a girl has completed this course she is awarded a certificate by the
Home Demonstration Agent. The record books kept by the County Home
Demonstration Agent are the basis for accrediting club work when issuing
certificates for the completion of the four years of satisfactory work. Two
hundred and eighty girls received these certificates in 1925.
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 87
Manatee home demonstration club girls who have completed four years of home demon-
stration work. These girls are shown wearing the club graduation dress. The making
of a graduation dress is one of the problems of fourth year sewing program.
SEWING EXHIBIT. MANATEE COUNTY CONTEST
Contest day in the county brings before the public in a certain measure the work that
the home demonstration agent and club members, both juniors and seniors, are trying
to do in the thirty-one counties in the State of Florida which make appropriation for
home demonstration work.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
INDIVIDUAL STORIES OF SUCCESSFUL CLUB GIRLS IN NORTH FLORIDA.
Pearl Tyner, Laurel Hill, Route 1, Okaloosa County, was awarded a
diploma for completing four years' home demonstration club work. She
continued to do poultry and canning work this year and canned 200 quarts
of products. A selection of her products is on exhibit at the office of the
Okaloosa County Chamber of Commerce, showing what can be grown and
put up on a farm. Pearl was awarded the scholarship to the state short
course for two years, and last year, in addition to the scholarship, was
awarded twenty-five baby chickens for her poultry club work. The home
demonstration work she has done is four years' sewing, five years' poultry,
and three years' canning. Last year at the county contest there were 56
varieties of products in her canning exhibit. She has been in the state
health contest for two years.
Pearl graduated from the Laurel Hill High School this summer and
enters the Florida State College for Women this term where she will work
her way through college as she was awarded a four years' dining-room
scholarship. She wants to be a home demonstration agent and hopes to com-
plete her college course in three years by attending summer school.
Thelma Goodbread of Columbia writes of her benefits from club work
"In the late faU of 1920, I first joined the club. Miss Marie Cox was
then home demonstration agent. My projects for the year were gardening,
canning and sewing. At that time I knew nothing whatsoever about any
of the work and to be perfectly truthful joined only because others were
"A very pleasant and profitable year followed. Once each month a
meeting was held. I was president of the local club. Between these meet-
ings we did lots of work.
"At the end of six months we had a big rally day in Lake City. At
that time I saw only a day of fun after hard work. Now rally days seem
very different and mean much more to me.
"In June we had a club camp which I enjoyed very much. At our fair,
to my surprise, the judges compared my work very favorably with that of
other girls, giving me first prize in canning, which was a trip to the short
course valued at $20.00; first on soup mixture, $1.00; first on fig preserves,
$1.00; first on grape juice, 50c; a total of $22.50. For the year I banked
over $20.00 tomato sales, raised 1,000 pounds of tomatoes on the tenth
acre and canned a year's supply of fruits and vegetables. The net profit
for the year was $60.00.
"In the spring of our second year I attended the club short course held
at Tallahassee. It lasted ten days, during which time a wonderful program
of work and play was carried out.
"My projects for the year were again canning, gardening and sewing.
These three I have carried through my entire club course.
"This year my prizes were first in canning, trip to the short course; first,
girls' club exhibit, $5.00; third, exhibit of four kinds of jelly, a ribbon, and
second on club apron and the same on dress, both prizes being ribbons.
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE
Total value of prizes, 825.00; net profit, S75.00, and 1,200 pounds of toma-
toes used from one-tenth acre.
"In judging for state canning champion my record book was the best,
story best, and profit third best.
"The third year I was again elected president of our local club and at
our short course the county report was given by me; also I had made the
best record in sewing, with over twenty garments for the year. At our
rally day the other girl who attended the'short course and I gave a canning
"Just in time for our fall contest Mrs. Grace Warren took Miss Cox's
place as agent, Miss Cox having gone to take up the work in Lake County.
In this length of time club work had come to mean much to me, and although
ready for high school, which would necessitate my being away from home
all of the time except one week-end per month, for the school year, I wished
to continue being a club girl.
"At our fall contest the judges again awarded me first prize in canning
which was another trip to the short course. Still my record came up to
our club motto, 'To make the best better.' My yield for the year was 1,500
pounds of tomatoes, with a profit of $80.00.
"This year at Tallahassee I was elected vice-president of our state club
girls' council. At our annual camp in June a junior county council was
organized and I was elected president.
"At our annual contest I won first place in canning, the prize being a
scholarship to the short course. Then our county sent two club girls to
the State Fair to enter a canning contest. We won first place in the contest
for demonstrators. In February of the next year I entered the dress parade
at the South Florida Fair and won third place of $10.00.
"The girls attending our state short course were increasing in number
each year. My first year there were about eighty and this year four hun-
dred and ten. At our annual election of officers I was elected president of
State Junior Home Demonstration Council.
"During our state short course held in Tallahassee a canning contest
was to end a state-wide year's contest for a girl to attend the International
Club Congress in Chicago held during the Livestock Show and Exposition.
Beulah Felts of Manatee County and I tried for first place. It was decided
that we should work on through the summer and the girl making the
highest record at the end of that time should win the trip. In the end
Beulah won. However, I entered the contest for the best all-around club
girl in the state and won first place, which entitled me to a trip to the Con-
gress in Chicago.
"In the summer of 1925 Mrs. Warren, our County Home Demonstration
agent, left us, accepting the work in Alachua County. My life was tied up
in the work more than ever. Then I was planning to enter college in the
fall of '26, so decided it would be best not to take any more club work.
"However, after my trip to Chicago, I had to, just had to, keep on until
time for me to leave for college.
90 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
"In Chicago we had a wonderful time. It was educational as well as
entertaining. That one trip alone was worth working four years for, had
I never won any other prizes.
"The day of my return I met Mrs. Mary S. Shook, our new home dem-
onstration agent, and more firmly decided to continue in the work till the
"This year I have done more council work than anything else. I truly
feel that this work has been of more help to me than all the actual club
work for five years. True it is that the day I joined the club I could hardly
thread a needle, neither could I garden, cook, or can. Now I can do all of
these besides many other things learned through the work. It is also true
that when I started council work I could not talk in public. Neither was
I at ease in a crowd. I knew nothing about parliamentary laws or rules.
Now I feel that when necessary I can talk or conduct a meeting. These
things help me more in life than the actual work. All club members should
take advantage of any opportunity to do council work. I sincerely hope
that by our next short course every county will have an active council.
"For my all-around work as a home demonstration club girl I was given
a four-year scholarship to Alabama Polytechnical Institute by a man inter-
ested in club work. Florida friends were not willing for me to leave the
state, so I was awarded a scholarship to Florida State College for Women
at Tallahassee. This scholarship I accepted and intend to take a B. S. in
Home Economics, then it is my ambition to return to home demonstration
work in the capacity of an agent.
"Club work has meant more to me than anything else thus far in life.
Whatever I may attain in future life I attribute to club work, council work.
my good leaders, and the people who make the work possible.
"After six years in the work I feel that I can enjoy to the fullest extent
the rest of my life by continuing in the cause that has meant so much to me,
so I dedicate my life to Home Demonstration Club work. Even though I
may not always be doing active work as an agent or leader, it will always
mean much to me and I will always do all I can to further the work."
This is the fourth year that Bertie Leah Edge, Silver Springs Club.
Crestview, Route 1, Okaloosa County, Florida, has been in the poultry club.
Bertie Leah and her mother are partners as it is not convenient for them to
keep their chickens, White Leghorns, separate, so they keep a record of the
expenses and profits and Bertie Leah puts down one-half of it in her record
book and her mother takes the other half. The father takes an interest in
the chickens, too, and before they started in the poultry business in earnest
he took Bertie Leah and her mother to see several poultry farms, then he
built them a poultry house, using the lumber from an old tenant house.
They bought an incubator and some purebred White Leghorn eggs to set,
and when a poultry farm was sold out nearby they bought two second-hand
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 91
incubators, making three incubators that they used for hatching. They
have an oil-burner brooder and a coal-burner brooder. They planted six
acres in chicken feed, using collards for green feed during the winter.
"For three years Bertie Leah won the scholarship to the State Short
Course at Tallahassee. The profits on the chickens the first year helped to
buy a Ford car, enabling Bertie Leah and her brother and sister to attend
the school at Crestview when the four months' school term was out at
Silver Springs. In addition to raising chickens, Bertie Leah makes money
in the summer by picking blueberries on the Sapp Blueberry Farm.
"The health of the family has been considered, too. When the health
officer visited the school at Silver Springs he found that Bertie Leah had
weak eyes and ear trouble. However, when she was examined by a phy-
sician to enter the state health contest she had been to a specialist and
had these defects corrected.
"Last year the Edge home was put on exhibit "Better Homes Week"
because the living-room and dining-room had been painted and fresh cur-
tains made. Those in the dining-room had been dyed blue and the kitchen
had been improved so that it won the second prize in the state home im-
provement contest. Mrs. Edge had made a safe for her dishes herself and
had painted the kitchen walls and dyed flour sacks yellow for curtains for
the windows and cupboard for pans, making a step-saving, attractive
kitchen. BERTHA HENRY,
County Home Demonstration Agent.
Lillian Sistrunk says:
"When I was a little girl I felt if ever I was large enough to have a
garden, and to have chickens just like Mama, I would be perfectly happy.
My dreams are being realized since I am a home demonstration club member.
"This year I have about seventy-five chickens; I have sold about twenty,
which brought one dollar apiece. I am planning to keep about twenty hens
and one cockerel. I have them in a pen to themselves and find it does not
cost very much to feed them.
"This year my garden consisted of beans, peas, tomatoes, turnips, but-
ter beans and English peas. From this garden I sold one hundred and
seventy-five dollars' worth of vegetables.
"This is my sixth year in club work. I took sewing for four years, but
that didn't mean I had finished club work, for when I finished sewing I did
not do as some of the other girls did, quit, but I took up canning, poultry
and gardening and like it all fine.
"I have been taught many interesting things in the club work. One
thing I have learned-to make the home more attractive with little expense.
Many interesting and instructive trips were made while I was a member of
the home demonstration clubs. My advice to all girls after having been in
the work for six years is to take advantage of the club work offered in their
county. I have never been sorry I joined and do not believe they will ever
92 RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
LILLIAN SISTRUNK RUTH McKEOWN
Ruth McKeown, 14, of Gadsden County was awarded first honors in
gardening and canning and second in poultry in her home county in the
fall of 1925 when the annual home demonstration contest was held in
Quincy. Ruth's exhibit of canned vegetables took second place at the 1925
State Fair in competition with products of women and girls from all parts
of the state.
Last year Ruth sold almost $50 worth of vegetables and chickens. She
supplied her family with fresh vegetables and conserved 467 pints of prod-
ucts from her garden and the home orchard. She furnished an exhibit of
40 different varieties of products for the Gadsden County Chamber of
At the beginning of 1926, Ruth started her year's work with vim and
determination to win, not only for the sake of the prizes she might win,
but for the training and the joy she would get from club work.
Her spring and summer gardens have been fine and she conducts a
fall garden. Her record up to date shows over 500 containers of products
conserved from this year's vegetable and fruit crops and she says she has
much yet to save, including meat products.
One of Ruth's new ventures is soup mixture. She canned 60 No. 2 cans
of this very delicious product and sold it all immediately. Her customers
are well pleased with this as well as her canned peaches, of which she has
sold 75 No. 2 cans last summer. In addition to the soup mixture and peaches
she has sold fresh vegetables, chickens, eggs, canned tomatoes and other
products, from all of which she has made quite a neat little sum to apply
toward her education.
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 93
Recently she sent 12 pints of canned vegetables to the Chamber of
Commerce for exhibit purposes. This year she raised 96 chickens and is
also carrying the regular sewing program for club members.
At the Girls' Short Course, held at the Florida State College in June,
there was no girl more eager to take advantage of all opportunities offered
and to enter with good club spirit into all the activities. She was elected
treasurer of State Home Demonstration Council, which met in Tallahassee
during this time.
Ruth is in the tenth grade at school. Although she is small she is well
and is interested in keeping well. During the school year she drinks extra
milk because she has noticed that she loses weight when she eats a cold
lunch and walks the two and one-half miles between home and school
Her attitude towards her club and school is splendid. She is a willing
worker and has the intelligence, pep and determination to put across what-
ever she attempts to do. Her enthusiasm is an inspiration to others and
her desire and eagerness to do well all tasks assigned her makes Ruth a
much desired club member.
Hazel Ruth Tipping, a fourth-year club girl, started work in the fall
of 1922. During her first and second years she took up sewing and cooking
under Miss Lafitte, the county home demonstration agent. At the end of
her second year she won first place in a biscuit-making contest.
Her third year she carried on the regular sewing and cooking projects
and added to these canning, filling over seventy-five containers and exhibit-
ing fifty-six of these at the Florida State Fair. For her excellence in third
year sewing she was awarded a scholarship to the Girls' Short Course in
MISS ETHYL HOLLOWAY.
Santa Rosa County Home
Ruth McKeown. Gadsden County club girl, with
her prize-winning exhibit at State Fair,
Jacksonville. Florida. 1925.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
Tallahassee. With Coletta Ridenour, another prize-winning girl, she entered
the canning contest at Short Course and they came out third, each winning
a dilver. Hazel was also selected from the Duval County girls to represent
the county in the health contest. During the fall of 1925 Hazel and Coletta
gave hot-pack canning demonstrations which were much enjoyed by the
women at each of the Southside Senior Clubs. At the State Fair the girls
again demonstrated canning and here won first prize. Hazel was in the
dress parade wearing clothing she had made, and accessories she had chosen.
For her excellence in canning as well as sewing Hazel again won a scholar-
ship. Last winter when tourists were flocking to Mandarin for citrus fruits,
Hazel sold at her grandfather's grove enough citrus marmalades, guava
jelly and candy to buy a winter coat and hat.
In April, 1926, Hazel was chosen along with six other outstanding
Florida girls to represent home demonstration activities at the meeting of
the General Federation of Women's Clubs in Jacksonville. Hazel is finishing
her fourth year sewing, has done very creditable food and nutrition work,
and is canning whenever she can get anything with which to work. She
has had a very nice garden of peppers, peas, beans, corn, cushaw and toma-
toes. She has helped her mother considerably in caring for their flowers.
Mrs. Tipping grows and sells beautiful roses and sweet peas in their seasons.
Again for the 1926 Short Course Hazel was chosen to represent Duval
County in the health contest. This year she tied with Roberta Shepherd of
Lake County for second place with a score of 97%. With Gretchen Wing
for a team-mate she gave a demonstration of pumpkin canning on Con-
Hazel has been an energetic president of the Mandarin club; under
her leadership the school fence and outbuildings have been whitewashed,
canning equipment has been purchased, the gardening and poultry clubs
have grown and the Mandarin Club, though small, has been very active.
Aside from her club work Hazel is an active worker in her Church and
Next to the last year Miss Ethyl Holloway of Santa Rosa County was
in college, she found herself hesitating to register for another year because
"the family coffer" was empty and there were five others to educate. Where
the necessary funds were to come from was a question until one day the
thought suddenly occurred to her that if she could furnish the college its
canned tomatoes for another year she could return next year. She launched
herself on her first business venture the next day when she took her plan
to her college president, who quite readily agreed to make necessary
She wrote her father to plant tomatoes for her-it was then late in
April, and he planted less than an acre. There was no demonstration
agent to direct or suggest and many primitive methods of cultivation were
used. Miss Holloway hand-picked the bugs from the vines. In August
they were ready for canning and an old-fashioned soldering canning outfit
was used. Nearly 400 gallons were canned for the college and a little more
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE 95
than 200 No. 2 cans for the general public. Many, many were sold fresh
from the vines and enough money was made to return to college.
The lowly tomato opened college doors and college training has opened
many doors, given open sesame to homes of high culture, made it possible
to hold responsible positions; in fact, the tomato has been Miss Holloway's
Aladdin's lamp. Miss Holloway is now home demonstration agent of Santa
Three hundred and sixty-five outstanding club girls, representing the
thirty-one counties doing home demonstration club work in the State of
Florida, were awarded scholarships to State Short Course for prize-winning
club girls, held at the Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee in
June. Traveling expenses to and from Tallahassee with all other expenses
incurred while on the trip are included.
These scholarships are given by county school boards, county commis-
sioners, civic organizations, women's clubs, bankers, merchants, and inter-
ested individuals. In a number of instances the girls themselves are so
anxious to have their clubs represented at the State Short Course that they
provide their own scholarship, making the money in various ways.
Four counties in the state have become so interested in extension work
in home economics that they have appropriated for full scholarships for
training in home economics at the Florida State College for Women. Orange
and Palm Beach counties have appropriated for one scholarship each, Hills-
borough County two, and Dade County five.
FANNIE PILKENTON. Marion County,
who won a scholarship to State Short
Course on her excellent canning work.
HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1-2) A group of women and girls making baskets as taught at club camps. (3) Duval girls working on
their club cap and apron emblem. (4) Club girls of Duval learning to make baskets at the Home Demon-
stration club camp.
96 R U A
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE
HOME DEMONSTRATION CLUB CAMPS
Throughout the State of Florida each year home demonstration club
camps are held for club members who have been enrolled in home demon-
stration clubs and carrying some phase of this work throughout the year.
The aim and purpose of these camps is to train for citizenship, and
to train for citizenship it is necessary to develop club members from a phys-
ical, intellectual, spiritual and social standpoint. The motto and emblem
both indicate this. The motto, "To Make the Best Better," applies not only
to the work undertaken by club members, but also to the individuals them-
selves. The emblem, a four-leaf clover with the letter H on each leaf, stands
for the systematic training of the head to think, the hands to execute, the
heart to feel and the health to resist disease. It has been the tendency to
get away from the spiritual things and become too absorbed in material
things, and so the leaders in home demonstration club work have realized
this fact and for a number of years have been planning ways and means of
developing the social and spiritual natures of club members and giving
them the four-square training necessary to home life and citizenship.
Camps originated in 1914 with a county agent, J. V. Shipman, Randolph
County, West Virginia. Mr. Shipman was seeking the 4-H development of
his club members. The idea proved such a good one that his state adopted
the plan and other states soon followed.
Many things have to be considered in conducting a successful club camp.
Among the most important items to be considered is the camp-site, water
supply, buildings, transportation, instruction, recreation, food, etc.
Most of the summer club camps held in Florida use cottages at the
different beaches, college camps, college buildings, Y. W. C. A. camps, gov-
ernment buildings, or privately owned camp-sites, using cottages for sleep-
ing quarters and pavilion for instruction and recreation. There is one per-
manent camp-site in the state at the present time. A number of counties
are planning, however, to purchase a place where they can hold their camps
LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Pasco County girls find diving and swimming great sport at their camp held each year at Port Richey.
(2) All in line and ready for a good swim in Lake Midget, Polk County. (3) One for the money, two for
the show, three to make ready and four to go. Leon County Club girl campers at Flastacowo are always
ready to "go"-swimming.
* 1 I
RESULTS THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED RURAL HOME LIFE
Local organizations, such as chambers of commerce, women's federated
clubs, county commissioners and school boards, as well as individuals, usually
assist the home demonstration agent in furnishing transportation for club
members. They meet at the home demonstration agent's office and leave
at a stated time for the camp grounds. It is rather a familiar sight during
the summer to see a school bus, loaded to its capacity with happy, care-free
girls singing their club songs and giving their club yells, wending its way
to the club camp. These girls have been working and looking forward to
this eventful day since the beginning of the year as a reward for having
their club work up-to-date.
The personnel of the camp instructors consist of state leaders, special-
ists from the College, local people who are in sympathy with child life,
trained recreational leaders, and home demonstration agents.
In many counties in arranging for food supply a small fee has to be
charged for each camper. If a charge is made sufficiently large the campers
do not furnish any food, but in many cases the girls have fresh vegetables,
fruits, butter, eggs and chickens at home and a greater number are able to
attend if the smaller fee is charged, they are allowed to bring part of their
food from home. Since there are a great many expenses attached to camp
life, not included above, such as ice, milk, cook hire, fuel and other miscel-
laneous expense, the county boards usually are generous in helping the
agent to finance the camp and making it possible for the children to receive
the proper food while attending camp.
Many and varied club activities are indulged in by the campers. Hand-
crafts are taught the girls and women, such as basketry, made of the native
materials, lamp shades, nature study, hand-made handkerchiefs, passe
partouted pictures, handbags, and at one camp the girls made the club
emblems for caps and aprons.
7 f~ *~
Well-Balanced Meals Are Served at Home Demonstration Club Camps.
RURAL HOME LIFE IN FLORIDA
(1) Recreation has its place on each home demonstration camp program. Children are taught to play
together in the wonderful out-of-doors. (2) District agent checking up on the daily health habits of the club
girls at Santa Rosa County Club camp. (3) Duval County campers in line for their mid-morning glass of
milk. (4) Duval County group leaders-Home Demonstration Club camp held at Camp Johnston in 1926.