VOLUME 36 NUMBER 2
Florida Quarterly Bulletin
Department of Agriculture
Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, L900. "Acceptnnce for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."
T. J1 APPLEYARD, INC.. TALLAHASSEE, FLOARD
This compilation of information was made in answer
to thousands of inquiries which have come to this office.
It is hoped, that the subjects herein treated will be of
interest and profit to thousands of Florida farmers. We
extend our grateful thanks to all from whom we have
quoted for their contributions.
Table of Contents
National Department of Agriculture............. 5-17
M ap of Florida ................................ 18
Relative Statistics ............................. 19-26
What Is Florida's Experiment Station Doing? .... 27-36
Florida Truck Crop Losses...................... 37-47
Production of Some Leading Truck Crops by Years 48
How to Improve Florida Soils .................. 49-50
Bulb Culture in Florida .................... . . 51-52
Narcissus Bulbs ............................. 53-54
Asparagus Plumosus .......................... 55-57
The Chayote .................................. 58-60
Banana Growing in Florida.................. 61-64
U. S. Standards for Strawberries ................ 65
Golf Course Grass Culture ..................... 66-67
H en F leas ................................ ... 68
Facts About Dairying in Florida................ 69-70
Origin of Citrus Culture........................ 71-73
Outline of Florida Citrus Stocks ............... 74-76
Spray Calendar for Florida ..................... 77-79
Grove Calendar for June...................... 80
Marvel Blackberry.............................. 81-83
Gas Will Make Garden Better................. 84
Cayana 10 Resistant to Mosaic Disease in Sugar Cane 85
The Southern Pear................. ......... 86-87
Distilling for Oil and Charcoal. .................. 88-90
Forest Fund is Given to State ................... 91
Apportionment of Federal Road Fund........... 92-93
Financing the Farmer........................ 94-95
What the Farmer Wants to Know About Electricity 96-97
Marvels of the New Big Four.. .............. 98-100
New Sort of Sugar Is Probable: ................. 101-103
Where Does Your Dollar Go? .................... 104-106
"Chain" and "Department" Store Figures....... 107
Government Supplies ......................... 108
The How-Come of Immunity............. .. .109-112
The Mysterious Vitamine. .......................113-117
European Corn Borer Threatens More Loss Than
World War .............................118-123
1925 Farm Census .......................... 24-125
Uses of Milk in the United States ................ 126
Population of Florida Compared with England and
Italy ................................... 127-128
government t Printing Office ................... 129
Bureau of Home Economics....................130-131
Table of Food Values ....................... 132-133
Home Garden Planting Table ................... 134
Land and Water Areas of States and Territories. .. 135
Possible to Grow Balanced Dairy Ration in South. .136-137
A appendix .................. ...... .......... 138-144
National Department of
National Farm News
B EGINNING in 1836 as a Branch of Patent Office, with
an appropriation of $1,000, to-day the Department
of Agriculture has been elevated to Cabinet rank,
the appropriations approximate $135,000,000 and 20,000
Although George Washington in 1793 wanted Congress
to do something towards creating a department to promote
the interests of the agricultural industry in America, that
body did not act on the suggestion until 1862.
However, in 1836, acting without any definite authority,
an Agricultural Division was established in the Patent
Office, and three years later the first appropriation-
$1,000-was made for the purpose of collecting and dis-
tributing seeds, prosecuting agricultural investigations,
and procuring statistics covering farming activities. In
1841 the Commissioner's report stated that 30,000 pack-
ages of seeds had been distributed during the year and
that statistics gathered in the census were being prepared
This work continued under the direction of the Commis-
sioner until 1849, when the Department of Interior was
established and the Patent Office with its agricultural
work became a part of it.
Due in a large measure to the untiring activities of the
United States Agricultural Society, organized in 1852, and
meeting annually in Washington, the law creating an in-
dependent Department of Agriculture, was passed May
A big order in short form is the basic law establishing
the Department of Agriculture. It says:
"There shall be at the seat of the Government a Depart-
ment of Agriculture, the general design and duties of
which shall be to acquire and diffuse among the people of
the United States, useful information on subjects con-
6 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
nected with agriculture, in the most general and compre-
hensive sense of that word."
Then, in 1889, the Department was elevated from a
bureau of the Interior Department to Cabinet rank.
At that time the old brick building in the Mall was large
enough to accommodate all of the various divisions of the
Department. Now the bureaus and divisions occupy about
thirty-five buildings in the National Capital.
Norman J. Colman was the first Secretary of Agricul-
ture, serving a month in President Cleveland's first
Cabinet. The appropriations totaled about $1,000,000.
Some idea of the rapid development and expansion of the
Department is depicted through the fact that approxi-
mately $135,000,000 was appropriated for the current
fiscal year. More than 20,000 persons are employed in the
different bureaus. Of this number 5,000 are located in
Washington, while the other 15,000 are scattered over the
COMMISSIONERS OF AGRICULTURE UNDER
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Watts found in operation the Divisions of Chemistry.
Garden and Grounds, Entomology, Statistics and Botany.
The Division of Microscopy was established in 1871. The
Forestry Division had its beginning in 1877, when an ap-
propriation for forestry investigations was obtained and
a special agent placed in charge of the work. Upon the
recommendation of Mr. Watts the weather reporting work
was transferred to the War Department. The Division of
Statistics had about 3,000 voluntary correspondents and
an appropriation of $15,000.
WILLIAM G. LEDuc.
His term of office was from 1877 to 1881. Mr. LeDuc
was a native of Minnesota, and as Commissioner, was op-
posed to the indiscriminate distribution of common seeds.
Under a special appropriation of $10,000 an investigation
was made of diseases among hogs and other domestic ani-
mals. Pleuro-pneumonia among cattle, which had obtained
a wide foothold in the country, was also studied thorough-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
ly, and an investigation of the history and habits of in-
sects important in agriculture was maintained with an ap-
propriation of $10,000.
With a fund of $20,000 a farm was leased to conduct
investigations in tea culture and work was continued in
the making of sugar from sorghum and beets. The first
attention was given to irrigation by the allotment of funds
for experiments with artesian wells.
GEORGE B. LORING.
Dr. Loring served as Commissioner from 1881 to 1885.
He was a native of Massachusetts and was educated as a
physician, but beginning in 1857 he devoted his time to
scientific farming and politics. At the beginning of his
term work in the Department consisted of investigations
on tea planting, sugar making from sorghum, vegetable
and animal fibers, economic insects, irrigation by the use
of artesian wells, and diseases of domestic animals.
The sorghum experiments, as they related to the produc-
tion of sugar, and work in the artesian wells, were brought
to a close with disappointing results. A veterinary station
was established at Washington and the control of quaran-
tine against diseased animals was transferred from the
Treasury Department to the Commissioner. The Bureau
of Animal Industry was started in 1884 with an appro-
priation of $150,000. The problem of silk culture was con-
tinued and the Division of Statistics was reorganized with
a view to a more complete and perfect system of crop re-
porting. In Europe an agency was established to collect
information showing the prospective demand for Ameri-
can produce. Increasing quantities of seed were distri-
buted, reaching a total of more than two million packages
NORMAN J. COLMAN.
(First Secretary of Agriculture).
Born in New York, and serving as a Commissioner from
1885 to 1889, Mr. Colman, though educated in the law,
had a strong love for rural pursuits. Under his adminis-
tration the work of the Department was enlarged and on
February 9, 1889, it became one of the executive depart-
ments of the Government, largely through the efforts of
the National Grange. Commissioner Colman was ap-
8 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
pointed by President Cleveland as the first Secretary of
Agriculture, and held the office a little less than one month.
The Office of Experiment Stations was established by
the Hatch Act in 1887, also the Divisions of Pomology,
Ornithology and Mammalogy were established during his
term of office. A study of public highways was begun and
investigations started on the rapid decrease in forest areas
and the planting of trees on the plains. Good progress
was made in stamping out pleuro-pneumonia and other
contagious diseases of domestic animals.
JEREMIAH M. RUSK.
A native of Ohio and with the exception of a short
period Mr. Rusk continually resided on a farm. The work
of the Department under his administration as Secretary
of Agriculture was divided into two main classes. The
Secretary, having immediate charge of the executive work,
and the scientific work under the direction of an Assistant
Secretary, the latter office having just been created.
A Division of Records and Editing, which later became
the Division of Publications, was also established. Secre-
tary Rusk recommended the publication and distribution
of Farmer's Bulletins, which have become so popular. In
1892 he announced that the country was entirely free of
pleuro-pneumonia. Quarantine regulations against Texas
fever among cattle was placed under Federal control. The
Weather Bureau was transferred from the War Depart-
ment to the Department of Agriculture. His term of office
was from 1889 to 1893.
J. STERLING MORTON.
Secretary Morton was born in New York State, but
later moved to Nebraska, where he gained prominence as
author of Arbor Day legislation, which provides that one
day each year be made a public holiday and be devoted to
tree planting. He served from 1893 to 1897. Under his
administration the reorganization of old lines of work was
effected and new lines developed.
The Division of Agrostology was formed and consular
agents throughout the world were requested to send seeds
of new forage plants to the Department. The Division of
Soils was formed as a part of the Weather Bureau. The
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Office of Road Inquiry was established. The Division of
Microscopy was abolished and its work distributed to
other departments. A Dairy Division was formed in 1895.
Competitive examinations for filling positions under Civil
Service were started.
Mr. Wilson had long been active in agricultural develop-
ment in the Middle West before assuming the duties of
Secretary, which position he held from 1897 to 1913. He
was a native of Iowa.
During his administration, Congress constantly in-
creased the appropriations from about $2,000,000 in 1897
to more than $20,000,000 in 1913, which enabled the
Secretary to extend the Department activities. Several
new lines of work were introduced in the Bureau of Plant
Industry. The Bureau of Forestry and the Divisions of
Chemistry, Soils, Entomology, Statistics, and Biological
Survey were each made a Bureau.
In 1903 the Department occupied more than three acres
of floor space. Plans were made for the construction of a
new agricultural building, and in 1908 the east and west
wings were completed and occupied. The original tract of
land for experimental work in the Bureau of Plant Indus-
try was increased by the addition of 300 acres from the
Arlington estate in Virginia and a tract at Beltsville,
Maryland, was obtained for the Bureau of Animal In-
DAVID F. HOUSTON.
Secretary Houston's term of office was from 1913 to
1919. He was a native of Missouri and served as a college
executive and professor of political science and economics
before taking up his secretarial duties. The entrance of the
United States into the World War created many perplex-
ing problems for the American farmer, with Mr. Houston
playing the part of leader in solving them.
The Department's work was reorganized to bring about
a more logical and effective grouping of its activities and
to render all phases of its work more directly helpful to
the farmer. The Smith-Lever Act, passed in 1914, provides
for co-operative extension work between the Department
and the State agricultural colleges. Good highways were
10 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
constructed by Federal and State co-operation made pos-
sible by the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916. Money was
lent to farmers through operation of the Federal Reserve
and Federal Farm Loan Acts, providing for systematic
financial aid on terms suited to farmers' requirements.
Grain marketing and storing were aided by passage of the
Grain Standards and the Warehouse Acts. Ware opera-
tions were aided in every possible way by every Bureau
of the Department.
EDWIN T. MEREDITH.
Mr. Meredith, of Iowa, served as Secretary from 1919
to 1921. He had followed agriculture practically all his
life; first as a farm boy and later as publisher of "Success-
ful Farming," an agricultural journal with a national
circulation. Under his administration the country passed
through the worst period of depression in the history of
American agriculture. More attention was given to Ameri-
can farming from a world aspect and foreign market in-
formation collected and made available to farmers in the
Congress was asked for authority to combine the Depart-
ment's marketing and crop estimating work. The market
reporting service was extended and the idea of using the
radio in sending out information was tried out success-
fully and adopted. Warfare against plant insect pests and
diseases was carried on vigorously, as was also the work
of freeing livestock of destructive enemies.
HENRY C. WALLACE.
Secretary Wallace was also a native Iowan, serving from
1921 until his death in October, 1924. After farming for
several years he became editor and co-publisher of Wal-
lace's Farmer, an agricultural publication. Agriculture
was continuing in the depression as a result of the war.
The work of the Department was divided into the follow-
ing main divisions: Weather, Plant Industry, Animal In-
dustry, Forest Service, Chemistry, Soils, Entomology,
Biological Survey, Crop Estimates, States Relations
Service, Public Roads, Markets, Publications, the Office of
Farm Management, Federal Horticultural Board, and In-
secticide and Fungicide Board.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
The activities of the Department were directed toward
the greatest possible service in the task of restoring agri-
culture to a prosperous basis.
One of the important actions taken by Secretary
Wallace was to provide for the offices for Directors of
Scientific Regulatory and Extension Work, thus, for the
first time, bringing the supervision of such work under
the responsibility of a directing head.
In order to consolidate the branches of the Department
doing economic research work the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics was formed. It includes the Bureau of Markets,
Bureau of Crop Estimates, and the Office of Farm Manage-
ment and Farm Economics. Following this action, the
States Relation Service, Director of Information, and the
Division of Publications were abolished.
The Bureau of Home Economics was created. A Bureau
of Dairying was formed from the Bureau of Animal In-
dustry, and commodity councils were formed to make com-
prehensive* studies of the conditions which influence the
profitable production of various crops.
HOWARD M. GORE.
Following the death of Secretary Wallace on October
25, 1924, Assistant Secretary Howard M. Gore, of West
Virginia, became Acting Secretary and later was ap-
pointed Secretary. He held the office until March 4, 1925,
when the present Secretary, William M. Jardine, took
Mr. Gore was born on a farm near Clarksburg, W. Va.,
and practically all of his life has been an active farmer
and breeder of meat animals and nure-bred livestock. He
has been one of the foremost agricultural leaders in his
native State, holding offices in several farm and livestock
organizations, as well as pioneering in the campaign for
the institution of boys' and girls' clubs.
WILLIAM M. JARDINE.
Secretary Jardine was born in Oneida County, Idaho;
lived and worked on ranches in Idaho and Montana until
twenty years of age. He is a graduate of several agricul-
tural colleges, and has devoted nearly all of his life to
work in various agricultural schools and State depart-
12 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
ments of agriculture; serving as President of the Kansas
State Agricultural College from March 1, 1918, to March
4, 1925, when he was appointed to the office of Secretary
During his administration much has been done in con-
solidating and concentrating the activities of the Depart-
ment in order to obtain the most efficient service from the
various bureaus and subdivisions.
The administrative officers of the Department are:
William M. Jardine, of Kansas, Secretary of Agricul-
ture; Renick W. Dunlap, Assistant Secretary; F. M.
Russell, Assistant to the Secretary; H. M. Bain, Adminis-
trative Assistant, and R. W. Williams, Solicitor. Dr.
Albert Wood is Director of Scientific Work; Walter G.
Campbell, Director of Regulatory Work; C. W. Warbur-
ton, Director of Extension Work; Nelson A..Crawford,
Director of Information, and W. W. Stockberger, Director
of Personnel and Business Administration. In addition to
these there are a large number of supervisory officials who
have charge of the actual work of the divisions and
USE THE DEPARTMENT
Here is a Department of the United States Government
which holds a key position to the life, health, and happiness
of the American people and, when properly functioning,
as it seems to be to-day, should be of great assistance to
the soil tillers of America.
About one hundred and thirty-five millions of dollars
of the taxpayers' money is spent ;annually through this
agency, eighty millions of which is used to keep up, im-
prove, and build public highways. No one branch of the
American Government is more closely connected with or
of greater service to the farmer than the Department of
Agriculture. Agriculture through the avenue of taxation,
helps materially to keep this Department in active opera-
tion and every farmer in the country should call upon
Secretary Jardine and his assistants whenever information
or advice is needed. The Department issues annually
hundreds of books and pamphlets containing reading mat-
ter of supreme importance to every agriculturist, the most
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
of which is obtainable without cost, by writing to your
Congressman. Send and get a catalogue and select what
you want to read. Your Congressman will be only too glad
to forward this matter to you.
Comprehensively speaking, the Department's activities
are divided into three groups-regulatory, research, exten-
sion and service work. For convenience of administration,
the work is assigned to bureaus and other subdivisions.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WORK
The primary and fundamental work of the Department
is in the field of scientific research and it is largely due to
the results of this work that its other activities have been
added from time to time.
Through its scientific endeavors the Department has
added millions of dollars to the wealth of the nation by
the introduction of new crops and the adoption of others
to varying soils and climates. Other millions have been
added through methods of control of plant- and animal
diseases; improved methods of crop production; better
methods of breeding and feeding, and through better
utilization of food products.
As a result of the various kinds of scientific investiga-
tions carried on by the Department of Agriculture, life is
being made easier and conditions which might make it
infinitely more difficult are being avoided. The scientist
has proved that he is not only useful, but essential. He
builds the foundation on which the rest of the work of
the Department is based.
This branch of the Department covers a broad field and
has to do with the enforcement of the various acts affect-
ing the regulation of various phases of production, manu-
facturing and marketing. Unlike most kinds of regulation,
that of the Department requires the highest scientific
knowledge. The regulatory work grew out of research
work and once established requires the scientist's helping
hand in solving its problems and in intelligently carrying
out the law.
Among some of its achievements were the establishment
of grades and standards for various products and manu-
factured articles-for instance, the Grain Standards Act
14 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
-which makes No. 1 wheat the same the country over.
The case is practically the same with the standards of
other agricultural crops and with the enforcement of the
Standard Container Act.
Some of the other duties are the enforcement of the
Foods and Drugs Act, the Packers and Stockyards Act,
Forest Service, Federal Quarantine Act, Migratory Bird
Law, Virus Serum Toxin Act, Alaska Game Law, Ware-
house Act, and many others. All of this work tends to
safeguard the interests of the people as a whole. Through
the system of inspection is made possible the production
manufacturing and distribution of pure foods and drugs;
the protection of the major agricultural crops against
diseases and insects; the administration of the national
forests, prevention of cruelty to animals and various other
Following the violation of the acts, the Department not
only seeks to punish the offender, but to bring about better
practices in the activities affected.
When the Department completes an investigation, dis-
covers some new fact, or takes up some new line of service,
there still remains the important task of getting all of the
available information to the farmer and others concerned.
As there is no distinct line separating the extension
work from the service work with much of the research
endeavors co-mingled with service activities, it is difficult
to sketch a composite picture of both.
Extension work proper embraces several activities.
Recently acquired information is released to newspapers,
farm publications and periodicals through the press; bul-
letins of various types are distributed by the Department
and by members of Congress; motion pictures are being
used to demonstrate new methods of raising crops and
livestock; exhibits made up of models, pictures and charts
are sent to fairs, expositions and conventions; and personal
contact is made with farmers and their families through
extension agents in all parts of the United States.
Market information is sent out daily, weekly and
monthly. It goes by mail, through the press, telegraph,
and by radio. The farmer who desires the market news
may have it on short notice. The Weather Bureau, though
scientific in many of its phases, is primarily a service to
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
all people. The weather information is distributed through
the same channels as the market reports.
Since the passage of the Smith-Lever Act in 1914, in-
creasing amounts of money have been available for ex-
tension work, the States appropriating funds to match the
money provided by Congress. This work is done in co-
operation with the Department. For the fiscal year 1923
the Federal Government provided $7,000,000 out of a total
of $18,000,000 spent.
More than 4,500 workers, including county agricultural
agents, home demonstration agents, specialists in different
lines of work, and leaders in boys' and girls' club work are
employed. These agents, supplemented by specialists,
supervise and conduct demonstrations on the farms and
in the homes, hold meetings, and give suggestions and as-
sitance by personal visits, correspondence, telephone
messages and in any way that promises good results.
The work in giving out crop and livestock market in-
formation requires the services of more than 200,000 volun-
teer crop reporters. These are farmers located in all sec-
tions of the country who give regular reports on conditions
in their immediate vicinity. Field agents are maintained
in each State or group of States to report on crops and
livestock. A leased wire system covers practically the en-
tire country, giving the farmer and the buyer of his pro
ducts up-to-the-minute reports on market conditions.
SECRETARY'S DUTIES FRAUGHT WITH
Herewith are enumerated some of the duties of the
Secretary of Agriculture. A picture is conveyed that
leaves no doubt as to the responsibility of his position.
He has charge:
1. Of all the forecasting, investigational, and observa-
tional work relating to the weather. This service saves
annually several millions of dollars for the agriculture,
commerce and navigation of the country.
2. Of all work relating to the improvement of livestock
investigations, control and eradication of animal diseases,
inspection of meat and meat products.
3. Of all the vast problems of the dairy industry.
4. Of all work relating to plant life in its relations to
agriculture, including plant diseases, breeding, plant in-
troduction from foreign countries and similar activities.
16 NATIONAL DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE
5. Of administration of national forests with all of the
related problems of forest utilization and scientific inves-
tigation for the general promotion of the forest interests
of the nation.
6. Of chemical investigations in their relation to agri-
culture, and the enforcement of the Food and Drug Act.
7. Of the soils in their relation to agricultural produc-
tion and development, including the use of fertilizers.
8. Of the work relating to relation of insect life, both
helpful and harmful to agriculture and to the health of
men and animals.
9. Of all work bearing upon the relationship between
wild life and economic progress, including extermination
of predatory animals, the conservation of bird life, wild
game and fur-bearing animals.
10. Of the administration of the Federal Aid Road Act
and all investigational work from a national standpoint
and in co-operation with the States on road construction,
maintenance, utilization and agricultural engineering.
11. Of estimating crops and collecting and publishing
currently acreage, yield, condition, production, number of
livestock, and value of farm products.
12. Of service and investigational work relating to all
phases of marketing and distribution, including the
standardization, transportation, handling, storage and dis-
posal of agricultural products.
13. Of investigations in farm management, diversifica-
tion, costs of production, farm organization, labor, finan-
cial and economic problems.
14. Of the collection and dissemination of market in-
formation through the nation-wide telegraphic market
news service, which covers livestock, fruit and vegetables,
grains, cotton and practically all other important agricul-
15. Of the enforcement of the United States Cotton
Futures and Cotton Standards Acts, the terms of which
prescribe the type of contract universally used on the
American Cotton Exchanges and which provides also for
the disinterested classification by the Government of cot-
ton to be delivered upon future contracts.
16. Of the administration of the United States Ware-
house Act, which in recent years has been broadened to
include cotton, wheat, seeds, many canned fruits, potatoes,
wool, and other products. Licensing under this Act makes
the warehouse receipts more liquid and a readier source
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
17. Of investigation of all problems connected with the
home, including foods, nutrition, textiles, clothing, hous-
ing and equipment.
18. Of supervision over the work and expenditures of
the State agricultural experiment stations, who receive
a notable part of their support from Federal appropria-
19. Of the extension work of the Department, under
which county agricultural agents paid partly by State
and local agencies and partly by the Federal Government,
are sustained in over 2,500 counties in the United States.
20. Of packers, stockyards, and all classes of market-
ing agencies operating therein, with the view to preventing
and correcting irregularities and abuses such as unfair,
discriminatory or deceptive practices, the control of prices
and unjust rates or charges.
21. Of the operation of grain future exchanges, which
are required to conform to certain regulations in order
that they may be designated on contract markets. A mis-
taken idea prevails that the Grain Futures Act was de-
signed to prevent speculation. As a matter of fact the law
provides only for the obtaining of complete and reliable
information on all phases of grain future trading, for-
bidding the publication of false information and attempts
to prevent the abuse of the facilities of the exchanges in
running corners or causing sudden and unreasonable
fluctuations in price. It also requires duly designated con-
tract markets to permit qualified co-operative associations
to acquire membership, even though they declare patron-
22. Of the work intended to insure the manufacture
and sale of high standard chemicals for use in the control
and prevention of insect and fungus injury to crops.
23. Of the enforcement of the Plant Quarantine Act,
whose great purpose is to prevent the admission of addi-
tional insect and plant diseases into the United States
from foreign countries, among which may be mentioned
the cotton boll weevil, the gypsy and brown-tail moths,
San Jose scale, and various rusts and smuts whose eco-
nomic burden on American agriculture no doubt totals
hundreds of millions of dollars per year.
24. Of the work intended to enable the United States
by utilization of its vast water powers, to produce fixed
nitrogen in various forms sufficient for the fertilizer and
industrial and other requirements.
18 MAP OF FLORIDA
L.. A Es A M A
m NAFSA CD F4 _
I CI E 9flLOWARD
N~~i~~~ 5[ ji`
On Florida's Resources and Population Based an Enumeration
Made in 1924-25 so Far as Reported. In Some Instances
This Is Incomplete.
Total value of crops, live stock, assessed valuation and
Crops and Live Stock .
Crops and Live Stock
Crops and Live Stock ............ .. $ 51,049,965
Assessed Valuation .... ......... $ 151,254,821
Population ........ . . . ... . 454,320
Crops and Live Stock
Assessed Valuation ..
. . $ 25,024,527
..... $ 111,465,523
. . 276,242
Proportion of Florida's crops produced in Florida west
of the Suwannee River:
Area of this section 27% of total area of the State;
population 22%, and produces the following percentage
of the crops named:
Tobacco .... . .. 97
Cotton ............... 88
Fullers Earth ....... 95
Oysters ............. 80
Satsumas .. .. ... 80
Peaches ......... 79
Sugar Cane Syrup.... 53
Sweet Potatoes ....... 51
Hogs ............... 51
Sheep ............... 49
Oats ................. 44
Honey ..... 42
Corn ............... 40
Dairy Cows ....... 34
Naval Stores ......... 33
Poultry ...... 32
Grapes . ...... . 26
Pecans . .. 25
Stock Cattle ......... 23
Water Melons . . 18
Water Melon Seed ....100
sale in U. S.
This section has the State Capitol, Supreme Court, the
College for Women, A. & M. College (colored), the Indus-.
trial School for Boys and the State Hospital.
The proportion of Florida's crops produced in the
Northeast section of the State which is composed of the
following counties: Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Clay,
Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns,
Suwannee, and Union.
Total area is 4,842,954 acres, which is 14% of the State.
The population is 255,548, which
Sea Island Cotton ... ..
Peaches ... . .
Sweet Potatoes .
Beef Cattle ...
Grapes ... ..
F igs .. .....
Poultry . .
R ice . .. .. .. . . .. . ..
is 21% of the State.
.. .. 30%
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Sugar Cane Syrup
. ..... 22%
. . 22%
. .. 15%
Brevard, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Levy
Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole.
Area, 23% of the State; po
pulation 454,320; 36%.
.. . . 54%
. ..... 53%
.. .... 42%
Dairy Cattle 34%
Peaches 31 %
Broward, Charlotte, Clay, Collier, Dade, DeSoto, Glades,
Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Okee-
chobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie Counties.
Area, 30% of the State; population, 21% of State.
Egg Plants 86%
Lima Beans 85%
Limes .. 76%
Grape Fruit 36%
English Peas .24%
String Beans 22%
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP AND COLOR OF FARMERS IN THE
SEVERAL SECTIONS OF FLORIDA
SI I I Man-
Section White Negro Owner ITenant| ager Farms
Total ........... 13,917 6,673 13,081 7,319 190 20,590
Per Cent ........ 67 33 64 35 1
I 1 I
Total ........... 7,781 2,561 8,216 2,094 68 10,343
Per Cent ........ 75 25 79 20 1
Total ........... 17,635 2,231 17,502 1,811 546 19,866
Per Cent ........ 89 11 88 9 3
Total ... ......
Per Cent ........
Average size of farm:
North Western Section 98 Acres
North Eastern Section 121
Central Section 87
Southern Section 105
VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA
Creameries and Ice Cream Plants
Light and Power Co.
Cotton Oil Co.
Chemical Mfg. Co.
Crate and Barrel . ..
Wood Working Mills .........
Carriage and Wagon ......
Casket Mfg. Co ........
Shingle Mill ....
Shrimp Packers ......... ..
Tailoring Co .....
Hat Mfg. Co. ..................
G inneries ..... .................
Jewelry Co. .. . ...........
Mattress Mfg. Co. .....
Cement Blocks ...
Sheet Metal Workers ... .
Broom Factory .. ..
... $ 130,900
... .. 150,000
.. .. 100,000
.. ..... 41,200
.. . . 19,494
.................. .... $24,692,884
VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Saw Mills .... ........ .. $11,366,655
Naval Stores .... . ... 3,780,800
Garages ..... ...... . . . 704,550
*Fish .... ......... 436,000
Cotton Gins ............. 429,075
Power Plants ......... ........ 414,500
Syrup ...... ..... ....... 277,765
Barrel & Stave Mfg. Co. .. . ... 234,650
Bottling Works ............... ...... 173,500
Ice Co. ........ ....... ...... 166,000
*Fullers Earth ..... 157,000
B rick ......................... ....... 104,500
Grist M ills ............ ............ 89;100
Machine Shops ........... .. ...... 82,776
Miscellaneous .. ............. ... 65,380
Variety Works ... .... . .... 65,100
Boat Repair Shops .......... .... 62,000
Canning ...... ....... .. ........... 20,650
Bakeries ................................ 13,625
Printing ................... ............ 11,600
Ice Cream and Creameries ....... ... 1,700
Tobacco ..... . .... 1,300
Total .... .... . .... . $18,658,226
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 25
VALUES OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS IN MIDDLE FLORIDA
Cigars . ........ . ........ $14,982,819
Fertilizers .................... 6,542,250
Saw Mills ...... . . 4,881,155
Miscellaneous ................. 4,631,750
Contractors' Equipment ........ . 1,624,890
Garages ....................... 1,516,120
Machine Shops ......... ... 1,091,275
Ice .......... ..... ........ ..... 933,750
Pow er ..... ................. ...... . 747,000
Naval Stores ....... .... 665,000
Syrup ..... .................. ... 602,800
Printing .. ................... 463,000
Brick & Cement ..... ... ....... 457,650
Crate & Box . .......... 402,431
Bakeries ..... . . 392,200
Bottlers . ................ 311,050
Metal Workers . .. ... 296,200
Canners .... .......... 244,000
Laundries ..... ............... 221,540
Ice Cream . ............ 202,275
Packing House .. . 187,000
Boat Builder . 152,500
Coffee Roaster ...... ... 112,375
Chemical Works ......... 103,250
Furniture . ........ ....... 91,360
Novelty Works ...................... 87,000
Knitting Mills ................... 60,000
M attress .................................. 44,340
Barrel Mfg. Co. ...... .. ..... 39,000
Candy ......... ....... ....... 20,490
Grist Mill ... ... ......... . 15,950
Sails & Tents ................ ..... 14,350
Brooms . ..... ................. 12,500
Moss ............. ................. 10,000
T anks ......... .. ......... ..... ... 4,000
Well Machinery ......... ... 2,000
IIay Baler ... .................... 400
VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS IN SOUTH FLORIDA
Ice ...... .
Cement & Concrete
Novelty Wood Shop
Sugar Mill ......
Sheet Metal .. ......
Bed Springs & Mattresses
Awning & Tents
Grist Mill ....
Glass .. .. ...
Tin Shop ...
What is Florida's Experiment
One Hundred and Twelve Projects, Covering Every Phase of
Florida Agricultural and Horticultural Activity, Are
Being Successfully Carried Forward
By J. FRANCIS COOPER
Editor, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, in Florida Grower
AMONG the many various agencies at work in the
interest of the farmers of Florida is the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. This is a part
of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida
at Gainesville. It is supported by both State and Federal
funds and is responsible to the State Board of Control
and to the United States Department of Agriculture. It
is under the direction of Dr. Wilmon Newell, who is also
Dean of the Agricultural College.
In addition to the main station at Gainesville, the
Florida Experiment Station maintains a number of branch
stations and field laboratories in different parts of the
State to permit the carrying on of certain projects in the
sections most affected by the work of these projects.
The farmers' problems are many and varied, and it is
manifestly impossible for each farmer to conduct experi-
ments on his own individual farm in an effort to deter-
mine the best practices to be followed in his farming
work. The Florida Experiment Station provides the
means of making these studies in an effort to find out
The work of the Experiment Station is necessarily
widely varied in nature. Research is being conducted on
problems of animal industry and dairying, grasses and
forage crops, chemistry and plant physiology, plant dis-
eases, insects (both harmful and beneficial), horticulture
(including citrus, pecans and a wide variety of fruits,
berries and vegetables), and animal diseases.
A review of the accomplishments of the Station during
1925 reveals that while many of the problems being
worked on are as yet unsolved, substantial progress has
been made and many things of interest and value have
2S FLORIDA'S EXPERIMENT STATION
112 DISTINCT PROBLEMS
The Experiment Station had under way during the year
as many as 112 distinct problems of investigation-no
small order for any one institution. This was slightly
more than the average for all experiment stations in the
One of the lines of research is that relating to animal
industry. John M. Scott is animal industrialist and has
been with the station for more than 16 years. He is in
charge of the college dairy herd, and has built up a herd
of high-producing cows. Many of these cows were ex-
hibited at the South Florida Fair in Tampa a year ago,
and a glance at the winnings is almost like reading the
premium list of the fair. Many ribbons from the 1925
Tampa fair were brought back by the college dairy herd.
Mr. Scott believes that it is possible to greatly increase
the amount of milk produced by the average Florida cow,
and results of his work with the college herd seem to bear
this out. For instance, one of the cows in the herd fresh-
ened on March 24 and was put on test April 1. From then
until the end of the year, a period of nine months, this
cow produced 1,172 gallons of milk, or an average of 130
gallons a month. While that is far from a high record, it
is considerably higher than the production of the average
cow with average feeding and care. Mr. Scott is also con-
ducting experimental work with soft pork and a number
of other subjects.
During the past year a large number of tests have been
conducted with pasture and lawn grasses and forage crops.
W. E. Stokes is in charge of grass and forage crops inves-
tigations, and is assisted by Dr. W. A. Leukel.
In a test of leguminous hay crops, including bush velvet
beans, soybeans, Mung beans, cowpeas and beggarweed,
it was found that on high pine land classed as Norfolk
sand, Brabham cowpeas gave the highest yield of hay.
They were followed by Otootan soybeans, which also re-
turned the highest yield of seed of all the crops.
WINTER LEGUMES FOR FLORIDA
Finding suitable winter legumes for Florida soils is one
of the important problems on which the grass and forage
crops investigators are working. This is probably one of
the most difficult problems confronting the station, and a
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
large number of legumes are being tried each winter in
an effort to find some that consistently make satisfactory
Two of these winter tests in Duval County yielded in-
teresting results. Hairy vetch, common vetch, woolly pod
vetch, black medic, Canada field peas, grey winter field
peas, hubam clover, annual yellow sweet clover and bur
clover all make a satisfactory growth on flatwoods land,
officially classed as Bladen fine sandy loam. Bitter vetch,
alfalfa and crimson clover did not make good growth on
this land. In the other test, which was on white sandy
soil known as scrub oak ridge, and classed officially as
Norfolk fine sand, hairy vetch and woolly pod vetch were
the only ones to succeed.
On soils of the Norfolk series, well-drained sandy lands
with yellow sandy subsoil, in Alachua County, bur clover
and hairy vetch made fair growth in one test and bur
clover in another. In the same county, on a poor phase of
flatwoods soil, known as flatwoods land, hairy vetch and
toothed bur clover were the only legumes looking at all
At the Tobacco Experiment Station in Gadsden County,
on an Orangeburg soil, a grey surface soil with a red
friable sandy clay subsoil, Canada field peas, hairy vetch,
woolly pod vetch and some of the bur clovers made fair
growth. Hairy and common vetch were the only legumes
to make a fair growth in a test on high pine land, officially
classed as Norfolk sand, while in another test on flatwoods
land of Portsmouth sandy loam, none of the legumes
Crotalaria continued to show up well as a summer
legume cover crop.
LIMING SELDOM PAYS
Some very striking results were obtained in the use of
ground limestone on land to be planted in peanuts. This
test has been in progress for several years, and peanuts
make a very poor showing on Norfolk sand, high pine
land, which has been limed. Results indicate that it is
best not to lime this land for either peanuts, corn or
In the pasture grass work, results indicate that light
covering of pasture grass seed, when sowing on many
Florida soils, gives a better stand than where the seed are
30 FLORIDA'S EXPERIMENT STATION
not covered. Thorough preparation of the land before
planting gave best stands and growth on high pine and
A number of pasture grasses are being tried out, and
Bahia grass is proving its worth. "In fact," says Mr.
Stokes in this connection, "our tests have gone far enough,
we think, to warrant us in recommending Bahia grass for
permanent pasture purposes anywhere in Florida where
pastures might be expected to grow."
In the lawn grass tests, Centipede grass stands out
among the most promising. It has been under observation
since 1919, and is not bothered by disease and insect pests.
Italian rye grass has been found satisfactory for greening
up lawns in winter, but tends to retard spring and sum-
mer growth of most grasses that follow it.
RESULTS OFTEN OBTAINED SLOWLY
The chemistry department, under the leadership of Dr.
R. W. Ruprecht and his assistants, Dr. R. M. Barnette,
C. E. Bell, J. M. Coleman and E. W. Cowan, has inves-
tigated a number of soil and fertilizer problems. Chief
among these are a work with dieback in citrus, and nutri-
tion studies in connection with nail-head rust of tomatoes.
As yet no remedies have been found for either of these
troubles, and this work will be continued.
An experiment comparing different sources of potash
for citrus was started, and results should be available in
a few years. Pecan fertilizer experiments were increased
at different parts of the State in an effort to find the best
fertilizers for pecans and dates of application. This de-
partment is also making a study of the mineral content of
Florida-grown grasses, forage crops and grains.
The department of plant pathology studies the diseases
-and their number is legion--of Florida citrus, truck,
garden and field crops. During the past year the depart-
ment has been working in co-operation with the State
Plant Board on scaly bark of citrus, citrus canker, fungous
control of citrus aphids and diseases of cocoanuts. Also
co-operative experiments on the control of tomato nail-
head rust and citrus wilt have been carried on, as well as
a study of tobacco diseases and pecan scab.
This department is in charge of Dr. O. F. Burger, and
he is assisted by Dr. G. F. Webber, Dr. W. B. Tisdale,
Dr. A. S. Rhoads, Dr. L. O. Gratz, R. E. Nolen, K. W.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Loucks, Erdman West, W. A. Kuntz, J. L. Seal, J. G.
Kelley, D. G. A. Kelbert and L. E. DuPont.
CITRUS DISEASE CONTROL ENCOURAGING
Several citrus groves were sprayed with 3-3-50 bordeaux
mixture plus 1 per cent oil emulsion for the control of
melanose. These results are scattered in different counties
of the State, and good results were obtained, especially
Various gases were tried in the coloring of citrus fruits,
and best results were secured by using the gas from lighted
Intensive studies of pecan scab, its life history, habits,
and control, as well as obtaining resistant varieties, were
conducted and are being continued. Among the resistant
varieties are Teche, Frotscher, Stuart and Moneymaker.
Studies were made of entomogenous fungi and bacterial
parasites that attack and kill the citrus aphid and help
keep this pest in control. It is hoped that there can be
found a fungus or bacterium which can be cultured and
distributed among the growers.
Chief among the truck crop diseases studied was downy
mildew of cucumbers, work with which was conducted
along two lines, namely, an attempt to select resistant
varieties and to control the disease by the use of fungicides.
The effort to find resistant varieties met with very little
success, a test of 37 varieties failing to show any that were
resistant. Both copper-lime dust and bordeaux mixture
gave satisfactory control of the diseases.
The work with tomato nail-head rust, a serious disease
of tomatoes, was conducted in an effort to find resistant
varieties and also to find fungicides that will control the
disease. Eighty varieties and strains were planted at
Vero Beach, and 52 varieties at the Everglades Experi-
ment Station at Belle Glade. The varieties showing the
most resistant to the disease were Marglobe, Marvel, Nor-
ton, and several non-commercial varieties.
BORDEAUX SHOWED UP BEST
Best control was obtained with sprays and dusts having
a metallic copper content, the sprays being superior to the
dusts. The old reliable bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50, gave best
results and was the cheapest.
32 FLORIDA'S EXPERIMENT STATION
Thirty thousand cucumber seed of 12 different varieties
were treated for different lengths of time in a number of
commercial disinfectants and corrosive sublimate in an
effort to determine the best disinfectant to use in seed
treatment. It was found that the time in which seed could
be safely treated varied considerably, but that 10 minutes
was safe and effective. Corrosive sublimate gave as good
results as any of the commercial disinfectants tried.
An exhaustive study of citrus blight is being made from
the headquarters of this work in Cocoa. Evidence so far
gathered indicates that this trouble is not caused by a
disease organism, but is due to moisture conditions of the
soil. The trouble is found most often on soil underlaid
by rock. It seems to be most frequently associated with an
excessively dry season,, but may be caused also by too
much moisture. Investigations of this trouble are being
Comparisons were ..,cen spraying and dusting
for the control of laiL blight in Irish potatoes. The dust
used was 20-80 copl '-lime. dust. It was applied early in
the day when there was moisture on the foliage. The spray
was 4-4-50 home-made bordeaux mixture, applied with a
traction sprayer at about 200 pounds pressure. Six ap-
plications were made during the season. Satisfactory con-
trol was obtained by each fungicide. It is pointed out that
early spraying or dusting, before signs of disease are evi-
dent, is needed to control most of the potato diseases. They
can be prevented, but cannot be cured after they have
USE CERTIFIED POTATO SEED
The work with potatoes is conducted out of the Hastings
laboratory. One of the main recommendations made by
the potato investigator is the use of disease-free and pre-
ferably certified seed for planting.
Cotton wilt has been found distributed over the cotton
growing area in sufficient quantities to warn against the
growing of non-resistant varieties. A variety test was run
on wilt-infected land at Madison and field observations
were made on a large number of varieties planted in in-
fected fields. Of the varieties available, Cooke 307-6 and
Council Toole looked most promising both as to yield and
resistance to wilt. Other varieties exhibiting a high de-
gree of resistance were Petty Toole, Dixie Triumph, Dixie
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
No. 3, and Webber 49-101-3-3. Among the varieties ex-
hibiting a fair amount of resistance and having other good
qualities were Lightning Express No. 4, Covington Toole
and Lewis 63.
Cotton work is being carried on by Dr. A. F. Camp,
Edgar F. Grossman and Dr. W. A. Carver. Geo. D. Smith
resigned from the work on June 30, 1925, and was sue-
ceeded by Mr. Grossman.
Delinting seed with sulphuric acid before planting gave
a considerable increase in stand.
Boll weevil control work with cotton was continued dur-
ing 1925. The Madison laboratory was discontinued on
July 1, the work formerly conducted there being trans-
ferred to the main station at Gainesville.
PROGRESS REPORTED IN APHID FIGHT
The citrus aphid co0, "J. part of the time of
the etomologist, J. R. Watsoif auu ,is assistants, A. H.
Beyer and H. E. Bratley. Mr. Beyer resigned on
June 30th, and was succeeded by A. N. Tissot. In-
tensive studies were made on the life history of the
aphid and also that of its chief parasites and predators.
such as syrphus fly larvae and lady beetles. One thousand
large California lady beetles, which help to keel) the aphids
in check, were distributed to growers over the State.
While it was found impracticable to completely control
this pest by means of parasites and predators, these are of
material assistance in keeping it in check.
A study of control measures disclosed that nicotine sul-
phate-lime dusts were very effective in cleaning a tree of
aphids if they could be applied in calm weather. To over-
come the effect of winds, dusting under tents was tried
and seems practicable, especially on small trees.
Spraying was found to be effective only in the early
flush of growth before the leaves had curled. Dipping the
ends of infested branches into insecticides was found to
be the cheapest and most thorough method of dealing with
the pest on very young trees before infestation became
general. Spot dusting was found to be expensive.
The root-knot nematode was another important crop
pest to receive the attention of the entomologist during the
year. It was found that the pest could be controlled ii
seedbeds by a single application of calcium cyanide, tak-
ing the place of sodium cyanide and ammonium sulphate
:14 FLORIDA'S EXPERIMENT STATION
in two applications. The cost of materials is about the
same in both cases, the main saving coming in the labor
involved in only one application against two.
Tests with calcium cyanide in the control of the peach
tree borer look very promising, but have not progressed
far enough for definite recommendations.
REMEDY AGAINST CELERY LEAF-TYER
Work with poisoned bran baits in the control of the
celery leaf-tyer indicated that they could be used effec-
tively. These baits were made up both with and without
nitrobenzine and with and without fruit juices, little dif-
ference in the effectiveness being evident.
Studies of the life history and parasites of insects in-
jurious to pecan trees were made. Two sprayings of a
mixture composed of 4 pounds of lead arsenate, 12 pounds
of lime, 2 pounds of Kayso and 200 gallons of water,
seemed effective in controlling insects such as the leaf
case bearer, cigar case bearer, nut case bearer and bud
moth. The first application was made the latter part of
March and the second the last of April. On varieties
known to be susceptible to scab, the above formula was
used in a 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture instead of water. On
June 29 an inspection of the grove showed practically no
trace of leaf or cigar case bearer, and scab was scarce.
FEED PECAN MOST IN SUMMER
During the 1925 growing season the pecan culturist, G.
H. Blackmon, made a careful study of the rate of growth
of pecans, and found that most rapid growth takes place
from about June 15 to about August 15, making it neces-
sary to provide the tree with plenty of plant food at least
during this period.
The variety and stock test now consists of 105 trees of
21 varieties of pecans, 21 trees of eight varieties of English
walnuts, three trees of Japanese walnut, and 12 trees of
four varieties of black walnut.
Experiments with fertilizers, rosette control, disease
control, insect control and cover crops should soon give
some valuable information in regard to this promising
crop for the northern and western part of Florida.
The assistant horticulturist, Harold Mowry, has been
working with citrus. tung-oil, berries, grapes, figs avo-
FIA)IIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
cados, pears and persimmons. One of the chief citrus pro-
jects he has under way is the Satsuma root-stock test.
Thirty Satsuma orange trees, Improved Owari and Wase
varieties, have been planted in grove formation in this
project. Root-stocks on which these are budded include
Citrus trifoliata, sour orange, and Cleopatra tangerine.
The grape work covers 44 varieties. "Of the varieties
which are now fruiting," says Mr. Mowry, "the Cham-
panel, Salem, R. W. Munson, W. B. Munson, Lukfata,
Ronalda, Nitodel, Valhallah, Marguerite, Armalaga,
Manito, Elvicand, Hermann Jaeger, Ericson, Albania and
Extra show the most vigor and greatest growth of vine,
both in cane length and girth of trunk. Those which are
showing the most promise from the standpoint of fruit-
fulness, either in quantity or quality, are the Extra, Her-
mann Jaeger, Salem, Brilliant, Ericson, Albania, Hus-
mann, Neva, Minnie, Muench, Valhallah, and Armalaga."
A new greenhouse for use by the horticultural and
plant pathology departments has recently been completed.
and this should enable them to conduct more worn; and
with better results. This greenhouse, which has two
ranges 18 x 100 feet, will be used for general propagation,
particularly with semi-tropical plants which cannot be
grown out of doors during the winter in Gainesville. It
will also be used for disease work.
WHAT SUB-STATIONS ARE DOING
The work of the Tobacco Experiment Station at Quincy
has centered largely around efforts to control tobacco dis-
eases, among the most serious of which are black shank
and wildfire. Progress has been made in identifying the
causal organisms of these diseases and finding resistant
varieties. Dr. W. B. Tisdale is in charge of this tobacco
The Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred is de-
voted largely to work with citrus problems, and much of
the citrus work referred to above has been carried on
there. Of this sub-station John H. Jefferies is superin-
The Everglades Experiment Station has been testing
crops and fertilizers adapted to soils and climatic condi-
tions in the glades. Geo. E. Tedder is foreman here.
A number of bulletins and press bulletins giving results
of work accomplished anld recommendations for the guid-
36 FLORIDA'S EXPERIMENT STATION
ance of growers and farmers have been published during
the year and distributed to interested parties throughout
the State. In addition, thousands of inquiries about cer-
tain problems perplexing individual farmers have been
answered by letter.
The Experiment Station maintains a library for use by
members of the staff and others interested. Mrs. Ida Keel-
ing Cresap is librarian, and she is keeping a file of as
many available publications as possible.
This gives a very brief outline of some of the things
accomplished by Experiment Station workers during the
past year, together with the names of those workers. While
it of necessity touches very briefly on each subject, it
should serve to acquaint the farmers and growers of the
State with station workers, to give them an insight into
what is being done, and also to help them in their work
during the next few years.
So much for some of the things that have been done in
1925. A look into the plans for 1926 reveals the fact that
experimental work will be conducted on a larger scale than
ever before in this State. In addition to the departments
mentioned here, at least one other important line of in-
vestigation work is being started for the first time. This
is agricultural and home economics research. Bruce Mc-
Kinley, assistant agricultural economist, began work the
first of this year and will make studies of farm practices
in the State in an effort to find which ones pay best.
Dr. Ouida Davis Abbot has already begun work on
home economics problems, and has just been joined by
Miss Georgia Westover as her assistant. These two women
plan to try to solve nutrition and other problems of the
Florida Truck Crop Losses
Here Are Some Practical Suggestions for Preventing the Enor-
mous Waste Annually Sustained in the Production
and Marketing of Our Winter Vegetables
By M. R. ENSIGN
Entonmologist-lathologist, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
in the Florid; Grower.
HE AMERICAN people have developed an insati-
able appetite for fresh fruits and vegetables. Not
only have the families of wealth learned that value
of these things in the diet and demanded them through-
out the year, but the great middle class, the working
people, too, are to-day buying fresh truck products at all
the markets of the United States during all the months
of the year.
There are three factors that have contributed most to-
ward making this condition possible: (1) Increased trans-
portation facilities, including better railroad, steamship
and automobile service; (2) cheaper and better storage
;mil refrigeration which contribute to a more even dis-
tribution of perishables through the entire season; (3) the
growing of these crops in the open field during the winter
season. Areas in subtropical and tropical America have
contributed to this end, and this has been developed
largely within the last decade.
Florida is most happily located geographically for pro-
ducing and catering to the winter truck trade. In the
southern and central parts of the State all but the tender-
est crops will grow in mid-winter. Then the very early
springs and mild autumns make it possible to grow such
crops as beans and cucumbers, peppers, eggplants and
other tender plants. Thus, not only are the tourist visi-
tors fed upon the fat of the land, but the surplus is with-
in easy reach of the largest consuming markets of the
north and east.
The producing population of the State has already be-
come a consuming one, for with the real estate activity in
practically every truck center, acreage has been reduced
in some instances from 50 to 90 per cent. Thus, the op-
portunities for marketing the produce at home are increas-
ing. Florida has the largest natural truck land area in
the entire country. the famous Everglades, comprising
38 FLORIDA TRUCK CROP LOSSES
some 3,000,000 acres of muck. The natural productivity,
together with its location in the tropical part of the State,
makes this region of great potential worth.
FLORIDA SECOND AS A TRUCK STATE
Figuring with 11 truck crops, common to three leading
truck-producing States, as a basis, combined values of
these show that Florida stands next to first place. These
crops are beans, cabbage, cantaloupes, celery, cucumbers,
lettuce, peppers, white potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries
and watermelons. In 1924 these crops in Florida had a
combined value of $41,385,000, while California stood first
with a production worth $50,000,000, and Texas came
third. Table 1 shows how the various States rank in the
total value of these crops.
Comparing the truck crops of Florida with her other
leading crops shows that the truck exceeded the value of
Irish Potato Acreaqe
bq Counties since 19o0.
St.Johns Putnam Flaqler Palm Beach Volusia Alachua
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
all citrus fruits in 1924 by approximately $14,000,000,
and was worth $7,000,000 more than the 12 staple crops,
such as corn, cotton, sugar cane and forage crops. Thus
it is readily seen that the trucking industry of this State
has assumed an importance which makes it the leading
agricultural enterprise. With the developments now under
way in the muck lands especially in the Everglades, it
bids fair to maintain this position.
Truck Crop Acreaqe
Acres (ooo omitted)
4 Cd bdqe
42 Ci cmbrs .. -.
40 S o 8n,---
12 ,- -
Year 19)8 '19 20 '21 '22 23 24 "25
GROWTH OF TRUCKING IN FLORIDA
Roughly speaking, production follows demand. In other
words, if the trucking business in Florida had not been
profitable, then no increase in production would have
taken place during the last ten years. A study of figure 1
shows clearly the relative acreage of the seven leading
truck crops since 1918. The most phenomenal growth has
been with watermelons and tomatoes, yet both show con-
siderable decline in the last two or three years. In the
40 FLORIDA TRUCK CROP LOSSES
case of watermelons the explanation is that unfavorable
growing conditions and a poor market discouraged pro-
duction. Tomato acreage is less because of the losses due
to diseases, which have been very great, and the real estate
activity has disrupted the tomato-growing business, espe-
cially on the east coast.
Celery acreage is still relatively small but has had a
steady rise. The contrast shown in this respect with that
of the cabbage acreage is worthy of notice. The explana-
tion for the fluctuation in alternate years is but proof of
the foregoing statement that production follows demand.
For instance, in the odd years when production was low.
prices were correspondingly high and vice versa. During
years of low production arid high price, the growers
reason something like this: "Cabbage is bringing a very
good price this year. and it will probably be a good thing
bq Counties since 1920.
S O.ooo A
Manatee Marion Sumtrer
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
to increase my planting next year." As a result, the pro-
duction is overdone to such an extent that the price goes
down. This illustrates very well the necessity for studying
carefully production and marketing data. Even then, the
weather fluctuations, the presence of some plant pests or
other cause may upset all calculations.
The accompanying graphs are interesting from the fact
that they show the leading counties in the production of
the principal truck crops of the State. Since the great
reconstruction period of Florida agriculture that dates
from 1924 is still history in the making, it is impossible
to predict with any certainty just where the largest truck-
ing centers will eventually be.
bq Counties since 1920.
DeSoto Levu Alachua Lake Marion Polk Sumter Columbia
by Counties since 1920.
ilL a l,. ioo La lir 11111
Alachua His15boro LaKe Mdn**'e Dolk Sumfre-
42 FLORIDA TRUCK CROP LOSSES
SOME DIFFICULTIES IN TRUCKING
As trucking is now carried on in Florida, it is one of
the most hazardous agricultural enterprises. There are
several reasons why this is so, chief of which are the
1. The human element which introduces inexperience
and speculation into the business.
2. Extensive farming instead of truck gardening meth-
3. Tools and equipment too limited or unsuitable.
4. Poor seed planted.
5. Poor quality produce marketed.
6. Ungraded or poorly graded produce.
7. Improper and careless handling.
8. Diseases and insect damage in the field.
9. Weather, frost, rain, drought.
Each of these factors will be discussed separately.
1. The human element which introduces inexperience
and speculation into the business.-If every legitimate en-
terprise could be ridded of its inexperienced, indifferent
or careless members, it would without doubt be benefited.
The speculator is likewise not especially helpful. It is not
difficult to see what would happen to the banker or the
merchant who indulged in chance-taking.
Since the profits to be gained in trucking in Florida are
often very large and the turnover is very rapid, the classes
of people mentioned above are drawn into the business to
a much larger extent than in such an industry as citrus
production. It is extremely hazardous for inexperienced
newcomers to the State to undertake truck growing on a
commercial scale, for soil types, weather conditions and
other factors are not only totally different than those found
in temperate regions, but these same factors vary widely
in different parts of Florida. To be a successful trucker
one must know his soil, its adaptability to various crops,
its fertilizer requirements, marketing conditions, crop
pests and their control.
Since crop failure in a community reflects adversity
upon that community, it is to the interests of the stable
successful truck growers to use their influence to keep
out the speculator or plunger and to give every assistance
possible to the good-intending newcomer.
2. Extensive farming instead of truck gardening
methods employed.-There are few other agricultural en-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
terprises that require as much labor and money expendi-
ture per acre or that will yield as large returns for such
expenditures as truck farming. With one or two notable
exceptions trucking in this State is conducted on much
the same principle as wheat or cotton growing. From
seedbed preparation right on through to harvesting, the
work is often done as though left to careless, shiftless
laborers. The fertilizer requirements of the land are too
Snap Bean Acreaqe
bq Counties since 1920.
Broward Palm Beach Hillsboiouqh Lake
Sumter St Lucie Alachue Marior,
often misunderstood, or given too little real study. It is
difficult to make some planters see the desirability of lay-
ing off their rows straight and always the same distance
apart, so that cultivators and other farm equipment might
be used to the best advantage. Many truckers attempt to
plant too great an acreage; they have not figured it out
yet that they would be better off, financially, in the long
run with their productive area reduced by a third or even
44 FLORIDA TRUCK CO(P LOSSES-
a half. Wherever these extensive methods are followed, it
is difficult, if not entirely impossible, to produce vege-
tables of high quality. As a result, grading is less strict
and frequently our markets become "loaded."
3. Labor is always the most expensive item in truck
crop production. Therefore, it is highly essential that
every labor-saving tool and machine be used that will con-
tribute to thoroughness and efficiency. It is very rare to
see a truck farm overstocked with machinery. Yet too
much thought and attention can scarcely be given to the
selection and subsequent care of such machinery. It is not
the first cost of such equipment that should be looked at
so critically, but the abuse given it which shortens its
usefulness. This is a leak that has spelled failure for
4. Poor Seed.-lt is an old axiom that water will not
rise higher than its source. It is equally true that no crop
can be better than the seed from which it grew. And when
poor seed is put in a poor seedbed, followed by improper
cultural conditions, the chances for loss are large. It is
false economy to buy cheap seed. Poor germination, or
weakly plants of mixed varieties, may cost one the entire
crop, to say nothing of the possibilities of introducing to
one's fields fungus or bacterial diseases on seed from un-
One of Florida's greatest needs at present is a seed law
with teeth in it. At present many undesirable seed come
into the State. At best the securing of reliable seed will
still be one of the truck grower's major problems, yet
there is considerable promise in the certification methods
now in operation with certain seed. For instance, certified
Irish potato seed have given an average increased produc-
tion of from 40 to 120 bushels per acre over those obtained
from uncertified seed in various potato sections of the
United States. These increased yields from certified seed
are consistently good throughout the entire country. Con-
necticut shows an average increase of 30 per cent.
It is entirely possible that a similar service may be
developed with some other truck seed. Preliminary work
is already done to develop the certification of bean seed
from some of the Western States.
5. Poor Quality Produce.-If some truck growers would
picture themselves as consumers of their own produce at
their city grocery stores, trying to pick out a few good
quality vegetables for their supper, the justice expressed
F LORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 45
in the golden rule would undoubtedly have a new and
more pointed meaning. Neither the jobber, wholesaler nor
the consumer chooses undersized, ill-shaped, wormy-
eaten or rotten vegetables. Poor quality produce can have
but one effect upon the market and that is to depress it
or completely demoralize an otherwise strong demand. A
poor quality vegetable is about the most worthless thing
that money can buy.
If, therefore, about one-third of the truck shipped out of
Florida were left in the field and plowed under, not only
would it improve the soil to that extent but, far more im-
portant, it would mean more satisfied customers at the
other end. Keen competition has few terrors for the or-
ganization or the individual that has established a reputa-
tion for quality, but, even so, it would mean more income
to any State if its standards of quality were raised. As
it is, the truck grower frequently is his own worst enemy,
for too often produce in poor condition brings charges of
dishonesty, unscrupulousness, whether or not justified,
which means discredit and low prices to all truckers. While
there are a few who ignorantly try to sell culls as number
ones, a great deal of the poor quality stuff finds its way
to market as a result of inefficient and insufficient help.
Where point of origin inspection is maintained these un
ethical practices are practically eliminated. Thus, we come
right back to the fundamental need of reducing our acre-
age to a point where the production of maximum-quality
produce is assured.
6. Ungraded or poorly graded produce.-1t is some-
what difficult to differentiate clearly between quality and
grade, since under or oversized vegetables are usually of
poor quality. Also any produce damaged by insects or
diseases is considered both poor quality and low grade.
There are to-day 30 well-established and recognized
standard grades of various kinds of fresh fruits and
vegetables, and in every single one, freedom or partial
freedom from disease and insect damage is made a part
of the requirements for each grade. Hence, the truck
grower that disregards these important items in harvest-
ing and packing his crop for market is lowering the grade
and the quality, to the extent that all the produce of a
similar kind from the same community may be seriously
discounted or remain unsold.
To secure a uniformity of grade that will comply with
the recognized standards. there is but one way in which
46 FLORIDA TRUCK CROP LOSSES.
this can be done effectively for the entire community;
viz., to establish a central packing house. Non-profiting
co-operative truck growers' associations provide the best
method of handling such central packing plants and the
organization automatically becomes a marketing agency.
In most instances these have proved to be very effective
in securing larger returns to the growers. There is much
need for more of this kind of organized effort among truck
A large proportion of the truck sold either on consign-
ment or on the tracks at the shipping point is resold while
the cars are moving to be diverted to different markets.
There is but one way that this exchange can be carried
on. It is obviously impractical to determine through in-
spection the quality or the grade of the goods in the mov-
ing car, so that most transactions of this nature are done
on the basis of brand. This means, then, whether the
grower is aware of it or not, that his brand of goods, or
his name, has a commercial rating among jobbers. And
what that rating is depends entirely upon what he has
put into it. Thus, to a great extent he fixes his own price
and when the rating is once established it is very difficult
to raise it.
Terminal inspection gives transportation companies,
shippers and buyers an opportunity of coming back to the
grower on questions of standard. Every attempt at decep-
tion as regards grade inevitably acts as a boomerang, as
evidenced by this one instance. A grower in a well-known
section of the State boasted that he had been smart enough
to sell all his second and third grade produce for first
grade. Shortly after this, however, he received notice that
his produce had been rejected on account of "off grade"
and that he would be required to pay the freight bill.
Here the value of terminal inspection is at once evident,
for the railroad, the buyer and shipper is protected.
As another illustration of the way ungraded vegetables
usually affect price, the following incident is worth notice:
A southern potato grower hauled his crop to the car in
sacks of all sizes and kinds-feed sacks, fertilizer sacks,
holey sacks, big sacks and little sacks. Some of them were
tied with bailing wire and a few were sewed. No attempt
had been made to grade them, but they had been put up
just as they were dug. The loaded car stood on the track
for two days and, in spite of a brisk market, no one bid
on this car. At the end of that time the grower had be-
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
come disgusted and worn out and was willing to take
almost anything for his potatoes. A local wholesale dealer
and shipper bought them at his own price, and then put
two men in the car to grade and resack in standard sacks.
It cost $9 to do this work but it increased the marketable
value of the potatoes $85.
Table Showing the Rank of the Three Leading States in
Value of Various Truck Crops.
State and Rank (First, Second and Third)
Fla. Cal. Texas N.J. Va. S.C. N.C. Tenn. Ga.
3 2 1
2 3 1
Production of Some Leading
Truck Crops by Years
Cabbage--In 1918, 9,140 acres; 1919, 4,420 acres; 1920,
9,280 acres; 1921, 5,370 acres; 1922, 11,280 acres; 1923,
2,050 acres; 1924, 4,920 acres; 1925, 4,610 acres. Fore-
casted for 1926, 3,640 acres.
Snap Beans-1918, 5,720 acres; 1919, 10,150 acres; 1920,
8,110 acres; 1921, 7,960 acres; 1922, 12,310 acres; 1923,
14,460 acres; 1924, 19,780 acres; 1925, 20,530 acres.
Cantaloupes-1918, 940 acres; 1919, 1,010 acres; 1920,
1,150 acres; 1921, 720 acres; 1922, 840 acres; 1923, 2,520
acres; 1924, 760 acres; 1925, 370 acres.
Celery-1918, 1,530 acres; 1919, 1,660 acres; 1920,
1,730 acres; 1921, 2,260 acres; 1922, 2,920 acres; 1923,
3,200 acres; 1924, 4,000 acres; 1925, 4,320 acres. Fore-
casted for 1926, 3,370 acres.
Cucumbers-1918, 3,520 acres; 1919, 4,970 acres; 1920,
5,330 acres; 1921, 5,470 acres; 1922, 10,380 acres; 1923,
10,760 acres; 1924, 12,550 acres; 1925, 10,830 acres.
Eggplant-1921, 1,380 acres; 1922, 1,130 acres; 1923,
1,610 acres; 1924, 1,620 acres; 1925, 1,300 acres.
Green Peas-1918, 20 acres; 1919, 300 acres; 1920, 360
acres; 1921, 300 acres; 1922, 470 acres; 1923, 2,250 acres;
1924, 1,170 acres; 1925, 2,210 acres.
Lettuce-1918, 2,640 acres; 1919, 2,680 acres; 1920,
3,500 acres; 1921, 3,060 acres; 1922, 3,140 acres; 1923,
3,780 acres; 1924, 3,490 acres; 1925, 3,400 acres.
Peppers-1921, 2,530 acres; 1922, 2,450 acres; 1923,
2,990 acres; 1924, 3,530 acres; 1'*1'-, 3,400 acres.
Strawberries-1918, 840 acres; 1919, 750 acres; 1920,
1,190 acres; 1921, 1,050 acres; 1922, 2,170 acres; 1923,
3,810 acres; 1924, 3,100 acres; 1925. 3.170 acres. Fore-
casted for 1926, 2,250 acres.
Sweet Potatoes-1900, 1901, 1902, 23,000 acres; 1903,
24,000 acres; 1904, 1905, 1906, 20,000 acres; 1907, 21,000
acres; 1908, 1909, 1910, 22,000 acres; 1911, 1912, 1913,
21,000 acres; 1914, 19,000 acres; 1915, 23,000 acres; 1916,
25,000 acres; 1917, 35,000 acres; 1918, 36,000 acres, 1919,
26,000 acres; 1920, 30,000 acres; 1921, 1922, 32,000 acres;
1923, 30,000 acres; 1924, 25,000 acres; 1925, 29,000 acres.
Tomatoes-1918, 15,390 acres; 1919, 20,650 acres; 1920,
22,740 acres; 1921, 18,040 acres; 1922, 33,910 acres; 1923,
36,480 acres; 1924, 50,070 acres; 1925, 33,470 acres.
The above figures are from Government records and
are compiled from final estimates made by the United
States Department of Agriculture.
How to Improve Florida Soils
By CHAS. F. LEACH
Manager of Cherokee Farm, Jefferson County
LET me explain why I know all this subsoil or red
clay hill land is intrinsically worth $100.00 per acre,
and in three years can be worth $200.00 an acre by
adding the only thing it lacks-organic matter. It will
cost about $25.00 an acre to convert this land from an
almost worthless soil to an intrinsic value of $200.00 in
three years, but it can be done in five years at no cost, but
at a profit every year.
A five-year rotation- that will build land to make 50
bushels of corn and yield a profit every year while build-
ing up the soil: Spanish peanuts and beggarweed the first
summer hogged down when peanuts are ripe. Then the
beggarweed stalks and peanut vines will not be devoured
by the hogs unless the farmer is a hog himself and makes
the hogs eat everything or starve to death. Even so, the
hog manure will fertilize the land as the hog leaves all
his manure where he grazes. By feeding a little corn per
hog per day while on peanut and beggarweed pasture, I
have made 700 pounds of pork per acre and it was all
hard pork. The shoats must be in fair condition, thrifty
and free of parasites when turned into the peanuts.
Follow this crop with rye in winter. To build land per-
manently a legume crop should be followed with a grass
crop, or vice versa. All of the rye crop should be plowed
under when 1 foot high.
The second summer grow corn in 5-foot rows and 2 feet
apart in the row, with 2 velvet beans in hills, 2 feet apart,
right in the row or planted 1 foot apart in the middle
of the corn.
Break out the corn and pick the beans, but do not turn
in any cattle to eat up all the stalks and vines. Hogs may
be turned in to eat scattered beans or corn not found in
gathering-but no cattle. Plow under cornstalks, bean
vines, grass and weeds in October. Rye may be planted
again, but if it is red clay, or clay is near the surface,
burr clover is better and will thrive. But to get best
results from burr clover it should be planted early in
August and the seed must be treated to insure germina-
tion. If burr clover is planted, harvet the seed early in
May and plow for corn to be planted by May 15th if pos-
sible. But yellow dent corn will make if planted June 1st.
If rye is planted, disk it in April. No plowing will be
necessary unless it is red clay top soil.
IMPROVING FLORID A SOIL
The second crop of corn will make if planted in 5-foot
rows and 1 foot apart in the row. Planted April 1st, the
corn can be laid by June 1st, and beggarweed sowed
broadcast in the middles. Probably there will be a good
volunteer crop of beggarweed anyhow. If the corn is laid
by May 20th to 25th, another winter cover crop-partly
pastured-but mostly turned under, will make this land
ready to produce fully 50 bushels of corn every year. It
will also grow alfalfa when the burr clover has grown one
or two years or even where the burr clover soil is used
for inoculation and some burr clover-about 30 pounds-
sowed with the alfalfa. Alfalfa is a profitable winter pas-
ture crop even if sowed every yeai. Sweet clover seed is
cheaper and just as good as alfalfa, but not ready to pas-
ture before March. [ recommend no fertilizer the first
year; 200 pounds of acid the second year, and 100 pounds
of kanit and 200 pounds of acid the third year on the
corn and 300 pounds acid phosphate for corn thereafter.
In addition for all the clovers in the winter spread 200
pounds of acid, and for alfalfa 400 pounds.
Never plant the same summer legume except beggar-
weed twice in succession. Rye needs no fertilizer. By the
fourth or fifth year that land can be planted to corn in
31/2 foot rows one foot apart in drill. It will easily make
60 to 70 bushels per acre, depending on the season, and is
worth one-third more than corn belt land as the winter
crops can be used for pastures.
Anyhow, any land that will produce 50 bushels of corn
and some velvet beans every sunmer, or 5 tons of Kudzu
hay, or even 2 tons, is dirt cheap at $100.00 per acre to
say nothing about the winter pastures. Silos furnish the
only succulence in the north and succulence is the only
excuse for a silo anywhere.
Farm land has no value at all to anyone but a real
farmer. An amateur can become a real professional
farmer-but they seldom do. No man who says: "It can't
be done" can ever become a farmer, and to such farm
land is not worth $100.00 an acre anywhere.
Kudzu is a key crop and should be on farms in the
south that have a clay subsoil. With plenty of Kudzu
pasture and hay and farmer can build up his plow land
and have winter pastures in North Florida. Without
Kudzu it is very difficult to build up plow land as a
farmer must then cut all his cowpeas or soy beans for
hay and pasture off his beggarweed, peanut vines and
stalk and velvet bean fields. IIe always has, and that is
why our corn yields are so low.
Bulb Culture in Florida
By HAROLD MOWRY
ULB CULTURE is at the present time the subject
of considerable interest in different portions of the
State. The Florida Experiment Station has no
literature available for distribution on bulb growing, but
the U. S. Department of Agriculture has published two
bulletins, which may be purchased from the Superintend-
ent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washing-
ton, D. C.,-these are Department Bulletin No. 1270, "The
Production of Narcissus Bulbs" 15c, and Department
Bulletin No. 797, "Commercial Dutch Bulb Cultivation
in the United States" 10c. Some changes may be found
necessary under Florida conditions, but on the whole the
above-named bulletins will give much information.
Bulbs seem to succeed on quite a range of soils, though
a heavy sandy loam appears to give best results. In any
event the soil must be well drained, and some sort of
irrigation is an advantage during dry periods.
Gladiolus and narcissus comprise the greater portion of
present plantings. The polyanthus narcissi,-Paper White,
Chinese Sacred, Gloriosa, Grand Soleil d'or, etc., all do
well, but little success has met the plantings of the true
daffodil. Cannas and Callas are successfully grown, also
the Bermuda Easter Lily (Lilium harrisi). Hyacinths,
amaryllis and iris (Spanish and Dutch) are worthy of
further trial. Freesias have done well in some plantings.
Narcissus will stand a temperature of about 20" without
material injury; gladiolus about 24.
PLANTING AND CULTIVATION
Planting distances vary according to the type of bulb.
For gladiolus and narcissus make rows 18 to 24 inches
apart, setting the bulbs 5 or 6 inches apart in the row, at
a depth of 3 or 4 inches. This spacing takes about 50,000
BULB CULTURE IN FLORIDA
bulbs to the acre. Regular, shallow cultivation is neces-
sary, the object being to maintain a surface mulch and
keep down grass and weeds. Narcissus can be planted
from September 1 to December 15; gladiolus from Sep-
tember to March.
Adequate fertilizing is necessary to produce a good crop
of marketable bulbs. If the land is poor and devoid of
humus, the application of barnyard manure before plant-
ing will prove advantageous. Commercial fertilizers now
used vary considerably, but an analysis of 5-5-5 to 5-8-5
should prove satisfactory. It is well to derive the nitrogen
content largely from organic sources, such as cottonseed
meal, tankage or blood. Amounts up to one ton per acre
are used, this divided into three applications.
This should be done when the tops have died down.
The bulbs are simply and effectively cured by storing in
open crates or hampers. These are filled loosely with the
bulbs as dug, and stacked under a shed, which will per-
mit of ample ventilation but give protection from the rain.
When transportation facilities permit, it is possible to
market the cut flowers as well as the bulbs, thus getting
a double source of income from the same crop.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. Florida. 2-25.
Conditions Governing Entry Under Regulation 14, Quarantine 37.
United States Department of Agriculture.
Federal Horticultural Board.
Wa shington, D. C.
March 10, 1926.
THE restriction on the entry of Narcissus bulbs, effec-
tive January 1, 1926, excludes commercial entry
either for the sale of the imported bulbs or for forc-
ing for cut flowers, but leaves open the provisions for entry
under Regulation 14 of Quarantine 37, under special per-
imits and under conditions and safeguards to be prescribed
in such permits, of limited quantities of bulbs for the pur-
pose of keeping the country supplied with new varieties
and necessary propagating stock, or for any necessary ex-
perimental, educational, or scientific purpose. The follow-
ing conditions andl safeguards have been established with
respect to such entry of Narcissus bulbs:
1. Importations will be strictly limited to the pur-
poses provided for under Regulation 14, as indicated
2. All such imported bulbs shall be given, either at the
port of arrival or at other designated point, the hot water
or other approved treatment at the expense of the im-
porter, but under the supervision of, and in manner and
method satisfactory to, an inspector of the Federal Horti-
cultural Board. Such treatment may be authorized at
destination or at any other point when the Board is satis-
fled that there is available at such point suitable equip-
ment for the treatment. In the case of small lots, pro-
vision may be made for forwarding the bulbs to Washing-
ton for treatment under the immediate direction of the
Federal Iorticultural Board.
3. Bulbs imported for propagation shall be planted in
the field in sections climatically adapted to the types con-
cerned, and the applicant will be required to give specific
information as to the location of the proposed plantings.
4. Bulbs imported for propagation shall be utilized
strictly for that puropse under methods to insure the
earliest and best propagation results, and no prior utiliza-
tion of the material which will in any way delay or limit
the propagation purpose will be authorized, such, for
example, as forcing under glass or otherwise for cut
5. Bulbs imported for propagation will be released
from these conditions of entry at the end of the second
crop, upon presentation of evidence satisfactory to the
Federal Horticultural Board that full and adequate
propagation use has been made of the imported stock.
Prior to such release no sale of the stock or of the increase
therefrom will be permitted.
6. Importations made for any necessary experimental,
educational, or scientific purpose will be subject to the
requirement of disinfection and to such other conditions
as may be indicated in the permit.
7. "Limited quantities" as used in Regulation 14 is in-
terpreted in paragraph 12, circular 105, "to mean such
quantities as will supply any reasonable need for the es-
tablishment of commercial reproduction plantings, or as
may be necessary for the experimental, educational, or
scientific purpose intended."
C. L. MARLATT,
Chairman, Federal Horticultural Board.
By HAROLD MOWRY
P ALATKA is, at the present time, considered the
northern limit of profitable production of Asparagus
plumosus in outside slat houses or ferneries. They
will ordinarily stand a temperature as low as 26 degrees
F. without material injury.
Any good high land, with good air and water drainage,
will do. It is well, if possible, to locate on the south side
of a lake which affords protection against cold to the north
This plant does well on a variety of soils, but a sandy
loam of fine texture is to be preferred. In this type of
soil the water capillarity is better than in coarse sands.
In muck or very heavy land the stems become too coarse
and the fronds too far apart. Low, poorly drained land
or hardpan soil is to be avoided.
The ideal slat house in Florida consists of tight board
walls on the north and west as a protection against cold
winds. On the east any form of slatted fence will do. On
the south it is desirable, to run slats perpendicular, as it
affords a better distribution of sunlight.
Roofs should be constructed first by setting per-
mIanent lines of posts so they will come within the beds.
A good arrangement is to have them in the center of 6-
foot beds with 2 ft. between the beds. This distance be-
tween posts in rows can be governed by the carrying capa-
city of the stringers which support the roof, 2 x 6 or 2 x 8
run edgewise on top of these posts, and for the covering,
lumber commonly used is 1 x 4 or 1 x 6 running north
and south and so spaced as to afford approximately two-
thirds shade. In large slat houses it is best to break beds
crosswise every 100 feet, allowing room for a road so that
fertilizers may be hauled in. No. 2 pecky cypress is gen-
erally satisfactory for the roof; some prefer to use No. 1
for the posts. Any good strong posts will do, but as post
timber is scrace, many growers are using 4 x 4 cypress,
which can be obtained at a nominal price along with the
roofing material. The roofs should be from 7 to 9 feet
high, so as to allow plenty of working room.
The most practical beds are 6 ft. wide and not over 100
ft. long. They give best results if boarded up 8 to 10 inches
above the walks. If the land is high such ridging is not
The commercial variety is Asparagus plumosus nanus.
This variety makes the choicest fronds.
SEEDS AND PLANTS
Most seed are grown in Southern California, although
some are imported. Either seed or plants are listed by
numerous growers in floral papers such as the Florists'
Exchange and Florists' Review.
They should be located on the same soil type as described
for ferneries. They can be handled satisfactorily under
ordinary slat house roof, but precaution must be taken to
prevent washing. Ground should be thoroughly worked,
clearing out all roots and trash and leaving in a thorough
state of tilth. There should also be a good supply of
moisture just before planting. Ordinarily a bed 6 x 40
will be sufficient for a pound of seed, which runs 10,000
to 12,000 to the pound.
A good way is to sow seed on the surface of the soil
Cover with one thickness of newspaper and then one inch
of well mixed, well rotted cow manure. The newspaper
FLORID)A QUARTERLY BULLETIN
prevents washing and holds the moisture. On top of the
cow manure is spread one thickness of burlap. It requires
18 days for the seed to come through. Remove the burlap
then and replace any soil that has been washed. Where
plants are to be left a season in seed bed, it is best to
plant in rows. In case planting is not done as above, the
seed should ordinarily be planted 1/2-inch deep. March is
considered the best time for planting the seed. They can
usually be set out then in July, in time to take advantage
of the rainy season.
Granting that soil is in good condition, remember that
plants absolutely must not be set in dry ground. 9 x 10
inches is a good setting distance, enabling one to set seven
rows in a 6-foot bed. This allows 40,000 plants per acre.
Avoid setting either too deep or too shallow, but set crown
directly at the surface of the soil. After plants are set.
frequent cultivation with some hand tool is important.
CARE AND FERTILIZATION
As soon as they have started growth, an application of
goat manure or tankage at the rate of two tons per acre
is advisable. This should be augmented from time to time
with some good garden fertilizer analyzing 5-5-5, such as
Celery Special. One-half ton of this is usually sufficient.
Fertilizers applied a month or so before the beginning of
the shipping season will be necessary as it takes some time
to obtain best results.
Agricultural Experiment Station.
A Tropical Vine from Guatemala Belonging to Cucumber Family.
Fruit Highly Esteemed When Cooked; Better Than Squash.
THE CHAYOTE (Chayote edulis), pronounced chi-o-
tay, is a Guatemalan tropical perennial vine belong-
ing to the cucumber family, but differs in growth
in that it is more vigorous and prolific and contains but
one short-lived seed to each fruit. It is very easy to grow,
and, in addition to. being edible, also makes a fine climbing
vine for covering fences and arbors, its numerous flowers
being rich in honey and its roots containing a wholesome
food comparable to the true yam. The young shoots make
good green vegetables and the leaves and vines good fod-
der. It will produce fruit for several years and roots will
live over winter as far north as South Carolina, but it is
being grown mostly in Florida and Louisiana.
Soil should be well-drained, sandy loam, enriched by
well-rotted manure or compost. Ground should be dug or
plowed deep and if drainage is not good seed can be
planted on ridges.
By planting two of each variety in adjoining hills the
yield will be increased. Pollination takes place through
the agency of insects, especially bees, and, as flowers are
rich in honey, the yield in fruit will be materially in-
creased by the presence of bees. Plant sprouted seeds in
the spring as soon as danger from frost is past. Plant
about 10 feet apart and train on fences or trellises for
best results as vines will run from 30 to 50 feet or more
and will yield from 50 to 100 fruits, averaging a pound
each. During dry periods vines must be watered as it will
not stand droughts.
Chayotes are gross feeders and should be supplied with
a wheelbarrow load to each plant of well-rotted manure,
and in poor soils this should be supplemented by a
standard commercial fertilizer with high potash content,
applying two or three handful to each plant and work
well into soil.
Vine growth may be stimulated by working about 5
ounces of nitrate of soda in the soil around the plants.
Hardwood ashes supply potash and lime, which together
fertilize the soil and keep it sweet. These fertilizers should
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
be applied in the spring and later applications given as
Seeds are sprouted before planting by placing on shelves
in a warm, dry place and as soon as sprouts appear should
be placed in the ground in a horizontal position, just be-
low surface of ground. Never plant them on end.
The fruit is pear-shaped, somewhat corrugated and con-
tains a single flat seed. There are both smooth and spiny
and white and green varieties. The ivory white varieties
have the best appearance for marketing. At maturity the
seed is embedded in the middle of the fruit and is entirely
enclosed, but before germination the seed pushes farther
toward the base of the fruit and rootlets rise from the
emerged hypocotyl. The chayote, in nature, seems to be
the only fruit which normally continues alive after the
germination of the contained seed and after separation
from the parent plant. The fruit has better flavor than
squash, can be used as a salad, stuffed, baked, creamed,
fried or cooked with meats, and to secure the best flavor
they should be picked before maturity. The flesh is firmer
than either the eggplant or squash and fruit can be picked
in fall and stored for use the same as the squash. The
Guatemalan Indians pinch off the ends of the seeds and
bury the chayotes in the ground, where they are said to
keep in excellent condition for several weeks. Fruit ships
well and may be shipped in bulk in vegetable crates, wrap-
ped and well packed, cold storage being unnecessary.
Chayotes are sometimes attacked by fungus diseases, but
no satisfactory control measures are known at present
aside from proper cultural requirements. The melon and
pickle worms, which attack fruits, may be held in check
by spraying with arsenate of lead. Plant-lice can be con-
trolled with nicotine preparations. Root-knot bothers at
times, but plants seem to withstand this disease for one or
The chayote is but little known in northern markets as
yet, but has a steady sale in Europe and has quite a de-
mand in the markets of New Orleans, and many more
desirable types will probably be found upon completion
of the experiments with this plant being carried on by the
United States Department of Agriculture, through the
Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction.
Creamed Chayotes.-The fruit, previously boiled in
salted water and diced, sliced or segmented as desired, is
excellent when served with cream, butter, or tomato sauce.
Fried Chayotes.-Cut crosswise into slices nearly a half
inch in thickness, pare, dip into bread or cracker crumbs
or beaten egg, and fry slowly in a covered fry pan until
tender. Sprinkle with salt and a little sugar if desired.
Serve hot. Previously boiled chayotes are excellent when
fried as above.
Stuffed Chayotes.--Cut in half lengthwise; boil until
soft, remove pulp and seed without breaking the skin;
mash pulp and mix thoroughly with a little onion and
parsley, and fry until brown; add this to the chayote
pulp, replace the mixture in the skins, smooth over the
tops with butter, and bake until well browned.
Salads.-Because of its delicate texture and mild flavor
it is especially desirable for use in salads.
Prepare as for creamed chayotes, cool, and serve on
lettuce leaves with mayonnaise or French dressing, or, the
boiled and diced fruit may be served in a mixed salad with
tomatoes, celery, or other vegetables.
Chayote Pickles. Young chayotes make excellent
pickles, either sweet, sour or dilled. Any standard recipe
for preparing cucumber pickles will be found satisfactory
in preparing chayote pickles, witli the exception that
chayotes are usually cooked for a few minutes before
being pickled.-By Claude C. Hamiel, in Florida Grower.
Banana Qrowing in Florida
By T. RALPH ROBINSON, Physiologist
BANANA CULTURE in the United States is largely
confined to Florida south of the latitude of Fort
Pierce and Tampa. A few small plantations are
found somewhat farther north in especially favored sites
near large bodies of water. Bananas are often grown as
ornamentals and sometimes produce fruit in the warmer
sections of California and in the seaboard sections of the
Gulf States and South Carolina as far north as Beaufort
and Charleston. All of the fruit is consumed locally and
no attempt as yet has been made to ship to the northern
markets, which are abundantly supplied with imported
fruit. The demand in local Florida markets is usually
very good, however, and many fruit growers have found
that the banana when grown on a small scale is a profit-
The banana is a large, rapid growing perennial herb,
frequently attaining a height of 10 to 20 feet in from ten
to fifteen months from planting. As soon as it fruits, the
main stalk begins to die and is replaced by suckers which
have started from the roots. Most varieties are sufficiently
hardy to withstand a hard frost. At 25" F. the leaves are
usually killed, while slightly lower temperature destroy
the entire top. Unless the cold is very severe, however, a
new top will grow from the roots the following season.
Tender leaves are easily whipped and injured by winds
unless a well-sheltered site is chosen, or wind-break is
provided. Frost or wind damage, while not necessarily
fatal to the plant, seriously delays fruiting and may occur
often enough to render banana growing a hazardous ven-
ture if undertaken on a large scale.
At Tampa, on the West Coast of Florida, in the 30-year
period from 1890-1920, there were 53 occasions when
temperatures of 32 or lower were recorded, 7 of these
occasions giving a minimum of 25" or lower; at Kissimmee
in the southern interior during this period there were
recorded 91 minima of 32' or lower, including 19 minima
of 256 or lower; at Titusville on the East Coast there were
62 BANANA GROWING IN FLORIDA
recorded 66 minima of 32 or lower; including 9 minima
of 250 or lower. Considerable damage to the banana
foliage may be done by frost occurring at temperatures
several degrees above freezing point. Whenever possible,
sites should be chosen in proximity to large bodies of
water where plantations will derive some protection
The banana prefers a rich, loamy soil with a loose or
open texture as the roots have weak penetration power.
The soil should be moist but at the same time must be
well drained. Muck soils found in "bay-heads" and creek-
bottoms are good where well drained.
Semi-dwarf types, such as the Cavendish and Lady
Finger (or Hart's Choice) succeed better in Florida than
the larger imported forms such as the Martinique of
Jamaica. While these larger varieties can be grown if
given considerable care and attention, the semi-dwarf
sorts thrive much better and are of excellent quality. The
Orinoco or "Horse banana," is frequently grown in
Florida, but is chiefly used for culinary purposes.
The Cavendish banana, while well suited to growing for
home use and local markets, is not adapted to shipping to
distant markets in competition with the familiar Mar-
tinique (Gros Michel) banana. The bunches will not
stand rough handling and the fruit of Cavendish, as it
ripens, turns a brownish color that would deceive one,
used to the yellow banana, into the belief that the fruit
was spoiled. The skin is also inclined to split as the fruit
ripens. The Lady Finger colors up well, but the fruit
is quite small as the name indicates and drops off of the
bunch as it ripens. To ship such bananas to distant
markets it would be necessary to separate the fruit
"hands" or clusters from the central stem and pack them
in crates with some soft packing material, such as hay.
This is the method used in some tropical countries where
the Cavendish is largely grown.
The banana may be propagated in several ways. Com-
monly, suckers are used which are simply severed from
the parent plant with a sharp spade and transplanted.
FLORI)A QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Old banana stumps or "'bulbs'" may be split into several
pieces each containing an eye or bud and many growers
prefer these to suckers for planting. Eyes or suckers
should be selected only from parent plants which have
borne large desirable bunches and never from parents
which have produced inferior fruit.
Planting may be done at any time of the year, although
spring is usually preferred. The usual planting distances
for these dwarf sorts are 6 x 6 feet, 8 x 8 feet, or 10 x 10
feet. In planting suckers it is highly desirable to make a
good deep hole, working the dirt up well to a depth of
two feet. After the plant is set out, it frequently needs
water and shading until established. Successful growers
usually keep the land beneath the stumps well mulched
with weeds and other suitable material. A mulch of this
kind serves to keep the soil moist and cool, adds humus,
and prevents the growth of weeds. As soon as each stalk
has fruited it should be cut down, chopped to pieces, and
added to the mulching around the trees. Vigorous growth
of the plants is necessary to produce large clusters of well-
developed fruit. Fertilizer, while seldom used, has given
very good results by applications of a ton or more of well-
balanced commercial fertilizer to the acre. Not only is
the yield increased but the keeping quality of the fruit is
If good care is taken of the banana plants, the ground
kept well mulched, and fertilized, 300 to 500 bunches per
acre should be harvested annually, after the second year.
The size and quality of the bunches depends largely on
the health and vigor of the plant. After four to six years
of production the planting usually begins to deteriorate
and it is then considered best to grub out the old plants
and to sow a crop of velvet beans or cowpeas which should
be disked under as a soil renovator. After a period of
years in other crops the land may be replanted to bananas.
HARVESTING AND MARKETING
Bananas are harvested for home use as well as for local
markets when of full size and just beginning to show a
slight change of color. They should not be allowed to
ripen on the plant as in this case they are of inferior
quality. As soon as they are harvested the bunches should
64 BANANA GROWING IN FLORIDA
be hung up in the shade or in a dark room, to ripen.
Great care should be exercised to avoid bruising the tender
There is no established price in the Florida markets,
prices ranging from three to ten cents a pound according
to the demand. Bunches of well-filled fruit will weigh
from 25 to 40 pounds, though the average is probably
The prospective profits in banana growing will depend
largely on the local demand for the fruit, the freedom
from frosts and the cost of production. The original cost
of the land and of the plants for setting constitute an im-
portant part of the cost of production. There is nothing
to justify the expectation that the crop will be profitable
on land purchased at inflated or speculative prices even
when climate and soil factors are favorable.
Ownership of small tracts forming a part of a large
planting managed as a unit is sometimes featured as a
promising method of promoting banana culture on a com-
mercial scale in Florida. Non-residents are in many cases
induced to become investors in such projects, influenced
by statements showing large prospective profits, compar-
able to some of the banana growing enterprises in tropical
America. Such statements usually presuppose almost
ideal growing and marketing conditions, of which growers
in the continental United States are not assured. Before
making such investments a personal inspection of the site
is in all cases desirable. Claims made with regard to
prospective earnings should be weighed by the same
standards that would be applied to other lines of produc-
tion in which the owner's personal interest and super-
vision are usually necessary to profitable operation.
U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Plant Industry, July 1, 1925.
U. S. Standards for Strawberries
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of strawberries of one variety,
with the cap (calyx) attached, which are firm, not over-
ripe, underripe, or undeveloped; and which are free from
mold or decay and from damage caused by dirt, moisture,
foreign matter, disease, insects, or mechanical or other
means. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum size shall
be not less than three-quarters of an inch in diameter.
In order to allow for variations other than size incident
to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 per
cent. by volume, of the strawberries in any lot may be
below the requirements of this grade but not to exceed
one-half of this tolerance or 5 per cent. shall be allowed
for defects causing serious damage, and not more than
1/5 of this amount, or 1 per cent. shall be allowed for
In addition, not more than 5 per cent. by volume of
the strawberries in any lot may be below the specified
Unclassified, shall consist of strawberries which are not
graded in conformity with the foregoing grade.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Overripe" means dead ripe, becoming soft, a condi-
tion unfit for shipment and necessitating immediate con-
"Underripe" means so immature that less than two-
thirds of the surface of the berry is of a pink or red color.
"Undeveloped" means not having attained a normal
shape and development owing to frost injury, lack of pol-
lination, insect injury, or other causes. "Button" berries
are the most common type of this condition.
"Damage" means any injury from the causes mentioned
which materially affect the appearance, edible or shipping
"Serious damage" means that the strawberries are soft
or leaky; or have broken skins. Strawberries which are
caked with dirt or which show no pink or red color shall
be considered seriously damaged.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right
angles to a straight line running from the stem to the apex.
3- Q. B.
Golf Course Grass Culture
University, Gainesville, Fla.,
August 17, 1925.
Mr. R. S. Butler, Route "A", Box 353, B.,
St. Petersburg, Florida.
Dear Mr. Butler:
Yours of August 5, addressed to the State Department
of Agriculture in regard to information on golf course
grass culture, fertilization, and insect control, has been
referred to me. I am sorry to state that the Florida Ex-
periment Station has published no specific bulletin along
this line. We take pleasure in sending you under separate
cover copy of Bulletin No. 25, entitled, "Some Florida
Grasses," which will give you detailed instructions in re-
gard to quite a number of grasses, some of which are used
on golf courses in this State-particularly Bermuda grass
for putting greens and carpet grass for fairways. About
the only difference in handling these grasses under golf
course conditions so far as planting is concerned would be
to increase the rate of seeding about ten times.
We have no specific recommendations in regard to fer-
tilizing golf course grasses at the present time. This is
due to the fact that we have done no experimental work
along this line which has run long enough to allow us to
form any safe conclusions. We have some work in progress
now, but it has not advanced far enough for us to be sure
about results. I might state for your information that we
start our golf course grasses off by trying to get the soil
supplied with plenty of plant food material, which is
usually derived from any high grade commercial fertilizer.
After the grass is established we, especially on putting
greens, apply about once a month an application of sul-
phate ammonia at the rate of 50 to 100 pounds per acre,
watering this in thoroughly immediately after applying.
We have been getting good results from such fertilizing
methods, but would not dare say that this is the best way
to fertilize putting greens. As soon as we get anything
definite from our experimental work along this line, we
will be glad to let you know more about it.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 67
In regard to insect control will state that I do not know
just what particular insect you might be interested in
controlling; however, we are sending you along with this
letter a little circular by Professor Watson on Control of
Chinch Bugs in grass turf, which may be of some interest.
But if there are other insects in which you are interested
in controlling, write to our Experiment Station Entomolo-
gist, Prof. J. R. Watson, Gainesville, Fla., and he will be
glad to help you out.
In regard to how to correct the acids given from pal-
metto roots will state that the usual method of correcting
acidity in soils is to apply ground limestone. How much
limestone to apply per acre will depend a great deal on
how acid your soil may be; usually one to two tons of
ground limestone per acre will correct acidity in soils that
are not extremely acid.
Very truly yours,
W. E. STOKES,
Grass and Forage Crops Specialist.
Box 1124, Manatee, Fla., Feb. 27, 1926.
Mr. J. A. P. Orstmann,
Box 186, R. 4, Coral Gables, Fla.:
Your letter of February 19th addressed to Commissioner
Mayo has been referred to me for a reply. The eggs of
the common hen flea are laid in hens' nests or on manure
on the floor of the poultry house. These eggs after a vary-
ing length of time hatch into white larvae; this stage of
development lasts from 10 days to three weeks, depending
upon the temperature. The larvm then becomes secreted
in some crevice where it develops into the adult. The use
of whitewash, containing a small percentage of kerosene
oil destroys larvae, fills up lurking places and drives adults
away if it does not kill them. Wood shavings is a desir-
able thing to make nests of as it is repellant to fleas.
Simple construction of interior fixtures to facilitate re-
moval and cleaning and to minimize the amount of cracks
and crevices is very necessary in controlling this parasite.
Cements floors kept clean and sanitary would be ideal
to prevent the life history being completed.
A 2% (two per cent.) solution of Pearson's creolin used
warm will usually kill adult stick-tights when the whole
head of the chicken is dipped into the creolin solution.
The mouth and nostril of the fowl can easily be held
closed while dipping. No attention need be paid to the
eyes or ears. Two or three dippings at several days in-
terval may be necessary, however, dead fleas usually re-
main attached for several days.
Your very truly,
D. A. SANDERS,
Facts About Dairying in Florida
Gainesville, Fla., Dec. 17, 1925
Mr. Frank T. Fowler,
Your letter of December 10, addressed to the Agricul-
tural Department, Tallahassee, has been referred to me
by the Commissioner of Agriculture, Mr. Nathan Mayo.
In answering your questions regarding the true condi-
tions of. dairying in Florida, I must confess that it is
quite difficult to explain these matters in a letter. Condi-
tions are so different here to what you have in Illinois
that it is very difficult for you to appreciate these things
after you get here at first sight.
If you were familiar with the South and farming con-
ditions it would be more easily to get you the information
that would be worth while to you.
To begin with I suggest that you write to the chief of
the Weather Bureau at Washington, D. C., or possibly
better at Jacksonville, Florida, and get a weather report
giving rainfall and temperatures for the various points
in Florida for the past ten years. This, I am sure, will be
a surprise to you when you find that our summer tempera-
tures are less extreme than those in the Middle West, and
most parts of the State are much more desirable for dairy-
ing than any of the seasons in Illinois.
Most conditions for dairy products were never better in
Florida. Our unusual conditions have been brought about
by the rapid advance of land values around the larger
consuming centers, as Miami, Jacksonville, Palm Beach,
Tampa, St. Petersburg, Orlando and other larger towns.
Under the old system of dairying milk for these towns
was supplied by local retail dairymen. With this real
estate advance the majority of these dairymen have dis-
posed of their holdings at good profits and retired from
the dairy business, and milk to supply these centers is
coming from the agricultural sections of the State, and
with the large tourist travel we have during the winter
months we have to import many carloads of milk and
cream into Florida each day from other States north.
The one big problem in Florida dairying has been the
presence of what is known as the Texas cattle fever tick,
DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
that has prevented the importation of mature animals
from States north of us where this tick is not present.
This tick has been eradicated from about eight or ten
.counties in the State and there is a definite program
worked out by the State Livestock Board to carry this
work on to completion.
In addition Florida has been handicapped by large
areas of free range territory. This is being changed by a
good many counties in the State. Everything points to
a rapid development of the dairy industry.
In the past Florida has had very few summer visitors.
However, during the summer of 1925 we had a large
number of summer visitors and the demand for milk re-
mained good throughout the summer season. In the past
the summer surplus of milk has been one of the problems
to deal with as the population of Florida has been less
than 1,000,000, and during the summer season many of
the Floridians went out of the State on their vacation,
reducing the number of consumers to a very great degree.
It is impractical to attempt to grow all the concentrate
or grain feed in Florida. On large areas we can produce
corn profitably for silage purposes and grow a surplus
for grain. All kinds of forage and pasture grasses can be
produced sufficient to maintain a year-round pasture
and with our present price of milk, which averages around
40-80c per gallon (4% milk) wholesale at our largest
cities, makes it profitable for the dairymen to buy the
Concentrates for dairy rations are about as cheap in
Florida as in most dairy centers in the United States.
We have cotton seed meal, corn meal, and bran obtainable
at prices something near what you would have to pay in
larger dairy centers.
As stated above, it is impossible to explain conditions
that are satisfactory to you without visiting the State.
We do know that dairying is profitable for the man who
is willing to adjust himself to new conditions and who is
willing to thoroughly acquaint himself with the fever tick
problem and other problems that will come up from time
If there is anything further that we can do to serve
you, feel free to call on us.
Yours very truly,
HAMLIN L. BROWN,
The Origin of Citrus Culture
Together With an Account of the Early History Regarding Their
Distribution and First Uses for Medical Purposes
By M. B. MATLACK
Citrus Research, University of Florida, in Tie Florida Grower
THE place of origin of any of the various species of
the genus Citrus, or citrus fruits, now under cul-
tivation is not definitely known, unless it be that of
the Mexican lime. Their origin is, however, of greatest
antiquity. The use of marmalades made from the peel of
the citron is described by the Emperor Baber in his
memoirs. It is thought by some that the citron is the
oldest known variety.
The term Citrus was first applied to this fruit by Pliny,
and was later adopted by Linnaeus as the generic name
for this and other closely related fruits. Previously, the
citron had been described by the Greek Theophrastus,
who spoke of it as the 'apple of the Medes and Persians."
The poet Virgil gives us a record of how highly it was
esteemed by the Medes. De Candolo, a botanist who spent
his life in studying the place of origin of cultivated plants,
is of the opinion that the species medical (citron and
lemon) are indigenous to India in the warm districts at
the foot of the Himalayas from Garwal to Sikkin. An-
other botanist, Wright, affirms that a certain variety of
this species grows wild in the Nilgherry Hills. It is pos-
sible that the Shaddock originated in South China, Cochin
China or the Malay Archipelago, but the weight of the
evidence of various authors seems to show that it came
from some of the islands of the Pacific, i. e., Java, the
Friendly Isles or the Fiji Isles. The common grapefruit,
or pomelo, belongs to this species. The bitter orange is
also thought to have come from the eastern part of India,
perhaps from the foot of the Himalayas.
The area of dispersion of the genus Citrus extends from
New Caledonia in the east as far as India in the west;
does not extend beyond the 23rd parallel to the south or
extend in the Northern Hemisphere beyond the 30th
parallel. All the species with stamens united (except the
Citrus neo-caledonica) are grouped in the western half
of this zone, while the species with free stamens (except
72 THE ORIGIN OF CITRUS CULTURE
Citrus hystrix) are localized in the eastern half. Citrus
fruits have spread west from India into Persia and Pales-
tine and thence into the countries bordering on the
Mediterranean. To the Spaniards belongs the credit of
having introduced citrus fruits into tropical and semi-
tropical America. The sweet seedling orange was intro-
duced into California from Mexico by the Franciscan
Fathers about 1769 and was cultivated by them in the
gardens of their Missions. In the Antilles and Brazil the
sweet orange was found growing before 1648.
Though soil does not play a great part in distribution,
it does make a great difference in the nature of the fruit.
For instance, the Washington Navel when grown in
Florida is very large, but the tree does not bear heavily,
the skin has very little of an orange tint and the juice is
insipid. In California it does not grow so large, but has
a compact pulp without a great deal of juice. A variation
in texture among Florida oranges grown on different
Florida soils is quite noticeable to those who are familiar
The products of the genus. Citrus have been used in
medicine with more or less success since the days of the
Medes and Persians. Various parts of the orange tree are
used medicinally; the leaves, which are bitter and aro-
matic, are employed in the form of an infusion as a gently
stimulant diaphoretic; the dried flowers are used in
Europe as a gentle nervous stimulant, in the form of an
infusion, two drahms to the pint of boiling water, taken
in the dose of a teaspoonful. The juice of the Seville, or
bitter orange, when added to water and sweetened is em-
ployed in febrile diseases. Lemon juice is also used in like
manner. The sweet orange is extensively used as a light
refrigerant article of diet in inflammatory diseases, care
being taken to remove the membraneous portion. The es-
sential oil of the peel of the sweet orange is used in
anaesthesia. Recently, substances have been found in
oranges, grapefruit and lemons which markedly affect the
blood sugar content of animals, one of which acts very
much like insulin.
Use of citrus fruits to prevent scurvy is not new and
citrus fruits are the best source of the antiscorbutic
vitamin or vitamin C. It is the most desirable source of
this vitamin for the addition to the diet of babies fed on
pasteurized milk. Vitamins A and B also have been found
in orange and in their peel. Lemon oil and grapefruit peel
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
lack these vitamins. The amount of A and B in the juice
of the orange is not so great, but is great enough to be of
some value where these two vitamins are needed in the diet.
The commercial uses of citrus fruits are not so great in
number, but from a momentary standpoint are by far the
more important, the most important being the home con-
sumption of the sweet orange in the free state and the
fresh juice now is sold in many of our cities as a very
refreshing beverage. The juice, so far, has never been
bottled in a manner such that it will keep for any length
of time, but work is being carried on in the laboratories
of the chemistry department of the University of Florida
with this end in view. The juice has been successfully
made into wine and has been converted into a very desir-
able vinegar. Jellies and marmalades are now being made
on a commercial scale in both Florida and California
from the sweet orange and the grapefruit, and the kum-
quat has great possibilities for these purposes. Candied
peel of citrus fruits is also to be found on the market.
The production of citric acid from the juice of the lemon
has long been an important industry, and pectin, a gelatin-
ous substance used for the preparation of jellies, can be
made from the white part of the peel of the orange or
lemon. Next these lemons can be used as an eye wash. In
the Far East another variety of lemon is used by gold-
smiths for cleaning every kind of golden article which
they intend to cover with pigment.
Outline of Florida Citrus Stocks
By F. M. O'BYRNE, State Plant Board
The citrus root stocks generally used for budding in
To a lesser extent, Sweet Orange, Lime, Bitter Sweet,
Everbearing Lemon, Cleopatra Mandarin.
Formerly used a good deal. Not very satisfactory prin-
cipally because it is more susceptible to cold, drought and
footrot than sour. Favorite with many as a root for
tangerines. Some fine groves at Winter Haven are sweet.
1. Tolerant to cold.
2. Tolerant to water.
3. Produces extra fine fruit; smooth, thin-skinned,
juicy, heavy, character, high color.
4. Very resistant to footrot.
6. Adapted to rich, heavy soils.
7. Early crops are good.
8. Sprouts readily if frozen down.
9. Holds fruit a long time with small natural dropping.
10. Fruit doesn't dry at stem end.
11. Grapefruit seed does not sprout.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 75
1. Slow growing as compared to Rough Lemon.
2. Tree smaller than on Rough Lemon.
3. Not as prolific as Rough Lemon.
4. Will not grow well on light soils.
5. A failure for Satsumas.
6. Fruit must be handled with care.
7. (Subject to scab).
1. Very rapid grower.
2. Adapted to light, sandy soil.
3. Good tap root.
5. Comes into bearing early.
6. Fruit ships well.
7. The only stock that will do in some sections.
8. Easily handled in nursery.
9. Will stand a drought splendidly.
1. Subject to cold damage.
2. Rather subject to footrot.
3. Early crops poor quality.
4. Fruit sour and lacks character.
5. Skin thick and coarser than Sour Orange. Has
6. Fruit dries out quickly.
7. Grapefruit seeds sprout.
8. Does not stand wet feet.
9. Trees short lived.
10. Doesn't do well on rich soil.
11. (Subject to scab).
FLORIDA CITRUS STOCKS
Adapted to a peculiar type of soil. Heavy clay-like soil
and flatwoods type where there is lots of palmetto. Sara-
sota, Fort Myers.
1. Resistant to cold.
2. Fruit juicy and good quality.
3. Prolific-for its size.
5. Very dormant in winter.
6. Slow to start in spring.
7. Does well on clay soil or sub-soil.
8. Resistant to footrot.
1. Tree slow-growing.
2. Not good on high. dry or calcareous soils
4 Hard to handle on account of thorns.
5. (Subject to San Jose).
SPRAY CALENDAR FOR FLORIDA
By W. L. FLOYD
Professor of Horticulture, Florida College of Agriculture, in Florida Grower.
GRAPEFRUIT AND SATSUMAS
Pest Time I Remedy I Remarks
Scab. March or April. [Bordeaux-oil mixture. Make 3-3-501Important for preventing and checking f
XTelanose. Soon after petals Bordeaux, add concentrated oill diseases on tender growth. If only C
have fallen. I emulsion to give 1 per cent of oill melanose present, spray 1 month later.
Sto mixture. I
ALL SPECIES OF CITRUS
Aphids. Ear ly February. Dip of nicotine sulphate solution.[Bend over and dip ends of branches with
When first spring Repeat in four days. new growth in a bucket containing 1 C
growth appears. | teaspoonful of nicotine sulphate, 2 ozs.
Soap and 1 gal. water.
Aphids. Later in February. IThree per cent nicotine sulphate|Apply in calm weather with hand duster
Slime dust. to all infested new growth on young
whitee Fly. May. Oil emulsion diluted to contain 1 1il emulsion sometimes injures small
Scale Insects. When fruit is 1 inch part oil to 99 parts water, then fruit; it should be 1 in. or over in
Rust Mites. in diameter, add 2%, lbs. dry soda-sulphur to| diameter to be safe.
Rust Mites. |June. Dust with flowers of sulphur, or|Watch for mites. Apply before they he-
Red Spiders. During dry weather. spray with lime-sulphur, 1 gal. tol come numerous.
SI 50 gals. wafer. |
White Fly [Early in July. Parasitic Fungi. IDissolve spores off in water, strain, apply
,.nli Insects. after r rainy season Red Aschersonia. with hand sprayer. If obtainable add
begins. Red-headed fungus. spores Brown, Gray-headed and Black
I | fungi.
White Fly. October or Novem- Oil emulsion in which soda--sul- Same proportions as given in second -
Scale Insects. her. phur is dissolved.
SPECIAL SPRAYING NOT USUALLY NECESSARY UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS
Scab. (Early February. Be-jBoideaux-oil mixture. Same as first on Grapefruit and Satsumas
fore new foliage where much scab is present. Import-
Sunfolds. ant on young non-bearing trees. Prune
SI diseased parts before spraying.
Aphids. February and March Three per cent nicotine sulphate Apply in calm weather, with power
lime dust. duster to all infested new growth on
Large trees. Repeat every four days
I__as long as aphids are found.
Thrips. March. Nicotine sulphate with lime-sul-|Apply when 25 or more thrips aie found
When about one- phur. Use 13 oz. nicotine sul-[ to the blossom.
half the petals phate and 21/ gals. lime-sulphurlMore often necessary on Satsumas.
have fallen. to 100 gals. water.
Rust Mites. |August or Septem- Dust with flowers of sulphur, or Watch for miles it weather becomes dry.
Red Spiders. | ber. spray with lime-sulphur 1 to 50. Apply before they become numerous.
When mites become
Ammoniation October or Novem-|Apply copper sulphate, spread like This prevents development of ammonia-
of Fruit. ber. fertilizer about tree, 2 lbs. to 6 tion on next crop of fruit.
lbs. per tree.
Pest Time [ Remedy I Remarks
Scab. .viarcn. o3-3-50 Boraeaux mixture.
(Cladosporium (1) Latter part of
Citri). blooming period. I
Black Spot. (2) Three weeks
sp.). (3) Three or four
Blotch weeks later.
Scale Insects. October. (Oil emulsion, 1 to 70.
White Fly. As foliage begins to|
Repeat in December
('nree sprayings are usually sufficient,
though a fourth may sometimes be nec-
Alternate this with spraying for thrips.
lace bugs and spiders, when they are
INovember to March Lime-sulphur 1 to 60 plus 40 per|Alternate with spraying for scale insects
I when pests are cent nicotine sulphate I to 900. and white fly.
| found. I
Flower Thrips.lEarly March whenl40 per cent nicotine sulphate, 13 Unless thrips are numerous oimt nicotine
Blossom in bloom if pests oz. to 100 gals. water, then add] sulphate and soap.
Anomala. are found. fish oil soap, 2 lbs.; arsenate oi"
Leaf Roller. lead, 3 lbs.
Anthracnose |March. 33-3-50 Bordeaux mixture, 11/ lbs.|
(Collelotri- (When in bloom. arsenate of lead.
Red Spiders. November to March, Lime-sulphur, 1 to 60, plus 40 per Repeat as often as necessary.
Leaf Thrips. When pests arej cent nicotine sulphate, 1 to 900.
Scale Insects. [December to Febru-[Oil emulsion, 1 to 70. Alternate this spraying with one for Spi-
Sary. When trees I ders and Thrips. Two or more spray-
Sare dormant. I ings may be necessary.
Soft Rot IFruit after ripening. Careful handling. Packing only Sometimes severe among pineapples in
(Thielavi- when dry. Prompt shipment. I transit.
Red Wilt |Six to eight weeks Breaking soil deep, then applyinglToo expensive for general use.
(Caused by I before setting calcium cyanamid, 1 ton to acre.,
nematode). plants. I
Red Spiders. IIn periods of dry Handful of tobacco dust in bud ofr
Mealy Bugs. weather. I plant.
Grove Calendar for June
Some Timely Suggestions for Grove Work During the
Month of June
Stop cultivating bearing groves when summer rains
Finish fertilizing this month.
Plant bush velvet beans or cowpeas in the middles of
Prune out dead wood in citrus trees to control withertip.
Watch for rust mites on citrus and at the first appear-
ance dust with sulphur or spray with lime-sulphur (1 to
Spread the parasitic fungi to control whitefly and purple
scale on citrus, especially on trees sprayed with bordeaux
or bordeaux oil.
Spray pecan trees with 4-4-50 bordeaux to control
pecan scab; repeat every three or four weeks during the
The Marvel Blackberry
A Volusia County Product
How It Was First Developed is Not Known, But All of the Facts
Indicate that the First Plants Were Grown by an Old Woman
at the Old Spanish Mission at New Smyrna
By T. A. BROWN
Volusia County Agricultural Agent
ANY stories have been circulated regarding the
Marvel blackberry. Its origin has been credited to
many countries and many people have claimed its
introduction, and at one time it was credited with being
imported from Australia by the Government of the United
After hearing these claims and assertions from- many
angles, the writer determined to trace the story to the true
origin, and the result is as follows:
Many years ago, there lived at New Smyrna an old
lady who was known to the neighborhood as "Granny
Mathews," and her home was at the old Spanish ruins
now called the Old Mission. At that time there was not as
much attention paid to old ruins as there is to-day and
Granny lived as many old-timers did, by the income from
a few cows and what her boys could make by carrying the
mail to St. Augustine and fishing in the Indian River.
Around the old ruined buildings there grew a profusion
of wild blackberries, some of the usual variety, and some
of a much larger type which, while not so sweet as the
others, were much larger and had a flavor more like the
dewberry, in fact the resemblance to both gives rise to
the present idea that this berry may be the result of a
natural accidental cross between the two wild varieties.
No one paid attention to the source from which this
berry came, until it was noticed that the berries that
Granny Mathews occasionally sold in the village of New
Smyrna were much larger and had a different flavor than
anything else known in this country, whereupon William
Ballough, of Daytona, visited the farm and sought the
original planting, when, much to his disappointment, he
found that during a clean-up campaign around the old
buildings all of the original vines had been destroyed ex-
cept one plant that remained growing against the rock
THE MARVEL BLACKBERRY
chimney of the Mathews dwelling. Mr. Ballough, not
being willing to risk the loss of the original plant by its
removal, carefully dug four of the roots which he took
home to his garden in Daytona and nursed them until he
was able to propagate from the resulting vines, which he
did by the method of division and root cuttings, which
has proved to be very successful, and which was very for-
tunate, as a few years later the parent plant at New
Smyrna died out and the variety would have been forever
lost had it not been for the efforts of Mr. Ballough, who
within a few years had increased to several thousand
plants that ran true to type and showed up so well that
Mr. Ballough offered them on the open market as a
standard variety, and called it the "Ballough Berry."
When the quality of the variety became known, the pro-
moters began to rush on, and eventually Mr. Ballough is
said to have made a contract with a man at Tampa to
furnish plants in lots of ten thousand.
This promoter, after getting the first lot of vines,
change the name to "Australian Blackberry," and we
are told, paid for them with a bad check, although lie
later put up some cash in order to get another shipment
of vines, but the result of being tied up on a contract that
was almost a total loss, so discouraged Mr. Ballough that
he lost interest and quit raising the plants except for his
Since that time various people have offered the same
variety under many names, and it always takes well, since
it runs true to type, is a very rapid grower, bears a won-
derful quantity of fruit, often as much as six and eight
quarts the second year, of well-flavored berries as large as
a man's thumb, and is easy to increase by the simple
method of root cuttings, is adapted to almost any soil from
high pine to muck, and is afflicted with few diseases or
In the line of disease, we might mention a rather unim-
portant rust that sometimes appears on the leaves, but
which can be controlled by the proper use of any good
fungicide, and a more serious disease known as double
blossoms, which causes the blossoms to turn from the
natural white, single bloom, to a pinkish twisted and mul-
tiple affair which does not set bloom. We are told by the
Florida Experiment Station authorities that this can
easily be controlled by cutting out all old canes in early
winter and spraying thoroughly with 4-4-50 bordeaux
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN 83
mixture, applying the bordeaux again in the spring when
new growth starts.
The major insect trouble is the common flower thrip,
which is found in numbers in orange blossoms and similar
flowers, and which is easily controlled by the standard
nicotine-soap spray directed into the bloom every two or
Summing up the Marvel Blackberry as a crop, we con-
sider it as having never yet been given due credit. It is
the only variety that has proved beyond doubt to be fully
adapted to this part of the south, and where properly
trellised, pruned, fertilized and otherwise cared for, we
know of no crop that will yield as much high quality fruit
per acre, and the markets have never yet had enough of
them to supply a small part of the demand.
Gas Will Make Garden Better
Science Finds Potatoes Expand Rapidly Under New Treatment
By JOSEPHINE VAN DE GRIFT
New York-What will science do next? They're gassin'
potatoes now to make 'em look like the pictures in the seed
catalogues. And what do you think they're using? Noth-
ing more or less than our old friend carbon dioxide, which
is what folks exhale when they talk too much.
Personally, we never would have thought it possible if
we hadn't visited New York's International Flower Show.
First, it seems, you catch your potato. Then you confine
it in a hot house. Then you pipe in some C02 which is the
modish way of saying carbon dioxide, and give it, the
potato, a dose every morning and afternoon.
In less than no time you won't be able to distinguish
that potato from the kind you pay a quarter for on the
Pullman going through to Seattle.
And it's the same way with cucumbers or beans-just
give 'em a little C02 and they nearly burst through the
roof of the hot house.
It just goes to show what science can do.
This gassing theory is pretty new yet, so a lot of the ex-
pert horticulturists have had to sort of putter around
without it. Some of the things they've produced and
which are on exhibition at the flower show are:
Forget-me-nots as big as lilies of the valley and lilies of
the valley as big as tulips (or thereabouts).
Geraniums that grow in tubs like small trees, and calla
lilies that shoot up like Jack's beanstalk.
A carnation named Constance, which is as big as a chry-
santhemum, and an amaryllis which could easily hold its
own against two old-fashioned moustache cups.
Sweet peas with 18-inch stems and pussy willows that
would make nifty little powder puffs.
And the inventors have kept right up with the horticul-
turists. They've turned out a small garden tractor that
any child can operate, a lawn mower that runs itself, and
a dandy little sprayer which, if you don't own a garden,
will be found equally serviceable for cockroaches or sprin-
kling the weekly wash.
They point with pride to some lovely deodorized fer-
tilizer, one small sachet of which will go as far as a wheel
barrow of the old-fashioned variety.
Cayana 10 Resistant to Mosaic
Disease in Sugar Cane
T HE sugar cane fields of Northern and Western
Florida are sick. In fact there is a very severe
disease called mosaic that is epidemic among all the
so-called "ribbon" cane varieties. Aside from the bad
effects'of the drought, the cane growers will suffer a loss
of approximately $1,000,000 this year as a direct result
of this disease, according to M. B. Ensign, pathologist of
the Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida.
And, as long as the common varieties of sugar cane are
grown, just so long will the loss persist. In other words,
mosaic is an incurable disease that causes an increasingly
large loss each year. And while it is quite largely restricted
to Northern Florida, Southern Georgia and Louisiana coun-
ties, yet it is very likely that in a few years all of the cane
in the South will become infected.
But there is a way out. A large number of farmers in
Northern Florida have small patches of a resistant variety
of sugar cane called Cayana 10 that was distributed three
years ago by the State Plant Board. Through the aid of
the county agents most of these plantings have been
located. Those having Cayana 10 have agreed to hold it
for sale at a reasonable price in the field. Every farmer
that has none of this variety should by all means secure a
few hundred stalks, says Mr. Ensign. It grows readily
from stubble for three to five years, becoming very dense
clumps if they are not cut out.
Cayana 10 has usually been mistaken for some of the
common Japanese varieties. While it resembles the Japan-
ese cane it is very superior in that it has a much higher
sugar content and grows larger. It can be told from the
common Janapese variety in that it has smooth foliage.
while the Japanese variety has rough leaves.
Cayana 10 has given very satisfactory yields and of
good quality. Growers are well satisfied with it. There is
no doubt that it will pay the grower to secure Cayana 10
seed this fall and discard the old varieties that he has
hitherto relied upon.
One farmer at Grand Ridge has 150 acres of Cayana 10
and claims he will make more syrup and of better quality
than he ever made from an equal acreage of the ribbon
cane, even before the mosaic came.
Inquiries for available seed of Cayana 10 should be
made to the Agricultural Extension Division, University
of Florida. Gainesville.
The Southern Pear
HE soils and climate of the South are well adapted
to the growing of pears, but due to the prevalence
of the disease known as Pear Blight the production
of this fruit is practically impossible.
Most of the market pears come from the old- world
species, Pyrus communis, or the common pear of Europe.
This fruit has long been prominent in the old countries
and was introduced into America soon after settlement had
The climate was congenial and the pear was quickly dis-
seminated throughout the colonies. Later it was carried
west and into California. In New England and the West
the European pear grows well and profitably. It has never
been of much importance in the South.
About the middle of the eighteen hundreds the Chinese
pear, for a long time known as Pyrus sinensis, was intro-
duced into the United States. As the fruit of this species
is hard and of extremely poor quality the plant was first
used as an ornamental.
Hybrids developed between the sinensis and the com-
munis, two of which became quite important in the South.
The first was the LeConte, and large numbers of these
pears were planted but in due time the blight wiped them
out, though it had been thought that they were resistant
to the disease. The Kieffer was the other one and it sup-
planted the LeConte under southern conditions.
At one time large quantities of these pears were har-
vested annually in the Southern States and shipped to the
Northern markets. The fruits were poor in quality and
brought poor prices, but as the orchards were not well
cared for the cost of production was small and even the
low prices paid a good profit.
The Southern trees blighted a good deal and the growers
soon learned that holding up on cultivation and fertiliza-
tion helped the trees to withstand this trouble; therefore,
orchards grew up in grass and small pine sapplings. Little
by little the production of fruit slacked off and now the
South cannot be considered a grower of pears.
The industry had practically disappeared but recently
has taken on new life in some sections due to the finding
of a pear called the Pineapple. The history of this pear is
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
not known; it may be a true sinesis or a hybrid. It is of
very poor quality but grows and bears heavy crops under
most adverse conditions. This fruit will never be an eat-
ing pear but it is excellent for cooking and may be the
basis of a canning and preserving industry.
It is of special importance in that it does not blight;
that is, it does not blight in many localities. When inocu-
lated with the disease the twig dies but the trouble is not
disseminated to other parts of the plant. The tree is an
early bloomer and therefore subject to late frosts, conse-
quently is restricted in its adapations. This habit of early
blooming may be one of the explanations why it is so free
According Io tio e reports olf 1924, Tcxa;s is the only
Southern State that shipped pears in car-lots to be listed.
Ninety-nine carloads moved from that State during that
year. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana
produced 55,000 to 273,000 bushels each during that sea-
son, but practically all of these were used at home and
few if any shipped.
The hope of the Southern pear industry lies in new
hybrids that will be better in quality than the few sorts
now grown and which will be resistant to the blight. Some
breeding work is being carried on at points in the South,
but it will be some time before results will be had as
breeding is a long and slow process. Climatically, the
South can grow excellent pear s, but until the blight
menace is removed it will never be a pear-producing
Distilling for Oil and Charcoal
THE Agricultural Engineering Department of the
Alabama Experiment Station has done some very
valuable work in clearing of pine stumps off cut-
over land and distilling the stumps for oil and charcoal.
They have written this up in a very concise form and we
can do no better than to quote direct from their circular:
The timber was removed from this area about fifteen
years ago, followed by the removal of the fat part of the
tops, leaving only the stumps and a few fallen trees suit-
able for fuel wood. The soil is a dark grey loam overlying
a coarse yellow clay subsoil. Its undeveloped value is es-
timated at $15.00 per acre.
The land clearing methods compared were:
1. Blasting method.
2. Combination of pulling and blasting method.
Six adjoining acres representative of the cut-over lands
of a great part of the South were cleared by the blasting
method. A total of 320 stumps and 62 fallen trees were
cleared from these six acres. The average diameter at the
crown of these stumps was 27.7 inches and the average
height was 32.7 inches. One hundred sixty-nine stumps
were sound; 58 were rotten or hollow, and 93 were in
various stages of decay. Two hundred and ninety-seven
stumps were blasted. Holes were bored in the stumps with
a Cowan-Alford boring machine attached to a tractor. To
make a study of the effect of the angle of the hole on the
necessary amount of dynamite for efficient blasting, holes
were bored at various angles on different acres. Two hun-
dred ninety-four holes were bored to an average depth of
21.5 inches in 12 hours and 20 minutes, at a cost of $4.21
for labor and material. Forty per cent. ammonia dyna-
mite was placed in the holes, tamped with clay or shav-
ings, and fired by the cap and fuse method.
After blasting the large hangs were reshot with small
charges of dynamite; then laborers equipped with axes,
saws and levers cleared the land and prepared the stump
wood for the destructive distillation plant.
FLORIDA QJUARTERLY BULLETIN
The fat wood was hauled to a distillation plant and
there by a destructive distillation process converted into
crude pine oil and charcoal.
This work was done under unfavorable weather condi-
tions. Heavy rains prevented complete burning of tap
roots left in the ground by blasting.
COMBINATION OF PULLING AND BLASTING
Three acres adjoining the blasted area were cleared and
the stump wood prepared for the retort by combination of
the pulling and blasting method. There were 190 stumps
with an average diameter at crown of 25.6 inches and an
average height of 28.6 inches on these three acres. Sixty-
eight of the stumps were sound, 32 were rotten or hollow,
and 90 were in various stages of decay. There were also
60 fallen trees.
One hundred thirty-five of these stumps were pulled
with a steel stump puller operated by one driver and two
mules with three men at the cable. This work was done
in 15 hours and 40 minutes at a total cost of $12.00 or
6.43 cents per stump. The ground was very wet and
slippery, making it difficult for the men at the cable to
hold their footing. The speed of the work was also reduced
by an inexperienced driver and one inexperienced man at
The pulled stumps were split into retort wood-that is,
small pieces not over six inches in width or breadth and
of any length. After pulling the stumps on two acres the
tap roots were sawed off about 14 inches below the ground
line. The small stumps were split with axes, wedges and
sledge hammers, and the large ones (30 inches or more in
diameter at crown) were split with small charges of dyna-
mite, and then the large pieces split into smaller ones with
axes, etc. On the third acre the large stumps were first
split with dynamite and then the tap roots cut off. The
small ones were worked up in the same way as on the
other two acres. It required 135.4 man hours of labor
and 19.08 pounds of dynamite to prepare the stumps for
the retort, at a total cost of $40.50 or $13.50 per acre.
This wood was hauled to a distillation plaht and dis-
tilled like that from the blasted area.
The tabulated results of money expended and results
may be summed up as follows:
90 OIL AND CHARCOAL DISTILLING
The value of oil and chemicals per acre from the land
cleared by pulling and blasting was .... .. $79.97
The cost of clearing, hauling and distillation was,
per acre 42.86
Leaving a net profit, per acre of. $37.11
In case of the stumps removed by blasting, the value
of oils and chemicals per acre was ...... ..$71.70
The cost of clearing, hauling and distillation, was
per acre 45.50
Leaving a net profit per acre of $26.20
The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods
are listed below as indicative and not as conclusive.
1. Blasting method:
(1) Requires less initial investment.
(2) Can be used more economically
(1) Operation is expensive.
(2) Results are less efficient.
2. Combination method:
(1) Operation is cheaper.
(2) Results are more efficient.
(1) Greater initial cost, which becomes a greater dis-
advantage where only a few stumps are to be
Forest Fund is Given to State
National Body Yields $7,265 to Florida; U. S. Sum $5,000,137
Tallahassee, Fla.-(A. P.).--Florida received $7,265
from the distribution of the National Forest resource fund,
according to a report sent out from the United States De-
partment of Agriculture.
Receipts from the National Forest resources (luring the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1925, over the United States
and Alaska, totalled $5,000,137, the report stated, which
was $251,766 less than the receipts of the previous year,
but $409,204 larger than the average annual receipts of
the preceding five years.
Under authority of the Acts of Congress governing re-
ceipts from national forest resources, according to the
report, the sum of $1,271,276 will be paid to the States
containing national forest land for the use of the school
and road funds of the counties in which the land is
situated. In addition, the sum of $497,182, derived from
forest receipts, will be expended by the forest service in
building roads and trails within the forest areas. Other
road funds are provided by special appropriation.
With the exception of these sums, amounting in all to
$1,768,457, the balance of the receipts-$3,231,680-will
be paid into the general fund of the United States treasury.
The various States will receive one-fourth of the total
receipts from the resources for county roads and the
school fund. The funds for roads and trails within the
forests are computed on a one-tenth basis.
Apportionment of Federal Road
Fund Announced by Jardine
New Funds Will Be Spent Entirely on the Federal Aid Highway
ECRETARI Y of Agriculture Jardine recently an-
Snounced the apportionment of $73,125,000 to the
States for use in the construction of Federal-aid
roads. This apportionment was authorized by the Post
Office Appropriation Act of February 12, 1925, and is for
the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1926.
The new funds will be spent entirely on the Federal-
aid highway system under the same plan of co-operation
with the States that has been in successful operation for
ten years. The roads included in the system are the most
important in the country and reach directly or indirectly
every city of over 5,000 population. The bureau reports
that approximately 10,000 miles of Federal-aid road were
brought to completion during 1925, and the indications are
that the coming year will be equally successful.
The new apportionment is as follows:
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
New York .
.. $ 683,574
.. ............ 2,217,418
.. ......... . . 2,130,168
.... . . . ... 1,293,203
.. .......... 2,406,847
... ... .. . 1,551,660
.. . ... ... .. 1,588,138
................ . 948,318
. . . ... . ...... . 365,625
............... . 934,708
... . . . ... . 3,647,166
S. . 1,193,720
. . . 1,752,245
............... . 1,182,945
. ................... 365,625
.. . ... 1,051,993
..... .. 1,618,419
.. .. ...... . 4,426,917
. ......... . 848,251
. .. . ..... ..... 365,625
..... ....... ... 1,130,080
...... .... ... . . 7 93 ,9 36
. .. ....... . 935,594
Financing the Farmer
HE matter of providing funds with which to meet
the needs of farmers and prospective farmers has
been uppermost in the minds of leaders for a num-
ber of years, the thought being that some means should be
developed whereby agriculture may be financed at a cost
comparable to that borne by industry. Progress to that
end has been made, indeed very great progress, as we
have pointed out from time to time, and as has been more
recently disclosed through the survey made by the forces
of the Texas A. & M. College. Professor V. P. Lee, of the
Division of Agricultural Economics, has just tabulated the
results of a study of farm mortgage financing, in that
State, which embody information gathered from 177 banks,
insurance, trust, and mortgage companies which make
loans to farmers.
Analysis shows that the institutions whose records were
studied have outstanding loans totaling $252,448,122
based on first mortgages on Texas farms, and $1,727,382
on second mortgages. These loans cover practically one-
half of the farm mortgages of the State. It was found in
most cases that the farms were valued at more than twice
the amount of the loan, and that the interest rate ranged
from 5.5 per cent. in the case of the Federal Land Bank
to 8.45 per cent. by the commercial banks. Mortgage
loans by commercial banks are made to cover from one to
five years; by farm mortgage companies, insurance com-
panies, and trust companies, five to ten years; while the
Federal Farm Loan and Joint Stock Land Banks run for
The custom there in paying ordinary mortgages is about
what it is throughout the balance of the South. A very
large percentage of all loans made by mortgage, insurance,
and trust companies, as well as by commercial banks, are
paid off in lump sums when the loans mature. On the
other hand, the loans of the Federal and Joint Stock Land
Banks are paid on the amortization plan, or at the option
of the buyer after the first five years are up.
It was found that only 15 per cent. of the loans of farm
mortgage companies are made on the amortization or easy-
payment plan. And it is interesting to note that half the
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
loans of farm mortgage and trust companies are used for
the immediate purpose of purchasing land and making
improvements, and that in the case of insurance com-
panies and the Federal and Joint Stock Land Banks, 53
to 78 per cent. of the current loans are used to pay off
These findings are tremendously interesting not only as
they relate to Texas but as they relate to similar condi-
tions throughout the balance of the Southern States. We
would call especial attention to the fact that the difference
in the private bank rate and that paid at the Farm Loan
Banks is approximately 3 per cent, or a difference in favor
of the Farm Loan Banks of more than $30.00 per year
per thousand dollars borrowed. The extra 3 per cent.
charged by private concerns in many cases would make
a loan entirely unwarranted. On the other hand, loans at
the lower rate have made possible extension along desir-
able lines that have led to greatly increased income. Not
only is this difference significant, but even more valuable
is the provision whereby the Federal Land Banks permit
the farmer to pay off a small part of the debt each year
over a long period. This eliminates much risk and makes
unnecessary constant renewals with their burdensome fees,
commissions, bonuses and the like. It is very clear also
that all loans studied are abundantly secured, which
means that none of the banks or insurance companies are
running any risk. And yet these private concerns if all
the loans studied were in their hands would charge some-
where between 21/, million and 71/2 million dollars more
than the Farm Loan Banks would for loans totaling the
We might remember while thinking this over that our
Land Banks and Intermediate Credit Banks, which have
been more recently established and which are serving to
free the farmer of the oppressive rates of the past, are
the direct results of national legislation, and we might
just as well understand too, that the farm mortgage
bankers and their friends are going to be on hand when
Congress convenes to destroy them if they can.
What the Farmer Wants to
Know About Electricity
O. E. Bradfute, Ex-President American Farm Bureau Federation
I HAVE been asked to suggest some of the things which
the average farmer might want to know in regard
to electricity and its uses on the farm.
The average farmer is very well aware of the uses to
which electricity is put in our cities and towns, but he
has not done very much thinking as to how it might be
applied to his own needs. He has noted the uses made in
the city homes, such as lights, sweepers, irons, etc., and
has in many cases brought about similar results by using
the individual farm plant. He is beginning now to want
to know how he can make a wider application of this great
force and use it in connection with many more of his needs.
And so he asks, can electricity offer service suitable for
the farm? Can he profitably use it for pumping water,
for his milking machine, churns, his tool grinders, feed
mills, corn sellers, husking machine, ensilage cutters,
thrashing machinery, for cooking, heat and refrigeration?
Of course, he knows that a motor will turn almost any
kind of machinery, but what he is particularly interested
in is whether electricity will give him as good or better
service at as little or less cost than the type of machinery
he now has. Then he wants to know whether or not it can
be applied to the machinery which he has or whether he
will have to get an entirely new line especially adapted
Next, he is interested in the -tependableness of that kind
of power as to whether or not he can depend on it at all
times of the day and all seasons of the year. Another ques-
tion that arises very frequently is that of safety for him-
self and family in all these various uses. He also wants
to be assured that the cost will not go up after he once
has his plant installed and he wants to be assured that
after he has gone to a large expense in setting up the
proper installation and machinery that costs will not sud-
denly increase for him.
He is also interested in the lasting quality of his machin-
ery when used under such power. The farmer has been
exploited so much by new types of machinery to perform
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
certain services, that he is very much interested in the
standardization of types and parts of any new machinery
which he may install in the future.
And last, but by no means least, he wants to know where
and how he can secure the electrical current and the suit-
able machinery for using it. Must he depend upon water
power and in some cases carry the current a long distance?
Or can he secure equal or better results by the use of coal
or oil? Should he co-operate by building lines in his own
neighborhood in his own way, or should he use some care-
ful method and employ special engineers skilled in plan-
ning such lines to give the best and most satisfactory
results to the various communities, having first learned
the possible and probable needs of the entire community?
The above are just some of the things which seem to me
the farmer might want to know when he begins to consider
this whole question.
Marvels of The New Big Four
That Are Revolutionizing Agriculture and Rural Lite
By the Editor, Farm and Home
?(T ORNADO coming from the West!" shrieked
every loud speaker on every receiving set, as
the storm clouds became blacker and blacker.
Instantly every fire alarm sounded the dread signal. In-
stantly the people turned off their gas stoves, smothered
their fires, and ran for the cellars, snatching up valuables
and placing them in the receptacles made for the purpose
in the cellar floor before they huddled close to the west
All this was done some minutes before a mass of rub-
bish, blown through the air, heralded the beginning of the
tornado, for at its worst the wind probably attained only
100 to 200 miles per hour, whereas the radio vibrations
that brought warning through the air traveled 186,000
miles per second upon the universal ether!
Sad to relate, however, this quite simple and wholly
practical use of radio was not perfected in time to avert
the March catastrophe which swept through parts of five
States, killing nearly 1,000 human beings, wounding three
times as many, destroying thousands of animals and mil-
lions in value of property. No wonder that agencies,
public and private, are now co-operating to establish
warnings by radio, not only of wind storms, but of what
threatens to be disastrously high and low temperature,
floods or other weather disturbances.
Already the regular weather reports, which are made
up at 8 a. m. and 8 p. m. at many stations by the weather
bureaus, are becoming much more useful by being radioed
promptly. Within two or three hours after the observa-
tions are taken at 8 o'clock, the forecast is available by
wire, wireless or radio and still greater promptness may
be perfected this summer. Market reports, news and other
data may become available from moment to moment.
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Lectures and demonstrations by radio already place the
best at your service. Music becomes universally available.
Sounds are heard around the world. Radio not only an-
nihilates distance, but makes it possible for any individual
to keep in touch with everything "in the air."
Methods and apparatus have been so standardized and
cheapened as to be within reach of all. At the present
pace, every rural home, even the remotest camp, will soon
have its radio. Our own census reveals that the number
of radio sets owned by Farm and Home readers increased
50% in three months, such increase being wholly in bulb
sets of the better type. What comes to us through the air
not only abolishes isolation and brings you the best of
everything from near and far, but the social effect will be
to bind more closely all people and nations.
NEW MARVELS OF THE MOVIES
How nicely radio fits in also with the movies. Electri-
city and radio make possible more interesting features at
every moving picture house. Concerts by John McCormack
and other famous artists may be radioed between the acts.
Players before the screen reach millions compared to the
hundreds who witness performances on the stage. Ap-
preciation of fine acting grows until the greatest actors
compete in fine service to the movies. Is it any wonder
that lovers of the stage, as well as the theatrical industry,
fear that the theatre, as it has been known for a century,
is to-day practically obsolete, because of the improved at-
tractions at nominal prices afforded by the movies?
The new policy is just now in effect of inviting com-
ment and criticism from every one who attends the movies.
You should write a postal or letter telling what you liked
or did not like about any movie play or feature. Prizes
may be offered for the most suggestive comment or
Events of the day,, caught in action by the moving
camera, are always interesting. Around the world in ten
minutes, scenes at home and abroad from daily life, ap-
peal to eye and imagination. Daily newspapers feebly
imitate with still life photographs.
Art is an universal language. You understand a movie
of life in Paris, Moscow or Pekin, even if you can't read
or speak French, Russian or Chinese. The movie brings
THE NEW BIG FOUR
the whole world to the eye, and with radio helps people
to know and understand each other. Historical plays and
pageants interpret the past, enabling us to refresh our
appreciation of the deeds of our forbears that make pos-
sible our American ideals and institutions, and inspire us
to do our part in perpetuating them.
THE MOTOR REVOLUTION
Radio, movies, electricity and motors bring the whole
world to the farmer and carry the farm family as well as
farm products to the world. Motors make transportation
so cheap as to compete seriously with railroads. Motor
trucks help co-operation in better marketing. It is easy to
see how distribution is to be transformed of farm and fac-
tory products. This is going to cut costs between pro-
ducers and consumers, build up local industries and local
markets, making agriculture and rural life still more
profitable and attractive.
The automobile long since became a necessity. A recent
survey of 420 farm families in a single county reveals that
75% own autos. The number of farm families buying cars
increases constantly. Each buyer wants the car of his or
her choice. This, with better times and early spring, are
creating such a demand that "the family which wants a
particular make of car is well advised to put in its order
Tractors and other motive equipment are proving in-
As to electricity, no one knows what it really is, but
everyone does know how to use it. Electricity is truly the
agency "by which most of the drudgery of human life can
be taken from the shoulders of men and women."
As Governor Pinchot also well says, "Electricity means
the comforts not only of electric lighting, but of electric
cooking and other aids to housework. To the farmer it
means not only the safety and convenience of electric light,
but electric power for milking, feed-cutting, wood-sawing,
and a thousand other tasks on the farm. To the traveling
public it means the speed and cleanliness of electric trans-
portation. To dwellers in industrial cities it means free-
dom from smoke and ashes. To the consumer it means
better service at cheaper rates. To every worker it means
a higher standard of living, more leisure, and better pay. "