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I :1()RII)A QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
I )EIPARTAIMENT OF AG RICULTURE
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ratl of psta provid,,dti for ill Secution 1103, Ac0 of October 3, 1917.
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ISAAC NEWTON-THE FIRST HEAD OF
THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
By F. M. Russell, in Charge Press Service, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
It is now some fifty years ago that Isaac Newton, friend
of Lincoln and first head of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, gave his life in the interests of American agri-
culture. Today his granddaughter, Miss Amanda A.
Newton, is rounding out her twenty-fifth year in the same
Department, where, at a meagre salary, she is displaying
the loyalty and sincerity of purpose evidenced by her
grandfather. In fact, the Newton family has been inti-
mately associated with the development of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture since the day Lincoln persuaded its
founder to come from his farm in Pennsylvania to see
what he could do to foster agriculture in this country.
The writer went over to see Miss Newton in her office,
located in one of the numerous buildings occupied by the
Department, to secure a few details of the life of her
illustrious grandfather in order that the farmers of the
country might know something of the great man who was
more responsible than any other for the creation of a
federal department that now employs something over
She was clearing her desk after completing a most dif-
ficult task in a short time. It was the modeling from
wax and coloring of 17 different kinds of cheeses which
were shown at the World's Dairy Congress held at Syra-
cuse, N. Y., the week before. Besides these she had
modeled enlargements of numerous bacteria found in
milk and its products in order that visitors at the dairy
congress might know something of their physical appear-
ance. She was continuing the work of instructing the
American people as to the intricacies of agriculture just
as her grandfather was doing over 50 years ago.
You will not find the full life of the Quaker, Isaac
Newton, inscribed in the annals of history, but every de-
tail stands out most vividly in the memory of his grand-
daughter. Today she is spending her leisure time, brief
as it is, compiling the different phases of her ancestor's
life in order that his record may be preserved as an ex-
ample of devotion to the cause of the Ameircan farmer.
Further than this she hopes to bend her artistic talent
in the production of a painting of her grandfather to be
presented to the Department of which he was the first
When the writer asked Miss Newton for a few side-
lights on the work and character of her grandfather, her
face lighted up with a certain pride that no one could deny
her. To tell of him and what he had done for agriculture
was a pleasant task, though she displayed that modesty so
characteristic of the Quaker.
Born on a New Jersey farm, Isaac Newton moved in
his early youth to Delaware County, Pennsylvania, where
he devoted his life to scientific farming. It was here that
he established what later became known as the "Model
Farm," because of the new practices which he put into
effect. Queer enough this farm today is located within
the city limits of the city of Philadelphia, forming one
of the suburbs of the city proper.
"Long before Lincoln was elected President my grand-
father used to send butter each week to the White
House," said Miss Newton, in recalling some of the inci-
dents of his life before he was called upon to take charge
of the agricultural department. "I remember also my
father telling of a fatted calf grandfather fed and sent
to Washington, where it created a sensation and was
later presented to the White House. Father always re-
membered that, because he had to break eggs in the
mouth of the calf as a means of feeding it properly."
Before reciting the details of her grandfather's activi-
ties in the government, Miss Newton related the tragic
circumstances surrounding his death. It was in 1866
when he was working diligently with his experimental
farm in Washington, in the production of better varieties
of grain. Included in these were several varieties of
wheat now in general use.
One day in July of that year, when the grain had been
cut, and was lying on the ground, a thunder shower sud-
denly appeared. Mr. Newton hastened from his office
to the field, located a mile away, to instruct his men in
the proper method of saving the crop. In his supreme
effort under an intense heat he suffered a sunstroke. He
partially recovered, but died from the effects of the in-
jury on June 19, 1867. As we would say today, "he died
with his boots on."
It was while Isaac Newton was making a reputation as
a farmer out of the ordinary on his model Pennsylvania
place that he won the friendship of Lincoln and fre-
quently went to Washington at the request of the Chief
Executive to consult on matters relative to agriculture.
He was constantly being called upon by Congressmen for
advice and direction.
Though the Department of Agriculture was not estab-
lished until 1862, work along agricultural lines dates
back much earlier. It was in 1839 that Congress appro-
priated $1,000 for the purpose of collecting and distribut-
ing seeds and the gathering of agricultural statistics in a
modest way. The money was to be taken from the Patent
Office funds and the work to be carried on by a Com-
missioner, at that time an official of the Department of
State. The work of sending out seeds and collecting
statistics was continued under succeeding Commissioners
Largely through the efforts of the United States Agri-
cultural Society, and through the leadership of such men
as [saac Newton, the necessary legislation was enacted
in 1862 for the establishment of an independent Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Newton, then in the Patent
Office, was named by Lincoln as the first Commissioner
of Agriculture. It was many years later that the office of
Secretary of Agriculture was created and given official
recognition in the cabinet of the President.
Under his new appointment Commissioner Newton was
given full control of the property of the division in the
Patent Office and conducted his work independently of
the Department of the Interior. The propagating garden,
now located in the heart of Washington, was placed un-
der his care and a tract of 40 acres, constituting at pres-
ent the grounds of the Department of Agriculture, was
assigned to him for an experimental farm.
In 1862 Commissioner Newton appointed William
Saunders to be superintendent of the propagating gar-
dens. During the same year C. M. Wetherill was ap-
pointed Department chemist and started experiments
with new varieties of grapes with which it was thought
analyses could be made with profit. His experiments with
grapes and also with sorghum sirup were given to the
public in the second bulletin issued by the Department.
The first bulletin dealt with the objects and aims of the
Commissioner Newton appointed Lewis Bollman as
statistician and Townsend Glover as entomologist. He
imported several hundred bushels of choice seed wheat,
corn, rye, and other cereals, and several thousand dollars'
worth of other seeds. These seeds, with others, were dis-
tributed to farmers and every effort made to promote the
production of more and better crops. In all, Commis-
sioner Newton distributed in 1863, 1,200,000 packages of
seed and 25,750 bulbs, cuttings and vines.
At the suggestion of Commissioner Newton that the
government establish a'practical service for the predic-
tion of storms and floods, the organization of a meteoro-
logical division was made in the office of the Chief Signal
Officer of the Army, and finally, after many years, in the
establishment of the Weather Bureau as it exists today.
The following summer, 1865, the Commissioner finally
got possession of the 40-acre farm and started his ex-
perimental farm. It was at this point that the second
Newton joined the forces of the struggling Department,
for a son, Isaac Newton, Jr., was placed in charge of the
Under the leadership of the second Newton tests were
made during the summer of 1865 of new and promising
varieties of corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, rice, sorghum,
peas, beans, grasses, clover, cabbage, lettuce, onions,
tomatoes, potatoes, and melons. Seventy-seven kinds of
potatoes were tried. A large quantity of seed was saved
from the farm and distributed during the winter and
Such, in a brief way, was the work of the development
of the Department of Agriculture under the leadership of
that great man, Isaac Newton, followed, as he was, by his
son, who remained in active service for years after his
father's death, and today by his granddaughter.
Little do we appreciate or realize the struggle made in
the early day that agriculture might be justly recognized
OUTLINE OF STUDIES TO BE MADE
The national conference called by Hon. D. H. Houston,
Secretary of Agriculture, to outline the field of investi-
gation in Land Economics, one of the sections of the pro-
posed Bureau of Farm Management and Farm Economics,
together with the methods of coordinating the investiga-
tional activities of the section with those of other
agencies, submits the following, which we believe to be
a comprehensive outline of the field to be investigated:
A. Land resources.
B. Land values.
C. Land ownership and tenancy.
D. Land settlement and colonization.
E. Land policies.
A. Land resources (considered from the standpoint of
I. Classification according to location, physical char-
acteristics, ownership and present uses.
1. Land not now in farms.
2. Land now in farms.
II. Land utilization.
1. Conditions which explain present use or
2. Desirable changes in mode of use.
3. Costs of making such changes, and probable
B. Land values:
;ive land values in various regions.
II. Changes in land values.
II. Relation of land values and land rents.
IV. Effect of community environment on land rents
and land values.
V. Other conditions affecting land rent and land
C. Land ownership and tenancy:
I. Characteristics and relative extent.
1. Full ownership (classification by public and
private, by race and nationality).
2. Common lands-extent, character or rights.
3. Martgage indebtedness.
a. Extent and distribution.
b. Increase in tenancy-absolute and rela-
c. Forms of tenancy.
d. Improvement of tenant contracts.
e. Informal relations of landlords and
f. Determination of unexhausted improve-
ments and settlement of claims.
II. Conditions determining extent and character of
land ownership and tenancy.
1. Inheritance and bequest.
2. Land values.
3. Physical conditions or regions and types of
4. Personal characteristics of population and
relative individual advantages.
5. Land policies.
6. Rural credit systems.
7. Time required for laborers and tenants to
III. Effects of ownership and tenancy in regard to-
1. Maintenance of soil fertility.
2. Productiveness per acre, per man, and per
unit of invested capital.
3. Adequacy of farm improvements and equip-
4. The choice of farm enterprises and methods
of conducting them.
5. Distribution of farm income.
6. Standards of living and of thrift.
7. Shifting of rural population.
8. Community organization, cooperation, and
D. Land settlement and colonization (in undeveloped and
I. Selection of land and settlers.
II. Methods of settlement.
III. Agencies, public and private.
IV. Causes of success and failure.
V. Possible scope and rapidity of settlement.
E. Land policies:
I. Title registration and transfer.
II. Method of facilitating acquisition of farms.
III. Land commissions or courts.
IV. Landlord's lien.
V. Land-selling agencies.
VI. Methods of alienating public land.
VII. Relation of taxation of land to land problems.
In considering the above outline it is apparent that a
classification of lands from the standpoint of their eco-
nomic utilization is a very necessary basis of studies in
The following agencies have more or less comprehensive
data on the land resources of the country:
Department of Agriculture:
Bureau of Plant Industry.
Bureau of Soils.
Bureau of Crop Estimates.
Bureau of Animal Industry.
Office of Farm Management.
States Relation Service.
General Land Office.
United States Geological Survey.
United States Reclamation Service.
Federal Farm Loan Bureau.
Bureau of Census.
The data gathered by these agencies, however, have
never been assembled, correlated, and appraised from the
standpoint of economic utilization of the land. Your
committee considers the need of such a classification,
which should include all the actual or potential farm,
grazing and forest lands, as imperative. This classifica-
tion can be based in part on data which have been gath-
ered by various bureaus of this and other departments,
as well as by State and other agencies. The resulting in-
formation, when supplemented by such field surveys as
may be necessary, would be of immediate practical value
in many ways, such as guiding the course of land settle-
ment, determining the economically efficient size of farms
in different localities, and directing wisely the agricul-
tural energes of the country in the production of food-
stuffs and raw materials.
We therefore recommend to the Secretary of Agricul-
ture that the Office of Farm Management be especially
instructed to investigate the methods that have been em-
ployed in this and other countries in land classification,
and, in cooperation with the agencies heretofore enumer-
ated, to adopt a practical and comprehensive plan of pro-
cedure in this regard, which should be consummated as
rapidly as possible.
It is evident that the rapidity of progress under any plan
of land classification will depend largely on the ability of
the co-operating agencies to furnish necessary physical and
biological data. Provision will therefore be necessary to
insure that such data be gathered as rapidly as it is needed.
The problem of the classification of land from the
standpoint of its economic use suggests the importance of
studying all the conditions that tend to retard the com-
plete and efficient use of the land resources of the United
States and to affect unfavorably the welfare of those
engaged in agricultural activity. The land question is,
of course, exceedingly complex. Certain aspects of the
subject, however, require special emphasis.
The first of these considerations is that of the economic
causes which prevent areas of land suitable for agricul-
ture from being used. There are considerable areas in
this and other countries which are withheld from use for
various reasons, as, for instance, aggregation in large
holdings, inadequate capital for improvement, insufficient
facilities for transporting and marketing agricultural
products, inerta of the population, and speculation. Sim-
ilarly, there are other large areas where the utilization
of lands for farming is wholly inadequate and wasteful
because of size of farms and land holdings, absenteeism,
and forms of tenancy which provide insufficient motives
for careful farming, provision of suitable improvements,
and conservation of soil.
There can be no question that the rapid increase of
tenancy in certain regions of America has aroused a pro-
found interest in the cause of this movement and in its
significance. While many causes have been suggested,
comparatively little is known as to their relative impor-
tance. Careful investigation should be made with the
view of assessing these causes at their relative weight.
Similarly, it is of vital importance that the question of
the good and evil of tenancy as a method of holding land
should receive earnest and adequate consideration. To
some extent the evils of tenancy have been exaggerated
and the good minimized because it has frequently as-
sumed such forms in this country as inevitably result in
conditions unfavorable to good farming and a wholesome
rural civilization. Only by very careful investigation can
the facts be secured which will indicate the relative ad-
vantages and disadvantages of the several forms of ten-
ancy now in use in the different regions of this and other
countries. If a certain precentage tenancy is not only
inevitable but probably desirable, the nation should be in
a position to select those forms which are most wholesome
in their consequences.
It is generally agreed that at least a large percentage
of farmers should own the land which they live upon and
cultivate. We believe, therefore, that the investigations
conducted by the Section of Land Economics should be
so directed as to determine what areas of land will pro-
vide economic holdings under the varied conditions which
prevail in different regions and what methods should be
employed to facilitate the acquisition of farm land by
laborers, tenants, and others actively connected with
farming, not only in regions which are now undeveloped,
but also in those which are at present devoted to farming.
It is clear that in the settlement of undeveloped regions
by the method of colonization under governmental direc-
tion the greatest care is required to ascertain in advance
whether the conditions of soil, climate, topography, trans-
portation, marketing facilities, and probable costs of pro-
duction are favorable to successful farming. It is equally
important to determine the economical size of holding,
the amount of capital required, the kinds of crops and
live stock most desirable, and the methods of agriculture
that should be employed. It is clear that the great re-
sources of information available in this department and
its extensive machinery of investigation should be fully
utilized in ascertaining these basic facts, a knowledge of
which is so essential to the success and contentment of
Finally, since large areas of land are still owned by
the Federal Government, by the States, and other
divisions of government, careful study should be given
to the problem of the most economical methods of using
these areas while in public ownership. Facts are needed
which will show what areas should be placed in the hands
of private holders and by what methods the change of
ownership may be most successfully realized, as well as
what areas should be retained in public ownership. There
is little question but that the policies employed in the
past have frequently resulted in the sale of land in hold-
ings which are uneconomical in size and without adequate
safeguards to prevent the land from being aggregated
into unduly large holdings and into properties for spec-
In view of the magnitude of the problems outlined in
the above report and their profound significance in re-
lation to the progress of the basic industry of farming,
the welfare of the farming population, and the develop-
ment of a wholesome rural civilization, we respectfully
recommend that the agencies entrusted with the investi-
gation of these problems be given the ample support
necessary to make possible the accomplishment of the
purposes emphasized in this report.
We recommend that the section in charge of these in-
vestigations be called Land Economics instead of Land
Utilization, as recommended by a former committee.
ANNUAL REPORT OF L. M. RHODES, COMMIS-
SIONER, FLORIDA STATE MARKETING
Total shipments of fruits and vegetables from Florida
during the shipping season from September 1, 1924, to
July 30, 1925, inclusive. All rail, boat and express ship-
ments are included. The total volume of perishables
shipped from the State amounts to 94,125 carloads. By
O ran ges ............. .. .... ............ ........
GrapMixed Citrus .......................................
M ixed C itrus .....-...- ..-.-- .......--- .............-. ........
Tangerines .............. ...-- ..........
Pineapples ..........- -....
Peaches ................----. -- .........
Strawberries .......... ------...
Cantaloupes ............................ ...
W aterm elons ................-- .........
C elery ................. ......- .. .......
Tomatoes .............. .... ..... ...........
Potatoes, Irish ................ --.................
Cucumbers .............---...-. ......
Beans .................. .. --- .... ....
Cabbage ..................- ... ... ........
Lettuce ............ ......- ........
Mixed Vegetables ...............-- .................
Total ............... .......... ...........
...-..-.. .. 4,442
-..-- ... 318
.-- ........ 9
.--..- ... 6,668
.... ...... 8,143
....- 2,087 carloads
..... 2,197 carloads
.---.. 1.898 carloads
....... 1,561 carloads
........ 1,209 carloads
........ 3,206 carloads
...... 94,125 carloads
CITRUS FRUIT BY COUNTIES
Alachua .............-... 167 7
Brevard ....--............ 852 569
Broward ................ 4 53
Charlotte .............. 27 23
Citrus ...................- 41 1
Dade .................... 6 1,355
DeSoto ................. 1,123 514
Flagler .................. 1 0
Glades .................... 4 0
Hardee ....-.......--... 1,038 141
Hernando .............. 276 101
Highlands ........... 298 538
Hillsborough ........ 2,098 292
Lake ........................ 3,499 1,034
Lee ..--..........-.... .... 221 735
Manatee ................ 600 1,504
Marion .................. 1,125 276
Monroe ................ 0 2
Okeechobee .......... 21 20
Orange .....--- ......-- 4,835 1,535
Osceola ..-.............. 211 94
Palm Beach .......... 503 540
Pasco .........-.......-..-- 394 170
Pinellas .................. 745 2,346
Polk ....................... 4,597 7,202
Putnam .................. 919 94
St. Johns .............. 21 0
St. Lucie ................ 204 1,282
Sarasota ................ 33 117
Seminole .............. 626 57
Sumter ............-.... 127 8
Volusia .................. 1,593 204
Totals ................ 26,209 20,814
gerines Citrus Total
3 14 191
3 397 1,821
0 1 58
1 0 51
0 0 42
4 0 1,365
154 276 2,067
0 11 12
0 0 4
28 535 1,742
12 11 400
36 23 895
41 260 2,691
116 242 4,891
22 182 1,160
63 27 2,194
93 11 1,505
0 0 2
0 0 41
342 549 7,263
39 136 480
0 93 1.136
7 31 602
42 359 3,492
351 728 12,878
41 83 1,137
0 0 21
103 286 1,875
1 5 156
29 173 885
7 8 150
251 1 2,049
1,789 4,442 53,254
Vegetables by counties unavailable.
AREA OF COUNTIES IN SQUARE MILES BY U. S.
County Sq. M.
Charlotte .......................... 776
Citrus .................................. 620
Collier ............................... 1,980
DeSoto ........................... 613
Glades ................................. 709
Hardee ................................. 612
Hendry ............................. 1,044
Hernando -...... ......... 497
Highlands .................. 1,044
Hillsborough ........... 1,036
B ay ..............................
O ran g e ..........................
Lee ..................... .........
P olk ......................................
Sumter .................. ............
L evy ...................................
U union ....................................
Santa Rosa .....................
W akulla ..........................
W alton ......................
W ashington .................
Osceola .............. ........
St. Johns .........................
St. Lucie ...........................
SUCCESSFUL FARMS ARE "FIVE POINT" FARMS
By W. D. Nicholls
A thorough-going analysis of the business of nearly
300 farms in Mason and Fleming Counties in Northern
Kentucky was made under the direction of the writer
during the past twelve months. The entire organization
and management of each of these farms was analyzed in
detail in much the same way that a chemist analyzes a
soil. Some very striking points were brought out.
The first striking point was the fact that there were
some farmers who made good profits during the period
covered. The best 15 farmers besides making interest on
their capital investment at 6% had in addition $3,205 as
pay for their labor and management for the year. That
is not so bad considering the general conditions exper-
ienced by farmers during the period; in fact, it is cause
for optimism that it is possible so to organize and oper-
ate a farm as to make a good profit under present con-
As an average for 241 farms upon which complete
figures were obtained, the net earnings for the year above
interest on the investment were $1,031. Again this gives
ground for a feeling of encouragement.
The "five point" farms in this territory have proven
to be the profitable ones. Good farmers appreciate the
fact that making a spectacular record on some one point
does not necessarily bring financial success. For example,
a farmer in Kentucky some years ago made a yield of
231 bushels of corn on an acre of land, yet this man
never made any profit from his farming operations. It
takes more than one strong point for success. A well
balanced farming system is necessary.
The five points for profit on these 241 Kentucky farms
are as follows:
1. Good crop yields.
2. Good production per livestock unit.
3. Good amount of work accomplished per man, that
is, efficiency in the use of labor.
4. A good sized revenue per 100 acres operated.
5. A moderate expense as related to receipts.
There were 47 farms that were not strong in any of
these five points. The average of the net earnings of
these was $109. There were 65 farms that were strong
in one of these points, and the average of the net earn-
ings of these was $667. There were 66 farms which were
strong in two of the points, and the average of the net
earnings of these was $1,253. There were 45 farms
strong in three points, and these had average net earn-
ings of $1,740. There were 18 farms strong in four or
five points and these farms made an average of $2,172
as earnings for the year.
The accompanying table shows how the factors of the
best 15 farms compared with the average on all of the
*Net earnings for year's work
and management ..........----..............$ 1,031
Total acres in farm.................. 152
Total capital ................................$17,929
Acres in crops.............................. 65
Acres in pasture....................-........ 78
Total farm receipts -----.................. $
Total farm expenses...................... $
Receipts per 100 acres in farm..$
Expenses per 100 acres in farm.. $
Expenses per $100 income............$
Yield of corn per acre..................
Yield of tobacco per acre..............
Yield of wheat per acre................
Yield of hay per acre -................
Returns per livestock unit..........$
Returns per $100 feed fed............$
Livestock units per 10 acres of
crops ............-- -------.. ...
Productive day's work per man..
Productive day's work per horse
Per cent total receipts from
crops .................-- ----. ----.......
Per cent total receipts from live-
stock .............. ------ ------.....
Per cent total receipts from to-
bacco ... ............................
Price per pound for tobacco........
*Includes value of products farm
furnished family .-..-........-..........-$
DO MILK COWS ON PASTURE NEED GRAIN?
By W. D. Nichols
A question of importance in the minds of farmers who
carry milk cows on their pastures is whether they should
feed any grain during the pasture period.
That depends in the first place upon the kind and con-
dition of the pasture. It depends in the second place on
the amount of milk the cow gives and it depends in the
third place on the price received for the product.
There are pastures and pastures. On some so-called
pastures there is very little good grazing and the cow
may be little or no better off than if she were in a dry
lot. Even though there may have been some grazing in
the early part of the season, this is apt to become scanty
and burnt up by the hot sun during the dog days. A
sure result is that the cow falls off in flesh and in milk
yield. This is the time that some good green feed like
corn cut in the roasting ear stage, fresh cut alfalfa or
Sudan grass or stock beets or corn silage helps wonder-
As long as there is ample pasture there is no need of
feeding grain to any except the very heavy producers.
Professor C. H. Eckles, the leading authority on dairy
cattle feeding and management recommends the follow-
ing grain supplements for dairy cows on pasture. Daily
grain ration for Jersey or Guernsey cows, producing:
20 pounds milk daily, 2 pounds grain.
25 pounds milk daily, 3 pounds grain.
30 pounds milk daily, 6 pounds grain.
:3 pounds milk da:ly, 8 pounds grain.
For Holstein, Shorthorn, or Ayrshire, producing:
25 pounds milk daily, 2 pounds grain.
30 pounds milk daily, 3 pounds grain.
35 pounds milk daily, 5 pounds grain.
40 pounds milk daily, 7 pounds grain.
These amounts are given when the cows are on abun-
dant pasture. If the pasture is scanty the grain may
need to be increased even to the point where the feeding
is as heavy as in the winter period.
Experienced dairymen know that it is very hard and
often impossible to bring a cow back to a full flow of
milk after she has once dropped off. They know too that
a good total production of milk for the year is necessary
to make a profit from a dairy cow.
If the cows are not given some additional feed when
the pastures get short they will not only fall off in flesh
and milk flow but are almost sure to make a poor show-
ing during the fall and winter period which follows. The
feeding of grain when the cows are on pasture may fail
to show an immediate profit but the better after results
following the summer feeding may amply justify the
The price received for the product has a vital bearing
on the question. If it is sold on the sour cream market
the point of diminishing returns from feeds will be
reached more quickly than when a special product is sold
at a special price. Thus the dairyman who sells on the
sweet milk or cream market will always find it profitable
to feed more heavily than the man who sells sour cream
for butter making.
BIRDS THAT BREED IN FLORIDA
June is a quiet month among the birds of Florida. All
the spring migrants have passed on and the fall migrants
not yet returning. Mr. Howell says that all birds seen
in Florida during the month of June may be regarded as
breeding here, although the nest itself may not be found.
June is therefore a good month to make a list of the
breeding birds in your community, wherever it may be.
In this issue is published a list of the breeding birds of
Florida compiled by Mr. Howell of the U. S. Bioloigcal
Survey. It includes all birds that have been known to
breed here even though they may now be extinct.
This list is arranged in the order of the A. O. U. Check
List. The A. O. U. Check List is a list of all the birds of
North America, arranged in order of kinship. Every
bird in the list has its number. The list begins with the
grebes and ends with the bluebirds. The nearer any two
birds are together in the list, the closer kin they are.
Naturalists recognize these varying degrees of kinship
among all animals and plants, and in both plant and animal
breeding this matter of kinship is made extensive use of.
But that is another story as Kipling would say. Here:
is the list of breeding birds of Florida. Better keep it
and when one of the birds is seen in your community,
just check it off as a breeding bird for that community.
And we will appreciate it if you will send us at the end
of the month a list of all the birds seen during June:
6 Pied-Billed Grebe.
58 Laughing Gull.
65 Royal Tern.
67 Cabots Tern.
72 Rosedale Tern.
74 Least Tern.
75 Sooty Tern.
80 Black Skinner.
118 Water Turkey.
120a Florida Cormerant.
126 Brown Pelican.
131 Hooded Morganser.
134 Florida Duck.
144 Wood Duck.
183 Roseate Spoonbill.
184 White Ibis.
186 Glossy Ibis.
188 Wood Ibis.
191 Least Bittern.
191 Corys Least Bittern.
192 Great White Heron.
194 Warde Heron.
196 American Egret.
197 Snowy Heron.
198. Reddish Egret.
199 Louisiana Heron.
200 Little Blue Heron.
201 Green Heron.
202 Black-Crowned Night Heron.
203 Yellow-Crowned Night Heron.
206 Sand Hill Crane.
208 King Rail.
211 Florida Clapper Rail.
211e Waynes Clapper Rail.
216 Little Black Rail.
218 Purple Gallinule.
219 Florida Gallinule.
221 American Coot (?)
226 Black-mecked Stilt.
228 American Woodcock.
263 Spotted Sandpiper.
280 Wilsons Plover.
289a Florida Bob-White.
310b Florida Turkey.
? White Crowned Pigeon.
316 Mourning Dove.
320 Ground Dove.
325 Turkey Vulture: Buzzard.
326 Black Vulture.
327 Swallowtailed Kite.
328 White-tailed Kite.
329 Mississippi Kite.
330 Everglade Kite.
332 Sharp-Shinned Hawk.
333 Coopers Hawk.
337 Red-tailed Hawk.
337d Florida Red-tailed Hawk.
339a Florida Red-shouldered Hawk.
? A new hawk reported from Key Large.
343 Broad-winged Hawk.
? Short-tailed Hawk.
352 Bald Eagle.
360a Florida Sparrow Hawk.
362 Audubon Caracara.
365 Barn Owl.
368a Florida Barred Owl.
373a Screech Owl.
378a Florida Burrowing Owl.
382 Carolina Paroquet.
? Maynard's Cuckoo.
390 Belted Kingfisher.
387 Yellow-billed Cuckoo.
392 Ivory-billed Woodpecker.
393b Southern Hairy Woodpecker.
394 Southern Downy Woodpecker.
395 Red-cockaded Woodpecker.
406 Red-headed Woodpecker .
409 Red-billed Woodpecker.
420b Florida Night Hawk.
423 Chimney Swift.
428 Ruby-threated Hummingbird.
444 King Bird.
445 Gray Kingbird.
452 Crested Flycatcher.
465 Acadian Flycatcher.
479 Florida Jay.
488 Florida Crow.
490 Fish Crow.
498c Red-winged Blackbird.
501c Southern Meadowlark.
560 Orchard Oriole.
511a Purple Grackle (Florida).
513 Boat-tailed Grackle.
? English Sparrow.
546b Florida Grasshopper Sparrow.
550a Scott's Seaside Sparrow.
550d McGillory's Seaside Sparrow.
550e Seaside Sparrow (junicola).
550f Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow.
551 Dusky Seaside Sparrow.
563 Field Sparrow.
575 Pine Woods Sparrow.
587a White-eyed Towbee.
593a Florida Cardinal.
597 Blue Grosbeak.
598 Indigo Bunting (Mrs. Byrd).
601 Painted Bunting.
610 Summer Tanager.
611 Purple Martin.
617 Rough-winged Swallow.
622 Loggerhead Shrike.
? Black-whiskered Vireo.
624 Red-eyed Vireo.
*28 Yellow-throated Vireo.
631 White-eyed Vireo.
631a Key West Vireo.
637 Prothonotary Warbler.
638 Swainson's Warbler.
648 Parula Warbler.
663 Yellow-throated Warbler.
671 Pine Warbler.
673 Prairie Warbler.
681b Florida Yellow-throat.
683 Yellow-breasted Chat.
684 Hooded Warbler.
705 Brown Thrasher.
718 Carolina Wren.
718a Florida Wren.
? Worthington's Marsh Wren.
727 White-breasted Nuthatch.
729 Brown-headed Nuthatch.
731 Tufted Titmouse.
? Florida Chickadee.
751 Blue-gray Gnatchatcher.
ABOUT SWEET POTATOES
By F. J. Merriam
Down in Florida we used to cut out potatoes or use
small ones and plant them right in the field in March.
We would lay off our rows about three and a half feet
apart, put in a good spread of stable manure, stir this
into the soil, drop our potatoes eight or ten inches apart
and bed on it with four furrows. We would plant about
half an acre this way, the idea being to produce vines
for planting in June, and we usually had plenty of them
by that time.
When I moved to Georgia I found the practice entirely
different. Here the season was shorter and the idea was
to get the potatoes started as early as possible, so as to
have new potatoes by the last of July, when they would
sell for a high price. And so the potatoes were bedded
in a regular hot bed and the slips or draws set directly
in the field where they were to grow. The yield was not
as uniform nor as large as from the vines we set down
in Florida, but it was larger and earlier than a crop
would be made from vines here in Georgia. Later we
pushed things forward by bedding our potatoes under
glass and later still we got to buying our slips from
growers in Florida who were making a regular business
of it. In this way we could set potatoes the middle of
April, and have new potatoes by the middle of July. It
paid us to do this, especially for the early crop, although
we usually bedded a few bushels of potatoes to supply
plants for the main crop to be planted in May and June.
In Florida, at the time I lived there, many of the larger
farmers cowpenned their land and with regular range
cattle. One of our neighbors had over a hundred head
which he would run on a half acre of land every night
for a couple of weeks. By that time it was good and
rich, believe me, and would make wonderful potatoes.
We only had 30 head, so our efforts along this line were
Well, we would fence in the land to be cowpenned and
keep it plowed. Then when we took the cows off it, all
we had to do was to beat up the manure, plow it in shal-
low, lay off our rows, bed with four furrows and plant.
In spite of the fact that the land was sandy, we usually
had plenty of moisture, because the land had been kept
and worked so the plants or vines lived readily and we
had little difficulty in getting a good stand.
Well, up here in Georgia, I found things different. It
wouldn't do to cowpen, even if one had the cattle and
the open range, which we had neither. This soil in mid-
dle and upper Georgia was clay and wouldn't stand to
be tramped by cattle, especially in wet weather. How-
ever, I followed my old practice of setting aside the land
I intended to plant in sweet potatoes in the spring, and
break it up while the season is in the ground and then
just keep it plowed or harrowed, working it over about
once a week.
I found this to be a mighty good plan for then I could
go right ahead and plant whenever I got ready.
This extra tillage not only held the moisture in the
soil, but kept down the weeds and grass, killing out the
weed seed so that after planting we had little trouble
with grass. You know this is worth a whole lot for I
don't know of any crop much harder to clean than a
grassy sweet potato patch.
If you have to go into a field and turn under or weed
down and bury a lot of weeds and grass when you plant
your potatoes, the after-cultivation is always difficult.
On the other hand, when your land is clean to start with,
there is no trouble and it is much cheaper all around.
Usually two plowing with a shovel and scrape is all that
is necessary and after then it is not necessary to put a
hoe in the field.
Of course, here in Georgia, we used commercial fer-
tilizer almost entirely. It was easier handled, carried no
weed seed and-as a matter of fact, we didn't have the
manure anyway, or had to use it on our cabbage and
other vegetable crops.
In this connection I might add that we found a com-
pllete high grade e vegetable fertilizer most effective for
sweet potatoes, especially on sandy loam land; an 8-4-4
fertilizer giving far better results than a 10-2-2. This
undoubtedly was due to the fact that sweet potatoes
require more nitrogen and potash. We used 1,000 pounds
per acre and made about 200 bushels.
Now, of course, there is no reason why sweet potatoes
should not follow such vegetable crops as early cabbage,
English peas, but where this is done the land should be
plowed just as soon as you finish disposing of the vege-
table crop and before grass and weeds have had a chance
to take possession of it. Even then, this land will not
have the moisture and will not be in as good physical
condition as land especially prepared. It will, however,
be richer and if you can get a good rain before you set
your potato plants, everything will work out all right.
Where potato vines are used instead of plants, cut your
vines about 18 inches long, drop them about 14 inches
apart across the bed and, stick or thrust straight down
into the soil four to six inches deep leaving the hole open.
If the soil is damp they will live all right. When set-
ting plants in dry weather, we water them.
CURED SWEET POTATOES
From various communities throughout the South data
has been gathered by the United States Department of
Agriculture, Bureau of Markets, relative to the efficiency
of the potato curing house. In a recent announcement
it is stated that the first car of sweet potatoes shipped
from the potato plant of the Farmers' Potato Curing Com-
pany, Hempstead County, Arkansas, brought $1.50 per
bushel. At digging time these same farmers had they
sold then could only have gotten 50 to 60 cents. When
these potatoes were loaded out of the curing house a few
weeks ago into the car for shipment it was found that
less than 2 per cent were damaged; again establishing
the very great value of the discovery of the potato house
In Jefferson County, Georgia, so this same news state-
ment announces, 500 bushels of cured sweet potatoes
were shipped to Louisville, Kentucky, bringing $1.371/
per bushel crate. Less than 1 per cent of this lot showed
In Lenoir County, North Carolina, a couple of these
houses were opened up recently, one with 800 bushels and
the other with 500. The loss in the case of each was less
than 1 per cent.
In Louisiana, St. Landry parish, 1,100 bushels of cured
potatoes that had gone through the same process as the
cars above were shipped out at $4.50 per barrel. Another
man in that same community had failed to provide him-
self with a curing house, thinking undoubtedly that he
could get along without it and do just as well, but up to
the time the news statement was sent out he had been
unable to get an offer of even as much as $3.00 per barrel.
The first man remarked after he had made the sale of the
1,100 bushels, "no more cotton for me," and while the
Washington statement doesn't say so we have a notion
that the second man would express himself about like
this, "A sweet potato curing house for me." He is un-
questionably convinced of its value now.
Over in Allendale County, South Carolina, a county
agent says that cured potatoes have been furnished to
the big hotels all through the fall and winter with ab-
With these instances of success gathered from the four
corners of the South, backed up by hundreds of others,
we are brought more clearly than ever before to see the
urgent necessity for erecting a sufficient number of
houses to take care of the entire sweet potato crop.
Sweet potatoes are never worth a big price in the fall,
and the business has not been profitable in the past be-
cause no effective curing house had been found; but a
safe system has been found now and there is no necessity
whatever for pushing potatoes to the market in the fall
when everybody has potatoes and there is not much of a
Right straight through the late winter and spring cured
sweet potatoes have brought prices sufficiently above
Irish potatoes to make that ancient and honorable pro-
duct jealous to the heart. People outside of the South
are beginning to learn the food value of sweet potatoes,
which is greater than that of Irish potatoes; how to pre-
pare them for the table and how delicious the Southern
sweet potato is when it is cooked just right.
The future of the industry, in view of these recent
developments seems bright. The sweet potato should-
and, no doubt, will-come to be one of the most remun-
erative crops in Southern agriculture.
The Southern Ruralist in future issues will tell all
about how to build a store house; your State College of
Agriculture will be glad to furnish you blue prints and
free plans for its construction. In addition to that write
a letter to the United States Department of Agriculture,
asking for their special bulletin on Curing Sweet
SYRUP PRODUCTION IN 1921 ABOUT 90,000,000
The aggregate production of syrup in the United
States totaled 90,000,000 gallons in 1921 and 92,000,000
gallons in 1920, according to the estimates of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. Production estimates for
the syrups do not extend back of the last five years, but
as far as they go the indication is that the industry as a
whole is expanding.
Sorghum syrup production on the farms was first ascer-
tained for 1879 in the Decennial Census of 1880. The
quantity continuously declined from 28,444,202 gallons
in 1879 to 16,532,382 gallons in 1909. In more recent
years the quality of sorghum syrup has improved its pro-
duction, has increased greatly and its character as a de-
licious as well as nutritious food is well established.
Nearly 50,000,000 gallons were made in 1820 and nearly
48,000,000 gallons in 1921.
Cane Syrup Output Gains
Cain syrup also has gained a good reputation for
quality and nearly 40,000,000 gallons are made yearly.
The highest known production was 41,500,000 gallons in
Maple syrup gained in production, according to the
figures of the Census Bureau, from 1,796,048 gallons in
1879 to 4,106,418 gallons in 1909, and the estimate of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1918 was 4,905,000
gallons. Since 1918 the quantity has declined, and the
short period of "sap weather" in 1921 produced only
2,584,000 gallons. A much larger quantity than that will
undoubtedly be produced in favorable seasons. Syrup
made from maple sugar is not included in these figures.
Cane molasses is a by-product of the manufacture of
raw cane sugar and during the last five years its produc-
tion has ranged from 13,100,000 gallons to 30,700,000 gal-
Syrup consumption averaged 72,738,000 gallons in the
four years 1918-21. During the same period the average
consumption of sorghum syrup was 39,008,000 gallons,
and of cane syrup 29,990,000 gallons. The per capital
consumption was 0.69 gallon for all syrup, 0.37 gallon for
sorghum, and 0.28 gallon for cane. About 8,000,000 gal-
lons of syrup, mostly cane products, were exported on an
UNIFORM GRADE OF SYRUP NEEDED IN SUGAR
Attention is now being given to the production of a
cane syrup of uniform standard quality by the Bureau
of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture,
which bids fair to be of great economic importance to
the cane-producing States.
A more extensive market for cane syrup is of great
importance in the agricultural scheme of a large area of
the South. In many sections cotton can no longer be
profitably produced on account of ravages of the boll
weevil. It is necessary to adopt a more diversified scheme
of agriculture, and sugar cane is one of the crops on
which greater reliance should be placed. It is one of the
surest crops which can be grown in this region. The
harvesting and production of cane syrup come at a time
of the year when farm labor can be used very advan-
tageously for that purpose. Farmers of the South are
eager to increase their acreage of sugar cane. This is
not possible, however, unless a more adequate market
is developed for cane syrup through uniform grading.
Last year the bureau received a number of requests
for assistance along this line and will undertake the solu-
tion of chemical problems involved in the plan of a num-
ber of cooperative cane-syrup associations which have or-
ganized for the purpose of blending cane syrup on a
large scale in central rehandling and canning plants.
These associations are planning to use the invertase
method developed by the bureau for the purpose of pro-
ducing a syrup that will not crystalize.
While a great deal of progress has been made in solving
the difficulties which stand in the way of producing a
uniform cane syrup of the highest grade, a number of
points still remain to be worked out. However, impro ed
large scale methods for handling cane syrup have now
become possible through the organization of the coopera-
tive cane syrup association and the operation of central
CANE SYRUP IMPROVED BY THE USE OF EARTH
Infusorial earth applied to the manufacture of cane
syrup produces a clearer, milder, and more palatable
product than is usually obtained by sulphur clarification
or by skimming. The Bureau of Chemistry, United
Staes Department of Agriculture, has been experimenting
with the new process, and their report, recently published
in Bulletin 921, seems to indicate that the day of dark,
muddy, unattractive cane syrup has nearly passed. The
use of milk of lime and sulphur fumes to separate the
impurities from cane juice is difficult to control prop-
erly and not entirely satisfactory. Too much lime
makes the syrup very dark in color and too much sulphur
dioxide gives it a metallic taste, which makes it generally
Skimming, which is another method used for clarify-
ing syrup, usually produces a palatable product, but one
that is apt to be discolored by sediment and difficult to
The new process consists in heating the juice as it
comes from the mill to the boiling temperature. At this
stage a small amount of infusorial earth-about 12
pounds to 200 gallons of juice-is added, and after mix-
ing thoroughly the juice is pumped through a filter press.
The resulting filtrate is bright and clear and ready for
immediate evaporation to syrup. No further skimming
or other treatment is necessary. The color will depend
upon the care taken to prevent scorching during the
evaporation and the flavor of the syrup will be the
natural cane flavor. The material added is an inert,
tasteless substance which has no action other than to re-
move impurities from the juice.
The process cannot be conducted properly by the
farmer who produces only a small amount of syrup by
skimming and evaporating, but it does lend itself to small
steam factories and to the larger syrup factories of a
capacity ranging from a few hundred to many thousand
gallons a day. The earth filtration process in a syrup
factory handling 50 tons of cane a day will add about 32
cents per ton of cane ground to the cost of manufacture.
However, in a plant of this capacity employing the skim-
ming process, the daily loss is figured to be from 25 to
50 gallons of syrup. When using the new method this
loss can be reduced to 3 gallons of syrup. At an average
price of $1 a gallon this means a saving of about $22 a
Another advantage gained by the use of the earth and
a filter press is in the saving of time effected. The juice
as it comes from the filter press is clean and bright and
can be evaporated as rapidly as possible to finish syrup.
PRODUCTION OF MAPLE SUGAR AND SYRUP
The production of maple sugar in 11 most important
States is estimated by the United States Department of
Agriculture to be 4,685 pounds, compared with 5,147,000
pounds in 1922, and a five-year average of 7,986,000
pounds. It is estimated that 3,605,000 gallons of maple
syrup were made this year, or 35,000 gallons less than
were made in 1922, and 55,000 gallons less than the five-
year average. Maple syrup and especially maple sugar
have declined in production in recent years.
If the maple syrup production is expressed in equiva-
lent maple sugar at the ratio of 1 gallon of syrup to 8
pounds of sugar, the combined production in terms of
sugar is 33,533,000 pounds, compared with 34,263,000
pounds in 1922 and 23,820,000 pounds in 1921.
The number of trees tapped is estimated as 15,290,000,
or nearly a million less than the number of 1922, but the
combined production of maple sugar and maple syrup in
maple sugar equivalent is nearly the same as in 1922 be-
cause the average production of equivalent sugar per
tree was 2.19 pounds, or higher than the average of 2.11
pounds in 1922.
Only moderate yields per tree were obtained this year
in New England, but in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan the
yields were high any many producers reported the best
season in several years. Since New York and New Eng-
land are comparatively heavy producers of sugar com-
pared with syrup-making regions west of the Alleghany
Mountains, the sugar made was a smaller part of the total
production than usual.
The 11 States included in the figures, produced more
than 97% of the total crop of maple syrup and maple
sugar of the United States in 1919, as reported by the
Bureau of the Census.
The only commercially important areas in the world
in the production of maple sugar and maple syrup are
New England, New York, Pennsylvania, the Great Lakes
region, and eastern Canada.
Professor T. H. McIIatton, Horticulturist, State College
of Agriculture, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.
The peach tree borer is one of the most serious orchard
pests as far as the peach grower is concerned. The method
of controlling this insect that has been followed for many
years past was laborious and expensive, and in no way
effective in the final analysis.
This old method consisted in mounding the trees in
July and August and removing this mound and examin-
ing the trees closely, and removing the insects with a
knife or scrape sometime during the winter. Efforts have
also been made to make protectors that would prevent
the borers getting in the base of the trees, but none of
the protectors invented were worth while as there were
many things that militated against their effectiveness and
oftentimes the results obtained where they were used
were rather serious, due to the fact that the growers de-
pended more upon the than the old method of cutting
out the borers.
During the past few years a new peach borer remedy
has been developed and this is the paradiehlorobenzene
treatment. Results from this chemical have shown that
from ninety to one hundred per cent of borers will be
It is not yet recommended to use this on trees that are
less than five years old. It has been used on younger
trees, but upon occasions serious results may follow its
application to the younger plant.
The peach growers in central Georgia should apply the
chemical between October 10 and 15. In north Georgia
the application should be made approximately a week or
ten days sooner. As one goes South the application
should be made between October 15 and 20. With
these sections and dates as a guide, readers in other sec-
tions -of the South can be governed accordingly.
For all trees that are five years old and up the average
dose is one ounce. On very old trees this is sometimes in-
Before applying, the soil should be prepared with a
hoe or rake, the crust being broken and any grass or
weeds growing at the base of the tree be removed. Fol-
lowing this the soil should be made to a smooth surface
with the back of a shovel. It is not necessary to mound
the tree unless signs of borers appear upon the trunk
just above the surface of the ground, and if borers are
seen some distance above the ground it may be necessary
to remove them with a knife.
The paradichlorobenzene is a white, crytalline material,
and in applying it a ring should be made about the tree
which should be from one to one and one-half inches from
the runk. Be careful and do not let any of the crystals
come in direct contact with the trunk of the tree itself.
When it is applied a few shovelfuls of soil should be
placed on the ring of crystals and packed down. Do not
overlook this packing as it serves to hold the gas in the
ground. This covering with the soil will also prevent
the washing of the crystals.
Under normal weather conditions nothing further need
be done to the mound. After the trees have been ex-
posed to the gas for six weeks, the mound should be torn
down and the soil from about the base of the tree scat-
tered away from the plant. This does not mean the dig-
ging of a hole, but merely the removal of the mound and
the working of the soil about the tree trunk. The use
of paradichlorobenzene is effective against the borer, and
our readers should remember that it ought to be applied
during October and that at the end of six weeks under
normal weather conditions, the mound should be torn
down. If there should be heavy rains during this period,
it might be necessary to open the mounds sooner than
six weeks in order to avoid injury to the tree.
IMPORTED PLANTS MAY MEAN MUCH TO
Florida is doing much in the way of finding and grow-
ing plants of other countries that are adapted, or which
may be adapted, to conditions here. An instance of this
is the tree which produces the wood-oil or tung-oil nut.
A few years ago a number of these trees were imported
from China by the United States Department of Agri-
culture and forwarded to the Florida Experiment Station.
Planted on its test grounds at Gainesville, the trees are
giving a good account of themselves, according to Assis-
tant Horticulturist Harold Mowry.
This planting of ten trees, now about mature, yielded
this year over 185 pounds of nuts. And the nuts ex-
tracted 25 per cent of oil. According to prevailing prices
for tung oil, these trees gave a gross return to the acre
of $64.80, Mr. Mowry told a recent gathering of college
specialists and officials. Over $163 was the yield of three
of these trees, figured on an acre basis.
The station is also attempting to determine what
varieties of grapes are best suited to Florida conditions
of soil and climate, testing out numerous varieties im-
ported from various sources.
It was pointed out that much could be done in investi-
gating stocks for the persimmon and satsuma, in study-
ing the cultural conditions of the blueberry, and in at-
tempting to breed the strawberry to produce a better
flavored fruit. Much should be done along these lines
with other fruits.
There are 70 odd varieties of pecans grown in this
country and a large number in this State. Much should
be done by way of determining which of these are best
for local conditions.
The fig could be of much greater commercial impor-
tance in Florida, were it not attacked by the root-knot
nematode. Some day, it was predicted, investigators will
secure or find a fig stock that will be resistant to this
pest. The obstacle removed, it is believed the fig will
rank with the orange, grapefruit, grape and pecan in
point of popularity and commercial importance.
SAVE BEGGARWEED HAY
The feeding value of beggarweed hay is often under-
rated by even good farmers. This plant is a legume, a
plant having the ability to take nitrogen from the air by
means of germs which live in nodules on the roots, and it
consequently contains more protein substances than ordi-
nary grass hay.
Professor J. M. Scott, of the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, urges every farmer to utilize as much of this valu-
able legume as he possible can. He says that the yield
is ordinarily not as great as from Crab grass or Para
grass, but when cut at the right time-when one-fourth
of the field is in bloom-it makes a superior hay, a hay
so palatable that sock will not let as much go to waste as
of other hays.
Practically all hay crops make the best forage when
cut in the middle of the blooming period. If cut before
this time, there will be little hay left because of the high
content of water evaporated. The older the plants get,
the less water they contain. If overripe, the water con-
tent will be so low that the hay will be woody and un-
palatable. For best results, cut the crop when about a
fourth of it is in bloom.
Special attention should be given to the curing. Do
not let the hay lie too long in the hot sun. It should be
raked into windows soon after being cut and left to
cure. Do not stack permanently in the mow, nor haul
to the barn, nor bale before it is well dried out, as it will
turn black and have a smutty appearance if so treated.
PLANT RAPE FOR FALL AND WINTER GRAZING
Mr. Hog Man, rape is one of the most important fall
and winter crops for hogs that can be grown in this
State. To get best results from it, however, prepare your
seedbed and sow your seed about the last week in Sep-
tember, if you live north of the Gainesville section, from
the first to the middle of October, if you live south of
Gainesville. Plantings even later than this will produce
This crop in Florida does not receive the attention
from farmers, especially hog growers and dairymen, that
it deserves, is the opinion of State Agent C. K. McQuar-
rie, of the Agricultural Extension Division, University
Best results with rape in the past have been obtained
by planting in rows three feet apart to permit cultiva-
tion. If the seed are broadcasted, cultivation by harrow
is recommended. Cultivation should be frequent and
The Dwarf Essex variety is especially recommended
as it is of quicker growth and will stand more grazing
than the old type. If planted late in Septmeber on a well
prepared seedbed, top dressed with a high grade vege-
table fertilizer, mixed well into the soil before planting,
it will give excellent results.
The mistake is frequently made of turning stock on
the crop too early, before it gets a good start, and pas-
turing it too closely.
A rape field should be fenced into two or more sec-
tions in order that the stock may be alternated back and
forth, enabling the plots to recuperate after close graz-
ing. By this method continuous grazing can be depended
upon from December till April.
HOW WE GET RID OF STUMPS
By Alfred G. Smith, in Country Gentleman
Perhaps it is because I grew up on a prairie farm that
I have such an aversion to stumps. The only stump we
had to deal with was an old hidden apple tree stump
with the top some four inches below the level of the
ground. I recall yet how when we plowed corn in that
part of the field we took an extra supply of plow pins,
for when the plow hit that stump-and it always did-
the pins were sure to break. Just why we never dug out
that stump I cannot even give a plausible explanation,
but after plowing prairie land that one stump alone was
enough to show me what the farmer with a field full of
stumps was up against.
Consequently, when we took title to a tract of cut-over
long-leaf pine land in South Carolina and started in to
convert it into a farm our first and foremost thought was
to get those stumps out. We have been at the job off and
on now, "steady by jerks," for several years and we
have them out of more than 300 acres so that a tractor
can run over all of it. Our policy has always been never
to start farming a piece of land until the long-leaf pine
stumps were all removed. This experience is the basis
of our education in taking out stumps.
In clearing our land of the stumps from the oak trees
that usually grow among the long-leaf pines, we let Na-
ture do as much of the work as possible. These oak
stumps are usually small, from three to six inches in
diameter, and many are plowed out. In two or three
years they can all be turned out with a two-horse turn
plow and, except for the grubs left in the ground, they
are no bother.
Burning and Pulling Our Best Bets
With the pine stumps, however, we start work as soon
as the oaks are cut and the brush burned. We have tried
all sorts of ways to get these stumps out, dynamiting, dig-
ging, burning, and pulling with a stump puller, and
finally have settled on two methods as best for us-bur-
ing and pulling. However, we dig out an occasional
stump, but do not follow that method where there is any
Dynamiting we found unsuited to our purpose, for with
a loose, porous subsoil, such as we have, the taproots go
to great depths in the ground, sometimes fifteen feet, and
the explosion, instead of lifting the stump, merely spilts
that. Where there is a tight clay subsoil and the taproots
short, dynamite works all right. Or with hardwood
stumps that have no taproot, dynamite easily lifts the
stump, but there were not our conditions.
Where the trees have been cut for some time, burning is
the easiest way for us to get out the long-leaf pine stumps.
The rosin that acts as a preservative in the stumps is highly
inflammable and makes burning possible. The system of
burning we use, however, would not work with hardwood
One man can work at the job and make good progress.
Two men, however, are better, one to dig the holes and
one to look after the fires. The process is simple. Two
holes are dug, on opposite sides of the stump, about twenty-
four inches deep, and fires started in each of these holes.
If the holes can be dug in under the roots so they will catch
fire at the start, so much the better. There are usually
sufficient pieces of lightwood, consisting of pieces of pine
limbs full of rosin, lying around on the ground to start the
fires, or pieces can be cut off the stump with an ax. The
object of putting the fires on both sides is to get the stump
hot through and through so it will burn easier. Also, two
fires will burn out the stump quicker than one.
After the fires are started they need some attention.
The stump may get coated over with coals and the fire quit
blazing. These coals can be knocked loose by merely jarring
the stump with an ax and the blaze will start up again.
The fires usually burn under the stump faster than they do
over the top, so in case the fires get low the top can be split
off and the pieces falling to the bottom start the fires up
again. Occasionally more lightwood, such as is used in
starting the fires, must be added to keep the fires going, but
usually nothing more than the pieces which are knocked or
split off the stump is needed to keep the blaze going
steadily. Sometimes a stump will burn out with no further
attention after the fires are started.
The roots, also being full of rosin, burn as readily as the
stump, and they will burn far enough down so a plow will
not hit them. The stump burns off from twenty to thirty
inches in the ground. The top will fall over before it
We start the fires as early as possible in the morning so
they will have longer to burn before night. If the stumps
are well fired during the day, most of them will keep on
burning through the night or until the stump is burned
out. We take precautions to keep these fires from going
A stump twelve to eighteen inches in diameter will burn
out in from twelve to twenty-four hours. A stump three
feet in diameter requires forty-eight hours or more. Two
men can dig the holes and fire and burn from thirty-five to
fifty stumps a day.
Some people have told us of failures in burning out these
long-leaf pine stumps. Usually their trouble comes from
digging the hole clear round the stump and starting the
fire all round it. This method will not work satisfactorily,
for the fire needs to be confined close to the stump, as it is
in the holes that a draft is created. Others have merely
built the fire on top of the stump. This may burn the
stump down to the top of the ground, but it will not take
it out. Pine stumps cannot be burned out in wet land.
Neither can the stumps be burned until a year or so after
the trees have been cut and the stumps are dried out.
Small long-leaf pine stumps, not old enough to be filled
with rosin, will rot out.
How a Neighbor Shoots Them Out
About half of our stumps have been taken out with a
stump puller. This requires four hands and a team of
mules to work to best advantage. This crew takes out from
sixty to a hundred stumps a day, or about the same num-
ber to the man as in burning. It is a bigger job, however,
to get the stumps off the land after they are pulled than it
is to pull them out. Compensation for this has largely
been obtained through the sale of wood. The stumps, ex-
cept the largest and toughest, were split up and shipped
to a cotton-oil mill for fuel. Pulling comes the nearest of
any method to getting all the stumps and roots out of the
Now perhaps someone wants to know how to use dyna-
mite on pine stumps where it can be used to advantage.
I'll let a friend of ours, D. B. Ott, who lives a few miles
away on a different type of soil, tell his method.
"I like to use dynamite," says he, "because I can save
the wood and the dynamite splits it up so I can handle it.
The way I shoot stumps, I bore a hole in the taproot to the
middle of the stump. Then I bore another hole a quarter
of the way around the stump also in the center so the two
holes meet. For a thirty-inch stump I put a half stick
of 40 per cent dynamite in each hole and touch it off. This
charge tears the top of the stump off and splits it to pieces."
Burning Proves Cheapest Way to Remove Stumps
A stumping demonstration for the purpose of deciding
what method of removing stumps was cheapest in that sec-
tion was recently put on by the county agent of Lincoln
County, Miss. A field with plenty of material for the
demonstration was selected and three methods of removing
the stumps were tried-digging, pulling, and burning.
After careful estimates the farmers at the demonstration
and the county agent decided that the cheapest way, where
the stumps removed were not near enough to a town to sell
the wood conveniently, was by burning. As soon as an air
current or circulation was started by digging and boring
holes, the fire burned easily and in a short time the stump
was a wreck.
TIHE RABBIT EYE BLUEBERRY OF
By W. Chipley Jones, in Jacksonville Times-Union
Much has been written in the past two years about the
"Rabbit Eye" blueberry, which is found in certain sec-
tions of Northwest Florida in riotous profusion and is
rapidly coming into its own as one of the great staple
commodities of horticulture in this Eldorado of oppor-
tunity, which its home folks are wont to call Satsumaland.
But the real romance of the west Florida blueberry has
never heretofore appeared in print. And yet it is a story
now hoar with the frosts of thirty-odd years of age.
To state that the discovery of this delicious dessert and
preserving berry in the hammocks fringing the swamps of
Yellow and Shoal rivers, then in Walton and Santa Rosa
counties, but now in Okaloosa county, was an accident,
could scarcely be classified as a statement of fact. And
yet, in some of its elements the discovery was an accident
purely and simply.
Moses A. Sapp, then a logging contractor for one of the
many saw mills that dotted the landscape of all northwest
Florida in those halcyon days of a third of a century
ago, and now, in the late evening of a useful, well spent
life, perhaps the most prosperous husbandman in his
neighborhood-maybe in his county-is the hero of tlw
romance of the blueberry-that is to say, the "Rabbit Eye"
Nor has the glamor of the distinction that has come to
him as the father of a great industry that promises ulti-
mately a harvest of dollars that will be computed in mil-
lions, even in the remotest degree spoiled Moses Sapp.
Neither has it materially changed his mode of living. And
yet he is already the possessor of a fortune that has come
to him as a result of his vision of the possibilities of the
domestication and culture of this wild berry that grew
with such luxuriance all about him when he settled, now
thirty and three years ago, on a homestead located three
miles north of Crestview, fifty miles east of Pensacola on
the line of the Louisville & Nashville railroad.
There are sixteen distinct species of the blueberry family
indigenous to the soils of Satsumaland, but the "Rabbit
Eye" variety-so-called because of the marked resemblance
of the bud end of the fruit to the peculiar conformation
of the eye of the common wild rabbit of the fields and
forests of the vicinity-is the most distinctive of them all,
not alone in its delicacy of flavor and unusual texture of
construction, but in its prolific fruitage as well.
Nor did these peculiar advantages of the "Rabbit Eye"
blueberry escape the notice of Moses Sapp. Neither did
the fact escape his observation that the "Rabbit Eye"
species of the berry thrived best in the dry hammock lands
bordering the swamps along the water courses of the coun-
tryside. For several years he closely observed every phase
of the berry's growth and fruitage. Meantime, too, he was
also a student of the peculiarities of the other fifteen
varieties of blueberries that he found growing, many of
them in the same environment with the "Rabbit Eye"
berry. But one by one all fifteen of the "off" varieties
were discarded and after that the solution of Moses Sapp's
blueberry problems were comparatively easy.
The thought had early in the period of his observations
occurred to Sapp that any plant that would grow in its
wild state with such luxuriance and bear fruit in such
profusion, as he had observed in the case of the "Rabbit
Eye" blueberry, would, under cultivation and systematic
fertilization, not only improve in its luxuriance of growth
and productivity, but also in the quality of the fruitage.
Therefore, the only problem that confronted the path-
finder of the blueberry industry of northwest Florida, once
these conclusions had been definitely arrived at, was the
problem as to whether or not the "Rabbit Eye" berry
would grow and bear fruit transplanted from the proven
hospitable soils of the hammocks fringing the rivers and
other water courses, to the soils of the highlands of the
But pioneers of every ilk are proverbially venturesome
folk. And Moses Sapp, made of that sterling fiber that
has transformed forbidding wildernesses into smiling fields
of plenty throughout every period of the history of the
greatest nation and the greatest people upon the face of
earth, himself a pioneer in a wilderness, proved his mettle
as a pathfinder of an industry. His theory was that the
"Rabbit Eye" blueberry, under cultivation and fertiliza-
tion, would grow and bear fruit-better fruit perhaps-on
the hillsides of the homestead that he had carved out of
a wilderness, and he ventured to put his theories into
The story has been told in the first paragraph, but it
will bear repeating.
It was thirty-three years ago last spring that Moses
Sapp inaugurated his first experiments in the domestica-
tion of the wild "Rabbit Eye" blueberry, and every spring
since, little by little, he has been adding to his original
orchard. He now has an orchard of approximately thirty
acres of the fruit, fourteen acres of it adult bushes in full
From his original planting of bushes, covering an area
of less than an acre, or to be more accurate in the esti-
mate of this area, a fraction more than three-fourths of
an acre, an average of forty quarts of fruit to the bush was
the 1923 harvest, which yielded in dollars and cents, more
than $1,300, on the depot platform at Crestview. No
authentic data is available, because of the reticence of the
owner, of the money value of the yield of fruit from the
remaining thirteen and a fraction acres of the adult bushes
and the younger orchards thrown in for good measure, but
it is estimated by Mases Sapp's neighbors that no less than
$10,000 went into the bank account of the pioneer of the
blueberry industry of west Florida, from these sources in
Nor was there even a dent made in the demand that
overwhelmed Sapp for his 1923 crop of blueberries!
Neither would a thousand fold the area that Sapp is
cultivating to the berries supply this demand!
Indeed, one of the Great Lakes cities in the state of Ohio
alone took 90 per cent of the 1923 crop and was crying
for more and still more of the fruit from day to day
throughout the harvest season, which extends over a period
of approximately ten weeks, beginning in mid-June.
Unacquainted with the axiomatic truth that a market
exists somewhere for every ounce of any edible commodity
produced, and unlearned in the secrets of modern methods
of marketing, more than a quarter of a century elapsed
before Moses Sapp discovered the fact that there was
more than a local demand for the product of his blueberry
orchard. Therefore, throughout this period of his ignorance
upon the subjects of demand and marketing, his methods
of disposing of his berries were the crudest possible to
conceive of and the scope of his market was restricted to
immediately surrounding territory. The containers in
which he disposed of his fruit were either crudely home-
made boxes, constructed without any particular regard for
any specific content capacity, or nondescript canned goods
packing boxes accumulated haphazard in the neighborhood.
Nevertheless, the local demand for his berries absorbed the
supply from year to year, hence there was no occasion for
a cloud upon Sapp's blueberry horizon. He was satisfied
from every angle of consideration and remained so until a
"smart Yankee" happened to have "discovered" him.
And here the plot of the romance of the "Rabbit Eye"
Moses Sapp, it is true, had developed a vision into a
vital reality and, as stated above, was satisfied with results.
But the vision of the "smart Yankee" in question ex-
tended far beyond the horizon of Moses Sapp's vision. He
recognized first of all the superiority of the "Rabbit Eye"
blueberry over any other blueberry heretofore known to
commerce, and its apparent shipping quality and possi-
bilities appealed to him strongly. Nor did he overlook the
marketing crudities being practiced by the pioneer of the
great industry that he had "discovered."
The result was a complete revolution of every phase of
the marketing of the output of the Sapp blueberry
orchards. Local markets were abandoned because there
were better and more appreciative markets elsewhere;
neatly constructed, measured containers for the fruit were
adopted and the unlimited possibilities of the industry's
extension were recognized.
This revolution was an occurrence of three years ago the
When it occurred, the Sapp blueberry orchard was the
only orchard of domesticated wild "Rabbit Eye" blueber-
ries in existence in northwest Florida and the pathfinder
of this great horticultural industry was receiving and was
satisfied with ten cents per quart for his fruit-he was
Growing rich at the price, so why shouldn't he be satisfied?
And the transition ?
The 1923 crop, which, as related above, did not make a
dent in the demand for the berries, was contracted to buy-
ers principally in one northern city at twenty-five cents
the quart, f. o. b., depot platform at Crestview-an in-
crease of 150 per cent in the price for the fruit. And in
addition to this Moses Sapp's renown as the father of the
"Rabbit Eye" blueberry having been broadcast far and
near, he was the natural source of supply for tens of
thousands of stands of nursery stock for planting other
areas of the fruit, not alone throughout northwest Florida,
but throughout the entire state of Florida-more particu-
larly, however, central Florida. From this source he also
added to his bank account in 1923, several thousands of
good American dollars.
No authentic data is as yet available as to the definite
area now in cultivation to the "Rabbit Eye" blueberry in
Satsumaland, but the best authorities upon the subject
estimate that perhaps two thousand acres of the fruit are
in cultivation in the ten and a fraction counties comprising
Indeed, the "Rabbit Eye" blueberry has been adopted
by west Floridians as one of several most excellent insur-
ance crops against possible eventualities that may occur to
retard the citrus industry of the section, which is growing
from end to end of Satsumaland by leaps and bounds.
The "Rabbit Eye" is impervious to cold of the extremes
degree ever known i northwest Florida and has no insect
enemies to retard its growth or interfere with its fruitage.
And there are tens of thousands of acres of land in Sat-
sumaland that are ideally adapted to the successful and
profitable culture of the fruit.
BULB CULTURE IN FLORIDA BECOMING
IMPORTANT AND VALUABLE INDUSTRY
Farm and Live Stock Record
I want to call the attention of the readers of the Farm
and Live Stock Record to the great future that awaits the
growers of flowering bulbous plants, principally Gladiolus,
Freesia, Narcissus, Amaryllis, Calla Lily and Easter Lily,
in the northwestern part of Florida, and will take the
liberty to speak of some very scientific and practical flor-
ists and bulb specialists, and their past and present ac-
Florida seems to have been designed by the Supreme
Architect as the natural habitat of flowers and palms. No
other section of the world has such a wide variety of palms
and flowers as Florida. The palm is the most magnificent
vegetable production of the globe, and there is no such
useful plant or tree in the whole vegetable world. Think
what the date palm and the cocoanut palm mean to the
Arab and the denizens of the South Seas, and here in
Florida they attain their most perfect development. There
are over forty different varieties of palms growing in this
state, the larger percentage indigenous and many exotic,
which we call "Plant Emigrants." Royal Palm Park.
near Fort Myers, for stupendous grandeur, is second only
to the parks and reservations in California where the
Sequoia Gigantica raise their hoary heads, defying the
ages. It takes centuries to grow the Sequoia Gigantica,
and centuries to grow a Royal Palm.
Florida a Natural Greenhouse
Florida, with its normal winter temperature about what
the living rooms of the northern states maintain, supplies
us a natural greenhouse twelve months in every year, in
which to grow for pleasure and profit plants that cannot
be grown with any such ease, certainty and profit else-
where in the United States, if anywhere in the world.
Holland for many years has had a practical monopoly
of the bulb culture of the world. In 1923 we paid Holland
$8,000,000 for bulbs that we bought and imported from
them. For various and good reasons the Federal Plant
Board will place an embargo on all bulb importations after
January 1st, 1926. This means that we will grow our own
bulbs. In other words, this industry will be transferred
from Holland to Florida, because there is no other part
of the United States so favorable to bulb culture. Our
climate, soil, and proximity to market, which is only thirty-
six hours to all of our northern large cities, permit of not
only shipment of bulbs, but cut flowers as well.
What Is Being Done in Florida
Let us briefly consider what is now being done in Florida.
A recent visit to Mr. Godby's flower farm at Waldo,
Florida, and to Mr. Meade's flower farm at Lake Charm,
and Mr. Jergen's bulb farm at Daytona, are nothing short
of revelations of success and attainment culturally and
from a financial standpoint.
Twenty years ago Mr. Godby had a 250 acre farm.
largely devoted to citrus culture. The "big freeze" came
and wiped him out-down but not out, is a better way of
putting it. Mr. Godby made success out of failure by at
once starting bulb culture. He now has forty acres in
bulbs, and at present prices one acre of his bulbs will net
him better than $5,000 yearly. Mr. Godby states correctly
that it requires no more skill, time or investment to grow
Narcissus, Freesia, Gladiolus and Easter Lilies than it does
to raise potatoes in Maine, and less than it takes to raise
corn in Iowa. Mr. Godby bought Easter Lily bulbs in
Bermuda, cultivated them and sent his product back to
the man he got his bulbs from. The Bermuda man denied
that they were the same variety, but just for experiment
he cultivated Mr. Godby's bulbs, and showed to himself
that Florida bulbs were far superior to his own. He pro-
posed that Mr. Godby devote his time to supplying him
(the Bermuda man) with bulbs to be re-exported. Mr.
Easter lilies can be timed for market and flowering with
exactness here in Florida, as can all other bulbs.
Florida grown bulbs produce flowers far superior to
those grown in any other section of the United States, and
command correspondingly high prices in all northern mar-
kets. Mr. Godby's bulbs have been tested by Dr. Griffith,
of the United States Department of Agriculture, in Wash-
ington, and have been acknowledged to be superior to any
Other Profitable Bulbs
Mr. Godby's attention is not confined to Easter lilies or
gladiolus alone, but narcissus is his favorite. The Poly-
anthus narcissus as a winter growing plant has no superior
if cultivated in Florida. Last year we spent over ten mil-
lion dollars for narcissus bulbs alone, and there is a great
demand for them. The best freesia bulbs that were ever
shipped to New York or Chicago came from Mr. Godhy's
farm. His bulbs average one and a quarter inches in
diameter and the florists' catalogs never quote sizes larger
than three-quarters of an inch. 500,000 freesia bulbs is a
fair crop to the acre. They sell for from ten to twelve
dollars per thousand.
Narcissus will increase five to one in a year. No pest or
insect molests them. The narcissus fly is a pest in Europe,
but has not come here yet, and our embargo will keep it
out. In storing bulbs to shipment in Florida the bulbs are
put into tomato crates and stacked up out of doors under
trees and covered with roofing paper. No especial care, or
bins, or spreading out is required.
The best land for bulbs is "flat wood" land; cut over
pine will do, but hammock land is better. A fairly light
sandy loam is best. Some humus in the soil is necessary,
but not much.
The Halifax District Growers Association, with head-
quarters at Daytona, will be glad to supply anyone inter-
ested with fuller details of bulb culture on request.
Mr. Mead is a very scientific floriculturist, and has by
cross-pollenization developed some new varieties. He was
offered $1,000 recently for -one bulb of his production-a
pure white amaryllis-but declined the offer.
Mr. Jergens is raising bulbs for the market at Daytona,
and this summer will add ten acres more to his bulb farm.
Mr. Barnes, of Indiana and DeLand, Florida, is at work
under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture in
Washington, in conjunction with the Volusia agent, Mr.
Brown, making research in bulb culture, and is very en-
thusiastic concerning what is being done and the brilliant
outlook for bulb culture in Volusia county.
It seems to sum up by saying that there is no more prom-
ising field in agriculture than bulb culture in the above
Dr. Randall has not mentioned Colonial Gardens, Or-
lando, where the growing of gladiolus bulbs is progressing
very extensively, with flowers in bloom every month in the
year. The owner of Colonial Gardens is Mr. B. F. Mills.
of Rose Hill, N. Y., who has 60 acres in course of de-
velopment. Mr. Mills is an experienced florist (37 years)
and selected Florida for bulb-growing after thorough tests.
He ships or sells no flowers-only gladiolus bulbs, and his
patrons are all over the world.-Managing Editor, Farm
and Live Stock Record.
HOW TO DEVELOP A YOUNG VINEYARD
By II. G. Gardner, Viticulturist, in Florida Farms
Since grapes come into bearing and yield paying returns
so much earlier in the Southeast than elsewhere-usually
producing a paying crop at eighteen months with full crop
at thirty months-those contemplating planting should
give the very best of care so as to insure maximum pro-
After the plants have been set in the ground, the first
application of fertilizer should be given some time during
the month of February. This should consist of Castor
Pomice or Bone Meal at the rate of about one pound to
each plant, or, in other words, about five hundred pounds
When the plants begin to grow, there will usually be
two or more young shoots from the plant. The strongest
of these shoots should be selected, leaving only one to each
plant. This young shoot should be trained on a cane, stake,
or twine to the wire which should be about four and a
half feet from the ground. Pinch off all shoots coming
from this main stem until the plant reaches wire; then you
should pinch the terminal bud at wire and let a branch
run each way along the wire. This will usually be along
about the first of July. Stop all summer pruning at this
date and let plants grow at random.
The first year, the plants should be cultivated clean,
keeping a dust mulch throughout the dry season. If plants
have not made the desired growth, a second application of
fertilizer of about one-half pound should be given the lat-
ter part of June. If the plants have made good growth by
the first of August, it is by no means a bad policy to plant
a cover crop such as Iron or Brabham, Cowpeas or Bunch
Velvet Beans in the middle of rows, leaving at least two
feet of space on each side of the row, which can be culti-
vated up through September. In the fall or winter, this
cover crop can be disked in the ground shallow, and will
be of great advantage in supplying humus to the soil.
In regard to pruning, for first year's crop, you have to
prune according to vigor and size, also different varieties
require different methods of pruning. Such varieties as
R. W. Munson, Carman, Champanell, Lukfata, IIerbemont,
Dr. Collier, or in fact on all of the Post Oak and Champanii
Hybrids, you should leave from four to six eyes on each
lateral. Varieties such as Armalga, Ronaldo, Edna, Head-
light, Brilliant and Ellen Scott will require a shorter arm,
which would be from two to four eyes. In pruning always
cut direct through eye or joint, as this will greatly facili-
tate the tieing of the twine to wire for support.
The cool weather which we have recently experienced
in the Southeastern States has been ideal for conditioning
grape plants for setting out during the months of Decem-
ber and January.
Grapes should, by all means, be planted as early as
possible in the season for the reason that they will have
better root systems developed by spring than if planted
later. The vines are now becoming dormant at a very fast
rate. We may begin the planting of grapes at any time
after the 20th of November throughout the State of
Georgia. For those who have recognized the commercial
possibilities of grapes and are contemplating planting
acreages the coming season, it would be wise to begin a
thorough preparation of the soil. The land should be
broken at least twelve to eighteen inches deep and thor-
oughly pulverized. By all means plant your grapes on well
drained land. The type of soil does not make any no-
ticeable difference, as varieties may be selected which will
harmonize with your conditions.
We wish to lay particular stress upon the importance of
planting only healthy, strong, vigorous one year plants
scientifically grown. It will be recognized that your future
success in the grape business absolutely depends:
First-Upon selecting varieties which are known to be
true to name.
Second-Planting only varieties which are peculiarly
adapted to the different types of soils.
The plants on coming from the nursery should be cut
back to two eyes. The root system should be cut back to
about the average of six inches in order to balance the
growth of the plant-this should be done properly at the
nursery before the plants are packed for shipment. Upon
the arrival of the plants they should be unpacked at once,
heeled out in good moist soil but not wet. In setting in
the vineyard they should be set as near the depth they
stood in the nursery as possible, which can be determined
by the ring showing on the plant.
Plants put out early in the season during the months of
November, December and January if properly set by
having soil pressed firmly around the roots, leaving some
unless ground is unusually dry, than plants put out later
with water. After the grape plants have been set, keep
loose soil around the top, will grow better without water
up thorough cultivation by use of a spring tooth harrow
or tool of the Acme type. When shoots first begin to ap-
pear, which will be in early spring, take a one horse orange
turning plow, barr off lightly about two or three inches
deep and about twelve inches from the plant. After doing
this, apply to each plant from one-half to one pound of
slow acting fertilizer such as castor pomice of bone meal.
This will produce good, strong, healthy shoots. From then
on give thorough, clean cultivation, keeping dust mulch
throughout the dry season.
THE USE OF YUCCA
The Red and Sandy Soils Are Well Adapted for Yucca
(From Magazine de Commercio, Havana, Cuba)
"The bitter Yucca cultivated in Cuba is a very good
variety, nevertheless the Agricultural Station is obtaining
some very good varieties, planting the seed and also im-
porting from Brazil a variety of seed of that country in
order to determine the plant best adapted. . .Continu-
ing the comparison with the sugar cane, we will say, the
Yucca is not at the mercy of the fire-bug. The Yucca does
not burn because it does not produce dead leaves as the
cane does, and it can be kept clean at a very small cost.
. The Yucca renders approximately the same tonnage
as the cane, but its products are more valuable and con-
verted into flour, keeps in good condition indefinitely;
and what is left over after the home needs have been pro-
vided for can be very profitably exported, as it has no com-
petitors. . .The Yucca flour is obtained by a different
process to 'tapioca,' more economically and with better ap-
plications and uses. It is used mainly to be eaten with
soup, milk, with beans, rice and pork, the same as the
Canary Islanders use the roasted cornmeal. ... .In Brazil
from time immemorial the Yucca constituted the base of
man's food, and in that country they have used the tobe-
rose and feculent root of this rich plant. In Cuba the sweet
Yucca is utilized only as a boiled vegetable, and the bitter
Yucca is only used for extracting the starch, but with
primitive methods. In Brazil the principal product of the
Yucca is the flour. Do not confuse Yucca flour with cas-
save flour of the Brazilians or with 'tapioca' obtained from
the Yucca starch and the potatoes. . In Brazil every-
body in the outlying districts have their plants sufficient
to produce Yucca flour for a year's supply, selling what is
not needed for their own consumption. . Brazil pro-
duces more than 500,000 tons of this flour whose complex
value is calculated to be $50,000,000, and at the present
day export nearly 70,000 tons of the value of $7,000,000.
They are now making great strides in this industry
in view of the new uses that can be made of the Yucca
flour in the making of bread and biscuits and in the manu-
facture of sweets and beer. These were brought before the
general public during the great war. . The Yucca flour
can be used in making bread at the rate of 66% and even
83% of wheat flour, and can be used for making biscuits
in same proportion, but the mixture must be made to-
ward the last and use only a third of the quantity of the
salt usually used. The wheat flour must be mixed by itself
and the yeast should only be added in this mixture, adding
the Yucca flour just before baking. The cost of Yucca is
one-third cheaper than wheat flour, at retail.
NEW INDUSTRY PROMISED FLORIDA FARMERS
By Ralph Stoutamire
Florida farmers are promised a new industry. A tree
previously little known in this country arises on the hori-
zon and many say it is to be to parts of Florida what citrus
is to the southern half of the State.
It is said that a new broom sweeps clean. It is an undis-
puted fact that farmers are frequently seen taking to a
new crop or new breed of chickens before it has been thor-
oughly tried out. However, this new industry of promise
to our farm folk is hardly of that sort. Its returns will not
come hurriedly, nor does any one claim quick returns. Nor
has any one gone on record as saying "unheard-of" returns
will come from it.
But careful investigations and long study by conserva-
tive men are not discouraging when summed up. There is
promise, and worth-listening-to promise, in this new indus-
try. Many farmers, and others, of Florida could well
afford to go into the subject thoroughly and learn some-
thing about it. There seems to be good chances of winning
and little chance of losing.
This promising industry for Florida is the culture of the
In brief, it is promising because this tree seems to grow
well in Florida, particularly in the vicinity of Gainesville.
It even seems to grow better here than in its native habitat
-China, for in that country it frequently is killed by cold
weather. It is promising because the oil extracted from the
seed of its nuts is necessary in the manufacture of paints
and varnishes, which insures a certain, steady market for
the produce. It is promising because in China conditions
are such that a high-grade oil will not be produced. It is
promising because enough oil can not be produced in China
to supply world demands, apparently.
Already there are indications that the industry is here.
In Florida there are hundreds of acres planted to this tree.
In Alachua county 270 acres, 35,000 trees, were set out a
year ago this winter. In one other area 550 acres or 50,000
trees have just been set. In all there must be a thousand
acres of tung-oil trees now growing in that one county.
Other counties claim plantings. Among them are Putnam,
Leon. Columbia, Orange, Bradford and a dozen others or
more. However, Alachua county certainly is in the lead.
Its particular soil and climate is declared to be ideal for the
successful culture of the tung-oil tree.
The plantation in Alachua that set 550 acres to trees this
winter has cleared for this purpose 1,000 acres more of raw
virgin land. This entire area would have been planted
already, but for the lack of young trees. Nursery stock is
impossible to obtain; the demand for it is greater than the
supply. Eight hundred acres more will be cleared on this
one property and planted as soon as plants can be had,
probably next winter. This will mean 1,800 acres planted
to this one tree for this one plantation of 2,300 acres. A
nursery of eight acres will be planted in March for the ex-
press purpose of growing trees for this one concern. This
does not mention several acres on other farms devoted to
the growing of nursery stock.
The Alachua county plantings are mainly by paint and
varnish manufacturers. The 270-acre planting is owned
by a corporation of men directly connected with th paint
and varnish industry. It is known as the American Tung-
Oil Corporation, a Florida company. The larger one is
owned by an independent concern, the Alachua Tung-Oil
Company, also a Florida company. This company is
headed by L. P. Moore, president of Benjamin Moore and
Company, also president of the Paint Manufacturers Asso-
ciation of the United States. This association is making
every effort to encourage farmers in Florida-others not
excluded, however-to plant a small number of trees. It
has advertised that it will furnish farmers with plantings
at 35 cents each, 10 cents down and the rest on easy pay-
ment plans. Incidentally, it should be said that many
farmers have ordered young trees and are planting them.
Promoters Earnest and Sincere
There is no question about the earnestness and sincerity
of these promoters of tung-oil culture. They are putting
lots of money into it. They are demonstrating that they
have faith in it. They are not attempting to get up "mu-
tual" corporations; they are spending their own money.
Hard-headed business men would not spend a pile of money
on this thing, if they had any doubt about its success. One
thing can be said, they have set to work hundreds of acres
of land that never before had any use except as a paradise
for birds, game, range cattle.and hogs.
A scholarship to the University of Florida has been pro-
vided by the Alachua Tung-Oil Company. This became
effective January 1 and amounts to $750 a year. It has
been given to J. S. Alexander, a student of this State insti-
tution, who has proved himself a hard worker and deserv-
ing of the help which this means to him. Of course his
major study will be the culture of the tung-oil tree in
Florida. This is further evidence that these promoters of
this industry are looking far into the future and that they
really have abounding faith in the undertaking.
It is safe to say that there will be thousands upon thou-
sands of acres in this part of Florida growing tung-oil trees
within the next five or ten years if the belief of the men
backing these early plantings is to be considered. There are
vast areas of land in this part of the State that measures
up perfectly to the requirements of the plant. Then, in
this particular area there is a scarcity of money crops; for
a long time this vicinity has felt a vital need for other
source of income. The tung-oil tree may fill this need. If
it does, it will be welcomed.
Mention has been made already of the promoters of this
industry. They are high officials of various paint or var-
nish companies. All are directly interested in tung-oil
culture. To have charge of this work in Florida these con-
cerns have selected a Florida man, B. F. Williamson. He
is manager of both properties. He has gathered around
him a corps of able young men, products of the agricul-
tural and scientific departments of the State's university.
They are Richard (Dick) Stanly, R. K. Buckley and M. U.
Mounts. Mr. Buckley is superintendent of the larger prop-
erty. The other two are assistants to Mr. Williamson and
are "studying tung-oil culture."
Other Florida men who have been prominently men-
tioned in connection with the study of tung-oil trees are
Director Wilmon Newell, Horticulturist Harold Mowry and
Professor E. L. Lord, of the Florida College of Agriculture.
They have learned much about the tree and its culture in
It has been said that soil and climatic conditions in
Alachua county are nearly ideal for the growth of this tree.
Those are good and sufficient reasons for the establishment
of such an industry there. However, there is another
reason why moneyed interests saw fit to turn to that vicin-
ity. Mr. Williamson had for years been interested in grow-
ing the trees. The State's experiment station planted a
few trees in 1912. Their rapid growth and productivity
were brought to the attention of Mr. Williamson. The
plantings in Alachua seemed most promising. That fact,
plus the ideal soil and climatic conditions there, made cer-
tain its selection for the center of the industry.
Uses of Tung-Oil
Tung-oil is used in many ways by the Chinese. But it is
its uses in America that interests the pocketbook of Ameri-
cans. When combined with pine-tree rosin tung-oil forms
a substance known as "ros n tung ester or tunga resin."
According to Manager Williamson "when combined with
southern rosin and other substances into a varnish, it makes
a spar varnish much more satisfactory than copal varnish,
which was formerly the standard in varnishes. When this
varnish is properly made and applied, a piece of wood cov-
ered with it may be kept in boiling water for fifteen min-
utes without either whitening or softening the film.
". .. Substances of which it is a part are important in-
gredients of paint driers. When combined with aluminum
oxide it forms aluminum tungate which is used as a fire-
and water-proofing material.
"It is largely used in the manufacture of paints as well
as varnish, particularly for enamel, floor and wall paints.
It is used in place of linseed oil in the making of linoleum
and oilcloth. At present its use is increasing as fast as the
raw oil is available, and it is even now the most serious
competitor of linseed oil. Besides the uses to which it is
now put, there are many more which would demand the
oil if there were only sufficient quantity available. The
peculiar properties of the oil make it highly important to
the paint, varnish and allied industries; therefore, a con-
stantly increasing and regular supply needs to be made
Mr. Williamson says that tung-oil is very productive.
He figures that on one acre of grove 900 pounds of oil can
be produced in a year, and he declares this a conservative
estimate. Figures for the oil production of acres planted
to peanuts, flax or cotton run much less than this.
It is said that the United States is spending $20,000,000
a year to China for tung-oil imported from that country.
Considering the fact that this Chinese oil is very poor in
grade, this is a handsome pot of coin of the land to send
over the seas for something we could make right here in
After the oil has been pressed from the nuts, the remain-
ing material-something of a pomace-can be used as a
fertilizer, is the opinion of some who have studied it. The
wood of the trees has little value as lumber, but the Chinese
use it in the manufacture of musical instrumnets, trunks
and boxes. They also use it for fire wood. It is said that
insects, including woodlice, do not attack it. The tree
around farmsteads probably would rank along with pecans
and other fruit trees for shade purposes.
Growing the Trees
In interviewing Mr. Williamson I asked him if he be-
lieved the average Florida farmer could grow the trees suc-
cessfully and what general advice should they have.
"Why certainly I believe they can grow them success-
fully. There would be little expense in growing the trees
around the farm site, as pecans, grapes, pears and various
other fruit trees are grown. Tung-oil trees might replace
some or all of these trees, and that to advantage, finan-
"If a considerable planting is to be made, select land that
is or that will be well drained. Soil that is slightly acid is
necessary. There should be plenty of organic matter in
the soil. This tree needs lots of nitrogen. The tree will
grow fairly well on poor land, but since we have plenty of
unused fertile land in Florida why fool along with the
poor? Remember in selecting the site that drainage must
"Farmers could grow their own plants, but it seems to
me to their advantage to let us grow the plants for them,
as we know how to do it and are equipped for that pur-
pose. We will not sell more than 300 plants to any one
person, as we are interested in establishing the trees on
many farms in small plantings, for it is in that way that
we believe the industry should be built up here. We are
convinced that the small farmer should be encouraged as
much as possible along this line, as long as we are able to
help him start at small expense to himself.
"If they grow their own plants, they should plant the
seed about twelve inches apart in three and a half foot
rows. From January 15 to March 15 is the time for plant-
ing the seed in the nursery, in the vicinity of Gainesville.
"We are planting the trees at two distances. The first
is 121/. feet by 30 feet. The second is 20x30. Every other
tree in the first case is to be removed as soon as crowding
is apparent. We believe the shorter distance is advisable
most often in Florida, because then the trees are able to
begin giving profitable returns much earlier, as there are
twice as many trees on the land at the start.
"As to preparing the land, I would advise doing it about
the same as is done for oranges. If possible, clear the land
the winter before the trees are to be set and the following
summer plant it to Brabham cowpeas, velvet beans or cro-
"Set the trees about an inch deeper than they stood in
the nursery. Dig the hole big enough that the root cluster
will not have to be cramped. Care should be observed in
digging the plants from the nursery row. And care must
be taken that the small roots do not dry out. December
and January is the time to plant young trees.
"If the trees are set in considerable numbers, they show
up better if the rows are straight. We have given employ-
ment to a number of the State university's engineering
students in laying off rows with the transit. This is ad-
visable in our case, of course, because we are planting on
an unusually large scale."
I learned that these tung-oil people are looking further
ahead than the present. They know that they have to take
care of their land in order to make it and keep it produc-
tive. I was told that every winter they plant cover crops
of oats or rye, and in summer they plan to grow velvet
beans, beggarweed or crotalaria. These crops are to be
mainly turned back into the soil. Part is to be used for
mulching the soil at the bases of the trees.
As he is growing the trees on a commercial scale, Mr.
Williamson says he means to give them an abundance of
plant food. When they show lack of growth he applies
nitrate of soda. "It appears a good practice in a young
grove," he says, "to use a well-balanced fertilizer at the
rate of half a pound to the tree in February. It should
analyze around 5 per cent nitrogen, 6 per cent phosphorus
and 3 per cent potash. Half the nitrogen should be from
nitrate of soda and half from dried blood or guano; the
phosphorus should be in the form of guano or bone; and
the potash should be derived from high-grade sulphate."
Pruning the Trees
The tree should be cut back to about six inches when set.
A branching trunk is desired. If the first upright branches
naturally, fine. If it does not, it seems advisable to cut the
upright back to hard wood. This should be followed by
heavy heading back in winter. When the tree is formed
all the pruning needed is to remove dead wood and water
sprouts. In selecting limbs to be left for the main branches,
preference should be given those attached to the trunk at
a right angle.
Yield and Money Value
The harvesting of the tung-oil nuts is easy. When ma-
ture the fruit falls to the ground, where it may be allowed
to lie for several weeks. Gather when convenient. Store
in a dry place. The husks should be removed from the
seed by hand or by machine. Mr. Williamson gave me the
following figures as what he figures a single tree and a
single acre should yield:
Fifth year, 1 bushel unhulled fruit, .7 gal. oil, $0.84 per
tree, $97.44 per acre. Sixth year 2.2 bushels unhulled
fruit, 1.5 gal. oil, $1.80 per tree, $208.80 per acre. Seventh
year 3 bushels unhulled fruit, 2.2 gal. oil, $2.64 per tree,
$306.24 per acre.
lie believes most profit will come after the fifth year.
About the eighth year every other tree may have to be
removed, but even after that the grove should remain
profitable. Dr. Wilmon Newell, director of the Florida
Experiment Station, in a bulletin written by himself is
much more conservative than Mr. Williamson. He based
his estimates, however, on trees grown around the farm
home without any special care.
Diseases and Insects
This seems to be about the only commercial tree that
has no disease and insect enemies. So far as is known
there are none. Not even in China are the trees attacked
by either. This is one of the most remarkable things that
can be said about this tree.
On old land the root-knot nematode sometimes attacks
the tree. This may be avoided by using new land for the
nursery and by growing as cover crops only those plants
which are known to be resistant to the nematode. Velvet
beans, beggarweed, the small grains, crotalaria and Brab-
ham cowpeas are resistant.
It seems that Florida farmers need have no hesitancy
about planting a few of these trees, even an acre or more.
It is hardly advisable to spend much money on them until
they have proved successful and profitable. But a few
trees around the home will cost little. If they bear well
and the nuts bring a good return, hurrah for the tung-oil
tree. If they bring no money returns, little if anything is
One is compelled to believe the industry will succeed, if
we are to credit anything to enthusiasm and faith. B. F.
Williamson has both. He radiates them. He breathes
them. He lives them. And he inspires others to have the
same enthusiasm and faith. He is also using brains in
his investigation and development work. And he is is
honest in his convictions. If honesty, sincerity and in-
tellect will put anything across, the tung-oil business will
go across big in Alachua county and in Florida, for B. F.
Williamson is behind it and he is loaded with lots and lots
of these essentials.
ANOTHER VALUABLE GRAIN AND FORAGE
PLANT OF THE MILLET FAMILY DESCRIBED
G. Besserman, 307 North Palmer street, Jacksonville,
exhibited this week specimens of a small grain which re-
sembles millet but which is known as panicummiliaceum.
He stated that the grain grew to maturity in seventy-two
days, without fertilizer, and the yield appeared prolific.
Relative to this and other grains he had printed in The
Florida Times-Union the following on April 27th:
Editor Times-Union: You have recently published a
letter from G. D. Perego, a practical farmer of Newton.
Texas, upon the merit as a grain and forage plant of
"Darso." Allow me to tell of my experiences with an-
other forage and small grain plant called "Panicummilia-
ceum," or Black Veronezh Proso.
Having spent my school vacations at one of Hungary's
most beautiful gentlemen's estates, a large farm of some
30,000 or more acres which was conducted as a pleni-
potentiary superintendent by the father of the writer in
such manner that it has been considered by the professors
and directors of leading Hungarian agricultural schools
as a model farm, I have had ample opportunity to get ac-
quainted with the manner of growing such valuable forage
and small grain plants as the one to which I refer.
This communication may prove very valuable to the
farmers of the rich chocolate brown prairie lands of the
southern counties of the State, or to the owners of the
newly-broken lands which have plenty of humus and clay
content mixed with dark sand, or well-drained, productive
heavier lands of Florida, such as we see on the outskirts
of Plant City or the Hopewell and Turkey Creek sections,
where this plant will do well on the newly-broken, pro-
ductive soil, such as I have described, without the use of
fertilizer and without cultivation.
This plant is a species of the millet family and the only
one that will produce a beautiful small grain in dark hulls
within seventy-five days from the planting of the seed, and
that does not require any cultivation. As on Florida's
fairly good, heavier soils it will produce such a grain with-
out fertilization and without cultivation in so short a time,
it is important for the farmer to know about it. I have
tried it four times in different sections of Florida and with
uniform success. So I can recommend this great double
purpose plant to the farmers of all Florida as a grain and
forage plant that in sixty days or less will make a grand
hay stand, as it seems full of leaves.
If used as a hay, caution should be observed, as the
grains contain some tannin and have a strong effect upon
the bladder and kidneys, therefore just a little should be
used at a time. The seeds should be sown broadcast after
danger of frost has passed.
There are two other plants that have been introduced
into the United States from my native country, Hungary.
One is a chestnut-like food, but instead of growing on a
tree it grows wild in standing waters. It produces a better
fruit than the chestnut. It should be introduced in the
standing waters and swamp overflows of the St. Johns
river and adjacent territory, where it will grow wild as in
Another is a tall bush-like plant which produces under
absolutely wild conditions one of the most tasteful of
fruits, dark red in color, which makes the finest of jams
or can be used raw when ripe. It should be introduced and
propagated in almost every State in the Union. This fruit
is known to botanists as the Cornus mash and to Hungari-
ans as "som." The other plant is known in the Hungari-
an language as "sulyom."
P. 0. Box 425, Plant City, Fla.
COCONUTS NOT APPRECIATED
Most Valuable Tree Known, as It Feeds, Clothes and
Shelters Countless Thousands. Should Be
More Widely Planted
The fact that coconuts here are not utilized to any great
extent and the fact that so few are grown prove how little
South Florida appreciates this gift of the gods.
Why aren't they grown abundantly for use and for
beauty? Central and north Florida would give anything
for coconut palm trees. This variety of the palm means
everything to the natives of tropical islands and continents
far removed from civilization in the temperate zone. In
many out-of-the-way places in the tropics coconut palms
mean food. drink, shelter, household necessities, and, when
sold in foreign ports, they mean money. The coconut walks
provide the only available means for the natives to earn
a living, and the coconuts prepared in various ways, con-
stitute a large part of their diet.
I first discovered the wonderfulness of coconuts last sum-
mer in Bonacco, an island near Spanish Honduras, where
the natives either owned extensive "coconut walks" or
were employed by owners, and the amount of cash that
circulated in that town depended mostly upon the demand
for coconuts in foreign ports.
"We Bonaccans hope the American public will learn
more ways of using coconuts." a young man there said
to me. "Two years ago we received $60 a thousand for
them, but the price has fallen to $12.50, partly because of
the smash of German and Russian finances which left
America as the sole market. And the American market
is flooded already with nuts from the Philippines and the
British West Indies. We couldn't sell our crop this year.
and money on the island is scarce."
Nuts Used in the Home
The various ways that coconuts can be used in the home,
for food, was a revelation to me. The oil is used as a de-
licious substitute for butter, lard and flavoring. Sliced
plantain dropped in a kettle of boiling coconut oil turns to
a lovely, delicate brown and gains a nutty flavor. Bread
fruit fried in coconut oil, or mashed and flavored with
it, is the last word in the way of a delicacy and combines
all the flavors of pecans, honey and butter, except that it
isn't sweet like honey. Bread, made of coconut milk
squeezed from coconut kernel pulp, is delicious when
spread with coconut oil instead of butter.
How Oil Is Made
Coconut oil is made by grating the unshelled coconuts,
squeezing the liquid out. leaving the pulp over night and
squeezing again before putting it on to cook. As it cooks
the oil will come to the top and this is dipped off and put
into another kettle. The oil, when removed, is boiled again.
so that all the moisture is taken away, and the pure oil is
left, clear and fragrant.
The best variety of ice cream, I think, is coconut ice
cream. It is made of jelly or immature coconut. Just
try it once! The people in Key West have known this
trick a long time.
Milk Used in Bread
The milk, squeezed from coconut pulp, i- used in mixing
bread and cake, and gives it a flavor that makes other
bread taste flat in comparison. Of course, the bread will
not keep long when made with this milk, and frequent
baking are necessary.
Chopped and grated coconut is used in cake and candy
as a substitute for nuts.
Get a Machete
Every Central American has his machete. In Hon-
duras machetes serve the double purpose of knife and
weapon, for they are used so generally in husking and
cutting coconuts that they are always convenient for im-
promptu revolutions. The Central American wayfarer,
when thirsty, can unstrap his machete, chop off the top
of a young coconut, and drink the delicious "coconut
The husks of coconuts are saved because they yield coir-
fibre which is used in making ropes, textile fabrics, brushes,
matting, stuffing for mattresses and cushions, brooms, etc.
The fibrous part of the trunk of the coconut tree may
be separated by beating. It is used in mats, ropes and
nets. The leaves are often woven into baskets, mats and
roofing material. The bark of the tree, when broken, gives
a juice that turns into an alcohol beverage after it has
been left two hours. It is called palm wine, and by fer-
mentation and distillation can be converted into vinegar.
The shells of the coconuts are converted into buttons by
some manufacturers, and are polished and used for goblets.
During the war, carbon for gas masks was made from the
The coconut tree sometimes reaches aver 50 feet in
height and it thrives best near the sea. Each tree yields
an average of 80 nuts a year, it is said.
One can truthfully say that the coconut palm is the very
foundation of the Bonaccan home. For Bonassa, built
over the sea, is built on piles made of coconut tree trunks.
Each house stands on its own legs, so to speak, and those
legs are coconut palm trunks.
Persons in this section who have large open places about
their homes and a tract of land beyond could make a para-
dise of it by planting coconut walks beyond their lawns.
Grassy, smooth walks below many rows of tall, rakish coco-
The Land of Palms
The poet who wrote that wonderful hymn containing the
"I know not where His isles may lift
Their fronded palms in air"
certainly had not visited the lower west coast of Florida.
for no more beautiful sight is common anywhere in the
world than the thousands of islands with their fronded
palms lifted to the sunshine and the gladdening breeze of
What these islands show in the way of palms, the in-
terior for some miles back, from Cedar Key to Key West,
can be made to show also. All that is needed is a little
thoughtful setting out of the proper varieties, and a little
attention, and soon all this beautiful west coast can be
made a veritable land of palms.
The writer has received from Helen Brooks Smith, owner
and developer personally of Indianola Park at Sarasota.
two magnificent young Hawaiian hardy prolific coconut
palm trees, with full and careful instructions for planting.
To say that this gift is appreciated is not necessary, for
instructions have been followed in planting them. Suffice
it to say they are "doing as well as could be expected,"
-as the doctors say on certain important occasions-in
their new adopted home, and their growth will be watched
with eagneness and pleasure.
Helen Brooks Smith is more than a mere developer. She
is a lover and a grower of the beautiful in the flora of the
world. Not only the rarest and choicest of Floirda plants
and fruits, flowers and trees have found a pleasant home
in her parks and gardens, but she has searched the far
corners of the world for additional beauties and useful
plants for growing here. Among the choicest things to be
found in that beauty spot of the west coast which she is
ever improving and enlarging are to be found the rare
Moon Glow, an everblooming vine which bids fair to be-
come one of Florida's most valued vines for home and
lawn draping; but it is to the Hawaiian hardy prolific
coconut palm that she looks to make this part of the state
the palm garden of the world.
The Hawaiian coconut is rich in food value, the tree
is a wonder for spread and beauty, almost equaling
Florida's own Royal 1Palm as a kingly monarch of the
forest and glade. It reaches a great height under proper
conditions and with the proper care produces from seventy
to one hundred coconuts each year. Being hardy, and a
rapid grower, it seems to be admirably suited for this
part of the state, and it will doubtless be found in the
next few years covering more or less of the entire southern
[Reprinted from an editorial appearing in The Tampa
Tribune of Sept. 21, 1922.]
TRACTORS REDUCE COST OF CLEARIN(
In the difficult business of reclaiming Florida from the
never-ending reaches of scrub palmetto, oak brush and
jungle for resort development, agriculture, truck garden-
ing or construction activities, tractors are proving a great
boon. Where formerly it took six men (five negroes and a
white foreman) twenty days to clear an acre at a cost of
from $90.00 to $150.00, an outfit such as that shown in the
accompanying illustrations, consisting of a McCormick-
Deering 15-30 tractor and a P. & O. brush breaker, clears
11/2 acres a day at a cost of $18.00-and this figure pro-
vides a liberal depreciation allowance of $1.80 a day for the
The tractor pulling the brush breaker makes its way with
a tremendous effect of power. It cuts the palmetto under-
growth to a depth of 6 to 8 inches with a 20-inch furrow
and an oblique shear of 30 inches. The brush breaker
shown is a very strong heavily built, all-steel tractor plow
designed especially for breaking up land that is covered
with dense palmetto or oak brush such as found in Florida
or hazel, cranberry, blackberry and other underbrush that
grows in other states. Tt is equipped with a power-lift
device which is operated by a trip rope and gives the
operator full control from the tractor platform. For ordi-
nary clearing in the Florida areas the brush breaker with
mold-board is utilized and turns under the palmetto and
oak brush with complete success. On work such as shown.
where it is desired to carry off and burn the scrub, the
breaker is used without the mold-board and raises every
root to the surface for easy removal. In its wake lie pine
and palmetto roots of varying diameters up to 6 inches.
The outfit shown was employed by the Sunset Park Sub
division & Development Company, J. B. White, superin-
tendent of construction, on a 248-acre development project
4 miles from Tampa. It replaced a corps of expert hand
grubbers, the most efficient to be had. The tractor is
shown with 16-inch extension rims and 5-inch spade lugs.
Experiments on this subdivision proved that it would re-
quire eight to ten mules to pull the brush breaker through
the dense growth, a group of separate power units that it
was found very difficult to control satisfactorily in this
arduous work. The tractor as also used on this develop-
ment for pulling a two-wheel scraper in street building and
with a disk harrow for smoothing the ground after the
underbrush was removed.
In the Indian River Section of the East Coast McCor-
mick-Deering 15-30 tractors and brush breakers have also
proved themselves in clearing land heavily overgrown with
palmetto and other underbrush. Two years ago L. F.
Brenning, who later became dealer for these outfits, took
the first tractor and brush breaker of the types shown to
the East Coast and began clearing his own holding of 175
acres. His phenomenal success attracted wide attention
and during 1924 twenty similar outfits went to work in the
neighborhood of Titusville. In addition to the obvious
economy brought about by clearing Florida land with
tractors, Mr. Brenning declared that the tractor outfit does
a much better job than can be accomplished by hand. Hand
clearing, he stated, fails to get the deep roots, and hence
six months after such clearing the land is frequently again
overgrown. Some of the land on Mr. Brenning's acreage
cleared by the tractor and brush breaker, for instance, has
lain fallow for two years and shows no green growth.
George R. Abbott, contractor, used a 15-30 tractor and
brush breaker on the Halifax River at New Smyrna, south
of Daytona, and cleared a veritable jungle of palmetto
along the beach, averaging 12 feet high and on sand dunes
rising steeply to forty feet. One two-acre tract in this
development was cleared in less than a day. Mr. Abbott
also uses his tractor to pull a tandem disk on open land
and to pull a Martin ditcher, opening a ditch 10 inches
deep and 8 feet wide.
In the clearing and finishing of the peculiar terrain
around Miami, McCormick-Deering tractors have again
been found invaluable. The surface formation in a radius
of 10 miles from Miami is coral rock, testing about 90 per
cent lime. This ancient sea bottom is exceedingly rough
and rocky, presenting peculiar problems to the developer.
The clearing, grubbing, stump pulling, and finally the
scarifying, by tractor power, costs $150 per acre, an ex-
pense justified only for building lots and citrus culture.
This work is exceedingly rigorous and the upkeep on any
but the sturdiest tractors is prohibitive.
In this region a notable development is known as Coral
Gables, a $20,000,000 enterprise, covering 4 square miles
with 100 miles of paved streets; McCormick-Deering 15-30
tractors are used to improve this land with much success.
With the tractor, specially made cast-iron A-harrows,
weighing 800 pounds, are used. This combination passing
over the coral surface crushes or loosens the porous rock
to a degree that permits easy finishing.
These various uses to which farm tractors are being put
in Florida-and there are many others not mentioned
above, road building, for instance-well indicate their
versatility. Wherever hard pulling is required and no
matter how difficult is the going, modern-day tractors such
as these plug faithfully along, reducing operating costs
frequently in remarkable fashion and releasing labor, both
man and horse, for other productive enterprises.
THE "FLORIDA MARVEL BLACKBERRY"
By Roger S. Nason
Of the many trials that have been made in Florida of the
northern blackberry, raspberry, etc., nearly all of the at-
tempts have proven fruitless, giving but little if any en-
couragement that would ever become commercial crops
in Florida. The major reason that plants of this nature
will not succeed there is that the roots must go dormant
in the winter, and in Florida this is not possible.
There has come into prominence within the past two
years a new variety of Blackberry that is suited to Florida
conditions, and bears enormous crops, that can not be
duplicated elsewhere in the United States. When as high
as twenty-eight quarts of berries, many of the individual
berries measuring two inches long, are picked from one
two-year old vine, it is more than merely evident that
Florida has a new crop of considerable importance. Aside
from the bare facts presented by the plants themselves, it
is interesting to learn that they have a sort of legend or
romance wound around their origination.
Some twenty years ago, an old Swedish woman brought
into the market of New Smyrna, Florida, a few quarts of
a most marvelous blackberry that she had picked in the
woods. For several years these berries made their appear-
ance in the market before the buyers became interested in
the source of such high quality fruit. All records seem
to agree that a Dr. Ballough, of near Daytona, Florida,
was the first individual who located the source of the
berry. After much persuasion, it is claimed that the doctor
in question secured one plant from the old Swedish woman,
and the story of her discovery of the berry for $50, thought
then to be an outlandish sum. She stated that on a portion
of her land was the remains of a supposedly Spanish settle-
ment of early times, in the corner of which she found two
trailing blackberry vines that were of extra heavy and
robust growth alongside the native berries, and bearing
a most superior fruit. Seeing the most wonderful success
that Dr. Ballough had when he attempted to cultivate the
berry, Jeff Yelvington, of near DeLeon Springs, was in-
duced to trade a valuable milch cow for fifty small plants.
This was some twelve or thirteen years ago and to the
present time the plantation is in good order and holds up
well. Mr. Way, of Plant City, Florida, reported some
two years ago that on the property of the old Swedish
woman and on which the new berry was found, a family
from Australia lived some one hundred years ago. It has
been surmised by some growers that these Australians
brought over some of their native blackberries and that
these two plants were the survival of the importation. This
led to the name by which they first circulated, "The Aus-
tralian." Some five or six years ago Dr. Ballough sold a
few plants to the Funk Gardens near Tampa, Florida,
and it was from this planting that started the first real
promotion of the berry. It has been called by several
names in the past, namely, the Eureka, Ballough and
This traditional origin has been scouted at by authorities.
as it is claimed that if any blackberries had been imported
from Australia a century ago they would have become so
mongrelized with the native species of rubus as to be
mediocre at the present time. It is evident, however, that
this berry is a hybrid of the Dewberry and common black-
berry of some form. There is, of course, more to this
legendary origin than might be expected if plants ever
were imported from Australia, as is supposed. Just plain
nature has been the Burbank of Florida. One of the great
features of this new Florida-born berry may we call it, or
as it has been christened, "Florida Marvel." is that the
plant bears at the intersection of every leaf fruit spurs
that produce from three to nine berries to the spur. When
in bloom they are a marvelous sight, not as marvelous,
however, as when the berries are a bright red, and again
the last when the green foliage of the plants is nearly
covered up with the myriads of black shiny fruit that
makes the leaves look small. Nearly all the flowers per-
form their duty, which cannot be said of many other
varieties of rubus. Upon the place of a grower at Tampa,
substantiated reports are that seventy-seven quarts of ripe
fruit were picked from two one-year-old plants and one
two-year-old plant. Another large yield is that of a Mr.
Matson, of Aurantia. Florida, that reports a yield of seven
gallons of fruit from one two-year-old vine in one season.
A Winter Haven grower of repute states that he has picked
twenty-eight quarts from a single plant. While these are
yields of solitary plants here and there, it might be of in-
terest to know that from two hundred plants only ten
months old, a Pinellas Park, Florida, man picked 1825;
Not infrequently the ordinary vendor of the common
blackberry is accosted with the statement, which is true.
that the blackberry is full of seeds and objectionable to
some for this reason. The "Florida Marvel" is a seedless
berry, what very few seeds are occasionally found are so
soft that they are not noticed in the least.
As a rule, the planter of small fruits either in the west
or north has to wait from at least eighteen to thirty-six
months before realizing any profits from his plantings.
Not so with the new "Florida Marvel." Plants set in
August will bear a crop that can conservatively be placed
at two quarts per plant the following May, hardly eight
months from the time of planting. Not infrequently these
plants at the time they are set are not over three or four
inches in height. Many times in the north, but especially
on the Pacific coast, small fruits have completed the gap
in the slow maturing larger fruits, olives, cherries, etc.
The "Florida Marvel" can become more than just a "filler
of the gap;" it will become a commercial crop of high
This berry has a most exquisite flavor, not unlike the
northern blackberry, but seemingly much more refreshing
and not a little sweeter. The extracted juice of the Florida
Marvel is exceedingly dark and rich, assuredly much more
so than the much famed Loganberry of the Pacific coast.
To those who have never sampled this new berry a very
pleasant surprise is in store.
Coupled with its other fine qualities, this berry is very
firm in construction, so much so that it can be shipped
fresh to any of the northern cities with safety. Last season
a few shipments were made to New York by several Plant
City growers in the last of May. Nothing of such quality
had been seen on the market before, at any time and never
at such an early date. The growers were more than pleased
with their returns, the berries netting from thirty-five to
thirty-eight cents per quart at Plant City. Blackberries
in May in the New York and Chicago markets bring fabu-
lous prices and there is no section of the United States that
can produce them except Florida.
There are quite a few residents of St. Petersburg,
Florida, who can readily attest to the above mentioned
qualities of this new berry. There is at St. Petersburg
one commercial plantation of about four hundred plants.
When the berries were ripe last May many autos came out
to the patch from the city to view these new horticultural
wonders. To each visitor the owner gave a basket and
said, "Go in and help yourself." and then "Forty-five
cents per quart, please." Nevertheless the owner could
not supply the demand at these prices. The writer, him-
self, was fairly besieged with orders, as they had not been
known around Orlando until this year.
The mode of growth of this berry is different from any
other in that it is neither a bush or tree blackberry type.
It is a vine that throws up rather strong shoots or canes
that are trained to trellises of wood or wire similar to the
grapevine. It is indeed a pleasant sight to look down on
the long green hedges that only a few months hence were
small plants three or four inches in height. Though the
fruiting canes are cut to the ground each year after fruit-
ing, the new canes have already sprouted, so the planting
always shows evergreen.
The culture of the Florida Marvel is quite simple. The
plants are set out on well prepared land about seven feet
apart in the rows and about eight feet between each row.
Posts are put every sixteen feet and on these are strung
four strands of wire to an approximate height of seven
feet. At that height they are sometimes headed back to
make more side branches. The Florida Marvel succeeds
best on a rather moist black land, that is well drained,
however.. On this land only a very minimum amount of
fertilizer is required. A little stable fertilizer is used for
a starter, and then one or two applications of ground bone
with an additional application of a 3-6-8 in January or
February if the vines have made undue growth and a
quantity of fruit is desired. This new berry can be grown
on the high sandy land if a proper amount of fertilizer
and humus is applied. Several irrigations in the months
of February and March will help bring on the fruit in the
highlands in a dry spring.
If potted, the plants are set at any time of the year.
Field sucker plants are only set out safely in December or
January, a time at which the plants are not making undue
growth and the sun not very hot.
Propagation is enacted through layering of branches and
root cuttings. The latter is the best method of propagation
as hundreds of plants can be raised in a few months from
only a few one-year-old parent plants. The fundamentals
of culture consist in keeping the plantation free from any
weeds at all times by cultivation every ten days or as often
as otherwise needed, and in keeping the vines tied up to the
trellises that do not show their inclination. It is with this
crop as it is with anything else, the better care you give
the crop, the better are your returns. There are but few
diseases to contend with. The principal one is thrips,
which attack the blossom. This is taken care of by timely
spraying with nicotine sulphate. Anthracnose or leaf-spot
is sometimes troublesome but very seldom in a plantation
where the ground has been deeply broken and the drainage
correct-copper sulphate will take care of this pest.
Dame Nature, the great plant-breeder, certainly put her
skill to the testing point when she evolved this new fruit.
Who knows but alongside its ancestorship of common black-
berry and dewberry it has an infusion of traditional Aus-
BEE KEEPING IN FLORIDA
By II. T. Rowell in The Florida Grower
Under separate cover you will find two views of my
smallest apiaries which you may place in the columns of
your valued paper together with these few valuable modern
hints on beekeeping in Florida, the land of sunshine and
We are located in township 39S, Range 30E, in the south-
east corner of Highlands County, in Florida.
I entered the bee business in the year 1917 when I pur-
chased a swarm of bees which was in an old box for a hive
and for which. I paid $5.00 bees included.
In July, 1918, I transferred the bees from the old box to
a standard ten frame hive, and the box from which I took
the bees contained 160 pounds of chunk honey. Some
thirty days later I again transferred the bees to a patent
hive and they gave off a large swarm which I placed in
another hive, thus giving me two strong colonies of black
bees. From August, 1918, to August 1, 1919, I had eight
swarms of bees and 320 pounds of white palmetto honey.
This gave me the bee fever, which I still have.
In April, 1920, I purchased a few Italian queens which
I placed in hives with the blacks and in sixty days from the
time the Italians were introduced I had a true strain of
three-banded Italian bees.
I soon learned that in order to get the best results from
bees (320 pounds extracted honey per colony) they must
not be allowed to swarm. I divided my brood of nine
colonies into ten new hives, giving each new hive a capped
cell which contained a fine red queen, thereby succeeding
in getting all the new hives properly queened with Italian
stock, and carried them through until the spring of 1921.
In order to prevent swarming one must add supers early
in advance of the honey flow, and never allow the bottom
super to become filled with honey. This can be done more
easily if they are kept in a shaded place.
Since the spring of 1921 up to January 1, 1924, I have
increased my bees to the number of 160 strong colonies, and
they are, strong enough to carry six shallow-extracting
supers. Now I have over the 160 colonies, 960 supers, and
the six shallow-extracting supers will extract 300 pounds
per colony; although we only extract 160 pounds from the
300, leaving the little fellows 140 pounds for their winter
supply and to prevent feeding them in case of a late, rainy
season or early cold winter.
We sell honey at the yards for twenty cents per pound
and each colony gives us 160 pounds, which nets $32.00 per
colony. Bees, if properly handled, will net their owner
this amount anywhere in Highlands or Glades counties.
There are thousands of acres of wild lands in South Flor-
ida covered with flowers which are awaiting beekeepers and
carloads of honey going to waste. The main flowers which
produce honey in my section are as follows, January to
January: Huckleberries, maples, tietie, dewberries.
March: Elder, black gum tree, buckweed, pennyroyal.
April and May: Holly tree.
June-August: Saw palmetto, gall berry, white top.
August-October: Palmetto cabbage tree, partridge pea,
blue buds, magnolia bay, red bay, golden rod, wild sun-
flower, Spanish needle and rag weed.
Do not allow bees to feed on yellow jessamine.
I will not say too much on the bright side of the subject
but leave it to beginners to learn that there is a dark side
also the same as in any other business. The secret of suc-
cess is in loving the little fellows and handling them with
care. Do not overwork them. Again if bees are robbed
of their treasure, worms are sure to appear and bees dis-
appear. Keep down swarming and leave at least 140
pounds of honey for each colony. Never offer for sale any-
thing in the honey line except the very best guaranteed
article. Be sure to comply with the pure food laws. And
after you have been in the honey business for a short time
your honey will sell itself and give you a good living.
Iives might be mentioned right here. I use nothing but
the standard ten frame for brood rearing and the shallow
ten frame for extract supers. This material is purchased
in large lots, which comes as follows:
5 Brood chambers complete, metal tops .......... $18.00
5 Shallow supers with frames. ...... 5.00
5 Queen excluders with wood and wire ... 3.75
10 lbs. medium brood foundation ......... 4.00
Total . .... ............... ...... $30.75
5 swarms at $4.00 each .. ................ 20.00
Grand total for five colonies
Now you may get the idea of the cost of five colonies of
bees and the material for hives. Note there is only one
super for each hive.
In my next writing I will tell you more about the draw-
backs and mention the no-fence question. I will tell you
why we urge a statewide no-fence law and why we should
also have a no-fire law.
VEGETABLE OILS MAY BE OBTAINED FROM
Sunflower and Tomato Seeds Are Two of the Productive
Sources of Oils of Commercial Utilization
Although there are a numbers of productive sources of
vegetable oils used in the arts and in the manufacture of
food products, investigations by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture indicate that valuable edible oils may
be obtained in paying quantities from waste products and
from seeds, such as the sunflower, not yet grown to any
great extent in this country. At the present time the
principal sources of vegetable oils are flaxseed, cottonseed,
soy beans, corn germs, peanuts, palm, rape seed, tung-nuts,
perilla, mustard seed, sesame, castor beans, and olives.
The development of tomato catsup and soup manufacture
has resulted in a great production of tomato seed each year
that has been going to waste. The oil from these seeds has
been faund after refining to be suitable food oil. By
pressing, the yield is about 18 per cent of the dry weight
of seed, and if a solvent is used the yield is increased to 20
or 22 per cent. In Italy, where the tomato-pulping in-
dustry has been developed on a large scale, tomato seed
oil is a commercial product. It is estimated that the
equivalent of 1,500 tons of dry seed is produced annually
in the United States.
Many hundred tons of wild oil seeds, principally brown
mustard and charlock, are obtained in the screenings from
the grain elevators in the Northwest. Most of the oil from
these seeds is used in the manufacture of soap and other
The sunflower is a possible source of oil, a large quantity
of it having been made from sunflower seed in Russia be-
fore the war. The cold-pressed oil is used for culinary and
their purposes where a high-grade edible oil is required,
while the hot-pressed is employed in making soaps and
Russian varnishes. In 1911, more than 500 mills in the
Caucasus were engaged in pressing sunflower seed. It is
possible that the sunflower may some day be an important
oil-producing plant in this country. The crop is now
grown to quite an extent in some parts of the country,
notably Missouri, for poultry feed.
Considerable quantities of okra seed could be produced
every year by letting the plants ripen seed after the har-
vesting season is over. This seed contains about 18 per
cent of an oil that much resembles cottonseed oil; in fact,
okra and cotton belong to the same botanical family.
Cohune nut oil, which is obtained from the fruit of a
variety of palm tree that grows in Central and South
America, has been examined by the department. It re-
sembles coconut oil and can replace it for many purposes.
The supply of these nuts is almost unlimited and several
firms are now attempting to establish the manufacture of
the oil on a commercial basis.
Although during the war there was a scarcity of fats
and oils in some countries, it seems that there are plenty
of sources from which to obtain them in this country and
many other parts of the world.
PECANS: PLANTING, CARE AND CULTIVATION
Complete but Brief Instructions As to How to Succeed
With This Crop
By C. A. Simpson in The Progressive Farmer
For best results the pecan orchard must have the same
good care that is given the peach or the apple. To get
started right, buy pecan trees from a reputable nursery-
man, and varieties that do well in your locality. Buy
trees that are thrifty. They should be dug with a deep
taproot, approximately 30 inches in length. A tree with
a short root is not so liable to live, especially if the first
season should be dry. The height of the tree should be
not less than four feet for best results.
Pecan trees in Northern Florida and Southern Georgia
should not be planted closer than 50 feet each way or 17
to the acre. Some are planting but 12 to the acre or 60
feet each way. One very large commercial orchard is
now being planted in Florida with 18 trees to the acre,
35 feet one way and 70 feet the other, with the idea of
cutting out every other tree when they begin to crowd
each other at 12 to 15 years of age.
It is best to have a surveyor lay out the orchard if it is
any size. If a small one, it may be laid out in straight
lines in each direction by sighting on tall poles and placing
a stake where each tree is to be set. The holes should
be dug before the tree arrives and should be not less than
two feet in diameter and 30 inches deep. When digging
the holes, keep the top soil separate from the subsoil as only
the top soil should be used when planting the tree.
December Best Time to Plant
The best time to plant pecan trees is soon after the
leaves have normally dropped. This is usually December
1 to 15. December is a better time to plant than January
and January is better than February. When planted in
December the winter rains pack the ground around the
tree very thoroughly and the roots then have plenty of
time to callous over before the growing season starts.
Most varieties do best on sandy soil with a good clay
under it, within 10 to 15 inches of the surface. As a rule,
a sandy soil with no clay underneath, or the clay 24 inches
or more below is not the type for the pecan. There are,
however, soils in the South that are more or less sandy
with no real subsoil that seem to be suitable to the pecan.
As a rule, though, first be convinced by the performance of
bearing trees in such sandy soil before planting in it. A
clay subsoil 10 to 15 inches below the surface is the safest.
It is usual to have the limbs of the pecan tree begin to
form at a height of five feet from the ground. It is there-
fore necessary to cut off the tops of all trees when planted
to a uniform height of five feet regardless of the size of
tree planted. The side limbs should also be cut at planting
time. Also see that all the root ends have a smooth-cut
surface. All this cutting should be done before planting.
How to Transplant Pecan Trees
Never let the roots get dry through exposure to the sun
or wind. Trees come from the nursery in bales or boxes
with moisture-holding material packed around the roots.
As soon as received, heel them in moist dirt and cover well
above the roots and with the tops pointing to the south or
east. The tops pointing in this direction will prevent cold
winds passing through possible openings in the dirt and
reaching the roots.
When removed from the heel for planting, the roots
should be thoroughly sprinkled with water and immedi-
ately placed in the wagon with a good bed, and covered
with wet sacks. Or if planting on a large scale a good plan
is to heel the trees in the wagon bed with the material
used for shipping. In any case do not remove but one
one tree at a time from the wagon and place it immediately
in the hole and plant it. By all means get the tree in the
ground with the roots moist.
When the tree is put in the hole someone should line
it up with the other trees by sighting each way while a
man in the hole holds the tree in place. This man also
holds the tree at a height so that when planted it will be
at the same depth in the ground that it stood in the
nursery row or not more than one inch deeper. In filling
the hole use the top soil only, and as each spadeful is
thrown in it should be thoroughly tramped. The tighter
the better. Keep the lateral roots of the tree horizontal.
If some well rotted manure is available, place about
three forksful at each hole just ahead of the planting and
when the hole is filled to within about six inches of the
top then scatter this manure over the area of the hole, but
beginning out beyond the ends of the roots of the trees.
Never let the manure touch the roots.
Begin Cultivation in Early Spring
Cultivation of the young pecan orchard should start
about March 15 for Northern Florida and Southern
Georgia. Depending on weather conditions, a cultivation
about every 10 days until July 1 to 15 is sufficient. During
this time the tree rows should have clean cultivation. Never
allow any weeds to grow near the trees.
About July 1 the cultivated space on each side of the
tree rows should be planted to Iron or Brabham cowpeas
to be turned under in the fall. Do not plant any other
variety of cowpeas as they are subject to mematodes. In
the fall the land along the tree rows should be turned and
preferably sowed to hairy vetch, crimson clover, oats or
rye to be turned under the following spring, about
It is far better to have crops grow between the tree
rows for the first five or six years than it is to let this
ground be idle and only cultivate the tree rows. A pecan
orchard does best when the land is full of humus and the
turning under of crops is the only way to get it. How-
ever, there is a practical way of growing crops in between
the tree rows and still build up the humus content. This
consists of rotation of crops in connection with legumes.
Of course each year the pecan trees will have to have
a wider cultivated space and consequently a greater
distance to the first row of crops. For the first year the
crop should not be closer than five feet from the tree row;
for the third and fourth year eight feet, and for the fifth
and sixth years about 10 feet. After that no farm crops
should be raised in between the rows, but plant cowpeas,
velvet beans or beggarweed to be turned under in the fall.
For the young orchard not bearing, the United States
Department of Agriculture recommends an 8-6-3 fertilizer,
half of the nitrogen to be derived from nitrate of soda and
the remainder to be one-half from cottonseed meal and
one-half from either fish scrap, tankage or blood. The
phosphoric acid should be derived from acid phosphate.
Use high grade sulphate of potash for potash. For bearing
orchards use a 10-4-3. The government authorities recom-
mend one to two pounds of this commercial fertilizer the
first year, gradually increasing to 30 or 40 pounds by the
time the trees are 12 to 15 years old. This should be ap-
plied just ahead of the first cultivation in March.
The standard varieties mostly planted in the South are
Stuart, Schley, Alley, Moneymaker, Frotseher, Pabst,
Moore and Success, about in the order named. The Schley
and Alley are not recommended for planting within 100
miles of the Gulf, neither is Van Deman or Delmas, as
these varieties are affected with scab, which causes the
nuts to drop. As to the variety one should plant in this
particular locality, he should be guided largely by what
the varieties now planted are doing.
In the Monticello, Fla., district we think very highly of
Moore and Moneymaker. The Moore bears at an early
age and is very prolific. The nut matures in the fall about
two or three weeks earlier than the Stuart and Schley. The
Moneymaker is also a very prolific bearer and matures a
little later than the Moore. The Moneymaker is the most
resistant to rosette, although not immune from it. In
general the Stuart is no doubt the safest variety to plant,
as well as the Schley when 100 miles from the Gulf.
Commence to Bear Third Year
A budded or grafted pecan tree will bear a few nuts the
third year and gradually increase. By the eighth or tenth
year the commercial crops will begin and from then on
until the fifteenth year the increase in yield is very rapid.
The nuts should be gathered and shipped just as soon as
ready, and by all means they should be in the hands of the
retailer for the holiday trade. The price drops very ma-
terially after Christmas."
When time for gathering arrives the space under the
trees should be put in clean condition by plowing or
disking with the tractor, or a canvas spread under each
tree. The nuts are knocked to the ground with long bam-
boo poles, and then put in sacks. A separate sack for
each tree should be used to prevent mixing of varieties.
To get the best price for the nuts they should be graded
according to diameter. There are regular machines built
for this purpose costing all the way from $50 to $600.
After they are graded they are dried to a certain extent
by forced hot air circulation, or spread out not more than
three inches in depth and left in a warm room with good
ventilation for four to eight days. If the nuts are not
allowed to dry to some extent they will mildew when
placed in shipping bags or boxes.
Overcome Diseases and Insects
The most common disease is rosette, which usually ap-
pears on poor land and where pecan trees should never
be planted anyway. Plenty of humus put in the ground
will usually overcome rosette. Another common disease
on certain varieties in the southern part of the pecan belt
is scab. If not sprayed it is likely to be serious with cer-
tain varieties during a wet season.
There are but two serious insects, the leaf case bearer
and the nut case bearer. The former only occurs along
the Costal regions, and one spray in August with arsenate
of lead will readily control it. The nut case bearer occurs
in a few places only, but is serious in certain years in those
localities. This is a small worm which eats its way into
the nut at its base. So far no effective spray control has
TIE VALUABLE CAPON
By Harry T. Lewis, Poultry Editor of The World
The American public, which is you and 1, are coming
each year to demand higher quality in their poultry meat
products. They are demanding chickens of better quality,
meaning birds which are well fleshed, tender, properly
dressed, and preferably especially finished before they are
slaughtered. This natural demand for an increase in the
quality of the poultry meat is leading each year to a greater
popularity of the capon. The capon is a male bird from
which the reproductive organs have been removed at an
early age, and the result of this operation is to change the
entire make-up of the bird. His plumage takes on a
distinct feminine appearance.
He grows much larger in size, loses his masculine char-
acteristics and becomes very quiet and docile. The opera-
tion of caponizing is not hard to perform and can be done
by any amateur after a little experience. The possibilities
resulting from capon production are many, and it is with
perfect assurance that we recommend a more general prac-
tice of capon production. The following are some of the
advantages which the capon possesses over the average
Advantages of the Capon
At killing time, the capon is larger and heavier in weight
than is the ordinary roasting cockerel. The meat is much
sweeter and of a finer flavor. To the producer the capon
offers exceptional possibilities, in view of the much higher
selling price per pound which is received for their flesh.
Furthermore, they can be produced at a lower cost, due to
the ease of fattening, which results primarily from their
quiet and inactive disposition.
The capons are extremely docile in disposition and they
endure close confinement exceedingly well. We see from
these points then that the capon offers to the producer an
opportunity to turn his surplus cockerels into market meat
at a greater profit than he can realize from roasting
chickens. To the consumer they are especially pleasing,
because of their extremely fine quality. This greatly
enhanced value resulting from this simple operation is
sufficient reason why the capon should be more generally
Demand for Capon
While we must say that there is no definite capon season,
for the demand is more or less constant throughout the
year, it is true that from December to March is the normal
time in which the majority of our capons are marketed.
Even during this period the supply does not begin to
equal only a very small part of the demand. Even at the
height of the capon season it is impossible to find surplus
birds on our markets because they are bought up quickly
at attractive prices.
The price paid for capon flesh is the highest which is
paid for any kind of meat, the height of the season being
reached around Christmas and New Year's and a few
weeks immediately following. The best capons are gen-
erally produced from early spring hatched chicks, the
operation being performed June or early July and the
birds are then given from six to eight months to develop
Best Capon Breeds
While it is true that cockerels of any breed will increase
in weight more rapidly if caponized than they will if not,
it is also true that the lighter birds of the Mediterranean
type do not in general produce profitable capons. The best
capons are undoubtedly produced from our American
breeds, such as the Plymouth Rocks, Rhode Island Reds.
Wyandottes, etc. In sections where extremely heavy
capons are desired, especially for the holiday season,
Brahmas, Jersey Black Giants and crosses of these heavier
chickens with our American types are quite popular.
The general demand is for a capon weighing around
eight to ten pounds, and it is not at all uncommon to get
out American-bred cockerels to this weight in time for the
highest prices. It is not uncommon where the heavier types
of chickens are used to produce capons weighing from
twelve to fifteen pounds, although the lighter capon will
probably always be in greater demand.
Proper Time to Caponize
While cockerels can be caponized at most any age, it is
not generally advisable to operate before the birds are two
and one-half to three months of age nor after they are five
months of age. The removal of the reproductive organs
from the older bird is apt to be disastrous to his future
development if it does not cause death. In the case of the
young bird, the performing of the operation at too early
an age becomes an extremely difficult task. In determining
the proper time to caponize, size of birds is rather more of
a guide than age, the ideal time being when the birds
weigh from one and one-half to two pounds, or when they
are around three months of age. It is a good plan to get
the capon operations over with before the extreme hot
weather of late July and August, so the March or April
hatched chicks are the best for this purpose.
Importance of Proper Starving
The whole secret of successful caponizing lies in one
thing, and that is the ability of the owner to properly
condition his birds previous to performing the operation.
This conditioning entails nothing more or less than the
complete emptying of the intestinal tract. This means that
the birds should be completely starved for from thirty-six
to forty-eight hours before the operation is performed.
All grain and feed of all kinds should be withheld from
them for thirty-six hours before operating, and all water
should be withheld from them for from twelve to twenty-
four hours. They should be confined to a clean coop, in
which there is limited litter on the floor and no feed what-
soever. Failure to starve the birds properly means that
the intestines will be engorged with food and will so
fill the abdominal area that it will be impossible for the
operator to work successfully and skilfully while removing
the reproductive organs.
It is much safer to starve the birds even longer than is
necessary than not long enough, for upon this one point
will depend in great measure one's success in caponizing.
The Operation Is Not Hard
As previously mentioned, the technique of performing
the operation is not especially hard if one understands just
how to proceed. That it is a delicate operation cannot be
denied, because the reproductive organs lie within the body
cavity close to the back just behind the lungs. In close
proximity to them run some of the important arteries of
the body, which, if ruptured, will cause the death of the
bird immediately. Space in this article does not permit a
complete discussion of the operation, but we can safely
advise that the operator first purchase a reliable set of
instruments, with all of which come complete and detailed
instructions as to just how to proceed in performing each
step of the operation.
Study these instruments carefully. Examine a young
broiler cockerel closely and carefully to determine just
where the incision should be made and if desirable kill a
broiler cockerel for eating purposes, pluck him and then
proceed to operate on the dead bird, following each in-
struction carefully until one knows just how to proceed
before beginning on the live bird. Immediately after the
operation, the capon should be marked in some conspicuous
way so that if for any reason he should turn out to be a
slip or a bird incompletely operated upon, he will not be
mistaken at a later date for a breeding male.
In commercial caponizing it is customary for the opera-
tor, before removing the bird from the operating table, to
cut off the toe nail of one toe. This slight wound heals
immediately, causes practically nol pain, and leaves a
permanent mark which cannot be confused at a later date.
Care After Operation
Immediately after being removed from the operating
table, place the birds in a clean, airy coop, with clean straw
on the floor, a coop in which there are no perches. Give
the birds plenty of water to drink, and plenty of soft
feeds should be immediately supplied. It is remarkable
how little the birds feel the effect of this operation if it is
properly performed. Two or three days after the operation
the birds should be inspected singly in order to see if any
wind puffs have formed under the skin in the region of
the wound. These are a result of the formation of gases
as a result of the incision and later healing process. These
puffs, if present, should be reduced by pricking the skin
with a needle or sharp pointed knife, allowing the air to
After a few days' confinement and observation, the
capons may be put out on a permanent range where they
will have a lot of natural vegetation and green grass, some
shade and plenty of water and ideal growing conditions.
Here they may be kept until severe weather sets in in the
winter, at which time they should be housed in roomy
buildings and fattened for from two to four weeks before
As a rule, capons are exceptionally strong, vigorous and
healthy, and remarkably free from diseases. All in all,
the operation is especially profitable and should be en-
couraged much more widely. Why not try your luck at a
BACILLARY WHITE DIARRHEA CAN BE
By M. A. Jacobson, University of Tennessee
It is perhaps not too much to say that more than 50 per
cent of the chickens hatched in the South, or even over
the entire United States, are lost from white diarrhea in
its various forms. Since we have a method of preventing
this disease in poultry, any poultryman or hatchery that
neglects preventive measures not only neglects a duty but
also suffers tremendous losses.
There are various forms of so-called white diarrhea. The
chicks get pasted up behind and have a watery discharge.
Over-feeding may cause these symptoms, which are com-
monly called white diarrhea. Chilling of baby chicks
causes a great deal of the so-called white diarrhea. Too
often, though, the man who sells baby chicks would like
to prove that the white diarrhea was caused by chilling.
Nevertheless, experiments have shown that most of the
white diarrhea in chicks is caused by a germ-Bacterium
Pullorum. The disease in this case is known as bacillary
white diarrhea. This infection causes losses of millions of
chicks every year.
The germ may gain entrance into the chick's body as it
develops from an egg which contains the germ. This in-
fection may occur in the incubator after hatching, in the
shipping box, or in the brooder. The chicks pick the
droppings from infected birds, and in this way they carry
the germs of white diarrhea into their delicate bodies.
These symptoms usually occur during the first ten days
of the chick's life. The chicks show a weakened condition.
They become droopy, and their wings hang. Usually a
diarrhea develops. The accumulation of this discharge
causes the "pasting up behind." The majority of chicks
die. Those chicks that survive become carriers of the
disease. The germs usually localize in the ovaries. The
eggs from such a hen contain germs of white diarrhea-
the bacillary type. These germs pass through a cycle-
from hen to egg, egg to chick. Surviving pullets develop
into infected hens and as a result become carriers of the
Prevention of this disease may be carried out: First, by
identifying the infected birds; second, by eliminating the
positive birds from the flock.
The method of identifying the infected birds is to make
a blood serum test. This test reveals whether a bird is
positive or negative for white diarrhea. The test is similar
to the test made for typhoid fever in the case of man.
Practically every experiment station in the United States
recommends the blood serum test and the elimination of
infected birds as the only possible means of controlling
and preventing this infection.
The test is inexpensive. Usually there is a charge of 5
cents per bird. There is no reason why every bird in the
United States should not be tested once a year.
Recently, Prof. J. C. Graham, head of the poultry work
at the Massachusetts College of Agriculture, tabulated the
following results concerning some tested flocks in Massa-
MR. A's FLOCK
Year Hatched Raised Tested Reacted
1918 3,000 800 ....
1919 3,000 850 ...
1920 3,500 1,300 499 137
1921 4,000 3,300 538 117
1922 4,000 3,500 1,139 73
1923 5,000 4,300 1,110 3
1924 .... .... 2,026 0
MR. B's FLOCK
Year Hatched Raised Tested Reacted
1920 .... .... 251 18
1921 6,000 1,500 .... 0
1922 5,000 3,300 1,819 612
1923 2,782 2,039 558 13
1824 .... .... 286 0
The above figures speak for themselves. They show that
it takes two or three years to practically eliminate white
diarrhea from any flock which might have the disease.
Is it worth the trouble and small amount of expense?
The writer is convinced that it is the only means of
saving millions of dollars to the poultry industry every
Beaudette, Bushnell and Payne of Kansas Agricultural
Experiment Station made the following conclusions after
a thorough study of the relation of white diarrhea to
hatchability of eggs:
The fertile eggs from infected hens gave a 53.58 per cent
hatch, whereas the fertile eggs from non-infected hens
gave a 65.10 per cent hatch.
Fertile eggs from all infected hens do not give a uni-
formly low hatch. This suggests the possibility that other
factors are necessary to bring about death of the embryo
during the incubator period.
Infection by Bacterium Pullorum has been found to
cause a marked reduction in fertility. For one flock the
fertility of eggs from infected hens was 57 per cent as
compared to 90.4 per cent fertility for non-infected hens.
The above conclusions should be of interest to every
poultryman and hatchery in the United States. Even
if there is a 5 per cent increase in hatchability, the test
more than pays for itself three or four times over.
The writer has conducted 20,000 tests for two of the
largest hatcheries ;'( the South. The percentage of in-
fected birds ran aL ut 20 per cent. All of these birds
were removed from the flocks.
One of these hatcheries reports that there was an in-
crease in the percentage of hatch in 1924 over 1923. Also
that the hatchery got better results all around than ever
before. There is no doubt but that the testing has paid
for itself many times over.
200,000 MEN ARE BUSY FEEDING RATS
(The Farm Journal)
Can you imagine 200,000 good farmers raising corn on
$300 land and feeding that corn to rats instead of turning
it into pork? Or, 200,000 poultry men using eggs worth
$5 and up a setting, to hatch out spring fries for rats?
Maybe not, but it's a fact that there are 200,000 men doing
nothing but feeding rats in this glorious land of the free
and home of the brave. The labor of that many men is
needed every year to feed rats.
Why does it take so many men ? Obviously because there
are so many rats. A survey in Iowa showed 300 rats per
farm. When it comes to raising big families, and raising
them in a hurry, rats are past masters. There is no race
suicide among rats, you can rest assured.
Granting that none of the children are killed in auto-
mobile accidents, Mr. and Mrs. Rat and their family will
number 4,580 in a year's time. This estimate is a very con-
servative one, for it allows for only ten rats in a litter, five
males and five females. There are six weeks between lit-
ters, and young females produce their first litter at about
three and one-half months. This clearly shows why 200,000
men are needed to feed the immense tribe of robbing, thiev-
As to their bill of fare, rats are a good deal like humans.
Eggs always taste better at a dollar a dozen than when
they are fifty cents. When corn was $2 a bushel, corn was
the rats' choice. Now that corn is cheap, perhaps they want
wheat, or harness. If chickens are high, chickens they want
and will have.
Feeding all this immense and ever-growing tribe means
only one thing-a loss. There is no earthly good to be said
of a rat. Hence, it is important to get rid of the whole tribe
before they undermine your farm buildings, destroy many
bushels of grain, or perhaps set your house or barn afire.
GOVERNMENT FORMULA FOR WORMS IN HOGS
The United States Department of Agriculture recom-
mends for worms: Charcoal, 1 bushel; hardwood ashes, 1
bushel; salt, 8 pounds; air-slaked lime, 8 pounds; sulphur,
4 pounds; pulverized copperas, 2 pounds.
Thoroughly mix the lime, salt and sulphur; then mix
with this the charcoal and ashes. Dissolve the copperas in
1 gallon of water and sprinkle over the whole mass, mixing
completely. Store in a barrel under shelter. Keep some in
a shallow trough constantly before the hogs.
Dr. A. L. Shealy, of the Florida College of Agriculture,
says that worms come from eggs taken into and hatched in
the digestive system of hogs. Some of the worms are at
times carried from the intestines to other parts of the body.
The kidney worm is an example of this type. After this
worm gets to the kidneys, no drug can reach it.
Filthy hog wallows should be avoided as they are fruit-
ful sources for worm eggs. When a pasture becomes in-
fested with eggs, change to another and plow the infested
GINGER EXPORTS WORTH $1,000,000 YEARLY
The average yearly exports of ginger from Hongkong are
estimated, in a report to the Department of Commerce from
Consul Leroy Webber, at $1,000,000, gold. About 45 per
cent of this amount js shipped to England, 16 per cent to
Australia, 15 per cent to Holland, 11 per cent to the United
States, and the remainder chiefly to New Zealand, Canada
and India. Exports to the United States have increased
gradually during the last five years. In 1922 they
amounted to $110,623, gold; for the first three months of
1923 they amounted to $28,714, gold. Practically all of the
ginger exported from Hongkong is grown in the nearby
Chinese provinces. The green ginger is shipped to Hong-
kong, where it is peeled and prepared for the market by
pickling in brine. The dry product is made by drying the
salted ginger. Preserved ginger is boiled in sugar. Green
ginger is used by the Chinese the world over. For export
purposes, ginger is classified as wet cargo, wet stem, dry
cargo, and green ginger. The kind most in demand is wet
cargo, although a fairly large business is also done in wet
stem ginger. All of the various kinds are shipped to the
United States. The greater part of the ginger is sold by the
large exporting houses of Hongkong. Frequently these
firms act as agents of the purchasers in the United States
and other markets. The new crop will be ready during
August. The demand is expected to be good, but, because
of the disturbed conditions in South China, exporters are
uncertain as to delivery of supplies at Hongkong. Sales
of the new crop generally begin in July.-Commerce Re-
A wild rubber plant, resembling slightly the Texas
greasewood bush, grows in Texas. It is the only rubber-
producing plant known to grow uncultivated in North
America. It is found in the Big Bend country of both
Texas and Mexico. There is a rubber factory located in
Brewster county, Texas, which manufactures rubber from
DOES HEAT DESTROY VITAMINS?
Ques. Please tell us what vitamins are; will heat de-
stroy them?-Ans. Vitamin is the name applied to a sup-
posed vital unit in food. The existence of such a unit is
pure theory. Nobody has ever isolated any concrete chem-
ical substance corresponding to the name. But experi-
ments show that some foods have a vital ingredient which
other foods do not have. Even the smallest quantity of
some foods will support animal life while an animal will
almost starve on larger quantities of other kinds of food.
Researches justify the assumption of the existence of at
least three of these vital food units-Vitamin A, B and C.
Vitamin A is associated with animal fats and oils. Its ab-
sence is supposed to cause rickets. The greatest safeguard
against rickets is cod-liver oil; therefore it is believed that
cod-liver oil is rich in this vitamin. This vitamin seems to
be lost when the food is heated. Vitamin B is found in
natural foodstuffs; in cereals it is found only in the outer
layers of the seed. People who live too much on highly
milled cereals tend to develop a disease known as beri-beri.
Hence it is supposed that the disease is caused by the ab-
sence of Vitamin B. This vitamin is not destroyed by
cooking. Vitamin C is found in fresh fruit and vegetables
and is easily destroyed by heat. Canned fruits seem to be
almost completely deficient in this vitamin. The lack of
Vitamin C is thought to cause scurvy because scurvy never
occurs when the vitamin is present. The whole question of
vitamins is still in an experimental stage and the ordinary
person should not attach too much importance to it. Frauds
based on the vitamin theory are rife everywhere. Some
restaurants pretend to give the exact number of vitamins
in each article of food on the menu. Such schemes are
frauds pure and simple.
LEGAL WEIGHT OF VARIOUS COMMODITIES.
Minimum Weight, by U. S. Statute.
Apples, dried ..........
Beans, castor .........
Beans, white ..........
Bluegrass seed .... .............
B ran .. ..... ...... ... .. .......
Clover seed ......................
C oal .. .. . . .. . . .. .. .. . .
Corn, shelled .....................
Corn, in the ear ..................
Corn m eal .......................
F laxseed ......................
H air, plastering ................
H em p seed ......................
Hungarian grass seed .............
Lime, unslacked ................
M alt ...... .... ............
M illet seed .......................
O ats ..........................
Peaches, dried .................
Lbs. per bu.
......... ..... 48
. . . .. . . .. 2 0
.... ........... 4 8
. . . . . . . 8
.. .. ........... 4 4
....... ....... 32
. . . . . . . . 3
. .. .. .. . .. .. 6 0
Peas, ground pea meal ............................ 42
Potatoes, Irish ...................... .......... 60
Potatoes, sweet .................................. 55
Rye .............................. .............. 56
Salt, fine ....................................... 167
Salt, coarse ......................... .......... 151
Timothy seed .................................. 46
Turnips ........................... .......... 55
Wheat ........................................ 60
31% bbls. of lime will do 100 sq. yds plastering, two coats.
2 bbls. of lime will do 100 sq. yds. plastering, one coat.
11/ bushels of hair will do 100 sq. yds. plastering.
1% yds. good sand will do 100 sq. yds. plastering.
1-3 bbl. of plaster (stucco) will hard-finish 10 sq. yds.
1 bbl. of lime will lay 1,000 bricks. (It takes good lime
to do it.)
2 bbls. of lime will lay 1 cord rubble stone.
z/2 barrel of lime will lay 1 perch rubble stone. (Esti-
mating 1/4 cord to perch.)
To every barrel of lime estimate about 5-8 yards of good
sand for plastering and brick work.
1,000 laths will cover 70 yards of surface, and 11 lbs. of
lath nails will nail them on; 8 bushels of good lime, 16
bushels of sand, and 1 bushel of hair will make enough
good mortar to plaster 100 square yards.
A cord of stone, 3 bushels of lime and a cubic yard of
stone will lay 100 cubic feet of wall.
Cement 1 bushel and sand 2 bushels will cover 31/2 sq.
yds. 1 inch thick, 41/2 sq. yards % inch thick, and 63% sq.
yds. / inch thick; 1 bushel cement and 1 of sand will
cover 21/4 sq. yds. 1 inch thick, 3 sq. yds. % inch thick, and
41/ sq. yds. 1/ in. thick.
One-fifth more siding and flooring is needed than the
number of square feet of surface to be covered, because of
the lap in the siding and matching.
MAKING WHITEWASHES THAT WILL
Whitewash has many valuable uses around the farm
home, fences, chicken yards and barns. One of the most
serious troubles with it in the past has been to get one that
will stick for a long time. Following are two mixtures
that are good stickers.
A good mixture, durable, white, and easily prepared is
recommended by the National Lime Association. It is
made as follows:
Soak 5 pounds of casein in about 2 gallons of warm or
hot water until thoroughly softened (about two hours).
Dissolve 3 pounds of trisodium phosphate in 1 gallon of
water and add to the casein solution. Allow the mixture
to dissolve. Prepare a thick cream by mixing 50 pounds
(one sack) hydrated lime in 7 gallons water, stirring vigor-
ously. Dissolve 3 pints of formaldehyde in 3 gallons of
water. When the lime paste and the casein solution are
both thoroughly cool. slowly add the casein solution to the
lime, stirring constantly and vigorously. Care must be
taken not to add the formaldehyde too rapidly, as careless-
ness may cause the casein to "jell out" and spoil the batch.
In place of the hydrated lime a cold lime paste from the
slaking of 38 pounds of burnt lime may be used.
This mixture may be either sprayed or applied with a
A simpler mixture but not so durable is made by slaking
carefully 20 pounds of burnt lime by c adding 6 gallons of
water in small portions. In a wooden vessel dissolve 1
pound zinc sulphate in 1 gallon of water. When dissolved,
add the sulphate solution to the lime. Then add 1 gallon
of skimmilk. Make up enough for only one day's applica-
tion and keep the mixture stirred while it is being applied.
Apply with brush.
FLORIDA BANANA INDUSTRY
Compiled by L. D. Niles, July, 1924
The Citrus Industry
In view of the fact that the recent importations have
totaled around fifteen million bunches of bananas during
the year is undoubtedly one answer to the reason for the
widespread interest being taken in the commercial growing
of this fruit in Florida. This fruit, due to its adaptability,
moderate price, low cost of production, and long keeping
qualities, has become one of the most popular market
No less than one hundred and five recipes for preparing
bananas have been discovered. It is claimed for this fruit
that it is wholesome, nutritious, delicious, cheap and always
in season; that it is good when cooked or uncooked and
that it is put up and sealed by nature in a germ proof
The present banana business has developed from the first
importation said to have been made by Capt. John Chester
in the year 1804. The source of supply has been mostly
Jamaica, Cuba, Costa Rica, Honduras, Columbia, Guate-
mala, Nicaragua and the Hawaiian Islands.
Small banana plantings are common throughout South-
ern Florida and even as far north as Jacksonville. How-
ever, the general supposition that they could be grown
more cheaply in the West Indies and Central America has
apparently restricted large plantings until recently; never-
theless, the commercial success of some plantations has
awakened a general interest and quite extensive plantings
are now being made. Prospects for success seem favorable
where the varieties are well chosen and the location suit-
As Mr. Gordon Bryan sums it up: "The present banana
situation is one of increased consumption with production
not in keeping with it."
The Florida Banana Growers' Association of which Mr.
C. L. Stokley is president and Mr. W. E. Bolles secretary,
is an organization to which all growers should belong.
in selecting their locations throughout the Central
American republics, only the river bottom lands are con-
sidered. Experience covering a long period of time proves
that bananas planted along rivers overflowing the land for
short periods are capable of sustaining indefinite produc-
tion without exhaustion. While under Florida conditions
the banana is found growing in many soil types, undoubt-
edly the best commercial success will be had on lands well
supplied with plant foods, plenty of moisture, but with
sufficient drainage to carry off the excess water from the
heavy rains. Well drained, rich loam or muck soil that
will produce vegetables is ideal for bananas. They are
able to stand an occasional flood providing the drainage
is good, with an average water level some twenty inches
below the surface. Land showing indications of sourness
or lack of drainage should be properly prepared before
Sixty-seven species and over two hundred cultivated
varieties are known. They are native of Asia, Africa, Aus-
tralia and adjacent islands. Many varieties have been
tested under Florida conditions. Mr. E. N. Reasoner had
about fifty varieties under test during the 90's. The four
varieties apparently the best adapted are: the Cavendish
or Dwarf Chinese. the Lady-finger or Hart's Choice, Mar-
tinique or Gros Michel. the banana most generally im-
ported, and the Orinoco or Horse, this is really a plantain
and used mostly for cooking purposes.
The Cavendish stands close planting. It yields
abundantly with large well filled bunches, when properly
cared for and well fertilized. The flavor and texture is
good and .closely resembles the Gros Michel. Cavendish,
however, under some conditions fails to color, turning a
brown instead of yellow. On account of dwarf size and
deep rooting it withstands wind and storms.
The Lady-finger (Hart's Choice) is a strong, tall variety.
The fruit is not so large as the Cavendish but colors well
and is of good quality; also it contains more acid.
Planting may be done when convenient during the year
but best success is had during the summer months when
there is plenty of moisture to start them off rapidly.
Planting at a space of 8 x 10 equals 540 plants per acre;
planted 10 x 10 equals 430 plants per acre. The advantage
of close planting is the larger yield per acre and the plants
shade the ground. Have the places well prepared, large
holes with some compost well mixed in the bottom, filling
around the plant with top soil, well watered, and mulch if
possible; so planted the young plants should grow rapidly.
Propagation is by means of suckers or offsets from the
mother plant which are easily separated with a piece of
root attached. The best type of sucker, particularly of the
dwarf varieties, is known as the "sword sucker," which
has a broad base tapering to a narrow tip with sword
Cultivation for the first year should consist largely in
keeping the weeds down, supplying water, humus and
fertilizer, and in keeping down suckers in excess of those
To keep down suckers not wanted for planting, cut low
enough below growing leaves to prevent further growth.
In order to have a continuous supply of fruit maturing, it
appears best not to allow two suckers of the same size to
remain, but to have different sizes so you will be able
to harvest a succession of bunches. After a bunch has been
harvested allow the stock to stand a couple of weeks and
then cut off just above the ground. Chop the old stock
into small pieces and use as a mulch around the plant. The
original plant bulb sends up suckers indefinitely. They
will grow and become full sized plants and each would
bear one bunch of fruit in its turn.
Mulching with paper has been tried with good results on
young plants and is being tested further under various
conditions with prospects of encouraging results.
By feeding liberally with plant food derived from suit-
able sources from acidity it is possible to not only force
early maturity but to increase size and quality of the fruit,
and also grow a plant that will remain erect and mature a
large, heavy bunch without falling. The banana plant
yields only one bunch and then should be cut down, thus
continually furnishing humus; this, together with stable
compost, if available, and supplemented with a high-grade
commercial fertilizer (having its materials derived from
slowly available sources) will develop a strong, vigorous
plant and large bunches of choice fruit. Mr. Shanibarger
says, ''This is the secret of success with bananas, feed, feed,
feed. It increases the number of bunches of fruit, in-
creases the size, hastens maturity, increases the resistance
of the plant to cold weather. A full bearing grove should
not have less than one ton to the acre annually, and I have
applied two tons with good results and I do not believe
that even that amount is the limit of profitable fertiliza-
Fertilizing is not a form of magic, it is merely a matter
of putting into the soil those elements which are required
by a certain crop, and which the soil does not supply in
sufficient quantity to afford maximum growth and fruiting
of the plants. Because of the fact that such a large per
cent of the soils are naturally of an acidic nature, any
application of materials which have even the tendency to
increase the natural acidity should be avoided. Potassium
phosphate instead of having an acidic reaction has a basic
one, and has a tendency to decrease acidity and sweeten
the soil; which, together with its higher percentage of
available phosphate that does not leach, or combine to form
insoluble compounds, makes it especially valuable where
the rainfall is heavy or irrigation is used.
Insects and Diseases
Fortunately the varieties now growing in Florida appear
quite resistant to several insects and diseases which are
causing trouble in other fields. The banana root borer has
caused damage in some sections but owing to the energies
of the State Plant Board and the strict quarantine regula-
tions of the State there is little danger of serious injury to
the banana industry from insect and disease pests.
Scale insects are troublesome in places and it may be
necessary to use control methods for these.
The banana wilt disease or "Panama disease" has not
been found in this State so far.
Any trouble with pests not thoroughly understood should
be reported to the State Plant Board for their investiga-
Harvesting and Shipping
Bunches should be cut after reaching their full size and
are almost mature but green in color. After cutting, re-
move to shade or cover from the direct rays of the sun
to prevent burning. If intended for home use they should
be hung up in a shady or dark place out of drafts and
allowed to ripen; if the fruit is to be sent to a distant
market it must be shipped green.
Frequently home markets will take large quantities of
fruit, thus solving the marketing problem besides saving
the expense and trouble of crating.
Bananas have a delicate skin and are easily bruised;
therefore great care must be taken when packing the fruit
for shipment. The ideal way is to use a light one-trip,
non-returnable create, and plenty of hay or straw to form
a cushion around the fruit. This method entirely sur-
rounds the fruit with a heavy layer of hay or straw, and
bananas so packed will reach their destination in first-class
condition, free from bruises. The bunch is easy to unpack;
simply untie the crate top, remove the straw, hang the
bunch and pull off the create. In some localities instead
of shipping the fruit in whole heads the hands are cut off
and packed in crates or baskets.
By Claude C. Hamel, in The Florida Grower
The Chayote (Chayote adulis), pronounced chi-o-tay, is
a Guatemalan tropical perennial vine belonging to the
cucumber family, but differs in growth in that it is more
vigorous and prolific and contains but one short-lived seed
to each fruit. It is very easy to grow, and, in addition
to being edible, also makes a fine climbing vine for covering
fences and arbors, its numerous flowers being rich in honey
and its roots containing a wholesome food comparable
to the true yam. The young shoots make good green
vegetables and the leaves and vines good fodder. It will
produce fruit for several years and roots will live over
winter as far north as South Carolina, but it is being
grown mostly in Florida and Louisiana at present.
Soil should be a well-drained, sandy loam, enriched by
well-rotted manure or compost. Ground should be dug or
plowed deep and if drainage is not good seed can be planted
By planting two of each variety in adjoining hills the
yield will be increased. Pollination takes place through
the agency of insects, especially bees, and, as flowers are
rich in honey, the yield in fruit will be materially in-
creased by the presence of bees. Plant sprouted seeds in
the spring as soon as danger from frost is past. Plant
about 10 feet apart and train on fences or trellises for best
results as vines will run from 30 to 50 feet or more and
will yield from 50 to 100 fruits, averaging a pound each.
During dry periods vine must be watered, as it will not
Chayotes are gross feeders and should be supplied with
a wheelbarrow load to each plant of well-rotted manure,
and in poor soils this should be supplemented by a
standard commercial fertilizer with high potash content,
applying two or three handful to each plant and work
well into soil.
Vine growth may be stimulated by working about 5
ounces of nitrate of soda in the soil around the plants.
Hardwood ashes supply potash and lime, which together
fertilize the soil and keep it sweet. These fertilizers should
be applied in the spring and later applications given as
Seeds are sprouted before planting by placing on shelves
in a warm, dry place and as soon as sprouts appear should
be placed in the ground in a horizontal position, just below
surface of ground. Never plant them on end.
The fruit is pear-shaped, somewhat corrugated, and con-
tains a single flat seed. There are both smooth and spiny
and white and green varieties. The ivory white varieties
have the best appearance for marketing. At maturity the
seed is embedded in the middle of the fruit and is entirely
enclosed, but before germination the seed pushes farther
toward the base of the fruit and rootlets rise from the
emerged hypocotyl. The chayote, in nature, seems to be
the only fruit which normally continues alive after the
germination of the contained seed and after separation
from the parent plant. The fruit has a better flavor than
squash, can be used as a salad, stuffed, baked, creamed,
fried or cooked with meats, and to secure the best flavor
they should be picked before maturity. The flesh is firmer
than either the eggplant or squash and fruit can be picked
in fall and stored for use the same as the squash. The
Guatemalan Indians pinch off the ends of the seeds and
bury the chayotes in the ground, where they are said to
keep in excellent condition for several weeks. Fruit ships
well and may be shipped in bulk in vegetable crates,
wrapped and well packed, cold storage being unnecessary.
Chayotes are sometimes attacked by fungous diseases
but no satisfactory control measures are known at present
aside from proper cultural requirements. The melon and
pickle worms, which attack fruits, may be held in check
by spraying with arsenate of lead. Plant lice can be con-
trolled with nicotine preparations. Root-knot bothers at
times but plants seem to withstand this disease for one or
The chayote is but little known in northern markets as
yet, but has a steady sale in Europe and has quite a de-
mand in the markets of New Orleans and many more de-
desirable types will probably be found upon completion
of the experiments with this plant being carried on by the
United States Department of Agriculture through the
Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction.
Creamed Chayotes. The fruit, previously boiled in
salted water and diced, sliced or segmented as desired, is
excellent when served with a cream, butter or tomato sauce.
Fried Chayotes. Cut crosswise into slices nearly a half
inch in thickness, pare, dip into bread or cracker crumbs
or a beaten egg, and fry slowly in a covered fry pan until
tender. Sprinkle with salt and a little sugar if desired.
Serve hot. Previously boiled chayotes are excellent when
fried as above.
Stuffed Chayote. Cut in half lengthwise; boil until soft,
remove pulp and seed without breaking the skin; mash
pulp and mix thoroughly with a little onion and parsley,
and fry until brown; add this to the chayote pulp, replace
the mixture in the skins, smooth over the tops with butter,
and bake until well browned.
Salads. Because of its delicate texture and mild flavor
it is especially desirable for use in salads.
Prepare as for creamed chayotes, cool and serve on
lettuce leaves with mayonnaise or French dressing, or the
boiled and diced fruit may be served in a mixed salad with
tomatoes, celery, or other vegetables.
Chayote pickles. Young chayotes make excellent
pickles, either sweet, sour or dilled. Any standard recipe
for preparing cucumber pickles will be found satisfactory
in preparing choyate pickles, with the exception that chay-
otes are usually cooked for a few minutes before being