VOLUME -W -44
Department of Agr .wure
Commissioner of Agriculture
January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
et of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
d September 11, 191S."
..r.. ... . ... . .
VOLUME. 3(o NUMBER -
Commissioner of Agriculture
1 r. .J APPLEYARO, INC., TALLAHASSEE. FLORIDA
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."
Commissioners of Agriculture
AS REGISTER OF LANDS-
John Beard: January 12, 1847, to May 29, 1849.
David S. Walker: November 23, 1850.
Hugh A. Corley: December 31, 1859, to Dec. 31, 1866
AS COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION-
Oscar E. Austin: August 7, 1868.
J. S. Adams: January 14, 1869, to January 16, 1873.
Dennis Eagan: March 4, 1873, to 1877.
Hugh A. Corley: January 3, 1877, to March 16, 1882.
P. W. White: March 16, 1882, to February 12, 1885.
AS COMMISSIONER OF LANDS AND IMMIGRA-
C. L. Mitchell: January 29, 1885.
AS COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE-
L. B. Wombell: December 31, 1888.
B. E. McLin: January 1, 1901, to March 1, 1912.
W. A. MeRae: March 1, 1912, to October 31, 1923.
Nathan Mayo: November 1, 1923.
Personnel of the Department
NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER.
Miss Anna Belle Wesson, Secretary to the Commissioner.
AGRICULTURAL AND IMMIGRATION DIVISION-
T. J. Brooks, Chief Clerk and Director, Bureau of
Phil S. Taylor, Advertising Editor, Bureau of
J. M. Burgess, Clerk.
Walter H. Moon, Clerk.
Bennett T. Mayo, Clerk.
Mrs. Inez Hale McDuff, Stenographer.
Mrs. Ida M. Simmons, Stenographer.
Mrs. Vera Leverett, Mimeographer.
PURE FOODS AND DRUGS, STOCK FEED, FERTILIZER, CITRUS
FRUIT AND GASOLINE INSPECTION DIVISION-
J. H. Pledger, Chief Clerk and Supervising Inspector.
R. J. Mays, Clerk and Bookkeeper.
Mrs. Eugene Davis, Stenographer.
Miss Helen Parks, Stenographer.
Miss Margaret Walker, Stenographer.
J. B. Wilkerson, Inspector, Pensacola.
D. P. Daniel, Inspector, Marianna.
J. B. Brinson, Inspector, Madison.
Wm. McCarrel, Inspector, Jacksonville.
Nathan Mayo, Jr., Inspector, Ocala.
A. N. Turnbull, Inspector, Daytona.
J. W. Davis, Inspector, Ocala.
Ellis Woodworth, Inspector, Tampa.
J. B. Taylor, Inspector, Tampa.
I. D. Stone, Inspector, Lakeland.
S. W. Clark, Inspector, Punta Gorda.
W. D. Eminisor, Jr., Inspector, Miami.
C. B. Gwynn, Chief Land Clerk.
S. C. deGarmo, Clerk.
F. E. Bayless, Jr., Clerk.
H. L. Shearer, Clerk.
Mrs. L. B. Hopkins, Stenographer and Certificate Clerk
Mrs. Harry Mullekin, Stenographer.
FIELD NOTE DIVISION-
Miss Bessie Damon, Clerk.
Will E. Graham, Clerk.
T. E. Andrews, Clerk.
SHELLFISH COMMISSION DIVISION-
T. R. Hodges, Commissioner.
Mrs. Anna Parker, Clerk.
Miss Elizabeth Rief, Stenographer.
Mrs. Lizzie Lee Leman, Shellfish Clerk and Bookkeeper.
R. E. Rose, State Chemist.
Gordon Hart, Assistant Chemist.
Dan Dahle, Assistant Chemist.
B. Jay Owen, Assistant Chemist.
Nals Berryman, Assistant Chemist.
E. Peek Greene, Assistant Chemist.
Miss Muriel Rose, Clerk and Stenographer.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU DIVISION-
L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner.
Moses Folsom, Secretary.
Neill Rhodes, Assistant Marketing Commissioner.
R. H. von Glahn, Marketing Agent.
Fred N. Reed, Multigrapher.
E. M. Roberts, Assistant Multigrapher.
W. L. Jackson, Stenographer.
Florida Quarterly Bulletin
DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE AND IMMIGRATION, DEPARTMENT
IT IS incumbent upon the various Departments of State
to make Biennial Reports to the Governor. The Legis-
lature of 1925 changed the fiscal year of Florida from
the calendar year, to end on December 31, to begin on July
1, and end on June 30.
For that reason the present Report will be for a year
and a half; beginning with January 1, 1925, and ending
June 30, 1926.
Reports of official Departments of State assume many
forms. The nature of the work of the Department as a
matter of course determines the main features. However,
a mere record of the dry facts as the daily routine of office
work is not often very readable. There must be some weav-
ing of the fabric of human endeavor and accomplishment
to render a report of sufficient interest to cause it to be
read by any except the delver into statistics and basic ele-
ments of official transactions.
Heretofore the Biennial Reports of the Division of Agri-
culture and Immigration have consisted of a written Re-
port in Part I, and a statistical Report in Part II. As the
last Legislature changed the time for the taking of the
agricultural and manufacturing census there was none
taken in 1926, as would have been done under the old law,
but it will be taken in 1927. Therefore, there will be no
Part II of this Report.
This volume is made up of the main work of the Depart-
ment in this Division, some of the addresses I have made
on various subjects which have been forefront in the minds
of the people during the year and a half covered by this
Report, editorials from the Florida Review and articles on
various agricultural and economic phases of rural life.
8 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
This Division issues a quarterly Bulletin and many sup-
plements during the year. These are intended primarily
for the practical use of the farmers of Florida. Our bulle-
tin fund has proven inadequate to meet the demands for
this purpose; the same is true of the postage fund.
It is impossible to differentiate between the correspond-
ence incidental to the agricultural and the immigration
activities of the office, as it is all handled by the same office
force in the same manner. The Bureau of Immigration
never had functioned to any considerable extent until the
Legislature of 1925 appropriated $50,000 per annum with
which to advertise the State through this Bureau.
The expenditures of the funds of the Bureau of Immigra-
tion for the first year are shown in the following table,
July 1, 1925, to June 30, 1926:
1. Advertising .....................$20,098.28
2. Literature and cuts............... 10,226.98
3. Salaries ....................... 7,141.12
4. Stamps and stamped envelopes..... 6,097.40
5. Travel .......................... 1,903.62
6. Subscriptions to papers............ 382.55
7. Addressograph .................. 325.52
8. M imeograph ..................... 318.82
9. Office desk ...................... 68.00
10. Two typewriters ................. 196.53
11. Office supplies-stationery, letterheads
mimeograph paper .............. 1,813.87
12. Car ............................ 1,085.00
13. B ooks .......................... 143.00
B balance ............................ $199.35
The above expenditures show the methods used in the
first year's work of the Bureau of Immigration.
The postage expenditures indicate the amount of mail-
letters and packages-that was sent out from the office.
The advertisements were placed mostly in agricultural jour-
nals and the response exceeded our expectations. Inquiries
poured in by the thousands. The question arose as to what
was the best possible use we could make of these lists of
inquirers. Each one was sent literature, and, if questions
were asked or requests made, a letter was written in reply.
After due deliberation it was decided to mimeograph the
list of inquiries each week and send the list to all the news-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
papers, chambers of commerce, boards of trade, county
demonstration agents, banks, members of the Legislature
and the head offices of the railroads operating in the State.
This would give each county and section of the State oppor-
tunity to make the best use of the lists, to induce immi-
grants to come to their respective communities.
In order to keep pace with developments and activities
of the entire State we subscribed for the papers of every
section. A clipping service was inaugurated which fur-
nished us with a digest of the press of the State on all lines
of development and progress. After a few months of this
clipping service it was decided that there was a more ex-
tended use to be made of this compendium of information.
As a means of placing before the greatest possible number
of people who were in position to appropriate the digest of
news, we started publishing the Florida Review in June,
1926. The evidence of appreciation of this semi-monthly
has been sufficient to encourage us to continue it as an
effective means of bringing before the people of the State
those developments that make for progress and achieve-
ment. We mailed it to all those receiving the list of our
weekly inquirers, and in addition to all others in and out
of the State who made request.
The mailing list of people in Florida receiving our Quar-
terly Bulletins and the Florida Review includes approxi-
mately 25,000 names. We mailed to people outside of
the State during the year approximately fifteen tons of
As to results, will say that it is generally computed that
there has been an increase of 10 per cent in the dairy and
poultry industries during the last fifteen months. Of course
we do not arrogate all this to the work of the Department,
but we do claim a part in it.
The program of advertising will be varied somewhat next
year and the relative amounts expended for the different
purposes will be different. During last year no advertising
was done at Northern State Fairs. We contemplate testing
out this method on a small scale next season. The cost of
the Florida Review will have to be taken from some other
line of expenditure which had been previously made.
Taken on the whole we found that dairying and poultry-
raising had the strongest appeal to most of the inquirers;
following these was trucking and fruit-growing. Thou-
sands made inquiry without mentioning their preference,
10 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
and many wanted to go into various lines of business and
The literature which has been prepared in this office and
sent out, both to the farmers and to people of other voca-
tions in the State, speaks for itself. The literature which
has been prepared and sent to the people of other States
has received generous commendations from people in every
walk of life and from every section.
Commissioner of Agriculture.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Florida's Agricultural and
BY NATHAN MAYO, COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.
Speech delivered at the Florida Takes Inventory Con-
gress at Palm Beach, April 16, 1926.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: As the declared
purpose of this meeting is to take an inventory of the State
and lay constructive plans for the future, I would like to
stress the fact that the one great determining asset of our
commonwealth is the 1,263,549 people who constitute our
Florida's answer to all questions propounded as to her
future can be found in the achievements of the past. She
will meet the requirements as she has been meeting them.
It is there that I pin my hope and find my inspiration for
service. Anticipations loom large on the horizon when I
take account of the facilities at hand and the record we
have made in measuring up to opportunities.
In the language of Hon. Clark Howell, of tEe Atlanta
Constitution, "The storm is over, and the sunlight of Flor-
ida's greatest day is breaking over the entire State by rea-
son of it. There is no doubt of it." And as Charles H.
Windham, City Manager of Long Beach, California, re-
cently said, "The development that Florida has made in
the past few years is a miraculous thing. But the work has
just begun, as I see it."
All the resources that Florida ever had are still here.
There is no occasion for taking the blues over Florida's
Individuals who have been caught in the toils of ill-ad-
vised deals are wrestling with their individual problems.
The vision of quick fortunes has evaporated before the eyes
of some adventurers. The day of small binders and large
profits is past. That was the hectic fever of a speculative
All the substantial inducements that Florida ever had
are here now.
Over-inflation of values and the exorbitant prices charged
for accommodations of visitors have discouraged thousands
of prospective investors and citizens. But there is oppor-
12 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
tunity for correcting these things. If we do not correct
these abuses deliberately, they will correct themselves auto-
matically and much more drastically than is necessary.
There are two kinds of promoters that are an embarrass-
ment to any legitimate business: The consummate crook
and the over-zealous enthusiast. The first is dishonest and
stops at nothing that law and custom will tolerate. The
sooner he is apprehended and punished the better. The
latter is just as dangerous, as he sees the rainbow where
there is no rain, and builds castles in the air that never
rest on the earth. He believes in his own project and can
inspire faith in the other fellow easier than the dishonest
These two classes of promoters need some sort of cen-
sorship that will keep them from deceiving the unwary and
bringing disrepute on the whole State in the eyes of the
We have had a plethora of duplicating advertising
throughout the State. This can be corrected by degrees.
WHAT THE BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION Is DOING.
The Constitution of the State of Florida places in the
Department of Agriculture the Bureau of Immigration.
This Bureau did not receive appropriations with which to
function till the Legislature of 1925 appropriated $50,000
per year for two years for advertising purposes. I think
it apropos to give a statement as to the use and results of
this fund up to date-using round numbers:
Advertisements ..................... $17,000
Stamps and stamped envelopes.......... 4,500
Printing ........................... 4,600
Salaries ....................... ...... 4,000
Stationery and contingent supplies...... 2,000
Cuts, pictures, electros ................. 1,000
Subscriptions to papers and magazines ... 320
Traveling ........ ................... 1,500
Contracts for advertising and printing... 5,000
According to the statement of the Post Office at Talla-
hassee, we have sent out eight and a half tons of mail which
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
went under the second class rate and was paid for in war-
rants instead of stamps. We have mailed out 10,000 of the
large State maps since the 15th of January.
We have mailed out 75,000 copies of our publications
since last July.
We have twenty tons of literature in the office ready for
We have advertised in 24 journals with a combined
circulation of 9,244,570. Ninety-one per cent of the jour-
nals we used were agricultural. We also placed some small
ads with the Western Newspaper Union, which includes
some four thousand papers.
As we received inquiries from these ads, we classified
them in so far as was possible, mimeographed the list of
names and post offices, and mailed them out to all the
newspapers of the state, boards of trade, chambers of com-
merce, county demonstration agents, and banks. We are
now arranging to send to something like 10,000 newspapers
and magazines in other states one of our latest publications,
Florida Today, accompanied by a letter to each editor.
We wrote letters to all who asked specific questions re-
quiring answers, and sent literature to every one.
Judging from the letters received, we are absolutely sure
of thousands of immigrants that will come to Florida in the
near future-many have already come. The great major-
ity are coming to make it their permanent home. The
business that most of them mention as their choice is either
dairying, poultry-raising or trucking.
There seems to be an impression that the people as a
whole in other States have lost interest in Florida. This is
manifestly a mistake. Those who think of Florida as a
future home, a place to farm, to work at trades, to practice
a profession, are just as keenly interested as ever. It is
the purely speculative and gambling element whose enthu-
siasm has cooled-and the state is the better for this. There
had to be a saturation point for this phase of promotion.
Had it come sooner, it would have been better. Over-infla-
tion is a barrier to the investor who wants to earn a decent
income on his investment, when he works his soil himself,
with no thought of selling it at a speculative profit. You
can over-capitalize a farm just as easily as you can an in-
corporated industry or railroad.
Florida does not present the first instance of a state sud-
denly thrust into the limelight and forced to make good.
14 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
California came into notice in a most spectacular way-
she made good. Oklahoma dashed into the arena of state-
hood after the fashion of a roughrider-she made good.
Florida stands behind the footlights in the glare of pub-
licity-SHE WILL MAKE GOOD.
We have been exceedingly fortunate in attracting people
to city and suburban developments; there has been a splen-
did response to the demand for accommodations for visi-
tors; there has been a fairly good interest in providing
amusements for tourists. WE HAVE NEGLECTED
SHOWING THE WORLD OUR OPPORTUNITIES IN
FARMING AND MANUFACTURING. To feed ourselves
and our annual visitors, we need to double our output of
crops and domestic animals. With a normal increase in
population and in tourist trade, we shall soon NEED TO
PRODUCE THREE TIMES THE PRESENT OUTPUT.
With the response that we have had so far, I am confi-
dent that with another year's campaign we will double the
dairy and poultry business of the state. I mean by this
we will have twice the producing power we have at present
but not all of the new recruits will be in full swing of pro-
duction within that time.
The people of this state consume $31,125,000 worth of
dairy products, and only $7,089,819 is produced in Florida,
so $24,035,181 worth must be bought outside the state. We
consume in Florida each year $11,250,000 worth of poultry,
only $3,750,000 worth of this is grown in Florida, which
forces us to send $7,500,000 out of the state per annum for
poultry. We are consuming at the present time $9,000,000
worth of eggs in the state, $4,500,000 worth of them are
produced in Florida, and $4,500,000 worth of them are
We need an Agricultural and Industrial Survey. This
will require research men to gather facts and furnish the
Bureau with material for publicity purposes. There is also
an urgent demand for a service that would give to the
owners of land a reliable survey of their tracts so that
the prospective purchaser could know the possibilities of
the farm he contemplates buying. We are not equipped
for this as it would require quite a number of very com-
petent soil experts with practical knowledge of Florida
farming. The last Legislature appropriated for a soil
survey; this the Federal Government matched, and we are
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 15
now making a soil survey of Polk County. We have had re-
quests from many of the other counties for this survey, but
we will not be able to do this until we get further appropria-
tions. Even then it will take twenty years to complete the
state. What is needed for urgent demand is a law that
will allow owners of land to have a soil survey made of their
tracts under the supervision of state authorities and certi-
fied to by the proper state official. The prospective settler
can then see on this certified plot the kind of land he is
buying, regardless of whether or not he has personally in-
I would respectfully request that this convention appoint
a committee to look into this with the view of making such
recommendations as it may see fit after due investigation.
I am of the opinion that there is need of some sort of
censorship over the advertising matter that is sent out con-
cerning properties offered for sale in this state, especially
those pertaining to Agriculture. I would respectfully re-
quest that a committee be appointed to report on this also.
I have already made known my views on the subject of
Colonizing in Florida and do not care to burden you with
a repetition of those views. Quite a number of commend-
able agricultural developments are under way and colonists
are coming to the state as never before. Of course, I can
make no invidious comparisons of the relative merits of
these various enterprises, but I would like to say that I fear
there is a tendency to price tracts of land to colonists too
high. There is no point at which one can definitely say
"thus far and no farther," but there is too much land in
the state that has never known the touch of the plow-share
to justify over-capitalizing tracts because they are bought
In my judgment, another mistake many land companies
are making is the offering for sale tracts that are too small
for general farming. Ten acres is enough for our better
trucking sections, but land for general farming should not
be offered in less than forty acre tracts.
We should not take too seriously the adverse propaganda
which has recently been launched against Florida by some
papers and writers in other states. Nevertheless, I do not
believe that we should entirely ignore it as of no importance.
Take for instance the remarks of a prominent official of a
16 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
certain Northern state. He says that it is impossible for
Florida to ever become a live stock or dairy state because
it costs too much to raise corn here-citing that corn can
be raised in the corn belt for 68e a bushel without fertilizer,
and it must be fertilized in Florida. This man, and thous-
ands of others, fail to take note of the fact that when an
acre is planted to corn in a Northern state no other crop
can be gathered from that acre that year. In Florida,
some other crop can always be planted or a good grazing
crop can be had to come up after the corn is laid by to
furnish pasture till early winter, after which another
winter and early spring crop can be sown. And this land
can be bought for a fraction of what it costs in the corn
This same official asserts that all cattle revert to scrubs
in warm climates-which simply is not true. As fine speci-
mens and herds of both wild and domestic animals graze
on farms or roam in jungles as are to'be found in cold cli-
mates. This same critic asserts that there are no raw ma-
terials in Florida for manufacturing. This is another error.
We produce and manufacture tobacco, cotton, fruits,
minerals, leather, naval stores, fish products, fertilizer,
cement, furniture, and many other things. Some of the
largest manufacturing plants in the world ship in from a
distance all the raw materials which they use.
There should be a general standardization of hotel rates
throughout the state. It matters not how many visitors
come to the state, the hotels should charge them only the
regular rates, which are reasonable. If we could establish
a system like this in Florida, it would be the greatest single
drawing card that could be sent out to the public. The
average prospective settler who is looking for a new loca-
tion to farm is generally not a man of wealth but, even if
he is, he is of the conservative type and will not linger very
long to look the state over thoroughly should the hotels'
rates be too high.
As good roads and railroad facilities are increased we
certainly should hold the trade that is bringing an annual
income of $300,000,000. Of course this is not all profit any
more than the money brought for our crops is all profit,
but it carries with it a profit and in addition it is a great
source of advertising. Thousands who come as tourists
decide to invest and many make Florida their home.
As a stimulation to the proper study of the resources and
opportunities which Florida offers to the capitalist, the
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
wage-earner, and the man and woman of the professions,
I would suggest that this convention institute a statewide
contest on the subject of "KNOW FLORIDA" and arrange
for a tryout in each congressional district. Lef that con-
test be entered into by anyone who chooses to do so, the win-
ner here to be the representative at the State Contest to be
held at the State University, the President of the University,
the Governor, and a member of the Supreme Court to be
the judges of the final contest. I suggest that a committee
be appointed to consider the feasibility of this plan for
presenting to the people at home and abroad the leading
attractions which our commonwealth has to offer. The
expenses of the contestants should be met and a prize
offered to the final winner. Such a contest has recently
been held in Tennessee and people went from all parts of
the state to attend. The largest auditorium in the city of
Nashville was filled on the night of the final contest. Wide
publicity was given the state and great home interest was
stimulated by this program.
I believe that there should be an experiment station in
every section of the state that has a distinctive character of
soil. It is universally admitted that by actual test is the
only way to ascertain definitely the adaptability of the
various soils of the state for the various crops which our
soils enable us to raise. I would be glad to see this con-
vention take this subject under advisement with a view of
reporting at a later day its decision.
Personally, I believe that we should change the zone
method of procedure in our effort at tick eradication. We
should clean up as we go and not scatter the work in such
a way as to allow reinfestation from surrounding territory
after a community has been diligent and gone through
the ordeal of eradication. This will require an amendment
to the present law.
I hope it will not be thought that I am presuming too
much to suggest that I think we are losing an opportunity
in the advertising of one of our greatest crops by not mak-
ing a standard price for grapefruit and orange drinks. The
price should be low enough to cover cost and not higher
than that asked in Northern cities. The same is true in
serving these fruits whole in restaurants and hotels.
18 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Florida has more than she ever had in all her history.
She has 30,000,000 acres that can be put to some useful
Only 6,000,000 acres are in farms.
Only 2,500,000 acres are being plowed.
Of this acreage during last year there was produced on
less than 300,000 acres-which is less than the average
acreage for a Florida county-94,000 car loads of fruits
The fruits brought a revenue of $51,400,000.
The vegetables brought a revenue of $33,500,000.
The staple crops brought $27,306,000.
There are millions of acres in the state just as good for
farming and fruit-growing as these thousands that are pro-
ducing as I have indicated.
The agricultural possibilities of the state are indicated
by these facts and constitute an asset that runs into the
billions of dollars. The state is capable of producing 300,-
000 cars of agricultural products annually.
The greatest single income from our natural resources
as yet is from our forests. Some system of conservation
of this heritage should be adopted. We have some 15,000,-
000 acres in timber but a great deal of it has been badly
treated. The cut-over lands should be reforested if not
reclaimed for agricultural purposes. The forests are yield-
ing in lumber and naval stores $50,000,000 worth annually.
Florida has 6,242 miles of railroads.
Florida has 1,500 miles of hard surfaced roads, and 7,700
miles of semi-hard surfaced roads.
Our factories turn out $150,000,000 worth annually.
Our fisheries average $16,000,000 worth of output
The number of sponges marketed annually is seven
Our mineral output amounts to $16,000,000 each year.
There is no lessening of any of these material sources of
our prosperity except the forests. By proper conservation
this can be held to its present production.
Our tourist trade is not to be passed over as irrelevant.
It is an important asset and one that will grow as the
years pass if we have the sagacity to hold it.
The state's revenue from the sale of gasoline alone is
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 19
The consumption of gasoline in 1924 was 126,035,289
The consumption of gasoline in 1925 was 211,967,436
There was, therefore, an increase of 85,932,147 gallons
On the other hand, the consumption of fertilizer was
6,643 tons less in 1925 than in 1924.
We are just entering upon a period of gigantic construc-
tion, and our possibilities as an industrial state are
looming above the horizon. There is no doubt that as our
Latin American trade grows there will be ocean liners ply-
ing regular trips from Florida ports to Southern ports.
The United States is now spending a million and a quarter
dollars a day with the Latin American republics and sell-
ing them a million dollars' worth of merchandise per day.
Florida will be asleep at the switch if she does not profit
greatly by this growing trade. We are in line for this trade
just as New York is in line for the trade between the great
Northern and Western states and the nations of Europe.
I surely want to stress the importance of co-operation
between all forces working for a greater Florida. At all
times my office is open to suggestions from the State Cham-
ber of Commerce and all other bodies taking an interest in
the progress of the state. I want to insist that you people
who have sponsored ths meeting give me the benefit of
your counsel. I would welcome a standing committee to
be appointed by the State Chamber of Commerce not only
to go into the above suggestions that I have outlined, but
to take up other matters from time to time for the best
interests of our state.
Florida is proud of all her sister states and I feel sure
that she shares the same regard from each of them. As
long as we stand four-square with the world and tell the
truth about the land of our common heritage there is no
ground for doubt of the future. Rich in history, legend,
song and story, dowered with wonderful natural resources,
blessed with a salubrious climate, and with a citizenship
second to none in the world, we look with sublime faith to
the future progress and glory of our beloved Florida.
20 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Possibilities of the Everglades
BY NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture
Delivered at Miami, Florida, July 31, 1926.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:
I am glad to be with you on this occasion. The subject
I am assigned, "The Development of the Back Country,"
leads me to quote some figures concerning that geographical
wonder, the Everglades.
There are, in the natural Everglades area, 2,862,000
acres; in the Everglades drainage district, 4,370,000
acres; some 300,000 acres have been partially reclaimed,
and 100,000 are in actual cultivation.
About $11,000,000 have been spent on the drainage
project up to the present. The lateral drainage canals
will cost as much as the main arteries of drainage.
Everglades Not All Alike
The Everglades proper are not all alike. There are
four main classifications: (1) the muck soils, (2) the
marl lands, (3) sandy soils, (4) lime rock lands.
There are sub-classifications of each of these divisions,
which make the Everglades soils about as spotted as the
rest of Florida. The muck lands are subdivided as fol-
lows: Custard apple land, elderberry land, willow land,
dog fennel land, and sawgrass land. There seems to
be a general impression throughout the north that the
Everglades are all alike, and too little discrimination has
been made by investors because of this mistaken idea.
The immense drainage project has but one end in view;
that is that the millions of acres be reclaimed for agri-
culture. Some of the crops successfully grown in the
Everglades are tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, beans, egg
plant, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, strawberries, beets,
lettuce, celery, and other vegetables; sugar cane, corn, rice,
alfalfa, Kaffir corn, millet, sorghum, milo maize, peanuts,
dasheen, many grasses and staple crops. Cattle raising,
dairying, hog raising and poultry raising have been suc-
cessful in many instances.
The greatest need of most southern soils is humus. The
Everglades is one place where there is a super-abundance
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
of humus. In fact, to a great extent the soil is made up
of humus. For untold ages aquatic vegetation grew here
and died, but as the land was covered by water the dead
vegetation did not decay. That is why it must be
drained and aerated, before bacteria can get in their work
of preparing the soil for plant food. The marl land will
grow tomatoes the first year. The best grade of muck land
will grow any crops fairly well the first year. Corn and
Irish potatoes have been grown with some success the first
year, even on the sawgrass lands. Some of it requires
several years to bring it under proper cultivation. How.
ever, the number of times it is plowed goes further toward
determining the rapidity of the reclamation than the
time element. Plowing hastens bacterial action.
There are thousands of acres of good truck and fruit
lands in the state on which an industrious and frugal
family can make a good living, and in many cases a sub-
stantial profit, on less than ten acres. There are cases
where five acres will show this result. But these excep-
tionally small farms do not offer the means of proper
rotation of crops or the support of livestock, and it is
safer to have a horse, a cow, and hogs. The fact that one
crop follows another during the same year is not crop
rotation if the same crops are grown annually.
Theso exceptional tracts of land are not often found in
These lands are not always located where the owner
can market his crops to advantage.
There is no justification for the division of large tracts
of land into five and ten acre farms to be plotted by blue
print methods and sold at arbitrary and exorbitant prices
without regard to the relative value of the various sub-
divisions. Such methods are an injustice to the buyer and
injurious to the state.
Truck farming and fruit growing require special train-
ing and aptitude on the part of the farmer, and people
without previous experience should not expect phenomenal
results from their efforts in this direction.
If a person wishes to retire from active life but wants
something to amuse himself with, he may buy any size
farm, however small, and occupy his time at miniature
farming of any kind that suits his whim. With these I
am not concerned. But it is with the man with a family
who wants to farm for a living, who must raise his
family and aims to lay by a surplus from his hard-earned
22 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
savings, that I am concerned about, and that I want to be
a satisfied citizen instead of a disappointed and unsatis-
fied citizen who feels that he has not been treated fairly.
The best quality of the Everglades shows wonderful
possibilities. Instances of astonishing results can be cited.
This fact has lent a halo of romance around the magic
word "Everglades," and many who failed to investigate
and who had no previous experience thought they had a
rainbow with its proverbial pot of gold, and of course
suffered disillusionment. Men who are used to hard work
on the farm and are not looking for a soft snap, who
exercise common sense in selecting their land, and are
willing to put the same amount of labor and money into an
investment in the Everglades that they do into other lands,
will do well in the Everglades. On the other hand, if they
expect to find their holdings a honey pond with pan cakes
hanging from the trees growing around the edge, they are
doomed to disappointment and failure. It means work,
and hard work to succeed in anything-an occupation,
business, or profession. Farming is no exception, and
farming has no exception in different parts of the world.
The sooner the public mind is disabused of this fallacy
that Florida is an exception to the rule, the better for all
The Florida Everglades have been the enigma of the
scientist and the developer. The tests made of the agri-
cultural, horticultural, and live stock possibilities of the
reclaimed lands show that there are wonderful things in
store when the whole tillable area is finally mastered and
brought to full producing capacity. Thousands of acres
are now producing millions of dollars worth of truck and
other crops. However, I want to drop the suggestion that
you should not confine your farming to truck crops. It is
possible to reach the point of diminishing returns and
jeopardize that industry.
The canals and the proposed railroads if built will
furnish ample transportation facilities for the outlet of
the products of the farms. Millions are being spent on
the harbors of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and other ports on
the east coast which will furnsh shipping accommodations
for ocean traffic.
Poultry raising and dairying have both been demon-
strated to be capable of large development. Avocados,
mangoes, and citrus fruits are grown commercially and
promise large returns in the future.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
That part of the Everglades not brought under drain-
age has great possibilities in the furnishing of fuel in the
form of peat bricks, as have been made of peta in Canada.
The growing of willows for the making of wicker furniture
has been demonstrated as practical in much of the Ever-
glades. This may be developed into a thriving industry.
The Everglades Drainage District was created by and
operates under laws passed by the Legislature of Florida.
The officers of the District, designated by law, are: Gover-
nor, Comptroller, State Treasurer, Attorney General, and
Commissioner of Agriculture, and their successors in
office. The Board is therefore made up of the
highest public officers of the state. Money for carry-
ing on the drainage work is raised from the proceeds of
drainage taxes levied upon the land within the District by
the Legislature. The drainage taxes are of two kinds:
The drainage tax proper being assessed by the acre upon
all the lands of the District; a second tax consists in a
levy of one mill on the dollar against all property in the
District. State lands in the Everglades Drainage District
pay drainage taxes the same as any other land.
Based upon the tax, bonds are authorized to be issued
and so much of the proceeds from taxes are pledged for
the support of bonds as is necessary. To January 1,
1926, the bonded debt of the District authorized by the
Legislature is $14,250,000. Of the above, $11,238,500 in
bonds have been issued. To December 31, 1925, $1,200.-
000 had been retired, leaving the present outstanding debt
of $10,038,800 with an unissued reserve of $3,011,500. The
earlier bonds of the District bear interest at the rate of
6%. Later bonds bear interest at the rate of 51/%%, while
the last issue are 5% bonds. For the purpose of taking
up and calling the earlier 6% and 51/2 bonds, the Dis-
trict issued $8,950,000 of 5% refunding bonds. The reduc-
ing of the borrowing basis of the District from 6% to 5%
is an indication of the improved financial condition of the
The estimated assessed valuation of land in the Dis-
trict is $17,000,000, and the population is estimated at
between twenty-five and thirty thousand persons. From
the foregoing it will be noted that the bonded debt of the
24 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
District is very high in proportion to the assessed valuation
of property and population.
To May 31, 1926, there were 486.9 miles of main canals
open. The main canals thus far constructed or under con-
St. Lucie Canal, which is the principal control canal for
West Palm Beach Canal
North New River Canal
South New River Canal
Indian Prairie Canal
In addition to the canals above mentioned, seven more
new canals are planned within the area between the Miami
Canal and the St. Lucie Canal. The total estimated miles
of new canals required for this area are 237. The total
estimated quantity of excavation is 49,000,000 cubic yards,
and the total estimated cost of excavating the above new
canals is $11,177,000. Thus it is seen that in point of
excavation the work required for draining the area between
the Miami Canal and the St. Lucie Canal, representing an
area of approximately 2,000,000 acres, is 60% completed,
and on a cost basis, considering all work heretofore done,
is 55% completed. The prospects are that a railroad track
will be laid along the banks of the main canals, as the In-
ternal Improvement Board has had this proposal presented
to it and contracts to that effect are under way. If carried
out, these roads would furnish unusual transportation
I shall submit a few facts furnished by the Chief Drain-
age Engineer, Fred S. Elliott:
The Miami Canal is the longest and is incomplete;
twenty-four miles are completed on the south end, and
twelve miles on the upper end, with some work done between
Of the seven new canals planned within this. area between
the Miami and St. Lucie canals, four are to be laterals
extending from the Miami Canal to the ocean. It is esti-
mated that it will cost $4,500,000 to build these seven canals
and complete the Miami Canal. This amount is over a
million in excess of the funds now available and one-third
of all the funds expended to date.
The completed schedule for providing the main drain-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
age outlets for the portion of the Everglades described will
require a total expenditure of approximately $24,000,000.
The raising of money for carrying on the work of the Dis-
trict has, from the beginning, been the most important
problem with which the officers of the District have had to
deal, and will continue to be until the work has been
finally completed. The borrowing capacity of the District
depends largely upon two factors, population and assessed
valuation. It has been shown that the population is quite
small and the present assessed valuation in the District
only $17,000,000. It is clear that to obtain the additional
$11,000,000 required, population and valuations must be
increased. The acreage tax is the principal tax supporting
the bonds of the District. In the case of the acreage tax even
in the event of non-payment of taxes on the part of some
of the lands, the Everglades Drainage District Law requires
that all lands defaulting in payment of taxes shall be put
up at tax sale and struck off to the highest bidder for an
amount not less than the total drainage taxes against the
land, and in the event of no bidder, lands are automatically
struck off to the Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund, who are required by law to thereupon pay the
delinquent taxes on the same. Hence the lands owned by
the state stand behind tax delinquencies and also the possi-
bility of default in interest and bond principal payments.
It is up to the next Legislature to devise some means of
re-financing this drainage project. The whole purpose of
this gigantic undertaking fails if the work is allowed to
lapse and be incomplete.
The area in the Everglades Drainage District within
which farming has been carried on is approximately 120,-
000 acres. Probably not more than 20% to 25% of this
area has been under cultivation at any one time. The
principal farming localities at present are along the Lake
Shore and the following canals: Miami Canal, West Palm
Beach Canal, North New River Canal, Hillsboro Canal,
Caloosahatchee Canal, and the St. Lucie Canal. The size
and importance of the areas from the standpoint of farm
products are in the order mentioned above. In the above
areas, general drainage work is further advanced and local
drainage districts have made greater progress in the con-
struction of secondary works of drainage in the nature of
lateral canals, farm ditches, and protection levees. The
main drainage work of the district has advanced in many
localities to a stage which permits making land ready for
26 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
settlement and cultivation as rapidly as the secondary
works can be provided by the local sub-drainage districts.
The Everglades Experiment Station has much valuable
data to guide the Everglades farmers. I emphasize the
necessity of an experiment station on each of the different
types of soil in Florida. It might be well for the next
Legislature to pass a bill providing for an experiment
station where deemed advisable throughout the state on
terms similar to that provided by the Act making it pos-
sible for a county and the state to build cold storage plants
on a fifty-fifty basis.
We might adopt the slogan, "A greater Florida through
a greater Everglades." Upon the development of the back
country of Florida depends the future permanent great-
ness of the state. This development must be done by hard
labor. We must make the inducement sufficient to draw
capital for investment and sufficiently remunerative to
draw immigrant farmers. If we price our lands too high,
we raise an impassable barrier to both capital and labor.
Miami is deeply concerned as to the outcome of this
undertaking. The one word "Drainage" spells the future
fate of this section of Florida.
She is also much concerned about adequate highways
leading out through the drained areas of the Everglades-
such as the one now under consideration-the super-high-
way leading from here to Lake Okeechobee.
I am constrained to think that you have not judged
accurately the relative value of your various sources of
revenue. Your sports have been presented adequately, but
you have not looked as closely into the more substantial
support of land development. If you wll spend as much
money in development as in amusements, the results will
be more substantial.
With the establishing of immense power stations on both
the east and west coasts, furnishing electric power com-
mercially, we should attract such industries as can secure
raw material for manufacture here in the state; with
ample transportation facilities by land and sea, opening up
the markets of both the Eastern and Southern Hemi-
spheres, Florida should be able to show such growth in
the future as has not been shown in the past.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Locating Florida's New
WHILE the development of the state's agricultural
and horticultural industries has been the subject
of greatest interest and importance in Florida
the past two years, comparatively little attention
has been paid to the problems of properly locating new
farm-settlers coming to this state.
Florida is rich in farming opportunities, but they do
not exist in equal measure in all sections, nor do they exist
equally under the great range of soil and climatic condi-
tions found in the state. The problem of deciding what
phase of agriculture in which to engage in this state is of
great importance to the new farmer, but the problem of
properly locating his farm so as to have the best opportuni-
ties to succeed is of far greater importance.
Too many of the new farmers coming to Florida are locat-
ing their food-production plants without due regard for
all of the conditions which play a part in determining the
final outcome of their ventures. And those who do appre-
ciate the important factors involved in the selection of a
site for a farm usually find it very difficult to get com-
plete and authentic information enabling them to make
comparisons without spending considerable time and
money in studying conditions first hand as they exist
throughout the state.
What are these problems for the new comer to consider
in establishing a Florida farm? After he has determined
upon the type of farming in which he expects to engage
the matter of the right kind of soil for the production of
his crops probably suggests itself to the farmer before
anything else. This, of course, is of importance. But there
are other things to be considered at the same time in locat-
ing a farm in Florida, such as the distance to markets,
packing facilities, marketing facilities, roads, the price of
land and danger from freezing temperatures.
The Dairyman's Problems
Take the case of the dairyman coming to Florida from
the north to establish a farm to "cash in" on the high
28 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
prices being paid for milk by the leading cities of this
state. There is not a county in Florida which is not suit-
able, in some degree, for the establishment of a dairy farm.
But in which county to locate is a real problem for the
First of all, what markets in the state will he work to
supply. Say, for example, he chooses to sell his milk in
Miami, where ruling prices are from 50 to 70 cents a gallon.
Will he buy some land near Miami, costing from $200 to
possibly $2,000 an acre, and have the advantage of prox-
imity to his market and the tick-free condition of Dade
county, or will he locate his farm in some north Florida
county, where land can be bought from $25 to $100 an
acre, closely adjacent to a railroad which will ship his
milk to Miami overnight? In which location can he grow
the best feed crops? The ideal location for this dairy
farm may not be either of these extremes but in some more
central section of the state. Where it will be is for the new
farmer to decide. In future years there will be times when
milk will not be bringing such fabulous prices. When that
time arrives, the dairyman who thoroughly studied the
conditions affecting his business and established a farm or a
location which would enable him to produce and market his
milk at the least possible expense will be the one who will
continue in the business at a profit.
What About Poultrying?
The same conditions which apply to the proper location
of a dairy farm apply also to the selection of a site for a
poultry farm. The opportunities for profit in poultry
farming have been so exceptional in Florida the last few
years that the industry has developed in nearly all parts of
the state. However, there is as yet no district so developed
in poultry farming that it might be compared with the
"Petaluma" district of California. The great differences
in the prices of land in the different sections must have an
important bearing on where the new poultry farmer can
locate. Some lands in South Florida closely adjacent to
good markets are not desirable because of sand flies bother-
ing the chickens. North Florida counties, with the great
advantage of low priced land have the disadvantage of
being at a distance from South Florida markets, necessitat-
ing greater distribution costs.
Marketing facilities are of prime importance to the
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
poultry farmer. Those communities with local poul-
try associations which market the crops of their mem-
bers on a co-operative basis are deserving of the attention
of new poultry farmers who plan a comparatively small
production. Then, too, the Florida poultryman must
appreciate the fact that this State will some day supply all
of its own eggs and poultry products, though it now ap-
pears that that day is very far distant. But when that
day does arrive the Florida poultryman must be
so situated that he can market his output in dull seasons
outside of the state. The location of the poultry farm with
respect to transportation distances and facilities will be the
factor determining profit or loss when the day of shipping
poultry products out of Florida does arrive.
Fruits and Vegetables
Even in such a well developed industry as that of grow-
ing citrus fruits, selection of a grove site is of great im-
portance. Danger from frost, character of soil, water sup-
ply and drainage are all of importance. But the new settler
who expects to establish a citrus grove must also take into
consideration such things as packing house facilities, his
highways to the packing house, and the comparative freight
rates charged on citrus shipments from the different sec-
tions of the state. The grower who must have his fruit
crop hauled 20 miles from the grove to the packing house,
at, say, a cost of 20 cents a box, cannot very well compete
with the grower with a grove right next to a packing house
unless he has some advantages to reduce his ultimate costs
sufficiently to make up for this difference.
The farmer coming to Florida to grow winter truck
crops has probably more problems to consider than any of
the other new comers to the state's agricultural industries.
He must, of course, have very productive land. Then, he
must study climatic conditions in the different trucking sec-
tions of the state-at what times the different crops first
mature in these different sections. He must know about
water supply for irrigation purposes, and about packing
facilities, and marketing facilities, and freight rates.
Tampa, which insists that it is Florida's largest city in
spite of the claims of Jacksonville and Miami, is one of
Florida's best markets for truck crops. But a truck grower
who would locate a farm in the Tampa district of Hills-
boro county, under present conditions, would probably go
30 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
broke for lack of adequate marketing facilities. The market
would be at his door, so to speak, but the only way he could
sell his crops would be to peddle them from jobber to job-
ber or retailer to retailer or housewife to housewife and
such procedure is, of course, impractical. On the other
hand, citrus growers and poultry raisers do well in the im-
mediate Tampa vicinity because they do have marketing
outlets for their crops.
A new farm settler can locate in such a trucking locality
as Palmetto, or Plant City, or Ocoee, or Winter Garden, or
Fort Meade, or Wauchula, or Sanford, or Hastings, and
many other developed vegetable farming communities, and
undoubtedly succeed. But to locate a new farm 20 or 30
miles from one of these sections, with the idea in mind of
using the packing and marketing facilities of the farmers
in the developed area, is liable to spell failure. Distances
are to be seriously reckoned with in our trucking industries,
especially when the labor demands in the harvesting season
are heavy and a highly perishable crop must be quickly
Other farming projects have the same general problems
in Florida. Grapes, bulbs, avocados, bananas-no matter
what the crop the new settler must devote his attention to
all factors which can possibly affect the profitable success
of his business before definitely deciding upon a location
for his farm.
No One Ideal Section
Newcomers to the farming fields of Florida will do well
to avoid those who know "the best section in Florida for
farming." As a general rule, these people who claim to have
studied the farming situation in this State and to have
picked the "choice spot" of them all are generally more
interested in selling land than in the ultimate success of the
buyer. There may be very good reasons on which they base
their claims, but the newcomer will do well not to accept
their decisions without first making a thorough investiga-
tion of Florida farming conditions for themselves. The
old, experienced farming men of Florida-those who have
had the opportunity to observe conditions in all sections of
the State-will generally tell you that no one section of
Florida has all of the advantages for farming; that they
all have some disadvantages; that the newcomer must com-
pare these advantages and disadvantages himself and de-
cide for himself where it will be best to locate.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
A safe rule for the new settler to follow would be to con-
fine his selection of a farm site to those localities which are
developed in the particular farming occupations in which
he is primarily interested. Or he may well locate in a
county which has a competent agricultural agent to assist
him in learning Florida conditions or practices, or in a de-
velopment project which renders a capable advisory service
to new settlers on its tracts. Oftentimes the matter of
securing the assistance of agricultural specialists is one of
considerable importance to the new settler; especially so
if he is not experienced in farming work.
Florida farming conditions are so varied that they are
apt to confuse the prospective new settler who attempts to
study them with any degree of thoroughness. The prob-
lems to be considered in locating a farm should not dis-
courage him, however. There is no location that can be con-
sidered as ideal. All the newcomer need do is to school
himself in the fundamental factors involved in the produc-
tion of crops so he can avoid making such a poor selection
for a farm site that he will necessarily fail. There are so
many sections in Florida so well suited for different types
of farming that the prospective settler can readily find
them, and with a little study decide between them.
The Florida farmer has a greater opportunity than farm-
ers in any other section of the country to diversify his pro-
duction. Diversification assures a farmer of an income
year in and year out and protects him from a heavy loss in
any one year when markets for particular crops may be
glutted, or when weather conditions or diseases may destroy
certain crops. An income from a number of crops should
be figured upon in the establishment of new farms in
An All-Around Farm
Different types of soils are desirable for the production
of our various fruit and vegetable crops, but with a little
search a 40- or 80-acre tract of land can almost always be
found in this State which has the different important soils.
The land may be mainly suited for the production of citrus
fruits, but if it borders a lake or a hammock there is fre-
quently some muck soil to be found which, when drained,
will be excellent for the growing of a number of vegetable
crops. A well-located farm in Florida, even on a compara-
tively small tract, can have a range of soils permitting the
32 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
production of citrus fruits or avocados, vegetables requir-
ing more fertile soils, general farm crops and feed crops
for cows, hogs or chickens.
In the central hill sections of Florida it is of great impor-
tance in the selection of a new farm site that the question
of what is known as "air drainage" is considered. Land
located in what is known as a "pocket"-a place where cold
air settles on frosty nights-is to be avoided. Hillside loca-
tions, affording a constant movement of the air, offer con-
siderable protection against occasional freezing tempera-
When considering the problem of frost and freeze protec-
tion, new farm settlers should also give consideration to the
protection afforded by large lakes, or a large number of
small lakes. These bodies of water store up heat during
the day and help to warm the air passing over it on cold
The claims of a good many local civic organizations to the
contrary notwithstanding, there is no bona fide absolutely
guaranteed "frost line" or "frost proof" section in Flor-
ida. Key West, on the tip of the Florida keys, is the only
place in this State, according to records of the United
States Weather Bureau, which has not at some time re-
corded a freezing temperature. In every farming section
of the State, the question of danger from frosts and freezes
is to be seriously considered, and it is advisable that the
new settler carefully consider these dangers before he em-
barks upon any actual farming occupations. Florida freezes
are comparatively rare, but that is what makes them so
dangerous. Farmers are too often inclined to not consider
them, and the freezes invariably come just at the time when
they are least prepared to avert or sustain their damage.
The problem of frost and freeze protection is one of the
most important for new fruit and vegetable growers. A
disregard for the possible danger in freezing temperatures
in the selection of a new farm site may lead to ultimate
Sources of Information
There are a number of sources of information for the new
farm settler coming to Florida. The most important ones
are the Florida Department of Agriculture at Tallahassee,
and the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, both at Gaines-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
ville, which distribute booklets and pamphlets on different
farming subjects free upon request.
The annual proceedings of the Florida State Horticultu-
ral Society are a very valuable aid to the fruit grower, and
may be obtained by sending a membership fee of $2 to Mr.
W. W. Others, the assistant secretary, at Orlando. The
Florida Grape Growers' Association, of which Prof. E. L.
Lord, of Gainesville, is president, will gladly help people
interested in establishing vineyards. The Florida State
Marketing Bureau at Jacksonville distributes information
on market prices for Florida farm crops. The Florida Cer-
tified Farms and Grove Association, located at Orlando, can
supply information about many of the different farm de-
velopment projects. The secretary of the American Poul-
try Association of Florida is Mr. H. C. Hull, of Dade City.
Two books which new settlers may be interested in are
Prof. Harold Hume's "Citrus Fruits and Their Culture"
and Prof. P. H. Rolf's "Sub-Tropical Vegetable Garden-
ing," both of which may be ordered through the Florida
Grower, at Tampa. This publication will gladly furnish
information on any Florida farming subject. Services of
its associate editors on citrus, vegetable, dairying and poul-
try subjects, are, of course, available to prospective new
settlers at all times when they want detailed information
on specific subjects from the most reliable sources.
34 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
What Paid in Wisconsin Works
Also in Florida
As PROVED BY HIERNANDO'S DAIRYING PIONEERS.
By ASHTON W. DAVIS.
In the Florida Grower.
OUT amidst the rolling countryside of IIernando
county, dairying has a foothold as a staunch neces-
sity and, in the course of a few short miles, you can
travel from Florida to Wisconsin and return and get on
speaking terms with Middle Western milk-farming prac-
tices modeled and modified to coincide with Florida condi-
Yes, this foregoing statement reads as of 1926, place not
far from Brooksville, scene a facsimile of a modern Wiscon-
sin dairy farm set down in a fertile district of Western
Florida and participants, an ex-Wisconsin milk-farming
family and your humble servant, the writer.
Being pretty thoroughly schooled in dairy management
as followed out in the longitude of Wisconsin and Illinois-
a schooling gained, by the way, on the working end of a
milk stool-we felt like giving three cheers and a tiger
when we found an honest-to-gosh Badger dairy farm down
in the land of palms, pines and palmettos. For in touring
the great peninsula state from ocean to gulf and from Dade
county to Jefferson, we had been reviewing regretfully the
opportunities which the rank and file of Florida milk-
makers were neglecting-to home-grow the majority of
their feed, to scratch the retail feed dealer off their regular
calling list and to improve their herds by upgrading via the
use of the best obtainable purebred sires.
In a powerful motor car, we rolled down a typical Flor-
ida straightaway with turpentine pines on one side and a
couple of citrus groves on the other, rounded a curve, saw
spacious fields of green ahead, a battery of wooden silos,
barns and stable painted red, a house as spick and span as
a candy shop adorned by a well-kept lawn and enough flow-
ers and ornamentals to stock a florist's store.
HERNANDO'S MASTER DAIRYMAN
"Company halt!" we cried, and "Hello, Wisconsin dairy-
man," all together as we stopped our car, scrambled out,
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
camera in hand and passed through a substantial and
sightly entrance bound on our half day's visit with O. P.
Wernicke, boss farmer and master-dairyman of Hernando
county, Florida, U. S. A.
We went to see the husband and father, the man who
had carved and shaped a successful dairy farm from the
semi-tropical jungle-a pathfinder who has hewed out the
way which others of his profession may potentially follow.
Unfortunately for us, Mr. Wernicke was not at home. We
came unexpected. He had gone with visiting relatives from
Wisconsin to an adjoining county where his family had
formerly lived. But we found in Mrs. Wernicke and her
daughter reliable sources of information, for this ex-Wis-
consin family is one that believes in all its members sharing
in the business discussions and management problems which
develop. And then, there were the boys, a trio of them
and a couple of them grown to young manhood-splendid
chaps who were instilled with the love of country life and
dairying as a result of home teaching and their agricultural
If you have never heard of the Wernicke dairy farm, the
chances are that you have never visited the Brooksville lo-
cality, for everybody up that way knows this dairying fam-
ily-and respects its industry, initiative, ingenuity, ideas
and ideals. For the Wernickes, both old and young, are im-
bued with the courage of their convictions. They believe in
trying new methods and improving the old ones. They are
progressive, persistent, patient, persevering, plucky and
practical in their agricultural activities from raising pas-
ture crops to utilizing silos and harnessing machinery to
replace costly hand labor for farming work.
Well, as we mentioned, we made the trip from the atmos-
phere of Florida to that of Wisconsin in a couple of hops,
steps and jumps and before we knew it we were plunged
into a lengthy conversation with the Wernickes concerning
this and that dairying practice, comparing Wisconsin and
Florida methods, talking about the famous Waukesha and
Fon du Lac dairy counties of Wisconsin, the agricultural
college at Madison, admittedly one of the best in the world,
and the progress which the University of Florida was mak-
ing under the masterly leadership of Dr. A. A. Murphree.
The Wernickes have three wooden stave silos. This gives
them canned corn storage for more than 200 tons of ensi-
lage. And let me tell you right here that ensilage is as fine
36 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
as any made in Florida and every shred and scrap of it is
efficiently utilized in the manufacture of raw market milk.
A plenitude of corn ensilage, fifty to sixty acres of oats
raised as a pasture crop, a wealth of carpet grass grazing
in addition to other native grass pasture reflect the full
stomachs of the Wernicke cows. These animals never lack
for succulent, palatable feed irrespective of time, season or
condition of the weather.
IN FLORIDA 26 YEARS
This family, which once lived in Milwaukee county, Wis-
consin, has been receiving its mail in Florida now for
twenty-six years, the last half a dozen of which have been
spent near Brooksville. Previously, they developed and
operated a successful dairy farm near Avon Park, Florida.
They have farmed and fed, harvested and handled accord-
ing to Badger State systems and methods modified to cor-
respond with Florida conditions. Wisconsin, as you may
know, is one of the best organized dairy states in all crea-
tion. Certain counties specialize in the production of cer-
tain breeds of cattle. Cow-testing clubs are legion. Milk
scales are found in every barn. Co-operative buying and
selling societies are as common as crossroads' stores. Scien-
tific dairying, breed lore, ration compounding practices,
soil conservation, maximum feed production, alfalfa and
clover growing and the substitution of machinery labor for
man labor are discussed whenever and wherever farmers
gather-exactly as the soaring prices of realty and farm
lands are discussed in far-away Florida.
Mr. Wernicke tried for years to get the farmers of the
Florida neighborhoods in which he has lived to band to-
gether in similar societies. His efforts, for the most part,
have been futile. Florida agriculture, still in the pioneer-
ing era in many respects, has not yet turned to co-operation
and specialized organization to remedy its evils and de-
fects. But the dawn of statewide organization and co-op-
eration is in the offing. Mr. Wernicke's campaign for co-
operation was premature, but as sure as the millennium, it
will bear fruit in the future.
MARKET IN BROOKSVILLE
The Wernicke herd of grade Jerseys consists of fifty
milch cows and thirty head of young stock. When the herd
is in the flush of milk making, from 800 to 900 pounds of
this cash crop are hauled to the Brooksville dairy daily.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
This is equivalent to a maximum daily yield of more than
110 gallons. The average milk crop per day for the year
ranges between 500 and 600 pounds. The milk is partic-
ularly rich, testing from 5 to 5.5 per cent. On account of
the high test, Mr. Wernicke receives $5 a hundred pounds
for his milk, a price which makes dairying profitable under
conditions such as obtain in Florida where this particular
producer had capitalized to the maximum on climatic ad-
vantages as aids to feed production and herd management.
O. P. Wernicke came to Florida originally for his health
and has remained to aid in laying the foundation of an
affluent dairying industry. He founded his Brooksville
herd by purchasing twelve animals eleven years ago. All
the other animals which now compose the herd are of home-
raising, having been reared on the Wernicke farm where
they first saw the sun rise. Heretofore, Mr. Wernicke has
always kept one or two of the best registered Jersey bulls
which he could secure in Florida.
In addition to raising and developing one of the best
grade Jersey herds in the State, Mr. Wernicke has also
reared three sons who will be qualified to take up the exec-
utiveship of the remarkable dairy farm whenever their
father decides to lay aside managerial cares and responsi-
bilities. These boys were former members of Uncle Sam's
best juvenile club work as sponsored by the United States
Department of Agriculture. Raymond, 24 years; Elmer,
21, and Edwin, 18, have all served successful apprentice-
ships in corn club work. During the years when they were
club members, they almost invariably ranked among the
winners in the Hernando county corn-growing contests.
In fact, on several occasions, the competition developed
into a family affair between the Wernicke boys. One of
them usually won the championship in Hernandb.
Literally and physically, Mr. Wernicke carved his dairy
farm from the timberlands and semi-tropical jungle. Dur-
ing the inception of his milk farm, its only link with the
railroad and Brooksville was a trail through the woods.
Finally, the era of improved roads came and a permanent
highway was built which now borders the Wernicke farm
for several hundred rods. When the farm was first cleared
there was no local market for wood or timber. Most of the
material was burned to get it out of the way, although a
number of carloads of hardwood were later sold as stump-
age. The raw land which Mr. Wernicke purchased for $35
38 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
an acre eleven years ago is today worth from $300 to $400
an acre-about as outstanding a rise in agricultural land
values as you can find anywhere in the peninsula state.
There is still much timber on the Wernicke farm of 227
acres but conditions are now quite different from 1915, as
today all this standing timber represents a very valuable
potential crop. About one-third of the corn crop of approx-
imately fifty-five acres is ensiled. The silos usually are
opened for feeding purposes about the first week in October
and under this schedule the canned supply of succulence
generally lasts until the latter part of April the following
spring. The sixty-acre tract of fall oats is subdivided into
four or five tracts so as to facilitate sequence grazing. The
arrangement is such that one field is always coming on as
another is being grazed. There is also plenty of native pas-
ture. The general range of soils in the Brooksville district
is fertile. Where the underbrush and trees are cleared so
as to admit air and sunshine, carpet grass, which is indige-
nous in that section, comes in rapidly and spreads quickly.
This infers that the natural pasturage is usually abundant
where the dairyman will take the trouble to clear his wood-
land so that carpet grass will make a good stand.
SEVENTY-FIVE BUSHELS CORN YIELD
The highest yield made by the Wernicke boys during
their club days was a crop of seventy-five bushels of shelled
corn per acre. This crop was produced without the sup-
plementary use of any commercial fertilizer. The average
yield of the corn grown by the Wernicke boys during their
club work was sixty-seven bushels per acre. Their father
has always been an advocate of the use of purebred seed
corn. One of his most painstaking duties is to select the
seed corn supply for the following year's crop. He walks
through the field when the crop is mature and picks the
best ears, selecting them from the largest and most pro-
ductive stalks. This seed corn, after proper curing, is
stored in barrels secure against losses by vermin. Carbon
bisulphide is employed as an essential protection against
weevil, one of the most destructive enemies of the corn crop
in Florida. The corn crop is planted from the middle of
March to the first of April and the silos are filled the latter
part of June.
In addition to their father's teachings, the Wernicke
boys have been inculcated with the germs of the most ap-
proved systems of modern farming by attendance at the
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
juvenile short courses in agriculture held annually at the
State Agricultural College at Gainesville. Raymond and
Elmer Wernicke were enrolled at these short courses sev-
eral different years as rewards for proficiency in club work
and junior farming. At the great State school, the boys
became acquainted with the rudiments of live stock judg-
ing, soil practices, dairy husbandry and other of the
sciences which the Gainesville professors teach.
The oats drilled in during late September are ready for
grazing about the first week in January and provide green
feed until the forepart of May. By that time the native
pastures are ready for active service. When the carpet
grass begins to get short and scant the following fall, the
silos are opened and provide succulence until the following
spring. In addition to plenty of green feed of this de-
scription, the Wernickes also utilize gasoline engine power
and a special feed mill to convert their surplus ear corn
into corn and cob meal for the cows. Two thirds of the
ordinary corn crop is fed in this manner and marketed at
high prices in the more concentrated form of milk. During
some seasons, Mr. Wernicke prepares a part or all of the
the oat crop acreage after it has been pastured to exhaus-
tion and plants cow peas for hay. However, there is an
impediment to cow pea hay-making which usually jeopard-
izes the efficient salvage of this important crop. Hay-mak-
ing occurs, as a rule, during the rainy season. It is ex-
tremely difficult during the average year to cure the crop
without serious spoilage. Cow pea hay is an admirable long
feed for Florida cows but the difficulties associated with its
successful harvest have restricted the use of this important
leguminous roughage in many sections of the State.
PARA GRASS FOR THE MULES
Two acres of Para grass provide hay for the work mules.
This hay crop prospers in Western Florida, can be cut twice
a year and provides satisfactory long feed. Like sorghum,
it has coarse stalks and stems. This hay crop, even though
exposed to rainfall during the curing season, can be saved
under ordinary circumstances. The coarse stalks and stems
aid air ventilation in the shocks and prevent the heating
and moulding of the roughage.
The Wernickes and other successful dairymen in Florida
have demonstrated that milk-farming can be made to pay
even despite the parasitic activities of the cattle ticks-
animal pirates which annually exact heavy toll and tribute
40 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
from live stock farmers in infested areas. By judicious
dipping and spraying, Florida dairymen are combatting
the cattle ticks. Animal husbandry, however, under such
conditions operates under a handicap. Were the state
tick-free the returns from milk-farming would be corre-
spondingly increased. But milk producers by studying the
situation carefully and experimenting have worked out
measures and methods which enable them to fight the tick
to the extent that dairying can be continued.
One outstanding natural feature of the Wernicke dairy
farm is a fine spring which is piped to all parts of the farm
buildings, house and fields. It so happens that this spring
rises at the crown of a hill about 100 feet high. The fall is
sufficient so that a high water pressure is developed. Bath-
room facilities add modern conveniences to the Wernicke
residence while a home acetylene plant provides artificial
illumination in the house, barns and dairy.
"Do one thing and do it well, but don't dabble in too
many activities," is the motto of this Florida dairy farm.
All the energy of the Wernicke family is concentrated on
milk production. True, there is an old six-acre citrus grove
on the place while the Wernickes have set out twelve acres
of tangerines. These enterprises dovetail nicely with dairy-
ing pursuits and do not compete at emergency times for
the labor supply. Hogs, on the other hand, are objection-
able because they demand skim milk for feed. The porkers
also root up the oat fields and generally do not fit in well
under Florida conditions with milch cow farming. Citrus
and poultry or citrus and dairying are mutually agreeable
enterprises which team together like twin peas in a pod
and hence merit development and extension.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
The Romance of Farm Machinery
INVENTIVE GENIUS LIBERATED THE LAND TILLER AND MADE
(From American Farming.)
IMPORTANT chapters are being added these days to the
evolution of farm machinery. Noteworthy incidents
transpire with surprising frequency. The urge of eco-
nomic necessity makes the dream of yesterday the accom-
plished fact of today. Fiction contains no romance more
fascinating than the story of the development of agricul-
tural implements; the influence of this transformation is
more far-reaching than the result of any war.
The history of farm machinery is really the romance of
the land tiller's deliverance from serfdom and his rise to a
position of equality and honor. In the day when the tedious
tasks of producing and processing farm crops were done
principally by human hands, slaves were an economic ne-
cessity to the operation of large estates and plantations. In
foreign lands, where such labor still is done almost entirely
by hand, poverty and backwardness as hopeless as slavery
continue to be the lot of the field worker.
This bit of tremendously important history is all the
more interesting when we consider that the first of the great
agricultural inventions was devised hardly more than one
and a third centuries ago, another is just 95 years old,
while the majority of them have come within the last fifty
It was in 1792 that Eli Whitney, a young Connecticut
school teacher, stranded in Georgia, invented the cotton
gin (the word "gin' being a contraction of "engine").
Prior to that time a negro slave had to work diligently to
separate a pound of lint cotton from the seed in a day's
time. The South could not advance; something had to be
done-hence the invention.
The great prairies of the Mississippi valley and the West-
ern country were of little use for grain-growing until on a
hot day in July, 1831, Cyrus H. McCormick, a young Vir-
ginia farmer and blacksmith, demonstrated that standing
grain can be cut successfully by machinery. Hitherto the
limiting factor to production had been the cradling by
42 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
hand. It was, however, nine years after that the first
reaper was sold for $50-and two years later before seven
more were marketed at $100 each. At the first world's fair
held in London, England, in 1851, the McCormick reaper
was declared to be "the most wonderful article contributed
to this exhibition." Like the cotton gin, the reaper was
really an economic necessity-the world needed more grain
than men could harvest.
When the cradle gave way to the reaper, the flail, which
had succeeded the ox-trodden threshing floor of ancient
times, was found to be too slow a means of threshing. Sev-
eral men contributed to the invention of the modern
thresher, the first patent on a power thresher being issued
to Pitts Brothers, of Winthrop, Maine, in 1837.
Reapers and threshers were useless in the great open
spaces of America unless the virgin prairies could first be
planted-and the heavy soil refused to scour off of the
wooden moldboards of the plows then in use. John Deere,
a Vermont blacksmith, who had located at Grand De-
tour, Ill., solved the problem by designing and making a
plow with a steel moldboard. Three of these plows were
made in 1838, ten the following year and seventy-five in
All of these implements since have undergone steady
improvement and enlargement, but the principles involved
are still the same. Particularly is this true in the case of
the reaper. The principles that had to be worked out by
young McCormick before his first reaper would operate are
still incorporated in the binder of today that bears his
With the present century has come the automobile-
which destroys farm isolation-the auto truck and the gas
tractor, the latter making mechanical power available to
the average farm.
The hay loader, the corn picker, the Babcock tester and
the cream separator are but a few of the later chapters
written into agricultural progress by inventive genius.
Machinery has made possible large-scale production, mak-
ing farming profitable. However, this larger production
has in many instances entailed much heavy labor, such as
that of threshing. Not only does threshing, as generally
practiced necessitate long hours of hot and fatiguing toil
for men, but cooking for threshing crews puts a heavy
burden upon farm women.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 43
Much of this labor is eliminated when grain is harvested
with a combine-a machine that threshes the grain as it
is cut and delivers the grain into sacks or pours it into
the bed of an accompanying truck or wagon. Such ma-
chines have been used for a number of years in the great
wheat fields of the west, particularly on the Pacific coast.
However, the combine is too cumbersome for use on
the smaller farms of the Mississippi valley. To meet the
needs of this region a smaller machine, known as the har-
vester-thresher, has been designed. Such a machine will
cut and thresh about thirty-five acres of wheat in a day,
pulled and operated by a tractor of sufficient power. Thus
the harvesting crew is reduced to three men-one to operate
the tractor, another to run the truck and a third man in
charge of the elevator into which the grain is placed.
Bundle-tossing and other arduous and dirty jobs of thresh-
ing as ordinarily done are dispensed with-and the farm
wife is relieved of the dread of summertime, the task of
cooking for threshers.
Recently we saw a McCormick-Deering harvester-
thresher operating in a field near Hinsdale, 111. It was
pulled by a 15-30 tractor with a power take-off for the
operation of the machine. The harvester cut a swath ten
feet wide, the grain falling onto a moving platform which
conveyed it into the thresher, the capacity of which was
great enough to make choking improbable, even in the
heaviest stands. The straw is spread evenly over the
ground so that it can be plowed under.
The threshing crew consisted of one man-the tractor
operator, who could just as well have been riding beneath
a canopy as out in the sun. At intervals a motor truck
would dash out into the field and pull along side the
thresher; the sluice gates would open and the grain would
pour out into the truck bed.
The grain tested eighteen per cent moisture, which is
about five per cent more than grain should contain. How-
ever, this excess moisture was being overcome by blowing
the grain into a ventilated bin. In the sides of the wooden
bin were screened strips about four inches wide at intervals
of about two feet. Screened ventilator troughs, much like
those often used in storing soft corn, extended across the
bin. These were placed in loosely, so that each tier could
be removed at emptying time as the grain was lowered to
44 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
The new harvester-thresher is said to cut the cost of
producing wheat at least twenty cents per bushel, which
is truly a tremendous saving. It is also claimed that the
grain loss in threshing by the new method is much less
than by the process of harvesting, shocking and threshing.
In the threshing of soy-beans, sweet clover and other
crops the new harvester-thresher effects even greater sav-
ings than it does in wheat threshing. The loss of soy-beans,
when cut and threshed in the usual way, is about fifty
per cent, whereas with the new machine the loss is less
than five per cent. A novel use recently found for the
harvester-thresher was that of threshing several acres of
turnip seed down in western Tennessee.
As we watched that machine make trip after trip around
that field, and contemplated the tremendous amount of
heavy labor that it was eliminating, we wondered if the
prediction that farming will some day be reduced to a job
principally of pressing a set of electric buttons is, after
all, such an idle dream. Surely it is not more preposterous
than would have seemed a prediction of a horseless harvest-
er-thresher before the day of Cyrus H. McCormick-and
that was less than a century ago.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Agricultural Industry Needs
P. W. ZIMMERMAN, PH. D., ASSOCIATE DEAN, COLLEGE OF
AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, IN
WE can legislate with the idea of aiding rural people
all we please, but there are natural laws, not sub-
ject to interpretations by the courts, which will
always take precedence. No court can force an individual
to buy or sell goods against his will. If I have a surplus
of something which you do not need, I must be the loser
unless there are other outlets. No state or national law
can alter such natural situations. If there be outlets for
surplus products the purchase price will be near the
average cost of production price. In this case those farmers
who produce maximum crops at minimum cost per acre
will have their farm mortgages paid off twenty years from
now, while the fellow who continues to worry about over-
production and runs his farm half-heartedly will have
larger mortgages as the years roll by.
STANDS FOR COLLEGE TRAINING.
"'Maximum crops at minimum costs" in the highest sense
is possible for only those who have had college training
or its equivalent. Peasantry is the other alternative. The
middle-class farmer at the present rate of slumping can
hold forth hardly longer than fifty more years. It must,
however, be recognized that as trained rural leaders in-
crease and vocational agriculture gets into the rural schools
the evil day will be pushed many, many years into the
future. We need to think more about ways to prevent
that great American industry, agriculture, which has
placed our nation highest among all civilized nations of
the world, from slumping into peasantry. Some of us be-
lieve that the state agricultural colleges hold the solution
for our problem, but to accomplish what they should they
need the sincere support of manufacturers and other in-
dustrial concerns over the United States.
46 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
MORE STUDENTS NEEDED.
One serious need of agricultural colleges now is a student
enrollment large enough to insure future leaders for our
country. The following extract taken from a pamphlet sent
to Maryland high school students tells some interesting
"Agriculture during the past few years has, as a rule,
been unprofitable, and this condition has reflected itself
upon the enrollment of men in agricultural courses in
the colleges. Last year the enrollment in freshmen classes
in agriculture in the United States was smaller than it has
been for many years and smaller than will be needed to
turn out graduates in numbers sufficient to fill the places
needing men with such training. The turnover and in-
crease in county agent positions during the year 1922-23
required 500 new men. To fill positions as instructors,
as investigators or as extension specialists in agricultural
subjects in the land-grant colleges required 350, while 150
filled similar positions in closely related subjects. In one
year the United States Department of Agriculture has
employed 550, while at least 1,000 have gone into high
school work as teachers of agriculture or of the sciences.
It is very difficult to learn how many have entered agricul-
tural production, either on farms of their own or in the
employ of others, and there are doubtless many who enter
occupations not closely related to agriculture. But to fill
all of these needs only about 4,000 freshmen entered agri-
cultural courses in the United States in 1923. Many of
these will not complete their course.
"Will the number who graduate and who are qualified
for such work be sufficient to fill replacement needs in
agricultural production and in other positions needing
"Now let us view the situation from the standpoint of
the rural community. If purchasing power of the farmers'
dollar continues to improve at the rate of the past two
years, then a young man entering college next year should
find, when he graduates, that the farmers' dollar is worth
one hundred cents for the purchase of other commodities.
When this occurs agriculture will be relatively as prosper-
ous as it was before the war. But agriculture must ad-
vance, rural organization and co-operation cannot make
the strides they should make until there are in every com-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
munity at least some farmers trained for the type of
leadership that must be had if these organizations' efforts
are to be successful.
LACK OF TRAINING DISADVANTAGE.
"In many specialized lines of endeavor the untrained
man is at a distinct disadvantage. As an illustration of
this fact it is worth while noting that, while only a small
percentage of men on farms have a college training, yet
more than eighty per cent of the dairy cattle making ad-
vanced registry records in this state are handled by college-
"No agricultural community can be most intelligently
represented in the legislative halls until that community
is represented by farmers themselves, but no community
can afford to elect farmers to represent it unless it has
among its members men who can command the confidence,
the respect and the following of their fellow-legislators.
A study of the educational training of those who are elected
to such positions brings out the fact that relatively few
men have the power of legislative command unless they
have had college training.
Many graduates in agricultural courses do not get back
to the farm immediately, but very few of the graduates
in other college courses ever get back. Should you not
train yourself in order that your community may be pro-
vided with the trained leadership it will need in coming
WHERE GRADUATES GO.
The following data is a fair approximation of the dis-
tribution of the graduates of the agricultural colleges of
the country for any given year:
On the farm, fifty per cent.
As owners, tenants, salaried managers and salaried spe-
cialists in the following classifications:
General farmers, producers of specialized crops, seed-
men, nurserymen, florists, landscape gardeners, orchardists,
truck gardeners, foresters, dairymen, poultrymen, live
In commercial business, eighteen per cent.
As salesmen and as employes other than salesmen in
the following classifications:
Nursery stock, fruit, vegetable and produce, sprays and
spray equipment, livestock, marketing associations, farm
48 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
bureau, fertilizer establishments, meat-packing establish-
ments, canning establishments, flour mills, sugar and to-
bacco and similar establishments.
In the United States Department of Agriculture, eigh-
teen per cent.
At least 500 openings per year in these positions are
being filled by agricultural college graduates:
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Bureau of Animal
Industry, Bureau of Plant Industry, Forestry Service,
Bureau of Chemistry, Bureau of Soils, Bureau of Entomo-
logy, Office of Co-operative Extension Work.
In universities and experiment stations, twelve per cent.
Teaching or investigation in agriculture, 350 openings
Crop production, soils, animal husbandry, dairy hus-
bandry, fruit production, vegetable production, floricul-
ture, landscape gardening, poultry husbandry, farm man-
Teachings or investigation in related subjects, three per
One hundred and fifty openings each year in the follow-
Agricultural engineering, bacteriology, botany, entomo-
logy, agricultural economics, pathology, physiology and
County agricultural agents, nine per cent.
Five hundred openings each year.
In high schools, six per cent.
Teachers of vocational agriculture.
Let us quit worrying about the fact that not all agri-
cultural college graduates get back to the farm. Let them
go where they are most needed, to a bank, a factory, or to
some other commercial concern. So long as they keep
their interest in some of the things which concern agri-
culture they help to make for permanent prosperity of
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Important Developments in
(Address by Lloyd S. Tenney, Acting Chief, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, before the Associated Ad-
vertising Clubs of the World) :
THERE is some natural measure of satisfaction to me
in appearing before this audience as the representa-
tive of Secretary Jardine. We are all alive, I am
sure, to the mutuality of interest which exists between busi-
ness men and farmers in this country.
The agricultural situation has presented one of the dis-
tressing chapters in the story of economic events since the
war. Happily, the position of farmers has improved slow-
ly but surely until now their industry can at least be called
convalescent, even if not yet wholly well.
The more basic developments underlying the present-day
agricultural situation go back considerably before the war.
It is upon some of these developments and their results that
I wish to touch briefly in this talk.
When, more than three hundred years ago, Peacock and,
later on, Smith were introducing plows with iron mold-
boards into the region round about this very city, they
represented the forerunners of a technical revolution which
we do not yet fully appreciate. In 1834 Cyrus McCormick
took out a patent for an automatic mower, and his first
reaper was built in a little blacksmith's shop down in the
Shenandoah valley. Three of these machines were manu-
factured in 1840, three thousand in 1850, and twenty thou-
sand in 1860, the works meanwhile having been transferred
After the Civil war the development of machinery for
planting, tillage, and harvesting of crops went forward in
an amazing round of invention.
All this was coincident, of course, with the opening up
of our vast new lands of the West. Hand in hand with the
settlement of the world's most superb area of tillable land
came that most notable of all developments in agricultural
production, namely, the advent of modern farm machinery.
Perhaps there is no more significant nor dramatic chapter
than this in all the story of mankind's struggle for food.
Into the lifetime of a single generation we managed to
50 FLORI)A QUARTERLY BULLETIN
crowd technical progress such as fifty previous generations
had not even dreamed of.
Now, that process is still going on, in degree. During the
war we saw an intensification of it, when the pressure of
necessity forced farmers to speed up production and the
development of the gasoline motor and improved machin-
ery made it possible to do so. Between 1910 and 1920 our
crop production per agricultural worker' was increased
eighteen per cent or nearly one-fifth.
Moreover, the process has not been confined to agricul-
ture, as you gentlemen very well know. Our generation
has witnessed a veritable revolution on the side of indus-
trial production. The net effect of it all has been to hasten
this era of specialization.
AGRICULTURE ON COMMERCIAL BASIS.
One of the products of the modern scheme of things has
been to shift agriculture from its old self-sufficing basis
to an essentially commercial basis. The old household
crafts have disappeared. The farmer sells his products for
cash nowadays and buys manufactured articles to meet his
needs. In consequence, the exchange value of farm prod-
ucts now looms as an all-important economic issue to the
producers thereof. Agriculture finds itself confronted
with a recurrent surplus problem, for the farmer's income
is no longer conditioned upon the bountifulness of his
crop but upon its exchange value.
So we are seeing more and more emphasis placed on
the problem of marketing and distribution. Agriculture
more or less regards itself as now faced with the necessity
for developing an efficiency in merchandising comparable
with its achievements on the production end. You are
hearing a great deal about co-operative marketing these
days. You will almost certainly hear more, for such is
the trend of the times.
MARKETING AS AID TO PRODUCTION.
Until 1913 the Federal Department of Agriculture con-
fined its efforts almost exclusively to the field of produc-
tion. The chief goal was to make two blades grow where
but one grew before. But by 1913 the problems of dis-
posing of the second blade had become sufficiently acute
to bring about a pressing demand from individuals and
from large organizations for advice and assistance in
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
directing their marketing programs along sound economic
lines. Later the bureau of markets was merged with the
bureau of crop estimates and the office of farm manage-
ment to form the bureau of agricultural economics. It
is the aim of this important bureau to focus all available
economic information to facilitate the distribution of our
agricultural products. From the standpoint of the wel-
fare of the nation as a whole it is attempting through its
researches and services to insure to the consumer an ample
supply of food and raw materials at prices which are
reasonable to the consumer and at the same time satis-
factory to the producers. Added: Let me say here, it is
no part of our program to do for the farmer what he can
do as well or better for himself. But in the field of re-
search and in the administration of certain service and
regulatory lines a governmental institution can operate
with peculiar effectiveness. Nowhere is this illustrated
more forcibly than in the development of national stand-
ards for farm products. In this work there can be no
question that the Bureau of Agricultural Economics has
made an outstanding contribution.
The whole marketing structure rests upon graded com-
modities. Farm products pass through many hands in
moving from the centers of production to the world's
markets. Many are contracted for future delivery and a
large part of the business is transacted at long range.
It is essential that there be a common language to insure
mutual understanding between buyers and sellers. All this
is a matter of common knowledge. However, few realize
how within a brief space of ten years this undertaking has
grown from a local and regional question to one of national
and international importance.
Three years ago the Cotton Standard Act was passed
requiring the use of United States standards for all Amer-
ican cotton. By this action close to two billion dollars
worth of cotton is marketed on the basis of a uniform stand-
ard. It is of interest to know that in connection with the
administration of the cotton futures act, last year the
bureau classed one-half million bales for future delivery.
Beginning August 1, 1924, the American standards be-
came the basis for world-wide trade in American cotton.
Although efforts were made in some quarters to return
52 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
to the use of standards of local origin, the merit and de-
sirability of universal standards had been demonstrated,
and the leading cotton associations of the world have sub-
scribed to agreements with the secretary of agriculture to
buy and sell cotton on the basis of no other standards than
the universal standards. This is believed to foreshadow
the adoption of uniform standards and practices in world
trade for many other agricultural products.
Ten years ago national standards for fruits and vege-
tables were regarded as wholly impractical. When the food
administration promulgated as a war measure the potato
grades recommended by our bureau, it was freely predicted
that they would never be used except under compulsion.
Today these grades are used almost universally throughout
the country. In addition, national grades have been recom-
mended for more than forty other fruits and vegetables
and during the past fiscal year the department acting
either independently or in co-operation with the various
states inspected on request at shipping points and in the
large terminal markets more than 175,000 carloads of
fruits and vegetables. These inspections were made largely
on the basis of the United States grades.
Present day marketing operations require liberal credit
to permit distribution over a maximum period. Few
farmers or farmers' organizations are in a position finan-
cially to hold their crops in storage while awaiting a
favorable market. The United States Warehouse Act pro-
tects the interests of farmer and banker alike by licensing
only such public warehousemen as are considered to be
honest in their business relations, financially responsible,
and thoroughly competent to care for the particular prod-
uct offered for storage. Receipts issued under the pro-
visions of this act are commanding more and more atten-
tion on the part of leading bankers.
MARKET NEWS SERVICE.
Another service of the bureau has already become an
integral part of the modern agricultural marketing system.
I refer to the Federal Market News Service. With the
world as a market, the farmer of today must have world
information as to prices, market supplies and shipments
from competing areas. Here again our bureau is in a
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
position to collect from the trade information of a confi-
dential nature to be used, with certain restrictions de-
signed to protect individual business operation, for the
good of all.
Through the use of the telegraph, radio, newspapers,
farm press and mailed bulletins the farmers now have a
better conception of distribution three thousand miles away
than my grandfather did of those within a radius of
In an effort to give adequate information upon which to
plan production programs, the bureau of agricultural
economics once a year prepares and disseminates a report
on the outlook for all important agricultural products.
In February the fourth annual statement was made, cover-
ing the outlook for the production of thirty-three of our
principal crops and classes of livestock. These statements
provide farmers with facts and interpretations of probable
future trends of supply and demand. They are based on
all available information bearing on agricultural condi-
tions, both domestic and foreign. The whole object is to
give producers at planting and breeding time full informa-
tion as to the probable market conditions when the product
is ready for sale.
The Outlook Report issued in February was distributed
to more than 200,000 farmers and others interested in
farming. It was also used in all parts of the country by
both public and private agencies as the basis of state and
There is one division of the bureau, the Division of
Agricultural Co-operation, which is engaged in studies of
the problems of co-operative marketing associations. Co-
operative marketing is not new in the United States; it
dates back over seventy-five years, but its development in
the last decade has been so spectacular that the movement is
now attracting widespread public attention.
A co-operative association is an organization formed by
persons who require certain services, for the purpose of
performing those services theoretically at cost. The dairy-
men of New York State, for example, require marketing
service. They have set up their own organization for this
purpose and are both the owners and patrons of the enter-
prise. There are two or three distinct principles which
54 FLORII)A QUARTERLY BULLETIN
distinguish a co-operative association from a commercial
concern. These principles are (1) an equal share (or at
least an equitable share) in the control of the organiza-
tion by each member, (2) the distribution of profits or
savings to the members in proportion to their patronage,
and (3) the limitation of returns to invested capital to a
rate not greater than eight per cent.
This form of marketing organization has developed
rapidly until at the present there are 12,000 associations in
the United States whose business in 1925 exceeded $2,500,-
000,000. All of the principal farm products are marketed
co-operatively to a greater or less extent. Over 100 co-
operative organizations may be classed as large-scale busi-
ness organizations. Five or six each handle products
annually which exceed $50,000,000 in value.
The first co-operative associations were local organiza-
tions of producers residing in the same community, and
they dealt largely with local problems. Their objectives
have been to reduce the costs of assembling, grading, pack-
ing and processing farm products, to introduce and employ
standard grades and improve packing and handling meth-
ods. Generally, they have made great progress.
For example, grade standards are now promulgated by
the United States Department of Agriculture and some
state agencies. The demand for this service came chiefly
from the organized farmers. The co-operative associations
use these grades as a basis for dealing with their customers
and for making payments to their members. The sale of
farm products under definite, standardized grades serves to
prevent waste and to stabilize marketing. Standard grades
also have a far-reaching influence on production. The
pooling of receipts of sales according to grades by co-
operatives has made it possible for a farmer to receive pay-
ment in accordance with the quality of the product he de-
livers to the association. This encourages the production
of better varieties of fruit, cotton, or poultry, better types
of hogs, milk with a higher percentage of butterfat, or
wheat of a more desirable milling quality. In fact, there is
a general tendency to produce products which meet the de-
mands of the consumers.
Later developments in co-operation have been featured
by the organizations of large-scale co-operatives, either
federations of local associations or large unit organizations,
commonly called "centralized" associations. Organiza-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
tions of this type have undertaken the problems of dis-
tributing and financing the marketing of commodities pro-
duced over a large area. A number of them are engaged
in consumer advertising, and a few through dealer service
activities are attempting to influence the methods employed
to retail their products. In practically no cases, however,
have the farmers' co-operative marketing associations en-
tered the retail field.
The future possibilities of co-operation lie in the field
of both marketing and production. In fact, the growth
of co-operation has made us see that production and mar-
keting are one field, and not distinct and unrelated ac-
tivities as has sometimes been assumed. No argument is
necessary to convince the modern manufacturer that his
production program and sales policy must be correlated.
We can not imagine a condition under which each of
1,000 or 25,000 factory workers would be allowed to turn
out the quantity, kind and grade of product his individual
skill and judgment dictated.
CORRELATED MARKETING AND PRODUCTION.
In agriculture, the quantity, grade and kind of products
produced depend upon the skill and judgment of 6,500,000
individual farmers, with, as an additional factor of un-
certainty, the hazar.'1 of weather, insects and plant disease.
The problem of correlating production and marketing in
agriculture is much more complex than that which con-
fronts the manufacturer.
There is, however, the same need for planned production
in agriculture as in industry. An effective approach to
the problem appears to be through the co-operative asso-
ciations. There is available now a great deal of statistical
information regarding general economic conditions, price
trends, stocks in storage, crop acreage and condition, and
there have been in recent years surveys and reports by
the Department of Agriculture covering farmers' produc-
tion plans, that is, whether they intend during the coming
year to increase or decrease either the livestock on their
farms or the acreage devoted to certain crops. If the co-
operative associations are able to disseminate this informa-
tion to their members in such a way that they will make
practical use of it in formulating their production plans
some progress may be made in adjusting production to de-
mand. But organization for marketing is the first step.
56 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
The co-operative associations also have the opportunity
to make further progress in standardizing agricultural
products and improving methods of distribution. In many
cases, conditions can be improved by manufacturing prod-
ucts of poor quality in the by-products. A number of asso-
ciations are co-operating with research institutions or them-
selves maintain a research department to discover and
perfect methods of manufacturing such by-products. The
associations marketing cotton, dried fruit and other prod-
ucts have entered into the world market and maintain their
own agents in foreign countries. Because they represent
the producer and because through federations or large-
scale centralized associations they can control a large
volume, the co-operative associations have an opportunity
to reduce further marketing costs and improve methods
of distribution. Their activities benefit the consumer as
well as the producer.
The Department of Agriculture is in no way attempting
to regulate the co-operative movement, nor is it engaged
in the promotion of co-operative organizations. We believe
that the associations should be free to develop in accord-
ance with the needs of the farmers with such assistance
as the government can properly give but without govern-
mental regulation and restraint.
The whole co-operative movement stands out as one of
the significant developments of recent years. It represents
perhaps the most effective effort of farmers to meet the
perplexing problems of merchandising incident to modern
In a larger sense, too, co-operative marketing appears to
offer one possible approach to the solution of the agricul-
tural surplus problem. For not only farmer control but
collective action, both in adjusting production to market
needs and in disposing of surpluses when they occur, are
essential in any such solution.
Secretary Jardine has consistently urged that, in respect
to legislation designed to relieve the surplus problem,
governmental aid could be applied most effectively within
this field of merchandising. He sponsored the bill to en-
large the Department of Agriculture's work along this
line. That bill passed the house unanimously and is at
the moment pending in the senate.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
The secretary feels, however, that legislation should go
further than the setting up of an agency within the De-
partment of Agriculture for further work in co-operative
marketing, important as this may be. It is the thought
that these proposed measures would serve to strengthen
farmers' co-operative agencies to the point where they
would be a real factor in shaping production so as to
minimize and at times even eliminate economic surpluses
and also help more effectively to dispose of surpluses
The central fact stands out, as I indicated in the begin-
ning, that the development of modern commercial agri-
culture has somewhat shifted the farmer's immediate
problems from production to marketing. You will find this
borne out in agricultural expression on all sides. You
will see it borne out in the trend of legislative action.
It may confidently be hoped that forward-looking busi-
ness men of this country will lend their support to such
developments as promise sound progress for our farming
industry. For nothing is more certain than that lasting
prosperity for this nation is absolutely conditioned upon
a stable and prosperous agriculture.
58 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
An Adventure In Self Qovernment
('o-OPERATIVE MARKETING IS AMERICA'S NEWEST FIGHT
BY CLARENCE POE, EDITOR PROGRESSIVE FARMER.
A ll over the South these last few weeks members of
co-operative marketing organizations have been dis-
cussing policies of their associations, getting reports
Irom their officials and directors, and considering what
men should be chosen as directors for the ensuing year. My
own "member ballot" lies before me on my desk as I write
It has been wisely said of government that "A frequent
recurrence to fundamental principles is essential to lib-
erty." In other words, we ought to stop every now and
then and ask ourselves where we are really trying to get
to and whether we are actually getting there.
The same principle should hold good in the case of co-
operative marketing; and I therefore believe it worth while
right now for all readers, whether or not they are members
of co-operatives, to ask themselves exactly what is the pur-
pose of co-operative marketing and whether it is driving
steadily toward that purpose.
THE TWO PURPOSES OF CO-OPERATIVE
A great many people have thought of co-operative mar-
keting as having only one purpose, that being somewhat
increased prices for farm products-increased prices not
only (a) for the members themselves as the result of econ-
omies in selling, but also (b) for all farmers as a result of
the new policy of orderly and gradual selling in lieu of the
old "dumping" system.
My own view is that no co-operative marketing organiza-
tion is going to succeed unless it constantly keeps two su-
preme purposes in view:
1. A financial gain-growing out of increased prices for
farm products as just indicated.
2. A human gain-growing out of the development of
the co-operative as an organization "of the growers, for the
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
growers, by the growers;'" the development of the member-
ship of each co-operative in the forms, life, and ideals of
democracy and self-government.
In other words, I believe that each co-operative market-
ing organization should be an adventure in self-government
by the farmers and that co-operative marketing is there-
fore America's newest fight for democracy. Hence, those
of us who are sincerely endeavoring to establish co-opera-
tive marketing along right lines are the new pioneers in the
world-old fight for self-government, the never-ending re-
volt against autocracy, the patient, age-long fight to estab-
lish genuine government "of the people, for the people, by
the people." We are holding the farthest outpost of de-
mocracy-fighting in the same spirit in which those earlier
pioneers fought who wrested Magna Charta from King
John at Runnymede, or shared the indomitable patience of
Washington at Valley Forge and Trenton, or those later
heroes who uncrowned a Kaiser in their fight to "make the
world safe for democracy."
TWO THINGS TO DO FOR CO-OPERATIVE
If this is what co-operative marketing means-and this
is what I really believe it does mean-then all its advocates
ought to be willing to do two things:
1. We ought to be willing to endure and suffer quite a
good deal for the sake of carrying this cause through its
earliest and most difficult stages and on to its secure estab-
2. We ought to be forever ready to oppose and fight
those who would degrade the ideals of co-operative market-
ing or take away from it its high purpose not only to
increase farm profits but also to give to our farmers new
power and new dignity as men who know and control all the
policies affecting the sale of the products they have made
in the sweat of their faces-rural self-government.
Unfortunately, there are yet plenty of men-and some of
them sincere men prominent in co-operative marketing
work-who do not believe at all in this idea of making each
co-operative marketing association a real democracy, of
making each co-operative a little self-governing republic
"of the farmers, for the farmers, by the farmers."
Only a few days ago I heard such beliefs sharply chal-
lenged by a man who spoke as an advocate of co-operative
60 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
marketing. He did not believe in democracy, he said, add-
ing that the fewer the people who had control of any organ-
ization, the more effective it was. Farmers are not fit to
control the marketing of their own products, he said; that
was why they must organize associations and surrender con-
trol to someone else.
From all these views I most sharply dissent. I not only
believe that each co-operative should be a real democracy,
but I believe if it is not made a real democracy, farmers
will sooner or later leave it-and ought to do so. Acting
individually, "every man for himself and the devil take
the hindmost," farmers cannot wisely control the market-
ing of their products. Acting co-operatively through a co-
operative marketing association, they can do so. And in
grappling with the problems that affect the co-operative
farmers will grow in intellectual and moral power, will
develop leaders from their own ranks, and altogether will
grow in manhood and dignity and win increased influence
in all the agencies of society and government. As I said
several weeks ago:
"One of the great problems facing America is that of
how to save the farmers of America from drifting into the
condition of most European peasants. And in order to
prevent American farming and Southern farming from de-
generating into peasant farming, two things are necessary.
Not only must financial profits be increased, but the farmer
must rise to the dignity of being an actual force in the gov-
ernment of all the conditions affecting his life-commercial,
civic, or otherwise."
"CITIZENS AND TAX-PAYERS" IN A CO-OPERA-
Now let us go just a little further with this idea that each
co-operative is an adventure in democracy; another exten-
sion of the idea of self-government such as our own Amer-
ican republic was designed to be in the political field.
It naturally follows that each and every member of a
co-operative is a citizen and tax-payer in a little economic
democracy, just as he is a citizen and tax-payer in our polit-
ical democracy. His membership in a co-operative makes
him a citizen there, and he is also a tax-payer, his "tax"
being collected in the form of deductions from the sales of
his crop and grouped together under the general name of
operating expenses. In his co-operative democracy, there-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 61
fore, each member is entitled to all the rights and privileges
to which tax-payers and citizens are entitled in our political
democracy. He is entitled not only to vote for the directors
of his co-operative, just as we vote for legislators and con-
gressmen, but he is entitled to know how his co-operative is
being run and what the "taxes" he pays are being used
for-what salaries are paid and why, what expenses are
incurred and why-just as truly as is the case in our polit-
FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN DEBATING POLICIES
In the next place, each co-operative must recognize the
fact that the membership not only has a right to elect offi-
cers, as is the case in our political democracy, but the mem-
bership also has a right to know what is going on in the
co-operative, what policies are under discussion or are pro-
posed for action, and the arguments for and against these
policies, just as truly as is the case in our political democ-
We do not elect members of the legislature or Congress,
let them meet together, discuss great issues among them-
selves, reach their own conclusions and then, after they have
reached their decisions, just tell us what laws they have
made for us to follow, or what taxes they have levied for us
to pay. Not at all. On the contrary, we elect our legisla-
tors and congressmen on the basis of the soundness of their
opinions about matters affecting our laws or our taxes; and
then we learn about and discuss the policies that are pro-
posed for adoption. Bills are introduced in legislatures or
congress, debates are held, arguments pro and con are pre-
sented privately and publicly, and we write letters to our
lawmakers and letters to the newspapers, and it is only
after there is prolonged discussion and the people have had
time to express themselves, that public policies are finally
evolved in the form of laws.
It seems to me that to a very large extent the same sort
of policy must be followed in the case of our co-operative
organizations. If they are to be real democracies, the mem-
bers must do something more than merely vote for a direc-
tor once a year. The members must always know what is
going on, what general policies are proposed for adoption,
and why they are favored and why they are opposed, and
must debate these policies with the utmost frankness and
courage among themselves, in their local meetings, in their
62 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
official publications, etc., and so help reach sound conclu-
sions and develop correct public sentiment concerning these
If a co-operative marketing association is to be a democ-
racy, it is not enough just to have "publicity for the mem-
bers." There must also be ''control by the members." The
directors and officials will, of course, pass finally on policies
just as our legislators and congressmen pass finally on our
laws, but in each case the real control must be found in the
sound and enlightened public opinion of the masses of the
people after issues have been debated with that absolutely
unhampered "freedom of speech" which is one of the fun-
damental safeguards of any democracy.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Big Business Methods
BY T. J. BROOKS, CHIEF CLERK, DEPARTMENT OF
( A GRICULTURE should emulate industry and put
its business on a co-operative and associate basis
rather than an individual one," so said Charles
M. Schwab, in an address before the American Manufactu-
rers' Association at Minneapolis.
Mr. Schwab is correct.
Many others have said the same thing. Many efforts
have been directed toward the accomplishment of that end.
Some outstanding successes can be cited, and many fail-
ures. Tons of literature have been published on co-opera-
tion. Farming has come in for its share.
A captain of industry in manufacturing might not be a
captain of industry in handling a farm organization, where
he had no control of over-production. Of course, Mr.
Schwab does not control the output of steel even in the
United States, much less in the world, but he does control
the output of his mills and he is associated with all other
operators producing the same line of material, and by this
association there is an "associate basis" to which he refers
in his speech. Right here is where the farm organizations
have fallen down. They had no "associate basis" in con-
trolling either production or the deliberate feeding of the
markets, as demand justifies on a remunerative basis.
In business matters there is the business-mindedness
which meets the requirements of conducting the corporation
operated for the benefit of stockholders. In this kind of
business the United States has led the world. This method
of business lends itself to mining, manufacturing, commer-
cial and financial organizations, but it does not meet the
conditions involved in the marketing of farm products.
There are too many people furnishing the material which
is to be sold for them all to be stockholders. There are too
many from whom the supply is drawn, each with his needs
and individuality, to control the volume of output even
were nature not so eccentric in aiding or hindering produc-
tion. It takes a wider range of scientific knowledge to be
64 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
an up-to-date farmer than to be an average business man.
It requires a much greater genius for managing a business
where the greater part of the task lies in securing and hold-
ing the voluntary co-operation of hundreds of thousands of
people than it does to manage a business where a few offi-
cials and millions of money are the elements to be con-
Of course, it is easy to say that when the needs are suffi-
ciently imperative a means will be devised whereby agricul-
ture will be put on as safe a business basis as any other vo-
cation. None of them are on a very certain and sure basis.
But optimism can be carried to the point of absurdity-the
same as pessimism.
Practical people always demand to be shown. What
instances can be pointed to where farmers have put the
commercial side of the business on as safe a basis as others ?
Every instance of large magnitude that can be cited is
an instance of some form of co-operation; notwithstanding
the fact, the path of agrarian progress in our capitalistic
age is strewn with the wrecks of efforts to sell farm prod-
ucts and buy farm supplies co-operatively.
"There is a phase of statistical service," says Herbert
Hoover, "that has not been fully studied or fully explored,
to which I trust much thought will be given. We are almost
wholly lacking in the basic data as to distribution. We
know our production in the most important lines of activ-
ity. We know a great deal about socks of commodities in
the hand of producers. We know very little as to stocks in
the hands of consumers, the area of distribution of any
There are more than 12,000 active farm business organ-
izations in the United States. Their combined volume of
business aggregates more than a billion dollars annually.
Taking the total number of associations listed by the
United States Department of Agriculture, 3,325 are en-
gaged in marketing grain; 2,197 handle dairy products;
1,770 ship live stock; 1,250 market fruits and vegetables;
121 perform various functions in the marketing of cotton;
91 market wool; 71 sell poultry products, and 24 market
tobacco. These do not include co-operative banks, co-oper-
ative credit associations, and insurance companies.
The oldest and most conspicuous success is the California
Fruit Growers' Exchange. California sells 73 per cent of
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
her citrus fruits at a cost of two and a half per cent. She
sells 85 per cent of her dried fruit co-operatively.
Co-operation is not a new term but it is new in its sig-
nificance to the masses of the people when applied to indus-
try and commercial concerns. There is a vast difference
between the relationship that exists between the stockhold-
ers, the employees, and the public, when applied to the ordi-
nary corporation and that relationship when applied to the
genuinely co-operative corporation.
There are five fundamental characteristics of non-co-
1. Organized and operated for profit to the promoters
2. Grant each share a vote, or limit all voting to a re-
stricted class of stockholders-such as common stock, vot-
ing board or board of trust, etc.
3. Place no limit on number of shares an individual or
other corporation may own.
4. Place no restrictions on transfer of stock.
5. Distribute all net profits as dividends on capital is-
sued, whether the stock was paid for in cash-at par or
below par-in service, or given away; or the profits may
There are five fundamental principles of co-operative
1. Ownership of association by the producers of the
commodity handled, if agricultural.
2. Return on capital invested restricted to medium rate
3. All net profits returned to members in proportion to
4. One member, one vote, regardless of the number of
5. Option must be given the Association on all shares
offered for sale and all transfers must be approved by the
There is a policy often pursued that gives the co-opera-
tive concern an additional competing power but which is
not an essential requirement in co-operation. I refer to the
policy of retiring all outstanding stock from a sinking fund
66 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
provided from the profits, as the business will justify. The
California Fruit Growers' Exchange did this, and many
other concerns following co-operative methods. This elim-
inated all drain from the treasury for interest on money
invested, which is quite an item in old line business. Many
are organized without capital stock.
The relationship that exists between the stockholder, the
employee, and the public in the old style corporation carries
in it the germs of industrial war. This type of corporation
has done a great work in bringing together capital and
labor. Without the corporation the civilization we have
today would have been impossible. But we have reached
a critical stage in the economic progress of the world,
brought about mainly by the very agency that has done so
much to promote progress-the corporation.
The task before us is to transform the corporation from
the capitalistic type to the co-operative type. When this is
done, the greatest menace that confronts the civilization of
today will be eliminated. So long as the greater part of our
industries are carried on by the capitalistic corporation,
industrial warfare will continue and the whole fabric of
government and business will rest above a threatening
The objection will be raised that the co-operative type of
corporation is not adapted to the requirements of big busi-
ness of different kinds. This objection is not well taken for
the reason that hundreds of millions of dollars worth of
business are transacted annually by co-operative corpora-
tions in commercial business, hundreds of millions in co-
operative banking, hundreds of millions in co-operative sell-
ing and buying by organized farmers, hundreds of millions
in co-operative manufacturing, and hundreds of millions in
As individual examples of each kind of business just
enumerated, I will mention the "Co-Operative Wholesale
Society, Ltd.," of Manchester, England, in a commercial
business and also in manufacturing; the co-operative banks
of Germany in the banking business; the California Fruit
Growers' Exchange in the selling of horticultural products,
and the purchasing exchange owned by the same people;
we have hundreds of mercantile establishments that are
co-operative. The plan of having the employees repre-
sented at the meetings of the directors and on committees
of regulation is coming more and more in vogue. These
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 67
things mean industrial peace. The law of industrial peace
should be discovered and all business be compelled to in-
corporate the principles of this law in its methods. This
is a task for Congress to perform.
In closing, I shall quote from Secretary Jardine: "A
realization by leaders in the co-operative movement that
co-operation is not merely a means for obtaining a better
price for a single year's crop, but that it is a means for
gradually adapting production to market demands, for
insuring less wasteful distribution, for reducing the spread
between what the farmer receives and what the consumer
pays, for aiding in the solution of agricultural credit prob-
lems as they arise, for improving the rural life of the na-
tion, for insuring a better understanding of national and
international problems-this realization, implanted by
leaders and future leaders, in the minds and hearts of the
farm people of the United States, will do much to insure
not only the success of co-operation but increased pros-
perity and stability for the nation."
68 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Annual Report of L. M. Rhodes
COMMISSIONER FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU.
Total shipments of fruits and vegetables from Florida
from September 1st, 1925, to July 20th, 1926, inclusive, are
given below. All rail, express and boat shipments are in-
cluded. The total volume of perishables shipped from the
State amounted to 74,371 carloads.
By commodities- Carloads
Oranges ........ ..................... 21,522
Grapefruit ....................... . 18,035
Tangerines ........................... 1,255
Watermelons. ............... ........ 6,644
Celery .............................. 5,642
Tomatoes ............................ 4,749
W hite Potatoes ........................ 4,556
Mixed Vegetables ..................... 3,294
Cucumbers ........................... 2,187
Cabbage .................. ........ 1,771
Lettuce ................. ....... ..... 1,441
Beans ................................ 993
Peppers ............................. 741
Escarole ............................ 609
Strawberries .......................... 408
Sweet Potatoes ........................ 85
Eggplants ............................ 82
Corn ................................ 81
Rom aine .............................. 80
Pineapples ............................ 64
Squash ............................ 30
Blueberries ........................... 25
Grapes .............................. 18
P ears ................................ 13
Chicory ............................ 11
Peaches .............................. 10
Beets .................... ........... 7
Cantaloupes .......................... 6
Onions ......................... ...... 5
Carrots ............................... 4
Radishes .............................. 3
Total carloads ............ ..... ... 74,371
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 69
Approximately 750,000 boxes of citrus were consumed
in the State, canning factories used 435,000 boxes and
250,000 boxes moved out by truck. The commercial crop
moved out by rail, express and boat amounted to 14,-
CARLOAD SHIPMENTS OF CITRUS FRUITS OUT OF
FLORIDA FROM SEPTEMBER 1, 1925, to JULY
20, 1926, BY COUNTIES.
Express and boat shipments are included. In this report
tangerines are counted as oranges:
County- Oranges Grapefruit Total
Alachua .............. 98 10 108
Brevard ................ 1,216 685 1,901
Broward ............... 45 6 51
Charlotte ............. 21 25 46
Citrus ............... 36 5 41
D ade ............ ..... 36 1,331 1,367
DeSoto ........ ....... 1,231 582 1,813
Flagler ................ 6 4 10
Glades ................. 17 14 31
Hardee ......... ...... 1,205 164 1,369
Hernando ............. 175 102 277
Highlands ............. 162 432 594
Hillsborough ........... 1,271 590 1,861
Indian River .......... 87 583 670
Lake ......... ........ 2,007 807 2,814
Lee ................... 301 965 1,266
Manatee ............... 340 1,388 1,728
Monroe ................ 1 1 2
Martin ........... . 200 245 445
Marion ................ 785 313 1,098
Orange ................ 3,340 1,631 4,971
Okeechobee ............. 18 17 35
Osceola ............... 315 82 397
Palm Beach ............ 274 391 665
Pasco ............ .... 286 212 498
Pinellas .............. 1,970 872 2,842
Polk ......... ......... 3,804 5,025 8,829
Putnam ............. 715 120 835
Sarasota ...... ....... 18 134 152
Seminole ............... 577 94 671
Sumter ................ 125 17 142
St. Lucie ............... 195 969 1,164
St. Johns ............... 10 1 11
Volusia ............... 1,890 218 2,108
Total carloads ........ 22,777 18,035 40,812
70 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
STATISTICS ON ORANGE CROP 1924-25
Agencies per box
Total .... 19,171,440 $51,469,280
Cost of production per box: Oranges, 80c;
grapefruit, 60c; tangerines, 90c ........... $13,764,369
Cost of selling, 18c per box . ... ...... ... 3,450,859
Payroll in packing houses, 16c per box........ 3,067,430
Picking and hauling, 16c per box ........... 3,067,430
Salaries and paper, 16e per box ............. 3,067,430
Interest, taxes and depreciation .............. 2,819,386
Light, power, labels, paste, nails, straps, strips. 715,927
Cost of crates, 25c each .................. .. 4,792,860
Advertising within the State, repairs, auto,
m miscellaneous ........................... 886,784
Total ................................. $35,632,475
Growers' net receipts (basis: 83c box ......... 15,930,796
Transportation charge inside the State........ 4,792,860
Total to the State ................. . $56,356,131
Retailers' profit, $1.35 per box ............... 25,881.444
Wholesalers' profit, 40e per box.............. 7,668,576
Transportation outside the State, 90c per box 17,254,296
Advertising outside the State ................ 1,150,282
Total revenue from the crop .............. $108,310,729
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
STATISTICS ON ORANGE CROP, 1925-26.
Boxes Agencies per box Total
Oranges .... 7,749,720 $3.35 $25,961,562
Grapefruit 6,492,600 3.20 20,776,320
Tangerines 451,800 4.25 1,920,150
Total ..... 14,694,120 ... $48,658,032
($3.31 per box)
Cost of production per box: Oranges, 88c;
grapefruit, 66c; tangerines, 99c .. ..... $11,552,151
Cost of selling, 20c per box. ................ 2,938,824
Payroll in packing houses, 17e per box........ 2,498,000
Picking and hauling, 25c per box............. 3,673,530
Salaries and paper, 17e per box .............. 2,498,000
Interest, taxes, depreciation, light, power, labels,
paste, nails, straps, strips, cost of crates, ad-
vertising within the State, repairs, auto, mis-
cellaneous .......................... .... 6,759,295
Total ............... ...... .. ...... . $29,919,800
Growers' net receipts approximately $1.271/2c
box ................................... 18,735,003
Transportation charges inside the State ....... 3,599,859
Sold by truck, 250,000 boxes ................. 437,500
Used by canners, 435,000 boxes.............. 761,250
Consumed in State, 750,000 boxes............. 1,312,500
Total to the State ....................... $54,765,912
Retailers' profit, $1.35 per box............... 19,837,062
Wholesalers' profit, 40c per box .............. 5,877,648
Transportation outside the State, 90e per box. 13,224,708
Advertising outside the State ................ 881,647
Total revenue from the crop............... $94,586,977
72 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
TOTAL CARLOT PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES
AND FRUITS (EXCEPT CITRUS) FROM FLOR-
IDA FOR THE SEASON 1925-1926,
Neither the transporattion companies nor the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture report shipments of fruits (except
citrus) and vegetables by counties. The following figures
are estimated by the Florida State Marketing Bureau from
Alachua-Watermelons, 566 cars; tomatoes, 18; white
potatoes, 96; mixed vegetables, 103; cucumbers, 627; cab-
bage, 212; lettuce, 61; beans, 83; peppers, 5; miscellaneous,
22. Total, 1,793 cars.
Baker-Watermelons, 4; tomatoes, 2; mixed vegetables,
4. Total, 10 cars.
Bay-Watermelons, 13; mixed vegetables, 1; cabbage, 6.
Total, 20 cars.
Bradford-Watermelons, 40; tomatoes, 5; white pota-
toes, 11; mixed vegetables, 12; cabbage, 5; beans, 10; straw-
berries, 98; miscellaneous, 12. Total, 193 cars.
Brevard-Watermelons, 3; tomatoes, 31; white potatoes,
1; cabbage, 6; beans, 5; peppers, 28; miscellaneous, 11.
Total, 85 cars.
Broward-Tomatoes, 62; white potatoes, 16; cabbage,
39; lettuce, 194; beans, 282; peppers, 31. Total, 624 cars.
Calhoun-Watermelons, 100; mixed vegetables, 1; cu-
cumbers, 1; cabbage, 1; miscellaneous, 5. Total, 108 cars.
Charlotte-Watermelons, 3; tomatoes, 11; white potatoes,
1; mixed vegetables, 27; cabbage, 1; beans, 4; pineapples,
2. Total, 49 cars.
Citrus--Watermelons, 10; tomatoes, 41; mixed vegeta-
bles, 13; cucumbers, 3; cabbage, 5; lettuce, 3; beans, 6.
Total, 81 cars.
Clay-Watermelons, 10; white potatoes, 113; mixed veg-
etables, 12; cucumbers, 3; cabbage, 4; beans, 3; peppers, 1;
miscellaneous, 1. Total, 147 cars.
Collier-Watermelons, 8; mixed vegetables, 13; cabbage,
5. Total, 26.
Columbia-Watermelons, 82; mixed vegetables, 11; cab-
bage, 3; miscellaneous, 5. Total, 101 cars.
Dade-Watermelons, 5; tomatoes, 1,220; white potatoes,
16; mixed vegetables, 130; cabbage, 62; beans, 16; peppers,
19; strawberries, 4; pineapples, 1; miscellaneous, 3. Total,
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
DeSoto-Watermelons, 33; tomatoes, 12; white potatoes,
24; mixed vegetables, 225; cucumbers, 38; cabbage, 14;
beans, 22; peppers, 5; strawberries, 2; miscellaneous, 10.
Total, 385 cars.
Dixie-Watermelons, 8. Total, 8 cars.
Duval-Watermelons, 4; tomatoes, 2; white potatoes, 12;
mixed vegetables, 4; cabbage, 2; peppers, 1. Total, 25 cars.
Escambia-Watermelons, 37; tomatoes, 3; white pota-
toes, 10; mixed vegetables, 6; cucumbers, 6; peppers, 2;
miscellaneous, 14. Total, 78 cars.
Flagler-Watermelons, 3; tomatoes, 1; white potatoes,
166; mixed vegetables, 6; cabbage, 7; lettuce, 2. Total, 185
Franklin-Tomatoes, 1; mixed vegetables, 1. Total, 2
Gadsden-Watermelons, 25; tomatoes, 5; white potatoes,
3; mixed vegetables, 24; beans, 9; miscellaneous, 9. Total,
Glades-Tomatoes, 5; white potatoes, 3; mixed vegeta-
bles, 61; cabbage, 4; lettuce, 4; peppers, 2. Total, 79 cars.
Gulf-Watermelons, 85; mixed vegetables, 2; miscella-
neous, 5. Total, 92 cars.
Hamilton-Watermelons, 31; tomatoes, 1; white pota-
toes, 5; miscellaneous, 4. Total, 41 cars.
Hardee-Watermelons, 13; celery, 76; tomatoes, 101;
white potatoes, 99; mixed vegetables, 161; cucumbers, 140;
cabbage, 20; peppers, 33; strawberries, 4; miscellaneous,
22. Total, 669 cars.
Hendry-Watermelons, 8; tomatoes, 36; mixed vegeta-
bles, 19; cabbage, 3; peppers, 2. Total, 68 cars.
Hernando-Watermelons, 20; celery, 5; mixed vegeta-
bles, 19; cucumbers, 6; peppers, 2; miscellaneous, 2. Total,
Highlands-Watermelons, 12; celery, 5; tomatoes, 24;
white potatoes, 2; mixed vegetables, 7; lettuce, 6; peppers,
3; pineapples, 1; miscellaneous, 3. Total, 63 cars.
Hillsborough-Watermelons, 13; celery, 15; tomatoes,
106; white potatoes, 8; mixed vegetables, 183; cucumbers,
16; cabbage, 133; lettuce, 21; peppers, 21; escarole, 21;
strawberries, 289; miscellaneous, 15. Total, 841 cars.
Holmes-Watermelons, 95; tomatoes, 1; mixed vegeta-
bles, 3; miscellaneous, 11. Total, 110 cars.
74 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Indian River-Watermelons, 4; tomatoes, 76; white po-
tatoes, 8; mixed vegetables, 19; lettuce, 4; beans, 5; pep-
pers, 13; pineapples, 3. Total, 132 cars.
Jackson-Watermelons, 1,104; tomatoes, 2; vegetables,
3; miscellaneous, 14. Total, 1,123 cars.
Jefferson-Watermelons, 18; tomatoes, 10; vegetables,
13; miscellaneous, 4. Total, 45 cars.
Lafayette-Watermelons, 51; tomatoes, 1; vegetables, 4.
Total, 56 cars.
Lake-Watermelons, 644; celery, 9; tomatoes, 51; vegeta-
bles, 94; cucumbers, 101; cabbage, 92; lettuce, 3; miscella-
neous, 10. Total, 1,004 cars.
Lee-Watermelons, 15; celery, 6; tomatoes, 292; white
potatoes, 51; vegetables, 166; cabbage, 4; lettuce, 3; beans,
26; peppers, 239; miscellaneous, 13. Total, 815 cars.
Leon-Watermelons, 52; vegetables, 9; beans, 3. Total,
Levy-Watermelons, 127; tomatoes, 12; white potatoes,
16; vegetables, 15; cucumbers, 641; lettuce, 14; beans, 33;
peppers, 2; miscellaneous, 9. Total, 869 cars.
Liberty-Watermelons, 8; vegetables, 1; miscellaneous,
1. Total, 10 cars.
Madison-Watermelons, 52; white potatoes, 19; miscella-
neous, 4. Total, 75 cars.
Manatee-Watermelons, 1; celery, 1,406; tomatoes, 393;
white potatoes, 13; vegetables, 280; cucumbers, 12; cab-
bage, 90; lettuce, 351; peppers, 84; escarole, 190; miscella-
neous, 23. Total, 2,843 cars.
Marion-Watermelons, 874; tomatoes, 654; vegetables,
106; cucumbers, 80; lettuce, 52; beans, 297; miscellaneous,
33. Total, 2,006 cars.
Martin-Tomatoes, 151; white potatoes, 4; vegetables,
14; cabbage, 12; lettuce, 4; beans, 12; peppers, 16; pine-
apples, 12. Total 225.
Nassau-Watermelons, 10; vegetables, 2; miscellaneous,
6. Total 18.
Okaloosa-Watermelons, 85; tomatoes, 2; white potatoes,
9; vegetables, 4; cucumbers, 2; cabbage, 2; miscellaneous,
6. Total, 110 cars.
Okeechobee-Watermelons, 9; celery, 7; tomatoes, 59;
white potatoes, 1; mixed vegetables, 49. Total, 125 cars.
Orange-Watermelons, 28; celery, 63; tomatoes, 18;
white potatoes, 8; vegeatbles, 282; lettuce, 251; peppers,
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 75
109; escarole, 71; pineapples, 1; miscellaneous, 21. Total,
Osceola-Watermelons, 22; tomatoes, 6; white potatoes,
19; vegetables, 22; cabbage, 8; lettuce, 8; peppers, 22;
escarole, 12; strawberries, 11; miscellaneous, 13. Total,
Palm Beach-Tomatoes, 371; white potatoes, 49; vege-
tables, 114; cabbage, 33; lettuce, 21; peppers, 29; pine-
apples, 35; miscellaneous, 14. Total, 666 cars.
Pasco-Watermelons, 8; tomatoes, 15; mixed vegetables,
15; cucumbers, 12; peppers, 2; miscellaneous, 7. Total,
Pinellas-Watermelons, 66; celery, 4; tomatoes, 5;
vegetables, 29; lettuce, 5; peppers, 2. Total, 111 cars.
Polk-Watermelons, 253; tomatoes, 38; white potatoes,
28; vegetables, 109; cucumbers, 26; cabbage, 422; lettuce,
14; peppers, 1; escarole, 12; miscellaneous, 21. Total, 924
Putnam-Watermelons, 78; celery, 4; tomatoes, 2; white
potatoes, 1,083; mixed vegetables, 34; beans, 169; peppers,
2; miscellaneous, 15. Total, 1,387 cars.
Santa Rosa-Watermelons, 75; tomatoes, 1; white pota-
toes, 12; mixed vegetables, 1; lettuce, 2; peppers, 7; mis-
cellaneous, 7. Total, 105 cars.
St. Johns-Watermelons, 5; celery, 3; white potatoes,
2,347; mixed vegetables, 9; peppers, 1. Total, 2,365 cars.
St. Lucie-Watermelons, 9; tomatoes, 230; white pota-
toes, 27; mixed vegetables, 40; peppers, 13; pineapples,
9; miscellaneous, 13. Total, 341 cars.
Sarasota-Watermelons, 8; celery, 52; tomatoes, 6;
mixed vegetables, 13; lettuce, 4; peppers, 1; miscellaneous,
3. Total, 87 cars.
Seminole-Celery, 3,971; tomatoes, 5; white potatoes,
15; mixed vegetables, 221; cucumbers, 4; cabbage, 78;
lettuce, 411; peppers, 16; escarole, 303; miscellaneous,
22. Total, 5,046 cars.
Sumter-Watermelons, 446; celery, 7; tomatoes, 606;
mixed vegetables, 472; cucumbers, 456; cabbage, 480; let-
tuce, 3; peppers, 9; miscellaneous, 6. Total, 2,485 cars.
Suwanee-Watermelons, 645; mixed vegetables, 11;
peppers, 18; miscellaneous, 7. Total, 681 cars.
Taylor-Watermelons, 13; tomatoes, 26; mixed vege-
tables, 4. Total, 43 cars.
76 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Union-Watermelons, 7; white potatoes, 1; mixed vege-
tables, 4. Total, 12 cars.
Volusia-Watermelons, 146; celery, 9; tomatoes, 29;
white potatoes, 260; mixed vegetables, 78; cucumbers, 13;
cabbage, 18; beans, 8; miscellaneous, 13. Total, 574 cars.
Wakulla-Watermelons, 7; mixed vegetables, 3. Total,
Walton-Watermelons, 60; mixed vegetables, 4; mis-
cellaneous, 13. Total, 77 cars.
Washington-Watermelons, 483; mixed vegetables, 2;
miscellaneous, 8. Total, 493 cars.
Grand Total-Watermelons, 6,644; celery, 5,642; toma-
toes, 4,749; white potatoes, 4,556; mixed vegetables, 3,294;
cucumbers, 2,187; cabbage, 1,771; lettuce, 1,441; beans,
993; peppers, 741; escarole, 609; strawberries, 408; pine-
apples, 64; miscellaneous, 460. Total for the state, 33,559
The above fruit and vegetables had a total value of ap-
GROVE MAINTENANCE AND FRUIT PRODUCTION COST.
Compiled from Grove Records of 1923-25.
Age in Culti- Fertili- Miscel- Spray-
Years Total ovation zation laneous ing Remarks
1 $ 27.05 $16.01 $ 3.11 $ 6.88 $ .72 Average
2 31.28 18.89 5.29 7.06 .84 Average
3 42.76 20.00 6.36 8.20 3.20 Average
4 44.47 21.82 11.29 8.08 3.28 Average
145.56 76.72 26.05 30.22 8.05 Total
5 58.95 22.34 21.15 8.59 8.71 Average
6 72.67 19.74 31.07 8.34 15.50 Average
8-30 109.40 18.41 51.77 30.27 24.62 Average
81-178 17-25 35-71 21-52 6-37 Range
7-30 .89 .15 .33 .28 .12 Average
50-1.40 13-.22 .19-.51 .17-.41 .4-.17 Range
1 23.78 9.71 3.49 9.48 ......
2 23.01 9.90 3.89 9.72 .60
3 29.48 9.77 4.69 11.40 3.62
4 31.21 10.88 5.50 12.98 1.85
$107.48 $40.26 $17.57 $43.58 $6.07
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 77
Record of lowest cost of developing grove, first to fourth
year, inclusive. Ten acres, orange and tangerine 50-50.
$206.66, cost of land; $100 per acre; clearing, $34 per
acre; trees at $1.00 to $1.25; fencing, ploughing, etc.
$314.14, total cost.
The above data was compiled from production cost
records of fifty grove properties ranging from three to
seventy acres each and distributed over the entire citrus
belts. The acreage consists of seventy-three per cent
oranges, twenty-four per cent grapefruit, and three per
cent tangerines. Spraying cost includes a bad aphis year;
the per box cost is slightly high owing to the very light
crop of 1925.
WHERE PROFITS AND LOSSES BEGIN ON SPRAYING FOR RUST MITE CONTROL.
BY E. F. DE BUSK, FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
Cost per When the Percentage of Russets on Unsprayed Trees Is-
Hox 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 t
1 -43 12 75 ** *
2 .. -13 19 47 75 110 145 180 215 243 281 .... .
3 .. .-21 .7 13
4 .-9 5 22 40 57 73 !1 107 126 141 32 320 410
5 .. 2 12 2(
S .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7 5 16 .
8 -.5 ..13..
9 .... .. .. .. .... -8 .3 7 ..
10 .. ... -3 33 68
11 -11 21 53
12 -20 11 40
13 -26 4 30 ..
14 .. .. .. .... .. --5 20 45
15 -11 12 36 w
16 .. .. .. -20 5 27 t-
17 .. .. .. .. -1 20 t
18 . ... .. .. .. 7 13 t
19 .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 7 I
20 .. .. .. .. .. -16 2
NOTE-Numbers diagonally distributed across the page represent the per cent profits or loss to be expected on
the spraying operations. For example, when the total cost of the rust mite spraying is 4 cents per box a profit of 22
per cent should be realized when the fruit Is running 8 per cent rust mite russets in the unsprayed plots.
A minus sign before a number indicates a percent loss on the spraying operation.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
America's Amazing Advance
The material advancement of the United States during
the last quarter of a century has been one of the marvels
of all human history. We have often called attention to
the fact that with about six per cent of the world's
population we are producing more than one-half of most
of the world's dominant industries-over fifty per cent,
for instance, of the world's pig-iron; sixty-six per cent
of the world's steel; over fifty per cent of the world's
copper; sixty-two per cent of the world's petroleum, and
other things in proportion.
Of the total of 24,565,000 motor vehicles in the world
the United States has 19,954,000, or eighty-one per cent,
while the country produced eighty-seven and five-tenths
per cent of the world's output of automobiles.
We have sixty-two per cent of all the telephones in the
The purchase and maintenance of the automobiles and
motortrucks of this country now amounts to over $10,-
000,000,000 a year.
Our population is increasing at the rate of over 2,000,-
000 a year.
Between 1904 and 1925 our bank clearings rose from
$102,356,000,000 to over $505,298,000,000.
Our foreign commerce increased from $2,452,000,000 in
1904 to $9,137,000,000 in 1925.
Our building associations advanced during that period
from a membership of 1,679,000, with assets of $618,-
000,000, to a total membership in 1925 of 8,554,000, with
assets of $4,765,000,000.
As late as 1922 we had 22,415,148 savings accounts, with
$15,314,000,000 deposits in savings banks, while in 1925
we had 43,850,000 savings accounts, with $23,134,052,000
to their credit.
Similar illustrations could be given without end, but
the story is told in full in this issue in a comprehensive
survey of the progress of America in the last twenty-five
years, republished from the Review of Reviews, fo'r which
publication the article was written by the editor of the
80 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
As indicative of the phenomenal strength of our posi-
tion, a comparison of a few of our resources with those
of Europe will be of interest:
All Europe United States
Area, square miles...................... 3,909,395 3,026,789
Population ............................................. 480,000,000 117,000,000
Coal area, square miles............ 42,000 340,000
Coal mined, 1925, short tons 700,000,000 585,000,000
Iron-ore resources, tons, as
estimated by Government
authorities ....................................... 8,900,000,000 12,000,000,000
Pig-iron produced, 1925, tons 31,155,000 36,814,000
Cotton produced, average
number of bales.............................. None 13,120,000
Cotton mills, running spin-
dles .................................................. 100,000,000 35,032,000
Wheat and corn, average
number of bushels, about... 2,000,000,000 3,400,000,000
Railroad mileage.............................. 225,000 250,402
The cost of state governments has increased 200 per
cent in eight years and it is still going up. A recent sur-
vey, the Washington Post reports, shows that state expen-
ditures last year totaled 1,614 million dollars as com-
pared with 1,513 million dollars in 1924 and only 517 mil-
lion dollars in 1917. The survey also revealed that all
but seven of the 48 states showed a deficit in 1925. The
net state debt that year was reported as $11.25 per
capital, about $10.64 per capital in 1924 and about $4.93
per capital in 1917.
STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES OF
PRINTING QUARTERLY BULLETIN
January 1, 1925, to July 1, 1925.
1925. By appropriation ................... $3,045.26
Jan. 2. Wrigley Photo Eng. Corp. ............ $ 400.00
Jan. 2. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp.............. 33.28
Jan. 13. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............. 8.65
'Feb. 19. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............ 336.60
Feb. 19. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............ 375.56
Mch. 11. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............ 510.00
Mch. 30. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............ 250.00
Apr.3. T. J. Appleyard .................... 240.00
May 5. T. J. Appleyard .................... 850.92
Balance, July 1 ............................ $ 40.25
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
EXTRA PRINTING FOR IMMIGRATION BUREAU
May 5. T. J. Appleyard (April Bulletin) ......$ 954.75
PRINTING QUARTERLY BULLETIN
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
1925. By appropriation .................. $10,000.00
July 30. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp........... 41.19
Aug. 1. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp........... 18.08
Aug. 20. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp........... 13.21
Aug. 20. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp........... 13.58
Sept. 1. T. J. Appleyard ................... 16.00
Sept. 4. T. Hope Cawthon, photos............ 16.00
Oct. 1. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............. 27.03
Oct. 6. Wrigley Photo. Eng. Corp............ 6.85
Oct. 26. T. J. Appleyard ................... 138.75
Nov. 2. T. J. Appleyard ................... 22.44
Nov. 12. T. J. Appleyard .................. 4,456.00
Nov. 25. T. J. Appleyard .................. 1,420.50
Oct. 29. Artcraft Printers .................. 75.00
Dec. 2. W. H. May, P. M.................... 121.65
Mch. 5. T. J. Appleyard. .................... 908.50
Mch. 5. T. J. Appleyard................... 2,333.00
June 11. T. J. Appleyard .................. 141.20
June 26. Artcraft Printers ................. 208.25
Balance .................................. 26.77
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
1925. By appropriation .....................$1,800.00
July 7. Government Printing Office..........$ 1.25
July 16. W. H. May, P. M................... 360.00
July 18. Artcraft Printers ................ s. 97.75
Aug. 17. W. H. May, P. M.................. 14.10
Aug. 25. W. H. May, P. M................... 5.00
Aug. 28. W. H. May, P. M................... 420.00
Sept. 9. W. H. May, P. M.................. 100.00
Sept. 16. W. H. May, P. M................... 10.00
Sept. 17. W. H. May, P. M.................. 10.00
82 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Oct. 15. W. H. May, P. M................... 6.04
Nov. 12. W. H. May, P. M................... 40.00
Nov. 13. W. H. May, P. M................... 720.00
Balance on hand .......................... 15.86
January 1, 1925, to July 1, 1925.
)25. By appropriation .....................$ 359.34
eb. 20. W. H. May, P. M..................... 10.00
pr. 11. H. & W. B. Drew Co.................. 7.36
pr. 13. W. H. May, P. M.................. 114.10
pr. 13. W. H. May, P. M.................... 49.76
ay 5. D. A. Dixon Co ..................... 17.50
ay 6. W. H. May, P. M.................... 40.00
ay 6. R. G. Polk Co ....................... 12.00
ay 28. W. H. May, P. M................... 66.27
Balance, July 1...... ........................ $32.35
TRAVELING AND CONTINGENT EXPENSES
January 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
Jan. 1. By appropriation ...................$ 239.76
Jan. 25. Trip to Tampa ..................... 18.01
Feb. 13. Trip to Girls' School, Ocala and Tampa 59.75
Feb. 12. Sub. to Manufacturers Record ........ 10.00
Feb. 25. Two Mileage Books ................. 60.00
Mch. 6. Trip to Tampa and Convict Camp ...... 64.36
Mch. 7. Trip to Valdosta (Brooks) ............ 17.88
Feb. 10. P. W. Wilson Co. (towels) ........... 3.00
Balance, July 1 ............................ $6.76
TRAVELING EXPENSES OF COMMISSIONER
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation .................$ 1,000.00
June 26. T. J. Brooks ...................... 17.78
Aug. 12. Seaboard Air Line Ry. Co.......... 60.00
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 83
Oct. 20. Trip to Gainesville ................. 17.03
Oct. 23. Trip to Orlando .................. 16.12
Oct. 24. Trip to Gainesville ................ 7.06
Oct. 25. Telegrams ........................ .98
Nov. 6. Trip to Gainesville ................ 29.87
Nov. 20. Trip to Texas Citrus Embargo....... 179.75
Feb. 8. Trip to Fish Hatcheries ............ 44.05
Feb. 24. Trip to Macon W. M. Conference..... 26.43
Apr. 10. S. A. L. Mileage Books............. 60.00
Apr. 22. Trip Palm Beach ................. 76.10
Apr. 23. S. A. L. Mileage Books............. 60.00
May 8. S. A. L. Mileage Books............. 60.00
May 3. Expenses Trip U. S. Sec. Agriculture. 73.61
May 5. Expenses Trip Avon Park Congress.. 37.11
May 14. Expenses Trip Girls' School........ 37.62
June 12. Expenses Trip Girls' School........ 27.99
June 30. S. A. L. Mileage Books............. 150.00
June 15. Trip Farm and Home ............. 18.50
EXPRESS AND TELEGRAMS
January 1, 1925, to July 1, 1925.
1925. By appropriation ..................... $622.84
Jan. 2. American Ry. Express Co............... 59.48
Jan. 2. W C. Dixon ......................... .50
Jan. 3. W western Union ....................... 4.87
Feb. 4. American Ry. Express Co............... 51.87
Feb. 4. Western Union ...................... 11.97
Mar. 3. Western Union ...................... 11.06
Mar. 3. American Ry. Express Co. ............. 53.82
Mar. 11. Dixon Transfer ..................... .75
Apr. 3. American Ry. Express Co............. 32.66
Apr. 3. Western Union ...................... 14.57
Apr. 21. Dixon's Transfer .................... .50
Apr. 21. Geo. D. Barnard Co .................. 8.03
Apr. 24. W western Union ...................... .69
May 5. American Ry. Express Co.............. 56.84
May 6. Western Union ...................... 28.23
May 15. Dixon's Transfer .................... 45.82
May 28. Dixon's Transfer .................... .50
May 28. Walker Evans & Cogswell............. 183.25
June 3. American Ry. Express Co. .............. 47.41
June 3. Southern Tel. & Cons. Co. .............. 6.60
Balance, July 1 ............ ... ......... .. $ 3.42
84 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
EXPRESS AND TELEGRAMS
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
1925. By appropriation ................... $1,500.00
July 7. W western Union ..................... 17.16
July 7. American Ry. Express Co............. 84.48
Aug. 3. American Ry. Express Co............ 35.10
Aug. 3. W C. Dixon ...................... 12.79
Aug. 6. Western Union .................... 38.41
Aug. 15. W. C. Dixon ....................... 1.53
Sept. 3. American Ry. Express Co........... 50.21
Sept. 12. W western Union .................... 49.47
Oct. 1. W western Union ..................... 45.75
Nov. 1. W western Union .................... 35.54
Dec. 1. Dixon's Transfer ............... .. 5.50
Dec. 1. Nov. bill Field Note Div. ............. 1.39
Dec. 1. Nov. bill Adv. Div. ................. 1.22
Dec. 26. W C. Dixon ....................... 13.23
Dec. 22. W C. Dixon ....................... 1.25
Dec. 15. W C. Dixon............... ........ .25
Jan. 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co. ................ 13.30
Dec. ... Western Union, Field Note Div....... .25
Dec ... American Ry. Express Co.......... 21.41
Jan. 11. W C. Dixon ....................... 10.44
Jan. 14. W. C. Dixon ........................ .50
Jan. 14. W western Union .................... 35.38
Jan. 14. W C. Dixon ....................... 8.01
Jan. 25. W C. Dixon ....................... 88.23
Feb. 1. W C. Dixon ........................ 11.84
Feb. 1. American Ry. Exp. Co. .............. 71.08
Feb. 1. W western Union ..................... 18.88
Feb. 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co................. 18.90
Feb. 8. W C. Dixon ........................ 2.28
Feb. 9. Matthews Nov. Works. .............. 1.47
Feb. 9. Matthews Nov. Works ............... 7.05
Feb. 9. Matthews Nov. Works ................ 46.81
Feb. 3. Photostat Corp ...................... 3.94
Mar. 1. American Ry. Express Co............ 28.51
Mar. 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co. ................ 23.65
Mar. 5. W western Union .................... 17.05
Mar. 10. W C. Dixon ....................... 2.25
Mar. 29. W C. Dixon ....................... 3.50
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
January 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
By appropriation ................. ....
2. Middle Fla. Ice Co ............. .....
2. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ...........
2. J. B. Christian, repairs to clock ........
2. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. .........
13. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ............
13. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ...... ......
2. H. L. Johnson, map ............ .....
4. Hill's Book Store ....... . . .
4. D. A. Dixon Co. ......... ... ....
4. Middle Fla. Ice Co. ...................
4. Tallahassee Furniture Co..............
4. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. ..........
9. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. .........
18. Underwood Typewriter .. ... .......
3. The Line A Time Mfg. Co. .......... .
3. Walker, Evans & Cogswell .. ...... .
3. W L. Marshall ......... ..........
3. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. ..........
ar. 29. W C. Dixon ....................... 1486
pr. 1. American Ry. Express Co............ 22.35
pr. 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co. ............... 15.85
pr. 7. W western Union ................ . .. 13.29
pr. 19. S. A. L. Ry. Co. .................... 19.75
pr. 23. S. A. L. Ry. Co. .................... 27.46
pr. 23. S. A. L. Ry. Co. .................... 39.92
ay 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co ................ 12.30
ay 1. American Ry. & Express Co.......... 11.50
ay 1. W western Union .................... 16.29
ay 3. W C. Dixon ....................... 2.75
ay 5. W. C. Dixon .............. ....... .50
ay 19. W C. Dixon ........................ .50
mne 1. W C. Dixon ....................... 3.25
me 1. American Ry. Express Co. ............ 13.97
une 1. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co. ................ 20.75
une 1. W western Union ..................... 12.78
Balance ................................. 401.38
STATIONERY AND CONTINGENT FUND
86 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Mch. 4. Bass Hardware Co. .................. 1.25
Mch. 11. W. File M. Binder Mfg. Co .......... 2.38
Mch. 11. W H. Bohler ................ ..... 12.00
Mch. 17. P. W W ilson Co. ................... 1.00
Mch. 17. Frankel Mfg. Co. ................. 7.20
Mch. 19. Felix Johnson .. ........... .... 1.00
Apr. 3. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. ........... 11.95
Apr. 7. H. R. Kaughman .......... . ... .. 13.50
Apr. 21. Walker, Evans & Cogswell .......... 14.22
Apr. 21. Geo. D. Barnard Co.. ... ..... 180.00
May 4. Middle Fla. Ice Co ................ .50
May 4. Hill's Book Store .. ......... . 4.30
May 4. Sou. Tel. & Const. Co.................. 13.05
May 5. Walker, Evans & Cogswell.......... ..14.75
May 11. American Food Journal .............. 3.00
June 3. Sou. Telephone & Const Co. ............. 6.50
June 3. Clark Book Store .... .......... .. .85
June 3. D. A. Dixon . ............... .75
Balance, July 1 ...........................1.19
STATIONERY AND CONTINGENT EXPENSE
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation ... . . .. .. $1,650.00
July 3. Southern Tel. & Const. Co.......... $ 12.30
July 3. W L. M marshall ..................... 1.50
July 3. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 3.30
July 3. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 1.50
July 3. Middle Florida Ice Co.............. .50
July 3. Hill's Book Store .................. 1.40
July 3. Chas. Williams, Hardware ......... 4.15
July 3. Leon Elec. Supply Co. .............. 46.59
July 14. H R. Sauls ............ . ....... 36.65
Aug. 1. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 31.00
Aug. 1. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 30.00
Aug. 1. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 17.00
Aug. 1. D. A. Dixon & Co. .................. 12.50
Aug. 3. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co........... 11.70
Aug. 4. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 10.83
Aug. 4. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... . .50
Aug. 11. W L. Marshall ................... 7.00
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 87
Aug. 11. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... 1.00
Aug. 11. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........ .. 10.50
July 21. Walker, Evans & Cogswell .... . 4.00
July 21. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ...... 1.50
Aug. 25. D. A. Dixon Co. ............. ....... .60
Sept. 1. D. A. Dixon Co. ................. 12.75
Sept. 1. Leon Elec. Co. .................... 5.95
Sept. 1. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. ........ 13.10
Sept. 3. Artcraft Printers ................ 60.25
Sept. 3. Photostat Corp. .................... 41.58
Sept. 4. Clark's Book Store ................. .80
Aug. 24. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 2.91
Sept. 12. D. A. Dixon Co........... ......... .. .85
Sept. 12. Chas. N. Smart .................... 13.00
Sept. 5. Grant Furniture Co. ........... ... .50
Sept. 16. D. A. Dixon .... .. ............. .60
Sept. 23. Geo. D. Barnard Co ................. 1.77
Sept. 29. D. A. Dixon ....................... 9.50
Sept. 25. D. A. Dixon ....................... 8.90
Oct. 1. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co........... 10.70
Oct. 1. D. A. Dixon ........................ 4.20
Oct. 1. Leon Elec. Co. ...................... 39.30
Oct. 10. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... .. 3.00
Oct. 8. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 25.45
Oct. 7. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 1.00
Oct. 9. D. A. Dixon Co...... ............. 23.00
Oct. 1. J. O. W illiams ........... ........... 1.50
Oct. 1. Hill's Book Store ................... 1.85
Oct. 13. Walker, Evans & Cogswell .......... 4.43
Oct. 13. D A D ixon ...................... . .25
Oct. 13. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 4.00
Oct. 6. Geo. D. Barnard .................. 19.30
Oct. 21. D A Dixon ................... .... .90
Oct. 26. D. A. Dixon ....................... 4.50
Oct. 27. D. A. Dixon ........................ 3.60
Oct. 27. D. A. Dixon ....................... 1.50
Oct. 27. D. A. Dixon ....................... 1.50
Oct. 27. D A Dixon ........................ .90
Oct. 30. D A Dixon ........................ 4.00
Oct. 28. H. Clay Crawford .................. 3.50
Oct. 6. Fain Drug Co. ............... ...... 25
Oct. 31. Tallahassee Variety Works ........... 420.00
Nov. 1. Leon Elec. Co ..................... 13.24
Nov. 1. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co. ....... 18.95
88 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Nov. 6. P. W W ilson Co. ................... 1.80
Nov. 6. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 12.00
Nov. 9. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... 4.65
Nov. 6. Clark's Book Store ................. .70
Nov. 16. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 2.20
Nov. 17. D. A. Dixon Co. .................. . 5.30
Nov. 23. Geo. F. Crane Co. .................. 10.50
Nov. 24. Geo. F. Crane Co ........... ..... 16.00
Nov. 5. Hill's Book Store .................. .75
Dec. 1. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co........... 8.15
Nov. 17. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 7.50
Nov. 1. Office Necessity Co. ................. 5.00
Dec. 1. Sou. Telephone & Const. Co............ 3.85
Dec. 18. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... .. 3.30
Dec. 7. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 3.50
Dec. 14. D. A. Dixon Co. ...................... 7.30
Dec. 21. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 2.50
Dec. 15. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 7.00
Dec. 10. Ever Ready Label Corp.............. 25.80
Dec. 31. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 3.75
Jan. 5. D. A. Dixon Co. ..................... 3.00
Dec. 4. P. W W ilson Co ................... 1.90
Jan. 11. Hill's Book Store ................... 1.50
Jan. 11. Bass Hardware Co. ................. 1.50
Jan. 11. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 50.50
Jan. 10. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... . 2.00
Jan. 14. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 2.00
Jan. 14. Grant Furniture Co. ................ 23.00
Jan. 14. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 24.65
Dec. 21. Walker, Evans & Cogswell ........... 19.10
Jan. ... D. A. Dixon Co. ................. .25
Jan. 25. D. A. Dixon Co. .................... 13.25
Jan. 25. H H Bohler ....................... 10.00
Jan. 28. W H Benson ...................... .50
Jan. 27. D. A. Dixon ....................... 1.90
Jan. 5. Bass Hardware Co. .................. 1.75
Jan. 11. Bass Hardware Co. .................. .35
Jan. 18. Fain Drug Co. .................... .35
Jan. 18. D. A. Dixon Co. ................... 5.00
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Middle Fla. Ice Co. .......
Walker, Evans & Cogswell
D. A. Dixon Co. ........
D. A. Dixon Co ...........
W. L. Marshall .. ......
D. A. Dixon Co ...........
D. A. Dixon Co. ..........
D. A. Dixon Co...........
D. A. Dixon Co. ..........
D. A. Dixon Co ........
Photostat Corp. ........ .
Industrial Div. State Insti.
Clark's Book Store .......
D. A. Dixon Co...........
Illinois Envelope Co. .....
Parcel Post charges .......
Goodyear Key Co. ........
D. A. Dixon Co. ..........
D. A. Dixon Co. ..........
Goodyear Key Co. ........
Middle Fla. Ice Co. .......
Tallahassee Typewriter Exc
Middle Fla. Ice Co........
W L. Marshall ..........
D A Dixon ............
Walker, Evans & Cogswell
D. A. Dixon ....... ....
D. A. Dixon ...........
Fain Drug Co ..........
Tallahassee Typewriter Ex
Tallahassee Typewriter Ex
Artcraft Printers .....
Hill's Book Store ........
Van Brunt & Yon .......
Middle Fla. Ice Co .......
Capital Office Supply Co..
.... . 22.50
... .. 13.50
... . 4.00
..... . 2.00
.. . .. 35.00
. .... 3.00
..... . 1.75
.......... 2 .85
. ... .. 4.90
... ....... 1 .50
. . . 11.00
. . . 1.59
..... . 1.50
change ..... 10.00
...... . 2.00
.... . 7.00
.... . 8.00
... . . . .5 5
...... . 7.50
...... . 1.25
change .... 2.00
change .... 4.50
...... . 3.50
. . . . . .9 0
. . .. 29.56
90 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation .................. $1,320.00
July 3. Photostat Corporation ............. 1,320.00
FURNITURE FOR VAULT
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation ......... . . . $500.00
Oct. 1. Leon Elec. Sup. Co. .................. 33.45
Balance ............ ....... ........ .. $466.55
TYPEWRITER AND DESK FOR FIELD NOTE
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation .... . . . ....... $150.00
Sept. 3. Light outfit for Photostat ............ 150.00
July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1926.
July 1. By appropriation ........ . . . . $7,500.00
Dec. 31. Matthews, Northrup Works .......... 7,500.00
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
BY T. J. BROOKS, CHIEF CLERK, DEPARTMENT OF
D R. RICHARD T. ELY, in his "Outlines of Econom-
ics," defines economics as "The science which
treats those social phenomena that are due to the
wealth-getting and wealth-using activities of man."
It will be noted that he does not say "wealth-producing"
but "wealth-getting." The getting of wealth without pro-
ducing it is quite different from getting it by producing it.
In the former way nothing is added to society as a whole
while the latter method adds to the wealth of the world.
The manner in which wealth is used is also important in
the economies of a community or a nation. He who hoards
for hoarding's sake plays a minor part to him who accu-
mulates for utility's sake. Wealth used to produce wealth
is progressive. Wealth used to act as a sponge and absorb
for the sake of either keeping as a miser or for squandering
as a self-indulgent spendthrift is a doubtful asset to society.
Restricting the subject of Economics to the agricultural
phase and following the definition of Dr. Ely-whose text
is the one most generally used by colleges and universities
-we would define rural economics as the science which
treats of those social phenomena that are due to the wealth-
getting and wealth-using activities of rural life.
Are people engaged in agricultural work as much inter-
ested in the economic phases of agriculture as in the purely
An answer to this question may be found in the experi-
ence of agricultural papers when they ask their subscribers
to let them know what kind of articles they want. Recently
the editor of "Better Crops"-a magazine that circulates
almost exclusively among the agricultural extension work-
ers, the agricultural colleges and the state agricultural de-
partments-made request of his readers to designate the
character of articles they wanted. The editor expressed his
surprise that most of the replies called for articles on rural
The tendency for county agents to give more of their
time to rural activities other than to production of bigger
crops has led to many counties having two agents-one to
92 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
look after the producing end and another to the commercial
or business phases of farming.
Another instance may be cited to show the manner of
thinking the farmers are doing. Take the minutes of the
various organizations of farmers, the Grange, the Farmers'
Union, the Society of Equity, the Gleaners, the Farm Bu-
reau Federation, Farmers' Congress, etc., and you will find
that the greater part of the deliberations of these bodies
concern economic problems.
We hope to discuss economic phases of rural life under
six main divisions:
3. Rural credits.
4. Land ownership and tenantry.
5. Political, including State and National laws affecting
Let's get down to our subject by process of elimination.
There are four sciences dealing directly with agricultural
and rural problems: Agronomy, Farm Management, Agri-
cultural Economics, and Rural Sociology.
What is the particular province of each?
Agronomy treats of soils and crops, of the effect of dif-
ferent methods of treatment on yields, the rate of seeding,
depth of plowing and tillage; drainage, adaptation of soils
Farm management treats of farm organization, the
amount and kind of labor required to produce various
crops, classification of crops so as to utilize land and labor
evenly through the year, the equipment necessary for the
crops and labor, kind, character and quality of machinery
and horse power. Harvesting and care of crops and equip-
ment; animal husbandry.
Agricultural Economics treats of all agencies brought
into play from the harvesting of crops to the ultimate con-
sumption of same. It includes those things which relate to
wealth-getting and wealth-using activities in handling farm
crops to the market, the commercial end of farming, also
the agencies connected therewith, such as financing, insur-
ing, advertising, warehousing, organizing co-operative asso-
Rural Sociology treats of the social forces of rural life.
Life in the country as affected by economic, educational
racial, and ethical standards.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Now that we have located our subject as related to other
rural problems we can the better keep to the text and know
I.-The Educational Phase.
The economic condition of a people, whether we confine
our investigations to the community or extend them to the
nation, is very greatly affected by the kind and degree of
education they possess. When man knows least he is least.
When he wants least and cares least he is the most inde-
pendent. He must have higher wants to develop higher
economics. As his economic relations expand his depend-
ence increases; interdependence is a leading characteristic
of advanced civilization. There are two kinds of poverty:
(a) The lack of goods for the higher wants; (b) the lack
of wants for the higher goods. There are two kinds of
wealth: (a) supply of goods for the higher wants; (b) the
supply of wants for the higher goods. The wealth of mind
is a prerequisite to the wealth of material things. When
wants are frivolous they are the results of puerile thinking.
The educational facilities in the country are not equal to
those in the cities and cannot be made to be. The consol-
idated schools of the country is an effort to remedy this
situation as much as possible. But modern educational
facilities are sufficiently at the command of the average
student that those who have passed the primary grades in
the rural districts can enter the colleges and have all the
advantages of the densely populated centers.
But let us not consider mere academic education as in-
cluding the whole scheme of education. Much vocational
education is obtained by association, practice, experience,
and observation. Education merely tempers and refines
our native talents.
The mental horizon of a people is measured by what they
read, talk and do. The farmers' horizon is not circum-
scribed by his vocation. The world of knowledge is at his
command. His time comes nearer being his own to do with
as he pleases than is the time of those who follow any other
means of a livelihood. His education is not confined to the
text books he may have studied at school, college or univer-
sity. The more one knows about his business the more
pleasure he gets out of it. The more knowledge of botany
one possesses the greater the interest in tending plants. The
more biology and organic chemistry the farmer carries with
him to the field the more interesting is his daily task. Sic-
94 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
entific agriculture is bringing to bear greater forces of in-
tellect on production than hitherto was thought necessary
for the plowman. There can be no permanent, attractive
and wholesome rural civilization without educated farmers.
It is only recently that it has been admitted that farmers
should be business men as well as producers; that he should
regulate the supply of his crops to the markets evenly
through the year just as manufacturers; that he should
know how to finance himself, do his own warehousing, his
own shipping, consigning, advertising, insuring and pricing
the same as big business. To do these things he must
assume a larger sphere of activities in the world's affairs
and he must be educated for this new sphere of activities.
He must be educated to act collectively, employ specialists
and measure strength and sagacity in the business world
with the other great forces in that field.
THE LAND QUESTION
The Land Question is fundamental to social and national
welfare. The importance of the relation of land utilization
to national life is greater than that of any other phase of
J. J. Hill stated it tersely when he said: "Land without
population is a wilderness and population without land is
a mob." The wilderness is not a menace or source of dan-
ger but the mob is prolific of revolution. The earth is the
source of all material wants. All philosophies of life and
schemes of government must rest their premises upon land
utilization. National survival is more dependent upon the
land policy than upon any other governmental policy.
The United States has never had a real land policy-
neither has any of the forty-eight States. A land policy
must include regulation in the ownership and utilization
of land for both the present and the future. Regulation of
land means a combination of individual and social control.
The economic life of no nation stands alone today. World
economics is involved in the life of each nation.
The first step necessary in establishing a land policy is a
quality classification. The policy of conservation as ap-
plied to agricultural lands does not apply to mineral lands
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
nor to forest lands. The policy that applies to desert lands
does not apply to swamp lands.
No one policy suits all kinds of farming land. It should
be classified with reference to whether it is to be devoted to
crops-and to what kind of crops-to grazing, or to the
growing of timber. Homesteading is a thing of the past.
When it was thought 160 acres was the right size for a
farm, regardless of its character or location, it was an exem-
plification of the utter lack of appreciation of the fund-
mentals of a permanent land policy.
We need an economic survey, utilizing soil surveys. Maps
and diagrams showing physical and economic features
could then be made the basis of a scientific classification of
land as a basis for credit, taxation and sale; also proportion
in economic production.
OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL.
Our oil, coal, ores and forests have been under private
control. About 85 per cent of our water power resources
remain protected and held for future use. It took seven-
teen years to secure the Federal water power act-though
not without loopholes-and is the only instance of our con-
servation policy that the door was locked before the horse
Florida retains a per cent of interest in the minerals that
may be found in all State lands that are sold. But the
irony of fate has willed that the minerals mentioned in the
constitution are the ones not found in commercial quanti-
ties. The State of Minnesota had a lot of land that was
considered practically worthless and donated quite a lot to
the State University. Coal in large quantities was discov-
ered on these lands and the institution was amply endowed
without having to resort to appropriations from the legis-
lature or receiving millions from millionaires. The State
also receives largely from the coal lands which was not dis-
posed of before the value of the deposits was discovered.
Texas came into the Union on a different basis as relates
to public lands from that of any other State. The Federal
Government did not receive any lands whatever by the an-
nexation of Texas. That State kept all her lands and paid
all her own debts. But in disposing of her lands she
96 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
retained no interest in minerals that might be found after
Almost without exception the minerals with which this
country was so richly endowed were absolutely given away
to private parties and to corporations. The lands were sold
at the price of surface acres, with no regard whatever to
the minerals that might be beneath, so all minerals went as
a clear bonus to the purchasers.
As to the question of public versus private ownership, I
think it depends on the kind of lands we are dealing with.
All problems of government and society are fundamentally
psychological. Every government is of itself a fructifying
causation. So are institutions in varying degrees. A single
law establishing a policy of government may do more to
direct future events than the most decisive battle in history.
For instance, the public school system.
The experience of the world has demonstrated beyond
cavil that forest lands must be under public direction if
conservation on any permanent and extensive scale is the
For psychological reasons. The life of the individual is
short. The time in which he can enjoy the things of life
because of his own efforts is still shorter. Forests are
sources of income only if worked up into lumber for the
market. A broad policy of conservation and preservation
means the postponement of the day of active income. The
owners are not willing to forego a realization just for the
sake of future generations.
A system of taxation or any form of subvention which
the State might adopt to encourage the owners of forests to
keep them intact or to reforest cut-over lands is at once
looked upon with displeasure by those not so lucky as to
own the forests or the cut-over lands. Therefore public
ownership is the only way out if we are to have ample areas
of forests suitably distributed over the country and to raise
timber of the kind and quantities needed. To depend on
the punitive efforts of a few large lumber interests far re-
forestation is utter folly.
Grazing lands are largely under private control, but in-
creased social control is needed. Millions of acres suit-
able for grazing only, have been plowed up for arable lands,
only to be washed away and ruined. This applies espe-
cially to the Atlantic and Gulf Coast States.
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Farm lands are privately owned and controlled. Our
condition as to concentrated ownership is not so acute as
to demand a radical change-such as Russia wrought at
one fell swoop, but we cannot forever postpone an adjust-
ment without paying a penalty that is not pleasing to con-
template. England's statesmen saw the reckoning day
approaching for her concentrated land ownership and the
inheritance tax was enacted to gradually dissipate the rank
landlordism she had inherited from the feudal system of
the Dark Ages. The Russian Soviet government has already
learned that the operator of a farm is not disposed to take
the best care of it unless it can be passed on to the heirs of
the farmer. A farm owned by the government is no more
sacred to the farmer than one owned by a landlord. Indi-
vidual ownership is necessary to get the best husbandry for
Farm lands privately owned come under the jurisdiction
of the government in rentals, valuation and taxes. This
phase will be treated under the head of taxation.
Urban land offers a complex question in classification
and treatment from the economic standpoint. There is the
city lot on which a business establishment is located-a
shack or a skyscraper; a lot with a dwelling on it, cottage
or mansion; a lot with nothing on it; the lot with a garden;
the lot with a railroad depot; the land with a great ter-
minal system on it; and there is the land with institutions
on them which pay no taxes-churches, schools, hospitals,
etc. This requires a separate treatment from the limita-
tions of the present discussion.
LAND POLICY AND INDUSTRIAL PEACE.
Industrial peace is as necessary as international peace.
The degree of satisfaction in society is in direct ratio to
the state of equilibrium of its various elements. Land
labor and finance are the prime elements in society that
make for peace or strife. Two forces are forever struggling
for supremacy in government-concentrated nationalism
and triumphant democracy. The extremes are represented
by autocracy on the one hand and internationalism on the
other. Nationalism is as bad as bolshevism. The fanat-
icism that stands for "The exaltation of the Fatherland
above everything-above freedom itself, if need be,'' is the
devilish doctrine of Prussia that plunged the world into
the most terrible war of all the ages.
Land monopoly leads to aristocracy of position in con-
98 FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
trast with the aristocracy of brains--as does all million-
airedom. Land monopoly did no small part in the destruc-
tion of the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Babylon, Persia,
Greece and Rome. It python-like choked fair France till
she was black in the face and eyes bloodshot. Desperation
hurled the dagger recklessly at the heart of privilege, and
the French "Reign of Terror" filled the world with horror.
No nation prior to that had reached the crisis France had
reached and had the courage to rise up and destroy its de-
stroyers. Only one since has done so, and that is Russia.
Mexico tried it and was sidetracked by incapacity.
We do not want any Russian or Mexican or French meth-
ods. But unless we have sense enough to use the better
methods the worse ones will come in their appointed time.
Taxation in any form is always a disturbing factor in
government. Land taxation is one of the largest problems
in economics, political science and sociology.
Taxes have four possible ends:
1. To raise revenue to support the government and in-
situtions operated by the government.
2. To protect home industries against foreign competi-
3. To cripple or destroy a business which is not wanted
-such as taxing out of existence state banks; high license
charged for things of doubtful use or legitimacy.
4. To lessen inequalities.
It was the effort to raise money for a bankrupt throne
that precipitated the French Revolution. It was the fire-
brand that set aflame the passions of the people.
The appropriation of all land rents by the State and the
absorption of all increment values by society, as is pro-
posed by the single-tax advocates, would be no worse in
effect than the confiscation bv taxes that is going on in
many parts of the country. When all rentals go for taxes
the owner is virtually dispossessed and has become a mere
tenant of the State. Numerous statistics have been pub-
lished from official records to show that taxes are often in
excess of the rental income from lands.
The greatest curse that could befall this country would
be to reduce its farmers to peasants. When we cease to
produce more per hand than other countries our economic
supremacy is at an end. The production of most to the
acre is all right until it means a reduction per hand, then
it means peasantry. Deliver us from modernized feudalism
on the farm or in the factory.