Volume 85 Number S
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered January 81, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-clas
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.
ST..J. APPLARO. PINTIR. TALLANASSEE. FLORI
The poultry industry is on the increase in Florida, but
not to the extent that the demand for poultry products
in the State is supplied. The poultry exhibits at the fairs
in Florida grade up with the very best in the whole coun-
try. One of the drains on the income of the people of the
State is for imported poultry products. Successful poul-
trymen have shown the possibility of making this indus-
try a paying business and it is possible for others to make
as great a. success without crowding the market. So long
as carloads of eggs are shipped in from Minnesota and
other northern States there is opportunity for increase of
the egg output in Florida and save the freight from a
distance. So long as carloads of dressed poultry are
shipped in from north of the Ohio River there is oppor-
tunity for local poultrymen to succeed in the dressed
poultry business. So long as capons bring fifty cents a
pound there is money in this end of the poultry business.
So long as it is possible to make yearly contracts for
either eggs or dressed poultry at special prices above the
average market price there is money in the poultry busi-
ness. This above-the-market-price method of marketing
is quite common and places the poultry husbandman in
class A as a salesman of his products.
The attempt has been made in this Hand Book of Poul-
try to give such information as will be of prime interest
to the poultryman and of material benefit to him in the
conduct of his industry.
Special mention and thanks are due to Harry A. Lewis
and the J. B. Lippincott Publishing Company for the
articles quoted from Productive Poultry Husbandry. Also
to Mr. Louis A. Stahmer and the Poultry Tribune for the
articles credited to this author and the magazine. The
special poultry Bulletins of the National Department of
Agriculture have been used freely and full credit given
in each instance.
POULTRY-A BILLION DOLLAR CROP
By Zella Wigent (Agricultural Extension Department of
the International Harvester Company).
Most of us have poultry. We like our eggs for break-
fast and fried chicken every twice in a while. Poultry
produces wholesome food which our family needs-this
alone is reason enough for keeping it.
But aside from this, poultry is an important item in onu
farm business. Study these figures:
In the United States in 1920 there were 360,000,000
They produced 1,656,000,000 dozen eggs.
The chickens and eggs sold during the year 1919
brought $1,048,000,000. This was 39 per cent of the total
value of all live stock products.
Poultry is worth one-third as much as corn, half as
much as wheat, as much as cotton, and more than oats.
It falls only a little short of being worth as much as hogs.
Ninety per cent of this billion dollars goes to farmers
or rather to farmers' wives. These good wives spend it
for groceries, clothing, lights, washing machines, rugs,
pictures, books, phonographs. Take the poultry money
out of a farm community and the country town merch-
ants would wonder what happened to their business.
Poultry turns waste into profit-waste grain, grass,
weed seed, insects, and scraps from the table and garden.
A farm without some poultry, a garden, and a little
fruit is not a real farm. When farm business is good the
poultry and garden products more than feed the family
and leave the money crop clear profit; when farm busi-
ness is bad, they feed the family and save the day.
Poultry is more than a necessary nuisance-more than
a side issue-more than a woman's-and-kid's job. It is
an important and profitable branch of our farm business.
The hen fits in with diversified farming-the only kind
of farming that brings permanent success to an individual
or to a community.
Let us help mother make good with the hens. Let us
give her decent equipment, encourage her to get better
stock, lend her a hand with the heavy work.
Preface ..................... . 1
Introduction ................... ... ------- 2
Contents ........................................ -- ----- 3
Place of Poultry in the Animal Kingdom ...................... 5
Standard Classification-........- ............-.. ... 7
Advertising ......-............................... ...... 9
Records of Florida Poultrymen--..........--. ........... 12
L. Blum ......................... .... ... -- 12
O. E. Smith.......................... -......---- ---- 14
Florida Ranch and Dairy Corporation............................ 15
W illiam Sturat Hill................................ 17
H G. M orton.................. ........ ......-. 17
H. Schroder ...................---------------- 19
Irvin and Sons....... ...... ..... ...- --- 19
Poultry House Construction.-...-..... ........... .. 21
Breeds of Poultry.... ................ ........... .... 27
The Jungle Fowl........ ............. .. .. .....- 27
W yandottes ..... ......... ............ ....... ..--- 32
Eiglish Games .............. 39
Rhode Island Reds................................. --- 42
Light Brahm as ............ .......... ...... ...----. 46
Poultry Hints -. -............................ 55
Culling for Egg Production...... --.............-...... 60
Poultry-A Major Industry in Florida ............... 65
Standard Rations --..... ................ ..... .....-....... 67
Outline of Poultry Facts...........-......... .............-- -- 70
Natural and Artificial Brooding of Chickens............................. 77
Remedies for M ites.................. ........... ... 4 90
Diarrhea ..-..... .................................. .. 106
Diagnose of Disease............................... ... 111
Remedy for Tape Worm............ ............. ........... 112
Ultra Violet Rays for Chicks --------....-- 114
Turkey Raising ....... .......-- ............ .. -....... 118
Ducks V. S. Pullets............ ..................... 142
Goose Raising ................................---- ---- ---- ....... 146
Natural and Artificial Incubation of Hens' Eggs.................... 151
Feeding Laying Hens for Higher Egg Production....... ........ 169
Some Causes of Egg Spoilage............. ....... ..... --. 173
Dressing Table Poultry......... ........ ............. ......- ..-- -. 177
What's a Capon and Why.......... --............. ..... ... 181
Cut Out Sweepstake Prizes.......-....................... 183
Awards Florida Fair Poultry Show, Jacksonville, Nov.
20-29th, 1924, and Tampa, 1925 ..-...... .......------- 184
Directory of Clubs ----............ - ....-.. ..... 202
Poultry Journals ................. -------- 205
PICTURE POULTRY BUILDING-TAMPA FAIR.
PLACE OF POULTRY IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
Productive Poultry Husbandry, by Harry R. Lewis,
Lippincott's Farm Manuals.
As members of Gallus bankiva are, undoubtedly, the
leading ancestors of our domestic breeds of today, it is in-
teresting to trace the place which poultry occupy in the
animal kingdom and to determine their relation to other
types of birds. The following analysis gives in an abbre-
viated form the place of poultry in the animal kingdom:
Kingdom, Animal. consisting of animals with cellular
Series, Metazoa: tissues and true eggs.
Branch, Vertebrata: animals having an internal skeleton,
backbone and dorsal nervous cord
which is separated from the body
cavity; circulation complete; limbs
not more than tour.
Division II: Craniota: animals of the sub-kingdom Verte-
brata having skull, heart, and brain.
Province II, Sauropsida: Craniota with amninon and allantois;
no gills; epidermal scales or feath-
Class IV, Aves: true birds; feathered; four limbs, hind
pair for progression on land or
water, front pair for flight; no
teeth; three eyelids; heart with
four cavities; lungs.
Sub-class II, Carinatae: birds having a keel or breastbone and
Order VI, Rasores:: an order of Carinatae which are ter-
restrial in their habits, having short,
stout legs, suited to scratching; and
with stout, arched beak for seed
eating. Gallus is a true representa-
tive of this order, and is the ances-
tor of our domestic fowls.
The class Aves, or birds, represents one of the most
clearly defined classes of the whole animal kingdom, hav-
ing a great many divisions or sub-classes. They are
aqIuatic, terrestrial, and aerial in their habits: all types,
however, show great similarity of structure. The order
Rasores, to which our domestic fowls belong, contains a
great many birds which are very valuable to man. This
order, in general, is characterized by short, arched beak;
short concave wings, unfit for extended flight; stout legs
of medium length ; four toes, usually three in front, these
being united by a short web. The features of the body
are large and coarse as compared to birds of flight. The
males have brighter colored plumage than the female:;.
Their main feed is grain. Common representatives of this
order are domestic chickens, turkeys, pheasants, part-
ridges, and grouse.
TWO CLASSIFICATIONS OF POULTRY.
Two general classifications of poultry may be made:
First is the so-called standard classification. A book on
this is edited and published by the American Poultry As-
sociation. The points in this classification are intended
to guide judges and breeders of exhibition poultry. The
book does not serve as a practical guide to the economic
points of the breeds. This classification is based prima-
rily upon the origin and distribution of the breeds, and
not so much upon their economic importance. In a great
many cases their economic possibilities have been the di-
rect outgrowth of environment at their place of origin.
The second classification might be termed utility. It
is based on the economic possibilities which the different
breeds offer for market purposes.
Either of these classifications must be relatively arbi-
The standard classification of domestic poultry in-
cludes all classes, representing thirty-eight different
breeds which contain 109 varieties. It is impossible to
give here a detailed description of each. The breeds and
varieties are given in a classified form; this is followed
by an outline of their historical development and distribu-
STANDARD CLASSIFICATION OF DOMESTIC FOWLS.
Class No. and Breed Variety
1. American .........Plymouth Rock: Barred, white, buff, sil-
ver pencilled, part-
ridge and Columbian.
Wyandotte: Silver, golden, white,
buff, black, partridge,
Java: Black and mottled.
Dominique: Rose Comb.
Rhode Island Red: Single comb and rose
Buckeye: Pea comb.
Rhode Island White:
Jersey Black Giants:
2. Asiatic .............. Brahma:
3. Mediterranean Leghorn:
4. English .............Dorking:
5. Polish ..............Cornish:
Light and dark.
Buff, partridge, white,
Black and white.
Single-comb bro w n.
rose-comb brown, sin-
gle confb white, red-
comb white, single-
comb buff, rose-conmo
black, silver, and red
Single-c o mb black,
rose-comb black, sin-
gle-comb white, rose-
comb white, and sin-
Single comb and rose-
White, silver gray, and
Single-comb buff, sin-
gle-comb) black, sin-
gle-combv white, and
Dark, white, and white-
Speckled and red.
6. Hamburg .....
7. French ............. Houdan:
8. Continental ......Campine:
9. Game and
Game Bantam.... Game:
10. Oriental ........... Sumatra:
11. Ornamental Rose Comb:
White crested black,
bearded golden, beard-
ed silver, bearded
white, buff-laced, non-
bearded golden, non-
bearded silver, and
white, and black.
Mottled and white.
Silver and golden.
Blac k breasted red,
d u c k wing, silver
red pyle, white and
Blac k breasted red,
brown red, golden
duck-wing, b i r c h e n,
red pyle, white, and
Golden and Silver.
White and black.
Light and dark.
Buff, partridge, white,
Black tailed, w h i t e,
black, and gray.
Bearded white, buff-
la c e d, and non-
The advantages of advertising must be decided in each
case by the poultryman himself. It is undoubtedly true
that advertising pays when it is rightly done; yet an im-
mense amount of money is wasted annually by poor or
untimely advertising, It pays best when one has a sur-
plus stock to sell with no available market. If well
planned and timely, it leads to and greatly increases sales,
which means a larger profit or, perhaps the changing of
an apparent deficit into a profit. On the whole, advertis-
ing pays only when well planned, and when there is a
large business supplying an abundance of products and
customers are few. It will always pay in an enterprise
which depends upon a few sales of choice specimens, for
in no other way could possible purchasers be apprised of
the existence of such products.
HOW TO ADVERTISE.
There are many methods of legitimate and profitable
advertising-so many in fact, and so simple, that most
poultrymen entirely overlook them, and think that the
only way to advertise is to spend a lot of money, with no
assurance of a proportionate return.
The following are some of the ways that may be profit-
ably employed on most poultry farms:
1. A farm and home of neat and attractive appearance.
2. Neat and attractive appearance of team and wagons
when on the road.
3. An attractive and "catchy" name for the farm.
4. A conspicuous yet neat farm bulletin board, on
which products for sale may be listed, and attract the
attention of passers-by.
5. The ownership of birds having heavy egg records,
and the publication of such records.
6. The exhibition of pure bred stock at poultry shows
and fairs, and the winning of prizes.
7. A neat and attractive label on all shipping crates.
8. Clearly-printed letterheads without an excess of
9. Printed circulars and cards which can be mailed to
customers, displayed on exhibition cages at shows, and
enclosed with all correspondence.
10. Printed blotters, which can be enclosed with cor-
respondence, and keep the breeder and his work con-
stantly before the eye of the prospective customer.
11. Using advertising space in magazines and news-
12. Agreeable manners toward all persons manifesting
interest in one's business. This is often overlooked.
Winner at Tampa fair, 1925.
RECORDS OF FLORIDA POULTRYMEN.
1924 TANCKRED POULTRY RECORD
I I I
Date Aug. Sept. | Oct. Nov. Dec.
1I i I 61 I
1 ........... .-.-- -- .-- .- ........... 4 6 51| b
3 8..6.............. ------... -......... 2 6 71 3
4 .............. ................. I 6 6 61 7
S .................... ................. .... 6 81 61 5
6 ................ ..-............ .... 1 5 8 4] 7
7 .............................. ................ .... 5 8 61 4
8 ---- ................. ..... .............. .. 5 81 71 7
9 ......... ...... .... ............... .. 71 8 3 6
10 ........................ ....................... 4 71 9
11 -.-.................---...... -........- 5 9 4 6
12 .-................ ........ -....--- ......... 6 4 4 7
13 ..................... ... ..... .......... 5 7 8 7
14 .......................... .......... .. ... 6 S 4 5
15 ........................................... ... .... 5 6 7 7
16 ............................ ...... .......... .... 7 8 9
17 .......................... ........ ......... 1 7 7 6 8
18 ............................................. 1 7 6 5 5
19 ............................................. .. 3 7 6 6
20 ................ ...... ............ 1 7 7 61 8
21 -............... -.... .. .. ....-.... 1 7 7 6 7
22 ..................--- .. .............I 2 7 7 41 7
23 ................................... .............. 2 7 7 7 8
24 .................... .... ..........7 5 6 3
25 .......... ............ ... ... ..... .. 3 7 6 71 8
26 ............................... ........ ..... 2 4 8 5 8
27 .................................... .............. 3 61 9 8 6
28 .................... ..... ..... .......... 2 61 41 21 6
29 .-.. ... ......... ...-... ...... 3 7 6 6 8
30 .... -..... ...-... .....- ........ 3 6 8 2 7
31 -.... ......... ........ .. ........ 4 5 5 .... 7
Total Eggs ............... ........I 281 1791 2151 1681 205
Total Hens ....... ................. 101 101 101 101 10
Average per hen per month.... 21 181 22 171 20
S T I I I
Date Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
1 ......................... 9 3 7 8 8 51
2 ....................|.... 5 5 4 8 7 81
3 ......................I- 7 7 7 8 5 51
4 ....... .... 6 5 7 8 81 7 .
5' ..... ....... ....... 5 6 6 7 51 6
6 ---.. .... 9 7 6 6 7 5
7 .................... ..- 3 778 7 6 8 .
8 ............. ...... 7 5 6 7 6 6
9 .......................... 7 5 6 8 7 6
10 ......................... 6 7 5 7 8 9
11 ........... ........... 5 7 6 8 7 9
12 ...................... 8 5 6 6 7 .
13 .......................... 7 8 8 7 8
14 ..................... 4 5 5 6 7 -
15 .......................... 8 8 8 7 9 .
16 ......................... 8 5 7 4 7
17 ........................ 6 6 3 7 7
18 .---- --................... 5 8 8 7 9
19 ........................ 7 5 6 6 7
20 ........................ 5 8 5 6 9
21 ....................... 7 77 8 9 I .
22 ......... ............ 5 6 6 8 6
23 ........................ 3 7 8 7 7
24 .. ................... 7 8 6| 6 8
25 .. ..... ...... --- 8 6 7 9 8
26 .................. 7 8 5 8 4
27 ..........-- .............- 31 7 8 8 6
28 ........----- .........-- J 5 7 6 7 5
29 .......................... 6 .... 8 7 6
30 .......................... 7 .... 4 7 5
31 ......................... 7 7 .. 71 61
Total Eggs.... 1931 1781 2001 2131 2141 .... _
Total Hens....| 101 101 101 .... .... ...I
Average per hen I
per month....... 20 18 20 21 21
Owner: L. Blum, Kendall, Dade County, Florida.
Stock bought as day old chicks March 20, 1924; cost $2.00 each.
25 chicks bought, 11 pullets and 12 cockerels raised.
One pullet died before maturity.
Cockerels used as breeders.
First egg laid August 17th, 1924.
Complete record herewith until present date, June 11th, 1925.
Average price for eggs received sixty-five cents per dozen.
Average cost of feed per hen per month twenty cents.
Submitted by J. S. Rainey, County Agent, Miami, Florida.
RECORD ACCOUNT OF POULTRY OWNED BY ORIN
E. SMITH, COCONUT GROVE, FLORIDA.
1920 Feed Eggs Chickens Total Credit
November .....$48.30 $48.61 $22.31 $70.96 $22.66
December ....... 45.20 65.45 45.17 110.62 55.42
January .......... 42.80 85.15 31.90 117.05 74.25
February ........ 20.35 84.85 12.25 97.10 76.75
March ................. 19.00 61.12 3.50 64.62 45.62
April .................... 26.10 40.82 28.80 69.62 43.52
May ....................... 11.15 27.00 44.85 71.85 60.70
USED ON TABLE.
1920 Eggs laid
November .................. 7.20 1.25 9.45 61 doz.
December .............. 7.50 .75 8.25 76 doz.
January ....................... 5.00 1.25 6.25 94 doz.
February ............... 5.40 2.50 7.90 104Y doz.
M arch ...................... 4.50 2.50 7.00 100 doz.
April ........................... 2.00 2.00 4.00 83 doz.
M ay ............................... 5.00 1.00 6.00 651/ doz.
November-130 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13
December-125 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13
January-100 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13
capons. Capons sold last of month.
February-90 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13
March-90 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13 capons.
April-80 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13 capons.
Sold one rooster.
May-70 hens and pullets, 3 roosters and 13 capons.
Reduced hens last of month to 60.
No credit given for droppings.
(About 300 Chickens Laid 4,308 Eggs-359 Dozen.)
E gg sales ........ .......
Directors consumed ........
F eed .................................
Labor ...... ....................
Interest on investment.........
C ost per dozen..............................
Sales price per dozen ............
. ...... ... ... .......... $191.07
.. ..... .. ...... ... 15 .0 0
.................. ...... 38.3c
Record furnished by the Florida Ranch & Dairy Corpo-
Flock of H. G. Morton, Jacksonville.
STATEMENT OF POULTRY ACCOUNT, BY WILLIAM
STUART HILL, 1159 S. W. ELEVENTH STREET.
(For Five Months and Ten Days of 1921, to June 10.)
Hens Eggs Cost price Profit
January ........ 6 81 $2.23 $8.10 $5.87
.February ............... 10 194 5.02 15.52 10.50
IM ai h? .................... 12 224 8.68 13.44 4.98
April ................... 8 157 4.41 8.63 4.22
M ay .......................... 14 225 5.95 11.25 5.30
June 10 .................. 14 63 1.50 3.15 1.65
During the same period, I raised 65 chicks worth $50, at
a cost of $19.27, leaving a profit of $30.73; this cost in-
cludes the price charged for the eggs set at market fig-
ures. Profit on eggs and profit on young chicks makes
flock aggregate of $63.23 in less than six months.
Average eggs per hen for January ........... ......................... 13.5
Average eggs per hen for February. ............................... 19.4
Average eggs per hen for March ...................................... 18.67
Average eggs per hen for April.......................................... 19.62
Average eggs per hen for M ay............................................... 16.07
Average eggs per hen for June (ten days).................... 4.5
Flock Percentage by Months.
January ............................... 43.5 A pril ........... .......... 65.4
February ...-........................- 69.2 M ay -............ .. ... .......... .... 51.8
M arch .................. ...... 60.2 June .............................. 45.7
Flock average for first five months of 1921, per month,
18.81. Hens laid during these five months at the rate of
223.72 eggs per year each.
DINSMORE FOR THE YEAR 1924.
H ens sold .... .............. .................. .... ...... ............. $ 228.33
F ry ers ........................ ........................................ 2 0 3 .4 9
E g g s .................................................. ........... 2,97 9 .7 1
E expenses .................................................... 1,934.22
- 5 '
Ir .. _
Stanton's Poultry Farm, DeFuniak Springs, Florida
Expenses, including labor, pipe, lumber, cement,
brick bats for concrete floors, roof paint for
colony houses and all repairs-and 1,000 baby
Chicks ...............................-..................... ........... .... $ 417.55
\F eed bills for 1924 ............................................ ....................... 1,516.67
My place is not a farm, but 14 lote. So hard to get at
m:nv investments but would say it was about $3,500 and
Shlad S()0 iens most of the year.
1H. G. MORTON.
We started the Wonder Poultry Farm fifteen years ago,
almost without money. We worked from the ears up, and
today we have 1,400 White Leghorns. Last year the hens
yielded a net profit of $2.58 per hen. Five hundred pul-
lets laid an average of 204 eggs each in 365 days, while
the hens laid 173. We have thirty acres of land, with
home and equipment. The chickens paid for all of it.
We live cheaper and happier in Florida than anywhere
Wonder Poultry Farm,
East Lake, Florida.
In 1921 we did not believe that it would be possible for
us to take care of this large volume of business. Since
then we have bought two new farms and have so enlarged
our flock that we were able, in 1924, to produce one hun-
dred thousand baby chicks, every one of which was better
bred and better hatched than the best we could produce
We have better birds, better equipment and a more ex-
perienced, better paid force of men with which to produce
chicks for 1925. Last but not least we have one more year
of experience in running the South's largest poultry farm.
All these things are concentrated to produce "better baby
chicks" and we are selling them at the same old price,
$20 per hundred or $180 per thousand.
IRVIN & SONS,
Chicken house on farm of R. C. Waterhouse, near Miami.
POULTRY HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
Irvin & Sons, Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan.
Poultry house construction has always been a fruitful
subject for disagreements. Particularly in Florida, where
there is a wide difference in weather conditions in differ-
ent sections, it is difficult to settle on a type of house that
-i majority of the poultrymen will accept as best.
In our fourteen years of poultry work at Pinebreeze we
liave built every type from a reconstructed piano box to
our 16x48 feet cement floored units. We are glad to
offer our ideas on the subject, not as final authority, but
for what they may be worth.
The main issue is to decide how many fowls are to be
housed in one unit. On one extreme are those who use
very small units housing about 20 fowls. This means that
for an ordinary commercial flock of 1,000 layers, there
will be 50 houses, 50 water pans to be cleaned and filled,
50 mash troughs to be filled and 50 little yards with 200
corners to grow up to weeds. There will be an endless
number of gates and hinges to give trouble. The labor
cost on such a farm would more than absorb any possible
advantage gained in such a layout.
On the other hand attempts have been made to house
1000 hens in a building 150 feet long. This reduces labor
costs and inconvenience to a minimum and in a country of
light rainfall this system has been fairly successful. It
always results in a lower egg yield per bird for, in a flock
of 1000 fowls, there are many timid ones that are crowded
away from feed. These birds are unproductive in a large
flock, while in a smaller flock, where competition is not
so keen they will be profitable producers. The saving in
labor might possibly offset the loss of eggs but there is a
more serious objection. Whatever number of fowls may
be in one house will spend practically all their daylight
hours on the ground within 200 feet of the house. In the
large houses this means that the manure produced by 1000
hens is deposited daily in this same small area.
Three-fourths of the sickness that develops in poultry is
carried in the droppings. A certain amount of infection
from this source is unavoidable and not dangerous but
when the droppings from a thousand fowls have accumu-
lated for years on an area of about an acre the infection
Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan.
They space lhose widely at Iinebreeze. Note the splendid grass range. This type of fair Note ventilator'' dis 'eai" indefinitely.
will become so great as to make the flock subnormal in
health and unprofitable as producers.
In a dry climate this result of heavily stocked ground
may be put off for many years by double yarding, plow-
ing, liming and careful cleaning of the soil. In Florida
where the normal rainfall is an inch a week, overstocked
land is pretty certain to mean a short-lived, unprofitable
)ur experience indicates that a house 16 feet wide and
Feet long. housing 330 layers is the largest and best
init that a commercial farm can use. If such houses are
spaced 200 feet apart no fences need be used and the flocks
will not mix to any extent. Three hundred and thirty
fowls will not keep the ground bare for a great area
around any house and a good Bermuda sod can be main-
tained over most of the range. A flock of 1000 hens can
easily be cared for in three such units and we find them
the logical compromise between the very small houses and
the long buildings. They combine, as far as possible, the
advantages of both and escape the main disadvantages of
In Florida's warm climate it is advisable to build with
plenty of room above the roosts and with extra provision
for ventilation. The extra height permits the body heat of
the fowls to rise and the extra ventilation helps carry
the heat away. This is a reversal of the Northern problem
of conserving body heat to combat low temperatures.
We use 7 feet upright on brick piers to support the
plates. The rafters are given a good pitch to provide extra
room for air overhead. The posts used to support the
front of the dropping boards are extended to carry an
extra plate, near the center of the house. This plate
makes rafter ties or collar joists unnecessary. These joists
provide places where the hens will roost, to the annoyance
of the caretaker.
The dropping boards are 42 inches from the floor and 54
inches wide. Four roosts the length of the house are suf-
ficient. This makes the dropping board narrow enough
to be easily cleaned and it is high enough so that the floor
will not be dark at the rear of the house. An opening of
1 foot is left, just below the plate, in the rear wall of the
house. This opening is covered in cool weather but left
open, for extra ventilation, in warm weather.
Double tiers of nests are placed at each end of the house
Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan.
Interior view showing extra plate near center of roof, eliminating rafter ties. t the rear.
and two mash troughs are placed on benches. This leaves
the entire floor area clear for scratching room. A cement
floor is convenient and desirable but a dirt floor will do if
it is dry and kept cleaned at regular intervals.
Such a house as this may be built by a beginner with
poultry and converted into a brooder by putting in tem-
porary partitions and using building paper and some extra
Ssash to make a stove room. By proper management 800
eAicks may be brooded in such a house. The cockerels
wl'l be sold as broilers and the pullets can be brought to
iraturity in Ihe permanent quarters. The material used in
inaking brooder rooms can be used for the same purpose,
Sin another building, the following year.
Under most circumstances such a unit may be built for
/ $300. It makes a substantial, business-like looking struc-
ture that might be used for other purposes if necessary.
The house is simple to build and stock is provided with
good surroundings at a minimum of expense and effort on
the part of the owner.
To those who are inclined to economize on floor space we
would say, "Don't place too much faith in the climate.
Nature left Florida wonderfully well adapted to poultry
culture but don't depend on fortunate weather conditions
to take the place of reasonable house space." The poultry-
man who assumes that nothing but roosting quarters are
necessary will encounter some Northeast drizzles that will
cost him more in egg yield, in one year, than the extra floor
space will cost.
A charge of $1.00 per hen for comfortable, permanent
housing is little enough and $300 will provide 330 hens
with quarters that will permit them to do their best. More
than this is extravagance and less than this is poor business
-*<* -w i .^* "' "l. <^ - .. - '-
- ~ .- -" :^*>',^ -'-&; *TT . a ----''-- ^''w t *
-e -. , z. .-. -
Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan.
General view of 18x48-loot poultry house, showing type of 'd1strniction.
BREEDS )OF POI'LTRY.
Is Tr Il: .IN IE 'O IL\\i'I THE ANCLESTOR OF ALL OUR BREEDS
History meager on the subject-Few different breeds 100
yei'rs ago-Chas. Darwin, the noted scientist, claims
G(allus Bankiva is ancestor of all our different breeds
,''Plants and Animals Under Domestication"-Many
/ breeders of today do not accept his theory.
By Louis A. Stahmer, in Poultry Tribune.
It is interesting to read old agricultural books and to
know how the interests so common today regarding poul-
try in general were regarded in times past. In an old
book of 1834, we ran across the following on the origin of
"We have no history so ancient as the domestication of
the common cock and hen. The cock was supposed to be
of Persian origin but the species has since been propa-
gated and introduced into general use throughout the
whole world from East to West, from the burning climate
of India to the frozen zone.
"The principal varieties in use of the common species
of fowls are Dunghill fowls, Game, Dorking, Poland, Ban-
tam, Chittagong, Malay Shake Bag, Spanish, and the end-
less sub-varieties. The common Dunghill fowls need no
description. They are of medium size and every variety
of color and can be found in every country."
Things have changed considerably in the poultry world.
The fancier of today is an intelligent and close student of
natural history and likes to read about all of the different
varieties of poultry, their mating, type, color, and the
production of new breeds.
One of the most common expressions heard at the poul-
try shows is: "I never knew there were so many differ-
i;t breeds of chickens! I wonder where they all came
from and how they originated." We remember well the
impression we received on our first visit to a poultry
show, and when years later we read the chapter on "Re-
version to the Jungle Fowl" in Charles Darwin's book,
"Animals and Plants Under Domestication" (some thirty
years ago), we were firmly convinced that he was right,
and that the Gallus Bankiva was the ancestor of all fowls.
To make sure of our belief and learn at first hand from r
Nature whether there was any truth in the matter, we
went to South Water street in Chicago, where more poul- I
try is handled and sold each day than anywhere in the
United States. We had an idea that if there was such a
thing as reversion back to the jungle fowl, these old farm
chickens that had been kept on free range without "any
selection as to type and color, would at least exhibit\a
trace. Sure enough, we saw so many red hackled anl(
saddled birds that showed a conglomeration of other
colors on other parts of the body, that our belief was
strengthened and we accepted Charles Darwin's theory
on the origin of the domestic fowl in toto.
The Darwin Theory.
We think differently now, however, and in the latter
part of this article we will give a few reasons why we can-
not accept in full the theory of one of the world's great-
est scientists. The following is Charles Darwin's conclu-
sion on the origin of the domestic fowl and can be found
in Volume No. 1 in the Seventh Chapter, which deals with
"In concluding this part of my subject, I may repeat
that there exists one widely ranging variety of Gallus,
namely Gallus Bankiva, which can be tamed, produces
fertile offspring when crossed with common fowls, and
closely resembles in its whole structure, plumage and
voice, the Game breed. Hence, it may be safely ranked
as the parent of this, the most typical domesticated breed.
* We have also seen that several of the most dis-
tinct breeds occasionally or habitually closely resemble in
plumage Gallus Bankiva, and that the crossed offspring
of other breeds which are not thus colored show a
stronger or weaker tendency to revert to this same plu-
mage. * Hence it may be concluded that not only
the Game breed, but that all breeds are probably the de-
scendants of the Malayan or Indian varieties of Gallus
Last summer the writer and Mr. Frank Platt, editor of
the American Poultry Journal, made a trip to the Fields'
Columbian Museum of Chicago to study Gallus Baukiva
and other jungle fowls, etc., and through the courtesy of
the curator, we were permitted to look at the skins of a
number of jungle fowls that were in a private collection
of a noted hunter. We were shown birds from India and
also from Ceylon, and the variation as to the color of the
\ plumage in the males was very little and all we could
notice was the difference in the color of their legs; those
fi-om India were of a brownish cast and those from Cey-
lon pnore on a bluish willow order. One peculiarity, how-
evejr, which the writer noticed, was the shape of the spurs
arnd the scales of the legs. Here and in the comb, we be-
Vieve, is the principal difference between the wild breed
and that of the domestic. To look at the legs of the
jungle fowl we can immediately notice that it belongs to
a wild species, as we have never seen rectangular scales
on a domestic fowl; the spurs were black, thin and very
sharp. The shape of the comb also differs in that the
blade is wider at the end and narrows down to where it
joins the beak.
Effects of Environment.
Environment, cliinate and food in the course of time
will not only affect the size and shape of all wild animals
if we try to domesticate same, but it will also to a certain
extent produce a variation in the color as a result of the
forces of Nature in wild animals to adopt a color scheme
that harmonizes with their surroundings-in other words
for protection. We have abundant proof of this variation
of the coloring found in specimens of the same breed-
for instance, quails, partridges and other similar birds
found in different parts of our country.
We were also fortunate to see Gallus Bankiva and other
jungle fowl under domestication in the yards of Homer
Davenport, the great cartoonist, some years ago, and we
noticed that the shape of the male birds had evidently
already undergone a certain amount of variation in that
they carried their tails much higher than the wild variety.
We have further proof that domestication will affect
the type and color of other domestic fowls, for instance,
the wild turkey will assume the appearance and look
identically like the tame variety in a few years of confine-
ment. We have here actual proof that the wild variety
is the original parent of the domesticated breed.
There are a number of breeds of Jungle Fowls which at
one time or another have been mentioned as the probable
ancestors of our domestic breeds, but practical experi-
ments in crossing the wild varieties with tame fowls has
eliminated all but Gallus Bankiva. The Gallus Bankiva
is an inhabitant of the most secluded mountain ranges of i
Assam, Burmah, Siam and the Islands of Sumatra andt
Java. They are easily domesticated and breed true to
They are a striking resemblance of the Old English
Black Red variety of Game. They are considerably
smaller, however, and the average measurement of a full
grown cock is seldom more than twenty-six (26) inches,
and the weight about two and a half (21/2) pounds. The
average length of the hen is about seventeen (17) inches,
of which the tail measures seven (7) inches. The wings
have a spread of about two (2) feet. The plumage is
thick and closely fitting. The hackle feathers are a deep,
brilliant orange, ending in a paler shade where they flow
over the back, and they show very little striping, which
is also the case with the ends of the saddle feathers. The
color of the hen is very similar to our Brown Leghorns,
except that they are coarser stippled "and show shafting.
The colored illustration accompanying this article comes
close to the proportions of the stuffed specimens which
we have seen, and the color is also as good a represen-
tation as is possible to obtain with four-color printing
It is said that the wild hen lays about fifteen (15) eggs
before she sets and if by accident the setting is destroyed,
she will lay another setting and even a third if the season
is not too far advanced and instinct seems to tell her
whether there will be sufficient food for the young.
Que-tioning Darwin's Theory.
In the beginning of this article we said we had changed
our belief regarding Gallus Bankiva being the original
ancestors of all our fowls. We have changed our belief
for the following reasons:
First: There was no incentive or interest for people to
raise fancy poultry thousands of years ago, when the
woods were full of game and the streams teemed with
fishes; when Nature provided food for anyone who de-
sired to help himself. It is true, fowls are mentioned in
history thousands of years ago, but it is strange that no
pictures or hieroglyphics show other specimens than the
goose or duck. That these fowls were held in high esteem
could be noted when the excavation of old King Tut's
tomb was made, who has been buried for the last three
thousand years. It was found that the duck's head was
used as a decorative feature on many articles of furni-
ture, jewelry, etc. With the possible exception of Game
f< -1, whose likeness has been found on old coins, we
kn,,.- of no other early record on the probable origin of
our domestic breeds.
Second: We believe that certain varieties of domestic
fowls of the same type and coloring have existed since
time immemorial and that there is just as much chance
for the Gallus Bankiva to be a feral variation from the
Game cock as there is for the Game cock to be a variation
of tie Jungle Fowl. There are thousands and thousands
of flocks of chickens kept in this country without any at-
tention being paid to their breeding, yet to our knowl-
edge no jungle fowl has ever appeared in any of these
flocks by reversion or selection.
Third: We believe that the Golden Penciled Hamburg
is a thoroughbred variety of fowl which cannot be pro-
duced from other breeds by selection. We are also under
the same impression of Black Spanish, Golden Laced
Polish, Langshan, Malay, Silky and Sumatra. The latter,
especially, we believe is a true Jungle Fowl.
When we look at the different breeds of chickens exhib-
ited at a poultry show, at the Polish, Cornish, Indians,
modern Games, and the diminutive Bantams, it seems un-
believable that the original ancestors of these fowls could
have been wild Jungle Fowls, and if we go back only a
hundred years ago there were but eight or ten recognized
breeds and some sub-varieties. At present we can count
them by the scores.
All of these improvements in type and color have been
brought about by proper selection, and the poultry
breeder who is a close observer of the occurring varia-
tions in individual specimens of his breed can continue to
produce as many varieties as he wishes. From the small
size of the Bantam and the silky plumage of the Silkies,
the stateliness of the Langshans, to the massiveness of the
Cornish fowls, all are living proof as being the production
of careful. artificial se Cption.
.ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PARTRIDGE WYAN-
Wyandotte characteristics-Partridge variety most beau-
tiful of the breed-Controversy regarding origin and
choice of name-Their natural color pattern-A com-
bination of usefulness with beauty.
By Louis A. Stahmer, Poultry Tribune.
Wyandottes are one of the most popular breeds of poul-
try in America today and have retained their popularity
ever since they were introduced to the fanciers of this
country. They have outstripped many of the older
breeds, and to whatever country they have been exported,
they have become general favorites over native breeds.
They represent in a very high degree a combination of
beauty and usefulness not excelled by any other breed of
poultry, and offer these desired qualities to the fancier,
farmer or back-yard breeder in abundance.
The characteristics of all Wyandottes seem to run true
in every flock. They are gentle, hardy, mature early, and
in the early stages of maturity, their compact form makes
not only a very pleasing appearance, but they also make
at this age the ideal broiler.
The first of the Wyandottes to be introduced to the
fanciers of America were the Silver Laced; then came the
White, said to be sports from the Silver; the Golden were
the next breed, with their beautiful coloring and mark-
ings of the plumage, which are the same as the Silver-
Laced variety with the exception that the ground color
is a rich golden bay; then came the Black variety, the
Violettes and the Buffs, and then came the Partridge, Sil-
ver Penciled and Columbians.
Partridge Wyandottes, the subject of this sketch, are
truly the most beautifully colored variety of the breed.
They were first exhibited at a poultry show in 1894 after
having been for several years in the making, and were
admitted to the Standard of Perfection in 1901. The
breed had many admirers and, as usual with all good
breeds, there was a controversy regarding their origin.
They also received quite a little popularity on account of
their name. The Western breeders selected the name of
"Partridge" Wyandottes, and the Eastern breeders "Gol-
Tfli \Ncest iiii Originiato xs.
In the West, Joseph MeKeen. of Ollro. Wisconsin. and
E. 0. Thiem of Vail and later Dennison, Iowa, claimed to
be the originators of this popular breed and had an able
co-worker in W. A. Doolittle of Sabetha, Kansas, who
probably was the first one to exhibit the breed in Kansas
City in 1894.
In an edilio of the 'lPoultry Monthly" of September.
1!894. we find the following letter from Mr. MeKeen:
"Partridge Wyaudottes have existed in my miiin for
quite a nmlllh)er of years but they were like castles in the
air. The minute I thought of them, the minute I was con-
vinced that they ought to materialize and become tangible
"Mr. E r. Thiem and myself have been working hard
together for a number of years with this end in view. We
have succeeded even beyond our expectations, conquering
the difficulties that stood in our way.
"We have some good birds with good Partridge plum-
age, cream yellow legs, red ear lobes, rose comb, and
about the same size and shape as the Wyandottes. We
do not claim that these fowls are better than standard
Wyandottes; that they lay more eggs; that their flesh is
more tender and that they grow quicker and require less
feed, etc.. as is sA often claimed for new varieties."
With this letter he sent a feather, and also an illus-
tration of one of the first birds, which shows fair Wyan-
dotte type for that period and gives a good idea of what
lhey lhad in mind regarding the distribution of color.
The Eastern )Oiginators.
In lhe November issue of the "Poultry Monthly," 1894,
Mr. George Brackenbury, of Albany, New York, came out
with the following statement:
"It is with some feeling of reluelance that we write on
the above subject, just at present 'Golden Penciled Wyan-
dottes.' bnt necessity compels that some action lie taken
at once in behalf of my co-experimentel ly'ron 1). Sirr.
and self, following the introduction of Pavrtidge Wyanii
dottes by Mr. McKeen in your last issue.
"We do not seek to establish any claim of priority in
making these statements. but only aim to place ours on
record as pioneer breeders of Golden Penciled-or as Mr.
McKeen has seen fit to christen them, 'Partridge'-Wy-
Mr. Brackenbury goes considerably into detail regard-
ing the early mating and supports his contentions with a
letter from Mr. B. D. Sarr, his co-worker of Marcelus
Falls, New York:
"To Whom It May Concern: I have known of Mr.
Brackenbury experimenting for a Wyandotte with plum-
age like that seen in Poultry Cochins, for a number of
years. In both 1890 and 1891 he wrote me to know if he
could procure a sparsely feathered Partridge Cochin,
cockerel or pullet, but was unable to accommodate him
and so informed him.
"Later on he came to my home and in that earnest, en-
thusiastic way of his, mapped outlines of breeding or mat-
ings by which he felt sure could be produced a Wyan-
dotte with penciling as found in Partridge Cochins, and
tried to induce me to see the point and go into the scheme
with him. I confess, I was somewhat in doubt, but early
in 1892 I decided to try my hand at experimenting and
so informed Mr. Brackenbury. Our matings were soon
made up, he furnishing the form or type and I the blood
elements that produced the desired plumage.
"We meet several times each season in his home or
mine to study the results of our efforts, and as each year
rolls by, we see marked improvements. The name we se-
lected is 'Golden Penciled Wyandottes' and we are bound
to succeed.-Truly, B. D. Sarr."
It seems rather peculiar that such fanciers as MeKeen
and Thiem of the West and Brackenbury and Sarr of the
East, should be working along the same lines. The fact,
however, remains that they all have been successful and
have produced their ideals in color. McKeen and Thiem
used Golden Wyandottes and Partridge Cochins; and
Brackenbury added to that cross, Golden Penciled Ham-
burgs, and dark Cornish blood was used in later years by
Mr. McKeen and Thiem to bring out stronger pencilings.
Origin of the Name.
Our own opinion regarding the name of "Partridge"
and "Golden Penciled" Wyandottes, is that they are both
wrong, as the breed does not resemble a Partridge in the
slightest, and they surely are not penciled in the sense of
the word, as the lines are far too heavy for penciling; yet,
the term is better than "Partridge."
On account of the Partridge Cochins being quite popu-
lar in the early nineties, the name seemed to be a very fit-
ting one for this new variety of Wyandottes as they had
identically the same color pattern and it has clung to it
in spite of the efforts of Eastern breeders to have them
recognized under the name of "Golden Penciled."
If we examine our various breeds of fowls with a view
to determine the reproduction of color in certain sections,
we find that if Nature had used only two pigments-
black and red, and which seem to control all color effects
-displaying some, modifying others, and making some
disappear altogether; again, if we bear in mind that the
majority of our different breeds of poultry are said to
have as ancestors the Jungle Fowl which was a black-red
by Nature; then we can readily understand why the great-
est success in breeding for certain color effects is best ob-
tained and visible in breeds that carry this particular pig-
Coming back to the name of "Golden Penciled" such as
Mr. Brackenbury suggested in preference to "Partridge"
and comparing the color description with that of the
"Golden Penciled Hamburg," we can readily see that the
Hamburg is not penciled at all and should be called by
right "Golden Barred," as the black bars run straight
across the rather. lie that as it may, the breed is here
to stay and has found a host of fanciers.
Regarding the mating and the general points of merit
of this popular variety, the reader will find other arti-
cles in this issue of the Tribune.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF S. L. WYANDOTTES.
The Silver Wyandotte was the first of the family-Early
history and origin unrecorded on account of too many
breeders working along the same line-Fanciers could
not agree on name for years-More progress has been
made in the lacing than in the type.
By Louis A. Stahmer, Poultry Tribune.
Among the many valuable additions to our breeds of
poultry the Wyandottes will compare favorably with the
best. They combine many of the characteristic good
qualities of the various breeds that have entered into their
make-up. While the breed came before the public as
early as 1866 under the name of Sebright Cochins, it did
not make very much progress until about 1877 when fan-
ciers first applied for its admission into the standard.
The breed is strictly of American origin and combines
in its make-up the best qualities of the American, Asiatic
and IIamburg breeds; the fowls to which American fanc-
iers have made improvements by judiciously crossing
them with other varieties to fix their characteristics.
While some authors claim that the Sebright Bantams
gave the breed the lacing, yet it is more likely that the
original lacing came from Silver Polish, although there is
nothing recorded that this breed was one of the progeni-
tors. However, if we go back into old literature we find
that IIamburgs at one time had crests, and differed from
the Polish breed only in having a Rose comb and four
Iniaslnuc as manlly f-inciers in various parts of the coun-
try were trying to improve the lacing, it is not unlikely
that Sebright Bantams were used to secure narrow lacing
as old illustrations seem to prove that there were heavy
laced strains as well as narrow laced strains, bred at that
time. It is hardly possible to produce by selective breed-
ing a laced breed unless lacing is present or lacing char-
acteristics are dormant in one of the parents. If we try
to produce a new laced breed from dark Brahmas alone
we could hardly obtain same by selective breeding. How-
ever, the addition of the Silver Spangled Hamburg which
has been produced by selective breeding from a laced
variety makes it possible or probable at least to produce
a breed of poultry from which certain specimens can be
selected that show lacing characteristics. Whatever
breed has entered into the make-up of the Silver Wyan-
dottes is no concern to the fancier of the breed today.
His main object lies in the perfection of the breed type
and of a more uniform distribution of narrow sharply de-
fined lacing throughout his entire flock.
The combination of breed type and color has baffled
fanciers of today, and breed type is too often lost sight of
in the perfection of the color pattern.
The chief offenders are the English fanciers. While
they have produced some birds with lacing and open cen-
ters in quality ranking with the Sebright, they have, how-
ever, completely lost sight of the type, and the majority
of English Silver Wyandottes which we have seen exhib-
ited at shows did not look any more like Wyandottes than
Brahlmas resemble Langshans. In type the English Wy-
andottes approach closely the Plymouth Rock type.
Silver Wyandottes were admitted to the Standard of
Perfection at the Worcester meeting of the A. P. A. in
1883 after a long search for a name which would be fit-
ting as well as descriptive-yet the name of "Wyan-
dotte" is neither one nor the other. Previous to the ad-
mission to the Standard all kinds of names were sng-
gested for them. The name of Sebright (ochins was ob-
jected to as it was believed that it would be confusing
with the Sebright Bantams. Other names were Excel-
siors. Eurekas, Ambrights, Columbias, Niagaras, Tusca-
roras and old "uncle I. K. Felsh" wanted them named
"Hambletonians," and even went so far as to write a
complete standard for them. As American Seabrights
they were extensively bred by Mr. G. H. Towle in the
seventies and by Mr. M. I. Kitter as Sebright Cochins.
Thle name of "Wyandottes" was suggested by Mr.
Fred A. IIoudlette of Faulkner. Mass., and was finally
accepted after a lengthy controversy. lie also suggested
the name of "Eurekas" but after consultation with sev-
eral breeders and those interested in the birds found con-
siderable objection to it. He then suggested that the
name of American Sebright be adhered to until the A. P.
A. would give them a satisfactory title. Over no breed
has there been as much controversy about the selection of
a suitable name than the Wyandottes.
Few breeds have held their own as long in competition
with other new breeds than Silver Wyandottes. We
know of fanciers whio have bred this variety for more
than 25 years continually and will not give it up because
they claim that it has everything that a first class breed
of poultry should have. They are a most excellent meat
producing breed and can also lay claim to being produc-
ers of a large number of fine eggs.
The Hamburg, which entered into the make-up of Wy-
andottes, have been known for 75 years under the name
of "Everyday layers" and there is no doubt that the Wv-
andottes hIave inherited some of their desirable character-
Previous to the admission to the Standard, fanciers had
no definite idea of shape and color in mind and the credit
for the admission of the breed and the fixation of the
proper type is due to the persistent work of Mr. L. H.
Whittaker of North Adams, Michigan, who had bred
them under the name of Sebright Cochins as early as
1872. Of the early breeders who were working for im-
provement were John Ray of Hemlock, N. Y., Edward
Broson and H. M. Doublday of New York State. These
gentlemen were breeding what they called Silver Se-
brights which were not Bantams however, but large laced
fowls, and which they crossed with various breeds of the
The Golden Wyandottes were originated by Mr. Joseph
McKeen of Omro, Wisconsin. They carry in their blood
the crosses of the original Silver Wyandotte or American
Sebrights as they were called in early times and that of
a breed of fowls which he called the Winnebagoes. The
Winnebagoes were cross-bred fowls which had been some-
what perfected in color and type by selective breeding in
Winnebago county, Wisconsin. Partridge Cochins and
Brown Leghorns also entered into the make-up of this
breed. They were admitted into the Standard of Perfec-
tion in 1888, and the new breeds that have been origin-
ated since, have not been able to displace them from the
hearts of their fanciers.
Before we close this article we cannot refrain from
mentioning the name of Ira C. Keller of Prospect, Ohio,
who has probably done more than any other man in the
United States during the last thirty years in the produc-
tion of new varieties of laced Wyandottes. Mr. Keller
has successfully exhibited what he calls "Violettes," a
variety similar in color to the Golden with the exception
of the blue lacing instead of black. He has also shown
buff laced and hen feathered silvers and golden in which
the male is colored exactly like that of the hen. We
have often wondered why Wyandotte fanciers have not
tried to have hen feathered males admitted to the stand-
ard. In our estimation, we believe it would help the breed
a great deal. We have handled a number of silver Wyan-
dottes this year at the large shows and have noted consid-
erable improvement in the type of females especially in
the Silver Laced variety. The majority of males, how-
ever, are still too high up on legs and seldom approach
the type of the white variety."
OLD ENGLISH GAMES
Oldest variety of poultry known to mankind-Bred by
every nation in the world-Origin of the breed will re-
main an unsolved question-Anecdotes of their cour-
age-American Poultry Association lists modern games
only in new Standards-First Standard of 1875 de-
scribes a number of different varieties of the old style
By Louis A. Stahmer, Poultry Tribune.
Poultry fanciers of the United States, and, in fact, the
world over, need not be told that the pleasure and recrea-
tion which they now enjoy in moulding and perfecting
new varieties and breeds of poultry with graceful shape
and ornamental plumage, is only a following of what had
been done thousands of years before, perhaps on a lesser
scale of practical knowledge, but just as enthusiastically
as it is done the world over now by earnest followers of
During the many years of practical experience as a
breeder of different varieties and also as a visitor to the
largest poultry shows in this country, we have observed
many changes in the desires of the poultry fraternity. We
have seen the times when fancy ran wild on fine colored
plumage of various intricate patterns, and we have also
witnessed when the choice of the fanciers were the big
feather-legged breeds, or else the high legged modern
games-and have noticed during these periods that the
fanciers apparently were holding this particular quality
as supreme in the breeds.
At present the choice of the fancier or breeder, rather,
lies in the direction of egg production coupled with stand-
ard type, and the great interest which is taken in improv-
ing our leading American breeds by some of our practical
breeders, speaks well for the future of poultry in gen-
eral. The demand for improved breeds of poultry has
been going on steadily during the last few years, and the
splendid results that have already been obtained in in-
creased egg production, coupled with that of standard
type, is a splendid tribute to the progressive breeder of
While thie Plymouth Rocks, Leghorns, Wyandottes, Reds.
and a host of other breeds are at the peak of their boom
and all have their champions advocating their good
qualities in different poultry journals, there are very few
who are pushing the cause of the Old English Game fowl,
the subject of this sketch, and we believe that at present
there are really but very few persons in the United States
who are qualified to talk on the subject and are familiar
with the fine and superior qualities of this, the oldest ree-
ognized breed in the world.
The origin and nationality of the game fowl has always
been and always will remain an unanswered question.
Their records are as old as the oldest written history
wherein we find the Persians, Greeks, Romans, and a lot
of other nations, have had their native game fowl. There
was a wild game fowl found in South America and
Mexico and cock fighting was common long before Span-
iards entered the country.
Cock fighting was popular in England for centuries
prior to Caesar's invasion and hundreds of years prior to
the Christian era. Cock fighting was partly a( Christian
and partly a political institution with the Greeks, Per-
sians and many other nationalities. All theories advanced
by naturalists as to the origin of the game fowl and par-
ticularly from which country they derived their nativity,
is wholly speculative. While the color of the Black-
Breasted Red Game resembles that of the Bankiva or
Jungle Fowl, the game fowl is of considerable larger size
and there are as many different varieties as far as colors
go as the patches in Joseph's coat. In fact, it is claimed
that there are as many varieties of game fowls as there
are of pigeons and standards for all of them are not in
existence, as tlie principal quality looked for is in their
muscular development and fighting ability.
The Jungle Fowl may have entered into some strains of
Black Breasted Reds, as it will readily cross with domes-
tic fowls and has been used for this purpose in the Philip-
pines and Ceylon to improve the fighting ability of vari-
ous breeds of game fowls.
When we read and look back in history and learn how
far separated some of these ancient nations were and
knowing the slow methods of travel, and also find wild
game fowl native to countries since then discovered and
not known to the ancients, it is only reasonable to pre-
sume that each of those nations which raised fighting
game, each had their native breed. In America, especially
during the eighties and nineties, many new varieties of
game fowl came into existence as if by magic, and the
names under which they fought and bred were legion.
That the practice of cock fighting has its evil, no one
can deny, but its primary. objection was rather an en-
obling one as it gave to the rising youth and defenders
of the country wherein it was mostly in vogue, an incen-
tive to unparalleled deeds of patriotism and devotion.
Many anecdotes and stories are told about the courage of
the game cock and the influence it has on persons wit-
nessing a battle between two evenly matched birds. It is
related that during the war of 1812, the British on Lake
(hamplain attacked the American fleet under McDon-
ough, directing their hottest fire against the flagship of
McDonough, driving his men from the guns and strewing
tlie deck with the dead and wounded. At this critical
moment, when despair was depicted upon every counte-
nallce, a cannon hall struck the corner of a chicken coop,
killing all it contained, all excepting one game cock whose
battered face and comb gave evidence of many a death
struggle. Flying upon the hnulwarks of Mcl)Donough's
flagship, this noble bird. undaunted Iby the confusion and
carnage about him, with clarion voice sent out over the
waters his challenge and defiance. The sailors, ever su-
perslitious, hearing the defying crowing of the game
cock. look new courage and returned to their guns, and
fought without tlie least wavering until the battle was
ended and MeDonough on lake Champlain was victori-
Some may think all this is exaggerated, but to all those
whl) are versed in history and have read and heard of tlie
exploits of our navy during the War of 1812, it will be
necessary for me to state that I have related these facts
just as I saw them chronicled. (The paragraph relating
to this battle was copied from the Poultry Monthly of
The general appearance of the game fowl shows well
developed muscles, combined with courage. The carriage,
stllion and shape of the bird makes a keen. fiery, chal-
lenging impression and can be accepted as a model of
watchfulness and daring.
There is at present no regular standard prescribed by
the American Poultry Association for the color of fight-
ing games and as we said before, there are as many strains
as there are varieties of pigeons it would take a book
larger than the Standard to list them all. Old English
games have never been bred for egg production, but there
is no doubt if they were taken in hand and bred in accord-
ance with modern selective methods, egg production could
be increased considerably. It is generally conceded that
they excel in the quality of their fine, delicate meat,
which resembles in taste, somewhat that of the pheasant.
Especially on account of the large quantity of breast
meat, games can be classed as a table fowl of first quality.
TIIE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF RHODE ISLAND
From a motley mongrel to one of America's most popular
breeds-Originated by farmers in the Little Compton
District of Rhode Island-Bred for years for eggs and
meat before recognized as a breed-Had difficulty en-
tering Standard of Perfection on account of big differ-
ence in type, color, and comb-Red the most persistent
color in our poultry-Form largest classes at shows
By Louis A. Stahmer, Poultry Tribune.
There is no breed of fowls that is attracting as much
attention as the Rhode Island Reds are doing today. No
breed of fowls has ever been so generally adopted by the
farmers and backyard fanciers during the last ten years
as the Reds. This attraction is not due to the advertising
of promoters of the breed, but to the inherent good all
around qualities with which this breed has been endowed
by nature and which practically compel a fancier to rec-
ommend them to every poultry keeper he comes in contact
To constitute an ideal dual purpose fowl a breed must
have in its make up the reproducing qualities of a pro-
ducer of eggs as well as that of meat, and, as the Rhode
Island Reds are a blend of various fowl that had these
characteristics, is the reason that from a motley mongrel
they have developed into one of America's most popular
History does not record who were the originators of the
breed but all authorities agree that they were "made" by
"someone" "'somewhere" in the Little Compton district
of Rhode Island. The farmers and poultry keepers of this
district had specialized for years on fowls that were great
layers and that produced an abundance of meat on a
minimum of feed. They paid very little attention to
shape or color as long as the breed produced real market
value. For some reason or other Red fowls predominated
in this particular district, due perhaps to the 'swapping'
of roosters with each other, or to the breeds of fowls with
that color, which were popular in those days of fifty years
ago. We notice in old poultry books that Red Cochins,
Red Shanghais, Red Javas, Red Malays, Red Chittagongs,
Brown Leghorns, were the principal breeds that entered
into the make-up of Rhode Island Reds and as these fowls
all had different types and as selection for shape was of
secondary importance among the farmers, it is no wonder
that the visitor to the district classed them as ordinary
On account of their rich red color the breed was used
to a considerable extent for improving buff breeds and
there is no doubt that some strains of Buff Rocks and
Buff Wyandottes Nere originated from the Reds, and
breeders of these varieties were continually on the look-
out for good birds having Rhode Island Red blood in
them. Among Buff Wyandotte breeders Dr. B. N. Ald-
rich of Pall River, Mass., made regular professional trips
into the district of Little Compton and incidently in
search of new blood for his breed and as he was an expe-
rienced breeder, he saw that there was a great possibility
for the improvement of the Rhode Island Red breed as
far as uniformity in type and color was concerned, and in
December, 1891, exhibited some birds under the name of
"Golden Buffs," at the Rhode Island Poultry Association
Various other names were in use for the fowls bred in
the Little Compton district (Red Malays, Macomber
fowls, Tripp fowls) but as the breed had not been bred to
Standard requirements, there was considerable difference
in the type and color and therefore a descriptive name
was not applicable. They were called "Macomber" or
"Tripp" fowls after two breeders, Wm. Tripp of Little
Compton and John Macomber of Westport. They were
market men and sold their produce at New Bedford, Mass.
Realizing that better prices could be obtained for greater
uniformity in the color, size and shape of their fowls, they
got together (in 1854, or about that time) and swapped
ideas about improving the breed by introducing new
blood, with the result of a new variety that was the fore-
runner of our Rhode Island Reds of today.
In the making of this breed they crossed Red Malay
Games with Red Shanghais, and in later years added
Brown Leghorn and Cornish Indian blood. It was not
until 1895, when the breed was first exhibited by R.
Browning, of Natick, Mass., under the name of "Rhode
Island Reds" at the Providence, R. I., Show-and "then
the fun began." Reports of the show indicate that they
were ordinary dunghillss" of various shapes and colors
and showed very little quality.
Among the early breeders of Rhode Island Reds the
names of R. Buffington, S. Cashman, C. M. Bryant, B. N.
Aldrich, Lester Tompkins and "Wid" Card stand out
very prominently and it is due to the efforts of these
breeders, that "Rhode Island Reds" finally gained a well
deserved place among the "pure-breds."
It was not near so easy to establish a uniform type and
color in a breed that had been bred for egg and meat pro-
duction for almost fifty years, as it is in a new breed that
lias been before the public only a year or two. Fanciers
differed in their views as to the best type, comb and color
to work. There were single, rose and pea-comb varieties.
The Buff Rock and Buff Wyandotte Standard seemed to
have the breed stopped from ever being accepted into the
Standard of Perfection. These breeds were new and
many strains had Rhode Island Red blood in their make-
up and the males especially came pretty strong in color
for some years. The breeders of Rhode Island Reds real-
ized that the only chance they had with their breed was
to breed them considerably darker than either Rocks or
Wyandottes. This made it pretty hard to explain to pos-
sible buyers just what the real color of a Rhode Island
Red male and female should be, and many misunderstand-
ings were in order. At that time the females were very
much lighter in color than the males and there were many
disappointed buyers, who had been sold "Buff Rock"
females for Reds.
The Rhode Islanld ted Club of America was organized
in February, 18!98, at Fall River, Mass., and their first
action was the drafting of a Standard for the color of the
breed, which we quote in part. It called for "General
surface color rich brilliant red except where black is de-
sired. Free from shafting, mealy appearance or brassy
effect. Black is desired in the underweb of the wing
flights. The main tail feathers and two main sickle feath-
ers are to be black or greenish black. The greater tail
coverts are mainly black but as they approach the saddle
they may become russet or red. . ."
It was not until 1904 that Single Comb Rhode Island
Reds were admitted to the Standard. The Rose Combs at
that time were of different type and their breeders in-
sisted on a different standard and wanted them admitted
as "American Reds." Mr. F. D. Baerman, of Dunellen.
N. J., who was a prominent breeder of this variety, was
influential in having them admitted to the Standard of
Perfection under the name of "American Reds"' at the
Minneapolis meeting, February 13, 1905-and "then the
fun began again." Mr. Chas. M. Bryant, of Wollaston,
Mass., and a number of other breeders made such a strong
protest to the American Poultry Association for their ac-
tion at Minneapolis, that a special meeting was called at
Pittsburgh, April 14, 1905, at which the action of the Min-
neapolis convention was rescinded and the breed was reg-
ularly admitted as Rose Comb Rhode Island Reds.
It is about 15 years since the writer has had personal
experience with Rhode Island Reds. During this time the
type and characteristic color of the breed has been so
changed that they are almost a different breed now. Well
do we remember a visit to the yards of a prominent Red
breeder at this time. While the males were fairly uni-
form surface color, the females ran from light buff to
chocolate brown. Many of them were mottled and in
type far from what the breed is now. Our birds were
splendid layers and made a most excellent table fowl,
with an abundance of juicy meat.
We will not go into details here regarding the mating
of the breed for type and color, as you will find a number
of articles in this issue of the Tribune, written by expert
breeders of the two varieties. We should like, however,
to call attention to the peculiar coloring of the Breed, in
which Red and Black predominate. Red and Black arc
the two primary colors of all our poultry, they are pres-
ent though not always visible in practically every breed.
It is a mistaken idea that you can put "color" into poul-
try. The color is there and occupies its certain fixed po-
sitions in which it can be brought to the surface to utmost
perfection by selective breeding methods. Red is the
most persistent color iln our poultry, and it is also one of
the most peculiar colors in nature. Red is the color of
love, danger and passion. It is the most attractive color
of our flowers. Show a .baby, that does not know one
color from another, three apples, two green and one red.
It will invariably select the red one. The other night a
college professor in Chicago conducted a telepathic ex-
periment by wireless, lie asked his listeners to think of
the color he had in mind. Out of some two hundred re-
plies 150 answered red, 60 yellow (which is a blend of
red). Red in poultry occupies certain positions from
which it can be bred out only with great difficulty and
it will always make iis appearance again in these places,
first-we refer to the hackle and saddle of the male, and
is probably a heritage of Gallus Bankiva, the wild Jungle
Fowl progenitor of many of our breeds.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE LIGHT BRAHMAS.
Long drawn-out dispute fails to establish real origin-No
fowls like it in China or other parts of Asia-Brahmas
no doubt a "Made in America" breed-Most excellent
variety for farmer and fancier-Interesting facts on
By Louis A. Stahmer, Poultry Tribune.
Ladies and Gentlemen: We take great pleasure in in-
troducing to you Mr. Geo. Burnham of Boston, Mass., the
"featherweight" champion of the U. S. A., and Mr. Lewis
Wright, who will defend his title for England and what
belongs to it in other parts of the world. Mr. Burnham
over in the southwest corner and Mr. Wright in the north-
cast corner of the ring. They are about to fight 25 or
more rounds of one year's duration each to establish the
title of "who is who" in all matters pertaining to the
origin of Light Brahmas.
This introduction would have been not only in perfect
order, but also a very fitting one, back in the fifties of the
preceding century, as the controversy of who of the two
was the real originator of the Brahma breed raged fierce
and fiery for more than 25 years. To describe the vari-
ous rounds in detail would take a book larger than the
Bible and would be a pure waste of space in our modern
poultry magazines, as the gist of the matter is the same
all through the long years of the contention, and can be
summed up in a few such words as "You're a liar" and
"You're another. "
We have sufficient data and other reasons for believing
Mr. Wright the more trustworthy of the two disputants.
Mr. Burnham, however, was foxierr" and got the Eng-
lishman's "goat" (excuse the slang) by stealing a march
on him by presenting some fowls in 1852 to Queen Vic-
toria of England and received a lot of free advertising in
the press of that country., These fowls, however, were far
from what Brahma fanciers now would call even fair
specimens of the breed, and the picture reproduced in
Illustrated London News showed them to be single
combed, and the description of their color refers to their
being "creamy white splashed with light straw color"
with the exception of the tail which is black and the
hackles which are sprinkled with black.
The name he gave them was "grey Shanghais," and it
was not until other fanciers began to exhibit fowls under
the name of "Brahma Pootras," (Burram Pootras) and
the improved breed was beginning to become very popu-
lar that he laid claim to the title of being the originator
of same-and then the "fun began" and the beginning of
this article tells what it all was about.
Mr. Burnham was a clever advertiser and knew how to
take advantage of all methods of publicity and there is no
question of a doubt in our mind that were he alive today
he would make Grant Curtis' 300-cgg Pacific coast cham-
pions look like pikers and "also rans." lie would have
his hens lay at least one egg a day and perhaps two on
Sunday. He was a firm believer in being a top-notcher
in everything pertaining to poultry. Was it not he who
had fowls scoring up to 993/% points at a "regular" poul-
try show, and did not he sell the same birds to five or six
different persons? He did-for it is fully recorded in the
poultry press of those days. Mr. Wright never made any
such extravagant claims. His only trouble was that he
got his dates mixed and therefore, we might say that the
"Brahma" fight between the two ended in a draw, and
neither one is entitled to the claim of being originator of
Now let us see what we can learn about the breed in old
books and poultry journals of the period when the contro-
versy was at its height. We present the following extract
from the American Poulterers Companion (1856)-"The
Editor of the Northern Farmer says: Tile origin of the
Brahma fowls can never be traced farther than has al-
ready been developed, true or fabulous: and at this day
it is quite useless to attempt to arrive at any new facts
pertaining thereto. We profess to know about as much
in regard to their origin as any one, having heard the
views and statements of all parties from the beginning to
the present day. We therefore are prepared to make the
following statement and challenge any man to prove us in
error. (1) That no Brahma fowls have ever been import-
ed into the United States or any other country from China
or Asia, since the alleged importation of three pairs to the
city of New York in 1850, from one of which it is 'alleged'
all the Brahma fowls have originated, now in this country
or England. (2) That no such fowls are known to exist
in China and Asia at the present time.
"'When we say BIalima fowls, we do not mean 'gray
Shanghais' as it is uiiit, probable that certain 'gray
fowls' have been imported from China, and we refer to
fowls with cream colored white bodies, dark wing and
tail tips-and neck hackel with the same hue. It is of no
consequence now how they originated, as a knowledge of
that matter cannot change them in the least; but it is cer-
tain that a 'pure' lrahma fowl was never seen in Eng-
land till sent there from lie United States."
What appears to bie t e most trustworthy history of the
Brahma we can find is in an article in the Poultry World
of June, 1874. It was written by Mr. C. C. Plaisted of
South Berwick, Maine (born July 30, 1825), who with
Mr. Nelson II. (hamberlin of Hartford. Conn., is generally
regarded as one of lie orig'inators and pioneer breeders of
Brahmas as we know them to-day. Mr. Plaisted's article
is too lengthy and rnms through a number of issues of the
magazine. The dates and names have all been verified by
various breeders and edilors and are all found to be re-
liable. We present the following interesting extract from
In reviewing the history of the Brahmas and directing
the attention of the readers of The Poultry World to this
breed of fowls, I shall endeavor to give an accurate ac-
count of their origin and first appearance among the breed-
ers of the I!nited States and England. My own experience
in breeding, commencing with Bralhmas in 1851, will I
trust of itself be considered a sufficient reason for the pro-
duction of this sketch, and account for a little natural
pride which I take in the business.
"I have recently had photographs taken of the first
home of Light I rahmas in this country, also of
cocks, hens, cockerels, and pullets, in order to pro-
cure engravings that would properly illustrate an article
of this kind and represent the fowls as they are bred at
the present day. Nearly all engravings of the fowl here-
tofore presented to the public are overdrawn and conse-
quently form incorrect pictures and create wrong impres-
sions. I much prefer to see supposed faults in a correct
likeness, than an unnatural perfection and attempt at
symmetrical proportions at the expense of truth and na-
ture. (True words from a true fancier--L. R.).
"Where the first Brahmas that came to New York were
bred, or to what country they belonged, has nevey been
satisfactorily explained, and yet remains a question to be
answered by the 'knowing ones'-thle first pair of these
fowls, about which there has been so much discussion and
so much written, were brought by one Charles Knox to
Mr. Nelson H. Chamberlin, a resident of Hartford, Conn..
"They were first bred by Mr. (hamberlin in 1848, on
the Chas. Russ place, situated on what was then known as
Cooper Lane. now Lafayette Street. The place, which is
truthfully represented in an engraving, remains almost
exactly to-day (1874) as it was at that day. Mr. Cham-
berlin paid for his first pair of these fowls the sum of five
dollars-considered at that time a fabulous price and had
no conception of the value of his purchase, or what was
to be its effect upon the poultry interest of the country.
The reproduction of the breed was quite slow, however,
until the year 1851, and was confined almost exclusively
to Connecticut up to 1852.
First Exhibit of Brahmas.
"Mr. Samuel O. Hatch, of Franklin, Conn., first exhi-
bited these fowls in November, 1851. An erroneous state-
ment has been made in nearly all the leading poultry
books and journals that Mr. Hatch exhibited Brahmas at
Boston in October, 1850. The first that made a public ap-
pearance in this country were exhibited by Dr. John Ben-
nett at the Fitchburg Railroad Depot Hall, Boston, Oc-
tober 23 and 24, 1850, in a show organized by bird and
poultry fanciers. The card on Dr. Bennett's coop, which
contained a trio of chickens about four and a half months
old was marked "Burrompooters." They attracted much
attention. I looked them well over and came to the con-
clusion they were a crossbreed and not of the Chamberlin
"At the exhibition held November 11-14, 1851, in the
Fitchburg Railroad Depot Hall, Boston, Mr. Hatch (be-
fore mentioned), gave us the first sight of pure-bred
Brahmas, he having bred them for two years on his farm
in Franklin, and they were greatly admired during the
exhibition. It has been stated that Dr. Bennett and others
exhibited pure-bred Brahmas at the same show. This is
correct, but they were bought of Mr. Hatch before the
prizes were awarded. Mr. Hatch entered his fowls as
'Chittagongs,' and Dr. Bennett called his 'Brahma
pootras.' Mr. Hatch bought his first fowls in Hartford of
a Mr. Camp, in 1849, and bred them up to 1853. He selec-
ted only those with pea combs and improved many of their
points, compared with those bred by Messrs. Chamberlin
"Mr. Geo. Smith, of Valley Falls, R. I., purchased some
of Mr. Hatch's finest birds in 1850 and bred them for ten
years, being one of the most successful breeders of Brahma
fowls in the country from 1850 to 1860. Mr. Lewis Wright
thinks those sent to England by Geo. P. Burnham were
mongrels; these I know nothing about. He gives as his
reason that they bred buff; yet they might have been as
pure as any of the others sent and still breed buff progeny.
"Geo. B. Burnham, of Melrose, Mass.. has advertised
that lie knows more about this breed of fowls than all
other men in the country. He claims he had the
first in New England and that a ship came to
importation of these 'grey Shanghais' (as he calls them),
to add to his already choice stock, that were never seen
until after the exhibition of 1851, viz: Hatch's strain en-
tered at that time. Whatever Mr. Burnham has claimed,
or may claim, for this breed, the old breeders well under-
stand that his opinions have come to be chronic with him,
all the way up from the beginning of the 'hen fever.' and
for any mistake he is quite excusable.
"Nothing is attempted in this sketch but to place the
Brahmas exactly where they belong. I purchased the first
in 1851, just after the show-a trio of those bought by Dr.
Bennett of Mr. Hatch at the show for $15.00. From 1852
to the present time I have devoted much time and atten-
tion to breeding and improving stock."
In another issue of the Poultry World Mr. Stoddard,
the editor of the paper (1874), defends Mr. Plaisted with
the following : "There has been much printed of late on
the origin of Light Bralmas. Besides the series of articles
by Mr. Plaisted now in progress in this magazine, Mr.
Burnham has written very volumniously (if not lumin-
ously) and in many different journals, both in this and
foreign countries, and Mr. Wright, as our readers well
know, is the author of a monograph on the breed, a part of
the work being devoted to its origin. So cumbersome is the
discussion that there is danger that the ordinary reader
will give up its perusal through shear weariness. Now the
object of this article is the expression of our conviction
that Mr. Plaisted's is a true and the only true history of
the Light Brahmas. It was because of this that we desired
its publication in The World. Mr. Plaisted states nothing
but that which will hold.
Brahma History Summarized.
"To assist those readers who may have become confused
by the disputation we well summarize a few leading as-
sertions of Mr. Plaisted:
(1) Where the first Light Brahmas were bred, or from
what country they came nobody knows.
(2) They were first brought to New York, and from
there to Hartford, Conn., in 1847.
(3) The party who brought them, a man of unques-
tioned veracity, Mr. Charles Knox, cousin of Mr. Cham-
berlin's wife, is now living (1874) and prepared to verify
all that Mr. Plaisted narrates respecting his (Mr. Knox's)
part in the matter.
(4) Mr. Nelson II. ('Chamberlin, now living, received
the fowls and bred them in Harltford in 1848.
(5) Mr. Samuel Hatch, of Franklin Conn., made the
first public exhibition of Ilrahins in November, 1851, in
the Hall of the Fitchburg Raiiroad Depot, Boston. Mass.
"(6) The first Iralinas sent lo England were shipped
in the fall of 1852, having been selected by Mr. Plaiste.l
from stock owned by )Dr. John C. llennelt.
"Now if our readers find statements by Messrs. Wright.
'ornish, lIurnlham or others which conflict with the above
proposition, and will read Mr. listed'ss argument sup-
ported by evidence from living witnesses tlhe will find
that Mr. Plaisted is right every time."
Brahmas Still Hold Their Own.
There is nothing to be gained in presenting further ar-
guments regarding the origin of the breed and we will
leave it to our readers to take their choice. Brahmas were
a very popular variety prior to 1900. They formed the
largest classes at the shows. The breed has plenty of merits
to regain this popularity, and all that is necessary is for the
fanciers to get together and push it to the front again.
Some American fanciers took a liking to clean-legged
breeds and while the Brahma breeders were "Asleep at
the switch" forged ahead.
In concluding this article we cannot refrain from call-
ing our reader's attention to Mr. Frank P. Johnson, of
Indianapolis, who has probably bred Brahmas longer and
more continuously than any other breeder living at pres-
ent in United States. Mr. Johnson is a regular exhibitor
at Chicago and Indianapolis, etc., and takes keen delight in
his breed. The reader will find other articles on the merits
of Brahmas in this issue, and can learn a lot about the
most talked about, "made in America" breed.
Editor's Note.-Mr. Stahlmer's colored insert shows
very well the breed characteristics of the Light Brahmas
as we know them to-day. The Standard requirements call
for a large, well-rounded body, but free from all appear-
ance of excessive fluffiness. They should present a distinc-
tive type-differing from the Cochin shape in that they
appear to be more compactly put together, more closely
feathered and lacking in the rotundity of form. The pea
comb should be small, setting firmly and evenly on the head
lower and narrower in rear than in center. It has the ap-
pearance of three simal singular combs joined together at
base and rear, the longest and highest at middle, each
evenly serrated. Legs sliou.d be straight and set well apart;
thighs stout and well covered with short feathers; shanks
of medium length, stout in bone, well feathered on outer
sides; toes straight and stout; outer aind middle toe well
feathered. Legs of male must be free from all vulture-like
feathering. Standard weights of the Light Brahma: ('ock.
12 lbs., cockerel. 10 lbs., hen, 9!1 lbs., pullet. 8 lbs.
Prize-Winning Rhode Island Reds. T. Hoinel, Kendal, Fla.
MAY POULTRY HINTS.
By N. R. Melhrhof, Extension Poultryman.
Green Feed Essential.
Most poultrymen realize the fact that all poultry, from
baby chicks to breeding fowls, require green feed in their
daily ration. But how many appreciate just the value of
it, or how well the stock likes it ? When you let your
chickens out in the morning what do they eat first ? It will
be seen that they will go after some greens.
In growing young stock, in producing eggs that will
hatch from the breeders, and obtaining a heavy winter.
summer, and yearly egg production, some form of green
feed is necessary.
Green feed is valuable in feeding poultry in that:
1. It supplies vitamins.
2. It supplies minerals.
3. It supplies bulk and balance.
4. It increases palatability.
Vitamins are essential for normal growth and develop-
ment. Most of the green feeds that are fed to poultry
contain vitamins A, B, C, in a greater or smaller amount.
Minerals are found in green crops which assist in food
Bulk or balance prevents constipation and allows the
various digestive juices to work upon the food more ef-
Rations that are palatable are essential if the birds are
to consume large quantities of feed. Green feeds are palat-
able and naturally tend to make the birds consume larger
There are a number of green feeds that are fed poultry
and perhaps the most popular are sprouted oats, kale,
rape, collards, cabbage. bermuda, clovers, etc.
Ask your county agent or home demonstration agent
what will grow best in your locality and at the various
Be sure to have some green feed always available.
. I'NE 1'OU[LTRIj~IY HINTS.
By N. R1. Mehhliof, Extension Poultryman..
Lice and Mites.
During the summer months the poultry raiser must pay
considerable attention to the external parasites, such as
lice and mites. There are others which attack poultry, but
the above two are causing the most trouble.
It is necessary to keep the birds free of these insects or
they will not be able to do their best. The young stock will
not be able to develop as they ought and the laying birds
will produce fewer eggs.
All birds have to be in the best of condition to give satis-
factory results, and we should not allow the premises to
be overrun with these insects.
Lice.-There are several species of lice thai are found
on poultry, such as head lice, tail lice, wingI lice and body
lice. To control these pests it is necessary to use an insect
powder and apply it thoroughly. One of the best is com-
mercial sodium fluoride. This material can be used either
in the dust or dip form. If using the dry or pinch method.
it is applied as follows: Take one pinch under the head.
one on tle neck two on the back, o on on the breast, one
below the vent, one on the tail, one on each thigh and one
on the underside of each wing. The feathers should be
ruffled so as to allow the powder to get near the skin.
With the (lip method thle following method is employed:
Ise 1 ounce of commercial sodium fluoride to each gallon
of water. The birds should be held by the wings and
plunged into the solution. leaving the head out, while the
feathers are ruffled to allow the solution to penetrate to
the skin. The head is then ducked once or twice and the
bird allowed to stand a minute to drain. This method
should be used with great care. Don't dip on cold, damp
days. The best time to dip is early in the morning so that
the birds will have an opportunity to dry thoroughly lIe-
Mites.-The common red mite which we see in the poul-
try house in the cracks and crevices is the one which we
want to eliminate. This pest feeds at night and then goes
in thle cvacks and crevices of the poultry house during the
day. In combatting the mites it is necessary to give the
house a thorolgh cleaning, and then a spraying with somn
good disinfectant. All movable fixtures ill the house should
be removed and then spray the house thoroughly with a
good coal tar disinfectant. Materials such as creosote, car-
bolineum, or any other coal tar products are used. lie sure
that you get all the nests, roosts, etc. It is always a good
practice to keep the roosts painted.
Your countyy Agent and Home Demonstration Agent
can help you ; great deal in solving your problems.
Mixed Flock on Blum's Farm, Kendal. Fla. This flock i50% less returns than Record Flock.
JULY POULTRY HINTS.
By X. R. Melhrlof, Extension Poultryman.
(aponizing and Culling.
Caponizing-A capon is a castrated male chicken which
grows to be larger than a cockerel, put on flesh more eco-
nomically, produces meat of a better flavor, and demands
a better price on the market.
Caponizing is generally done when the price of fryers
drop, which is about this time of the year. Any of thl
Dual-Purpose breeds or Meat Breeds are suitable for
Remember in caponizing to have the chickens at the
right weight which is from 11 2 to 21/ pounds. There are
a number of types of instruments on the market and the
tools used are knife, spreader, pointed hook, blunt probe,
The testicles can be removed from one side or one can
be taken from either side. Be sure and starve the bird for
24 to 36 hours before it is operated on. Care is needed so
as not to sever the spermatic artery. Have some disinfec-
tant on hand. After the operation keep the bird in a cool
place and do not let it get up on perches. It will take'
about two weeks for the wound to heal. Watch for wind
puffs and if any appear prick the skin and force the air
Culling.-Culling is a practice that is being followed
throughout the poultry world. It is a method of eliminat-
ing the slacker from the producer. It increases efficiency
In culling the poultry raiser should consider a number
of facts before he can cull efficiently. Before culling he
should consider housing, feeding, and other management
Culling should take place the twelve months of the year,
but if it is going to be (lone only once, the most suitable
time is during summer and fall.
A good producer will be active and energetic; the head
will be broad, short, and trim; the back will be broad and
the bird will be deep from back to keel; the abdomen full;
skin soft and pliable; the pelvic bones well-spread, thin
and flexible; vent large, moist and bleached; late molters;
bleached out in eye-ring, ear-lobe, beak, and shanks.
The slacker will show the following characteristics: In-
active and sluggish in nature; the head long, narrow, and
coarse; the comb and wattles pale, shrunken, and scaly;
the eye sunken and dull; the back narrow and tapering;
the depth between the back and keel small; the abdomen
small, hard, and the skin coarse; the pelvic bones close to-
gether, hard and non-flexible; vent small, dry, and yellow;
early molters; yellow in eye-ring, ear-lobe beak. and
Remember in culling to consider all the characteristics
and if the bird will not pay for her feed ship her to market.
CULLINO( FOR EGG PRODUCTION.
1y3 N. R. Melirhof, Extension Poultryman.
Culling for egg production has become a very important
factor in successful poultry management. Methods have
been formulated to enable the poultryman to select and
eliminate those birds which are inferior egg producers.
keeping only those that will return a profit.
Poultry raisers realize that egg production is greatly
influenced by feeding practices, management, and the birds
In the first place it is advisable to feed only quality
feeds and these must be fed properly. If we expect birds
to be good layers they naturally must consume large quan-
tities of egg-producing materials. Any sudden change of
feeding methods is more apt than not to throw the birds
into a molt, resulting in a decrease in egg production.
Secondly, management is of utmost importance since we
need to keep the birds comfortable, contented, and healthy.
\\e must protect them from drafts, keep them out of cold.
and keep them indoors during rainy spells, etc.
Thirdly, the birds must have some breeding back of
them in order to produce eggs economically.
When culling a flock, careful consideration should be
given to the following factors: Time of year, age, condi-
tion, feed, range, and method of management.
If a bird is expected to produce a great many eggs, she
must be healthy and vigorous, active and energetic. There
should be no physical defects such as scaly legs. crooked
beak, eyelids that overhang, so that the bird cannot see
well, or anything that would prevent the bird from secur-
ing a great abundance of feed.
Intensity of production, number of eggs capable of be-
ing laid in a month, is indicated by the type and shape of
the female. In order to make a good yearly production.
the lien must not only lay the major part of the time, but
also at a rapid rate. She must be able to consume large
quantities of feed, and use these feeds rapidly and effi-
ciently to bring about the greatest possible egg production.
The back should be broad and the widtlh should be car-
ried straight to the rear. ()n thlie other land a back that
tapers to the rear and is narrow gives an indication of
small capacity. Also there should be depth (distance from
the back to tle keel). We want the back to go straight to
the rear and also the keel.
The breast should be full and deep, and the legs of
The keel bone should be long, which will inlieate greater
abdominal capacity for the manufacture of eggs.
The head should be relatively short and broad. A good.
full. prominent eye is desirable. The skin covering the
face should lie smooth and lean. A head that is narrow.
long. coarse or with sunken eyes is undesirable.
The body should be deep. The deeper and more slab-
sided a bird is the better it is. This fact is relative as birds
will vary considerably in their size. The depth and slab-
sidedness can be measured by placing the thumbs on the
middle of the back with the little finger on the front end
and the middle fingers on the rear of the keel bone. Depth
can be measured by spanning the hands from the back to
the keel and extending along front to rear.
Changes )Due to Laying.
A laying hen has a large, moist vent that is bleached
out, in contrast to a small. tdry, yellow, puckered vent of
a hen 1ihat is not laying.
The abdomen of a layer is large, the pelvic bones well
spread, thin, and flexible; and the distance between the
pelvic bones and keel is large. With a poor producer the
abdomen is small. the pelvic bones close together, hard,
and coarse; and the distance between the pelvic bones and
keel is short.
Another good indication of egg-laying capacity is the
quality of the skin and the thickness and pliability of the
pelvic bones. As egg production increases, fat goes out of
the skin and body. So with a heavy layer we would expect
to find a skin that is soft and velvety.
The comb, wattles and earlobes enlarge or contract de-
pending upon ovarian activity. A laying bird will have
comb, wattles, and earlobes that are large, full, smooth,
and waxy. In a non-laying bird the comb and wattles are
pale shrunken, and scaly.
In all yellow skinned breeds, different parts of the body
become white or bleached, according to the length of egg
production. This yellow change will depend on manage-
ment, feed, coarseness of the skin, and size of the bird.
This yellow pigment will bleach out in the following
order: Vent, eye-ring, earlobe, beak and shanks.
The vent changes very quickly with egg production, so
that a white or pink vent indicates that the bird is laying,
while a yellow vent means the bird is not laying.
The eye-ring bleaches a little more slowly than the vent
and the earlobes more slowly than the eye-ring, thus a
bleached earlobe indicates a longer laying period than
does a bleached vent or eye-ring.
The beak loses color first at the base until finally it
leaves the front part of the upper mandible. A bleached
beak generally means production for at least the past four
to six weeks.
The shanks are slowest to bleach out and hence indicates
a much longer production.
When a bird stops laying in the summer, she generally
goes into a molt. The later a hen lays in the summer ow
the longer the period she lays, the greater the production.
A late molter is generally a greater producer. On the
other hand, an early molter indicates a shorter production
period and consequently less eggs.
In culling poultry always consider all factors and then
weigh them together so as to determine the value of the
bird. Also consider management practices.
Long. narrow, coarse
Pale, shrunken, scaly
Hard, coarse, close to-
Small, skin hard,
Small, dry, yellow
Yellow in eye-ring, ear-
lobe, beak, shanks
Short, broad, trim
Red, Full, velvety
Full, round, prominent
Broad, straight to rear
Deep, straight to rear
Well spread, thin, flex-
Abdomen Large, skin soft, thin,
Vent Large, moist, bleached
Pigmentation Bleached in eye-ring,
earlobe, beak, shanks
Rhode Island Reds. Owner, T. Homel, Kendal, Fla.
POULTRY-A MAJOR INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA.
By E. W. Brown, President of The American Poultry
Association of Florida.
Florida, because of her equable climate, offers the most
diversified line of agricultural industries of any State in
the Union. Many of these industries, however, require a
great amount of property to engage in. Such, however, is
not the case with poultry, for by securing pure bred stock
from flocks whose records have been kept the poultryman
is in a position to immediately receive returns from his
investment, and it is largely a matter of care and study
as to how great an income will be derived from each poul-
tryman's respective business.
A mistaken notion prevails that anyone can come to
Florida and make money with poultry. I would say,
rather that anyone with proper training can come to
Florida and make a success of poultry culture, and any-
one without proper training who has been successful in
some other line of business can come to Florida and make
a success of poultry culture provided they will give to
their poultry the same care and attention that they gave
to their former business in which they were successful.
Perhaps no line of agriculture has made greater ad-
vances than has poultry and its side lines. To-day we have
in successful operation in this State hundreds of commer-
cial poultry plants that are in a good healthy condition
financially, returning to their owners each year an income
far in excess of what can be expected in other lines of
agriculture, then, too, there are many specialty plants, the
plants of the fanciers who are producing birds of such
quality that they win in the leading expositions of the
north and the largest poultry shows of the country. White
Wyandottes, Silver-laced Wyandottes, Light Brahmas,
White Leghorns, Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, An-
conas, Barred Plymouth Rocks and Black Minorcas are at
present produced in this State of a quality unsurpassed
anywhere, as is depicted by the records of such leading
poultry shows as Hagerstown, Md., Washington, D. C.,
Chicago Colliseum, Baltimore and others.
President Thomas A. Riggs of the American Poultry
Association who has dominion over the United States,
Mexico and Canada with regard to fanciers of these coun-
tries stated while on a tour of the Florida Poultry Shows
last year that in several of these he saw better quality, size,
etc., than he had in any of the northern shows.
Such nationally known poultry judges as Clem Stout,
of Missouri, Judge William Alden, of Massachusetts, Al-
gernon Mowll, of Maryland, D. Lincoln Orr, of Madison
Square Garden Poultry Show, F. J. Marshall, Poultry
Editor of the Southern Ruralist, and many others of like
fame in the poultry world have been amazed at the uni-
formly high quality of the Florida birds, and predict that
in the near future the leading breeders of America will
come to Florida for their breeding stock rather than
Florida's high-class breeding stock continuing to come
from the northern flocks.
The Florida Poultry Shows, operated under the aus
pices of the American Poultry Association had exhibits
of such importance as to attract national attention in the
Agricultural Journals and Poultry press, not alone be-
cause of the quality of the birds exhibited, but because of
the great variety of breeds, the high-class management,
the modern, up-to-date cooping, the liberal prizes, and
the completeness of the strings as shown by the Florida
exhibitors at the Florida shows.
The poultrymen of Florida are receiving excellent co-
operation through the Extension Department at Gaines-
ville, and many of the cities and counties have found it
necessary to employ poultry specialist for their respective
cities and sections made necessary by the great interest
manifested in poultry by the residents of these cities and
The Co-operative Poultry Associations of Florida with
new modern methods of marketing and grading have in-
creased the market price of Florida poultry and eggs in
many instances in excess of market quotations of the lead-
ing northern markets.
No State in the Union offers greater opportunities to
the poultryman than does Florida with her freedom from
severe cold, thereby eliminating expensive construction in
poultry houses, with many fine sites for poultry plants, at
an economical figure, with a year round supply of green
food always available which is essential to a high egg yield,
and with the best local market available anywhere in the
Union. With a heavy influx of winter tourists each year.
the Florida hotels, restaurants, and commission men find
it necessary to ship in many hundreds of cars of poultry
and eggs. This is a deplorable condition, which will be
overcome in the very near future, as no sane thinking
people can continue shipping these food supplies at a heavy
transportation expense when they can be produced right
here at a less cost than at the point from which they were
Poultry has passed the experimental stage in Florida.
and now can be called a safe established industry, rank-
ing high in value among the agricultural industries of the
State. As a side line poultry has a place in the vineyards
of the grape growers, in the orchards of the citrus grow-
ers, in the pecan orchard and on the farm. Every Florida
farm should have sufficient poultry to supply the home
table with eggs and meat and furnish pin money for the
To the prospective Florida poultryman let me suggest
that you visit the many excellent plants in this State, or
some one of them, as we have never encountered a Florida
poultryman who does not feel free and in fact is glad to
open his records, explain his methods, and thus contribute
largely to the success of prospective fellow breeders.
As President of the American Poultry Association of
Florida, I will be pleased at all times to furnish such in-
formation as I have available to those wishing to come to
Florida and engage in poultry business. I know from ex-
perience that Commissioner of Agriculture Mayo will do
the same, also the Extension Department of the University
of Florida at Gainesville, as well as any of the local As-
sociations and Co-operative Associations, Fanciers' Or-
ganizations, and others within this State.
In this short article it is impossible to give any detailed
or technical information, and we would suggest that those
interested write to the Chamber of Commerce of the cities
in which they contemplate locating, or to the Extension
Department at Gainesville for a bulletin on Poultry Cul-
ture in Florida, and I will say that they will evidence a
spirit of co-operation that is 75 per cent. responsible for
the rapid growth and development of this State.
A FEW STANDARD RATIONS.
A hen will eat from three to four ounces daily.
One hundred'hens on range with plenty of green feed
will need daily from 20 to 25 pounds of grain including
The U. S. Poultry Farm at Beltsville, Maryland, gives
the following choice of rations:
The parts are by weight. Use one grain mixture and
one mash mixture. Any grain mixture can be used with
any mash mixture.
Equal parts corn 2 parts corn meal
wheat 1 part bran
oats 1 part middlings
or 1 part beef scrap
parts cracked corn
2 parts cracked corn
1 part oats
The Indiana Experiment
10 lbs. corn
10 lbs. wheat
5 lbs. oats
3 parts corn meal
1 part beef scrap
Station uses and recommends
5 lbs. bran
5 lbs. shorts
31/ lbs. beef scraps or 50
The ration used at the New Jersey Experiment Station
has been quite widely adopted:
100 lbs. cracked corn 100 lbs. wheat bran
100 lbs. wheat 100 lbs. wheat middlings
100 lbs. oats 100 lbs. corn meal
The ration recommended by the New York Experiment
Station is a little more complex:
3 parts wheat 60
2 parts corn 60
1 part oats
lbs. corn meal
lbs. wheat shorts or
lbs. meat scrap
lbs. wheat bran
lbs. O. P. oil meal
lbs. alfalfa meal
The Missouri Experiment Station gives an interesting
table showing the number of yolks and whites which the
different kinds of feed will produce. This table assumes
that one pound of carbohydrates will make 3 1/3 yolks
and one pound of protein will make 16 2/3 whites. The
various tests and experiments carried on at the station
shows these figures are approximately correct.
100 lbs. corn ..........................
100 lbs. wheat .....................
100 lbs. oats ......................
100 lbs. beef scrap ....................
100 lbs. alfalfa .........................
100 lbs. clover ...........................
100 lbs. skim milk .....................
100 lbs. wheat bran ..................
100 lbs. middlings .....................
100 lbs. corn meal ....................
A suggestive ration based on
50 Ihs. backed eorn......
50 lbs. wheal ........................
Total 2034 lbs.
..... 243 182
.. 46 67
............. 54 48
........ 155 205
...... 205 212
..... 260 135
this table follows:
corn meal .................
ground oats ................
beef scraps .....................
fine salt .....................
450 yolks 450 whites
FEED AS RELATED TO BREED
At the New Jersey Egg-laying Contests it was found
that the amounts of feed eaten per year by different
Leghorns ....................................... 76 pounds
Plym south Rocks ................................ ----..- 90 pounds
R I. R eds ............................... 87 pounds
W yandottes ... ....................................... .......... 80 pounds
At the (Government Poultry Farm to produce a dozen
Leghorn pullets ate......................................... 4.8 pounds
Leghorn yearlings ate................ .......... 5.5 pounds
General purpose pullets ate...................... 6.7 pounds
General purpose yearlings ate ................. .6 pounds
This accounts for the popularity of the Leghorn with
commercial poultry growers. Most farmers feel that the
hearty appetite of the general purpose breeds is more
than offset by their usefulness in hatching and brooding,
their quiet disposition, and their greater size.
OUTLINE OF POULTRY FACTS.
Brooding The Baby Chicks.
The following sections constitute a portion of the notes
as prepared by Mr. Ferguson of Department of Vocational
Education, New Mexico:
1. Natural brooding consists of the old hen caring for
the young chicks.
2. Artificial brooding is an attempt to substitute
3. Conditions that artificial brooding should provide:
Controlled temperature. Adequate space.
Fresh air. Sunlight.
Darkness. Ease of cleaning.
Fire safety. Protection against
4. Temperature: 1st week, 100 degrees to 96; 2nd
week, 96-93; 3rd week 93-!0; 4th week 90-85; 5th week
85-75; after the 5th week self-sustaining temperature of
75 may be be supplied on cool nights.
5. Chilling of the Chick.-The chick is so constructed
that the lungs are near the surface of the back and con-
sequently is very easily chilled.
6. Thoroughly disinfect and clean before each brood.
7. Maintain a constant temperature of 100 degrees for
at least two days before placing chicks under the hover.
8. Provide a round arrangement of wire to force
chicks under hover.
9. Keep water and other liquids at a distance from
hover to prevent an accumulation of wet places.
10. First feed that chicks receive should be not less
than 36 to 72 hours nor more than 72 hours after hatching.
11. Buttermilk is important as chicks first feed as it
tends to start their digestive organs to functioning pro-
12. Sand plus a sprinkle of alfalfa leaves as a litter is
superior to straw as a litter.
13. Feeding the baby chick.
a. A good ration:
Wheat bran .................... 2.5 Ibs.
M iddlings ...................... 2.0 lbs.
Oat grotes ..................... .5 lbs.
Sifted meat scraps ............ .5 lbs.
Cracked sifted Y corn ........... 3 lbs.
Cracked wheat ................. 2 Ibs.
Steel cut oats .................. 1 lb.
b. Provide plenty of green feed.
c. Feed plenty of milk.
d. Feed 3 to 5 times daily, what they will clean up in
10 to 20 minutes.
e. Never overfeed; have plenty of clean fresh water.
14. Turn out to yard as early as possible; give exercise.
15. Brooder vices:
Toe picking; prevent by having free range.
darkened houses, and by feeding plenty of pro-
l'oultry Houses And Poultry House Problems.
1. The birds mode of living in the wild state:
a. Lived in small bands roosting in dense woods.
b. Lived in more favorable climate than is general
2. "The tree was the first poultry house but not the
3. Housing is contrary to nature but must be prac-
ticed to cope with domestic conditions.
4. Essentials of a good house.
a. Free from severe draughts; perches secluded from
main air currents.
b. Comfortable both in winter and summer.
c. Should be dry and weather proof.
d. Should not fluctuate too readily with the outside
e. Ventilated so that there will be a good circulation
of fresh air.
f. Special provisions should be made for winter and
g. Easy to clean and disinfect.
h. Convenient; a labor saver, easy to put in feed and
i. Ample sunlight provided.
j. Low initial cost, a permanent and durable struc-
k. South exposure unless prevailing winds prohibit.
1. Adequate space per bird, lights 2 21/2 feet; me-
diums, 2 3 sq. feet.
m. Location, should be in air drainage and on well-
n. Rodent proof.
5. Type of house. Two common types are the shed
type and the half-monitor. Adobe can be used to a very
good advantage, and can be made to fulfill all above re-
quirements. If portable colony house is desired, use thor-
oughly dried, shrunken ship lap.
6. If you expect to get gradually into the poultry
business, make a complete farm plan now, and build to it
as the need arises, draw to scale a map or plan of entire
farm including all houses, roads, fences and ditches that
are to remain permanent, also designate those to be estab-
lished in the future.
7. How to begin right.
a. Plan farm as outlined.
b. Begin on a small scale and increase annually. Small
beginnings grow into success, and large starts often
result in failure.
c. First section of laying house may be built in the
spring, and may be used as a brooder house. Ad-
ditions to this may be made as flock develops and
need of more space is to be had.
Double yarding system may be used to each 26 foot
Build 26 feet at first as chick will begin to crowd in
the early spring, 3,000 chicks may be brooded in
one old section of house as lien flock will have been
reduced considerable by this time.
S. Yards and yarding.
a. The double yards provides a more constant supply
of green food. It gives chance to plow up and
clean both yards during year.
b. Yard capacity of 300 birds per acre is frequently
recommended by poultrymen, but such factors as
high-priced land may economically lessen this fig-
c. It has been proven that it is possible to get good
results from a commercial flock that is under abso-
d. If small yards are used an abundance of green
feeds should be supplied from an outside source,
as sprouted oats or barley, beets, angels, etc. Al-
so use a great variety of feeds in regular ration.
e. Build outside fences permanently; inside partitions
can be of portable type.
Sanitation And Disease Control.
1. Sanitation means cleanliness-it involves a reduc-
tion of the number of bacteria. Bacteria are always less
effective when present in smaller quantities. Some diseases
are incurable, and some cost more to cure than the bird
is worth, as T. B.. cholera, roup and chicken pox.
2. Some good sanitation practices are:
a. Have open front houses so moist, impure air will
b. Have provisions for sunlight; it is a germ killer.
c. Clean frequently and use disinfectant, particularly
if disease appears.
d. Two parts stock dip to three parts kerosene make;
a good disinfectant; cover all parts thoroughly.
e. If dirt floor, apply air slack lime once a week.
f. Use only clean dust free straw for litter.
g. Use wire underneath perches to prevent birds from
walking on droppings.
h. Use dropping boards and clean at least once a week.
i. Keep nest clean-arrange top of nest sloping to
prevent birds from roosting on top of nest.
j. Give house an exceptional cleaning once a year.
k. Feed clean wholesome food: raw jack rabbits may
be hosts for disease and internal parasites; also
musty grains and moldy fruits may be detrimental.
1. Drinking founts should be cleaned daily; make
water pink with potash.
m. Burn all dead birds and isolate all sick ones.
n. Dispose of all unhealthy birds.
o. Turn soil occasionally-use double yarding system
practice crop rotation-something growing at all
p. Piles of dirt, filth, or tainted soil may be source of
roup, worms and other troubles.
a. Eliminate cracks of house to avoid colds and roup.
b. Allow adequate floor space.
c. Feed health-keeping feeds as: sprouted grains
(oats), any good succulent feed; vitamin contain-
ing feeds; mineral supplements as bone meal and
oyster shell; milk, meat scraps and a good variety
d. Do not defy the laws of sanitation and hygiene;
you may succeed for awhile in spite of them, but
neglect of them will overtake you in the long run.
e. Provide means to exercise birds; this incerases their
resistance to disease.
f. Breed only vigorous birds with clean life health
g. If you have an outbreak of disease or parasite
which you are unable to control, consult agricul-
tural agent or Smith-Hughes man.
Some Common Diseases and Their Control.
a. Symptoms: Colds to inflammation; characteristic
odor; cankers and swelling about the head.
b. Control pointers.
1. Kill bad cases and burn.
2. Isolate sick birds you are treating.
3. Stop draughts; provide ventilation, light, and in-
crease amount of floor space per bird.
4. Dip bird's head twice daily in coal tar solution.
5. Give pound epsom salts in water or mash to every
6. Keep drinking water pink with potassium perman-
7. Few drops of kerosene may be placed in drinking
water, this has tendency to grease the nasal openings.
2. Chicken Pox.
a. Symptoms. Small greasy-like scabs on comb, wat-
tles, face and eye lids.
b. If possible isolate infected birds; kill and destroy
birds in advanced stages.
c. Put flock on palatable and stimulating ration, as
milk, green feed, green cut bone and grains.
d. A tonic of 1 part epsom salts, 1 part powdered sul-
phur to 12 parts of mash has given good results.
c. Keep scabs and all non-feathered portions of head
greased with vaseline.
3. White diarrhea in chicks.
a. Two kinds.
Bacillary white diarrhea;
1. Characteristic diarrhea and "pasting up behind."
2. Chicks utter shrill cry of pain and stand about in
3. Eat little or no feed and lose weight.
4. Large intestines and cecum inflamed and liver
shows (lead tissue.
c. Control by using preventative measures.
1. Kill and burn all advanced cases.
2. Disinfect often with 5% solution of cresol solution.
3. Use 7.3 grains mercuric bichloride per gallon of
drinking water in non-metal containers; don't use
over 10 days at a time.
4. Keep on buttermilk diet.
5. Do not breed from birds that have ever been in-
a. Symptoms. Birds become weak, dull and finally
bleach even though not producing. The appetites
remain good. Worms are found in the following
places upon post mortem:
1. Large round worms and tape worms in the intes-
2. Ceym worms in the cecum (blind gut).
1. Plow up ground.
2. Fill up mud holes or low filthy places.
3. Treatment Santonin. 21,/8 gr., Calomel, 21/2 gr.,
Aloin 21, gr., Arecanut 10 gr. Dose not more than
two grains per bird; this can be given in capsules
and may be made up by druggist or it may be fed
in dry mash. You may have to repeat doseage.
4. Tonic. Use epsom salts, 1 pound per 100 birds, in
mash or water, give level teaspoonful of iron sul-
phate occasionally in the drinking water.
5. Control pointers for external parasites.
a. Blue bugs. Use carboliemium and kerosene equal
parts, or three parts drained crank case oil to one
of crude carbolic.
b. Lice. Use sodium floride.
c. Mites and fleas. Use three parts kerosene to one
of crude carbolic.
d. Scaley legs. Dip bird's shanks in equal parts kero-
sene and linseed.
e. Preventions. Destroy filth and dirt that may be
host or breeding places of these parasites. See that
solutions penetrate all cracks.
PRODUCTIVE POULTRY HUSBANDRY.
J. Bi. Lippincott, Publisher.
Table XIX-Average Weight and Volume of Different
One qt. One lb.
Barley meal ..................... 1.1 0.9
Barley, whole .................... 1.5 0.7
Bone meal ...................... 2.0 0.5
Brewer's dried grains ............. 0.6 1.7
Beef scraps ...................... 1.3 0.8
Corn-and-cob meal ............... 1.4 0.7
Corn-and-oat feed ................ 0.7 1.4
Corn bran ....................... 0.5 2.0
Corn m eal ....................... 1.5 0.7
Corn, whole ..................... 1.7 0.6
Cotton seed meal ................. 1.5 0.7
Distiller's dried grains .......... 0.5-0.7 1.0-1.4
Germ oil meal ................... 1.4 0.7
Gluten feed ...................... 1.3 0.8
Gluten m eal ..................... 1.7 0.6
Hominy meal .................... 1.1 0.9
Linseed meal, new process ........ 0.9 1.1
Linseed meal, old process ......... 1.1 0.9
Malt sprouts ..................... 0.6 1.7
Mixed feed (bran and middlings) 0.6 1.7
Oat feed (variable mixture)....... 0.8 1.3
Oat middlings ................... 1.5 0.7
Oats, ground .................... 0.7 1.4
Oats, whole ...................... 1.0 1.0
Rye feed (bran and middlings) .... 1.3 0.8
Rye meal ........................ 1.5 0.7
Rye, whole ...................... 1.6 0.6
Soy-bean meal ................... 1.3 0.8
W heat bran ..................... 0.5 2.0
W heat, ground .................. 1.7 0.6
Wheat middlings (flour) .......... 1.2 0.8
W heat middlings ................. 0.8 1.3
W heat, whole .................... 1.9 0.5
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL BROODING OF
By Alfred R. Lee, Poultryman, Animal Husbandry Divi-
vision, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S.
Department of Agriculture.
The proper brooding of chickens is one of the most dif-
ficult operations on poultry farms, especially for the be-
ginner. Many poultry keepers who are able to get good
egg yields and fair hatches make a failure of brooding
chickens, either raising only a small percentage of the
chickens hatched or failing to rear strong, vigorous birds
which develop into good breeding stock. Methods of arti-
ficial brooding are being improved each year, but no one
system has given perfect satisfaction.
Brooding with hens is the simplest and easiest way to
raise a few chickens and is the method which is used al-
most exclusively on the average farm. Artificial brooders
are necessary where winter or very early spring chickens
are raised, or where only Leghorns or other nonsitting
breeds of poultry are kept. They are necessary also where
large numbers of chickens are raised commercially. Suc-
cessful natural rearing of chickens requires convenient
facilities and regular attention. Although artificial meth-
ods require a larger investment, closer attention, and more
care, they are more commonly used where large numbers
of chickens are raised.
Rearing Chickens With Hens.
Sitting hens should be confined to slightly darkened nests
at hatching time and not disturbed unless they step on or
pick their chickens when hatching, in which case the chick-
ens, as soon as dry, should be removed to a basket lined
with flannel or some other warm material, and kept warm
until all the eggs are hatched; or the eggs may be removed
and placed under a quieter hen whose eggs are hatching
at the same time. An incubator may also be used to keep
the earliest hatched chickens warm, in case they are re-
moved from the nest. If the eggs hatch unevenly, those
which are slow in. hatching may be placed under other
hens, as hens often get restless after a part of the chickens
are out, allowing the remaining eggs to become cooled at
the very time when steady heat is necessary. Remove the
eggshells and any eggs which have not hatched, as soon as
the hatching is over.
Hens should be fed as soon as possible after the eggs
are hatched, as feeding tends to keep them quiet; otherwise
many hens will leave the nest; at this time, however, do
not allow the chicks to have any feed. In most cases it is
best that the hen remain on the nest and brood the chick-
ens for at least 24 hours after the hatching is over.
Broody hens are often used to raise incubator-hatched
chicks and to take the place of the artificial brooder, a prac-
tice that is in operation by some poultrymen. A few egg.
are put under the hen four or five days before the incu-
bator is to hatch. In the evening following the hatch of
the incubator, after the chickens are thoroughly dry, one
or two are put under the lien, and if she is found to mother
them properly, the next evening as many more are added
as she can brood or care for properly.
Capons are sometimes used for brooding chicks, in which
case they are handled the same as liens. As some capons
will not brood chickens, they must be tried out as is de-
scribed for hens. A capon will brood a considerably larger
number of chickens than a len will, on account of his
Hens will successfully brood 10 to 15 chickens early in
the season, and 15 to 20 in warm weather, depending upon
the size of the hen. This method of handling chickens may
be used where one has only a small number of chickens
to raise and it is also a good method when it is desired to
raise separately special lots of chicks. It should be borne
in mind, in giving chickens to a hen which already has
some to brood, that it is best to add chicks of the same color
and age as those already with her, as the hen will often
pick the later arrivals if they are of a color different from
those she is already brooding. This transferring should
take place at night, although with a docile hen it some-
times can be done during the day.
Sodium fluorid should be applied to sitting hens before
the chicks are hatched, to kill lice. This should prevent
the chicks from becoming infested with lice, but if it does
not, apply sodium fluoride to the chicks after they are one
week old, using only two very small pinches to each chick.
One pinch should be distributed on the neck, top of head,
and throat, and the other on the back and below the vent.
-The hen should be given only three pinches, one on the
head and neck, one on the back, and one below the vent.
The treatment should be given to the chicks while they are
active, and for a time they should be prevented from hov-
ering, so that the free powder will be shaken off. Do not
use sodium fluorid on young chicks before they are 1 week
old, as it may be injurious to them.
Chickens hatched during the winter should be brooded
in a poultry house, shed, or cellar when the weather is
cold; after the weather becomes more favorable they should
be reared in brood coops out of doors. Brood coops should
be made so that they can be closed at night to keep out
cats, rats, and other animals, but ventilation enough should
be allowed so that the hen and chicks will have plenty of
fresh air. The construction of brood coops should be such
as to permit them to be easily cleaned and sprayed.
Confine the Mother Hen.
The hen should be confined in the coop, or in a small
yard attached to the coop, until the chicks are weaned,
the chickens being allowed free range after they are a few
days old. The use of a small, covered yard attached to the
coop gives the hen more freedom and keeps her in better
condition than if she is confined to the coop. If hens are
allowed free range and have to forage for feed for them-
selves and chicks, they often take them through wet grass,
where the chicks may become chilled and die. Most of the
feed the chicks get in this manner goes to keep up the heat
of the body, whereas feed eaten by those with a hen that
is confined produces more rapid growth, as the chicks do
not have so much exercise. Then, too, in most broods there
are one or two chicks that are not so strong as the others,
and if the hen is allowed free range the weaker ones often
get behind and out of hearing of the mother's cluck and
call. In most cases this results in the loss of these chicks,
due to becoming chilled. If the hen is confined the weak-
lings can always find shelter and heat under her, and after
a few days may develop into strong, healthy chicks.
Even when confined, the chickens frequently have to be
caught and put into their coops during sudden storms, as
they are likely to huddle in some hole or corner, where
they get chilled or drowned. They must be kept growing,
constantly if the best results are to be obtained. Chickens
never entirely recover from the effects of checks in their
growth even for a short period. Hens are usually left with
their young chicks as long as they will brood them.
Care of the Brood Coop.
The brood coop should be cleaned at least once a week
and kept free from mites. If mites are found in the coop,
it should be thoroughly cleaned and sprayed with kero-
sene oil, crude petroleum, or carbolineum, making sure
that the spray reaches all the cracks and crevices where
the mites may be hiding. From 1 to 2 inches of sand or
dry dirt or a thin layer of fine-cut straw or hay should
be spread on the floor of the coop. Brood coops should be
moved weekly to fresh ground, preferably where there is
new grass. Shade is very essential in rearing chickens, es-
pecially during warm weather; therefore, the coops should
be placed in the shade whenever possible. A cornfield
makes fine range for young chickens, as they obtain many
bugs and worms and have fresh ground to run on most of
the time, due to the cultivation of the ground, and have
abundant shade at the same time.
The artificial method of brooding chickens consists in
supplying, artificially, heat as nearly as possible like that
furnished by the lien under natural conditions. The tem-
perature of a hen is about 106 F., but as hens seldom
sit closely on chickens the latter do not receive this degree
of heat. Hens adapt their methods of brooding to condi-
tions, such as outside temperature, size of the chickens,
an, wet weather, and the operator of an artificial brooder
must meet these conditions as nearly as lie can. Some of
the most important faults in the management of brooders
are overcrowding and lack of ventilation, and the failure
of the chickens to get sufficient exercise. The brooder
should supply the proper temperature, be readily adapted
to meet the changes in weather conditions, be easy to clean,
and be well ventilated.
Chickens are usually left in the incubator from 24 to 36
hours after hatching, without f. '.;!., before they are re-
moved to the brooder, which should have been in operation
for 3 or 4 days at the proper temperature for receiving
chickens. A beginner should try his brooding system care-
fully before he uses it. After being placed in the brooder
the chickens can be given feed and water. Subsequent loss
in chickens is frequently due to chilling received while
taking them from the incubator to the brooder. In cool
or cold weather they should be moved in a covered basket
or other receptable.
Brooders and hovers should have from 1/ to 2 inches of
sand. dry dirt, cut clover, or chaff spread over the floor
and in the brooder-house pen. The hovers should be
cleaned frequently, as cleanliness is essential in success-
fully raising chickens.
When chickens are first put into the brooder they should
be confined under or around the hover by placing a board
or wire frame a few inches outside. The fence or guard
should be moved farther and farther away from the hover
and discarded entirely when the chickens are 3 or 4 days
old or when they have learned to return to the source of
heat. Young chickens should be closely watched to see that
they do not huddle or get chilled. They should be allowed
to run on the ground whenever the weather is favorable,
as they do much better than when kept continuously on
cement or board floors. Usually, weak chickens should be
killed as soon as noticed, as they rarely make good stock,
and they may become carriers of disease. Brooders should
be disinfected at least once a year, an dmore frequently if
the chickens brooded in them have had any disease.
Hovers, Brooders, And Brooding Systems.
Many kinds of hovers, brooders, and brooding systems
are used throughout the country, some with success, al-
though many are discarded as failures, while each year
brings some modification or change. One poultryman uses
a system successfully, while his neighbor may make a fail-
ure of the same system, but does well with another. More
difference of opinion exists as to the value of brooding
systems than with any other part of poultry equipment,
which shows that no system is ideal for all conditions or
all people, but that success depends largely on individual
handling and care. Many failures in brooding are due to
weak chickens, which may be traced to faulty incubation
or weakness in the breeding stock. Successful rearing of
chickens depends primarily upon having healthy, vigorous
Brooding systems may be classified as follows, accord-
ing to their capacity: Individual brooders or hovers hold-
ing from 25 to 100 chickens; stove brooders heated by coal.
kerosene, or distillate oil, with a capacity varying from
200 to 1,000 chicks; and hot-water-pipe systems, the capa-
city of which is unlimited. The beginner, if possible,
should thoroughly investigate the brooding equipment used
by successful poultrymen or farmers, which has been in
operation for some time.
Individual Hovers and Brooders.
The small individual hovers and brooders are heated
with either hot air or hot water, with kerosene oil as the
source of heat. Hovers are used either in brooder houses
or in small colony houses, and outdoor brooders are used
successfully under favorable weather conditions; but
where chicks are hatched late in the winter or early in the
spring indoor hovers, stove brooders, or brooder houses are
more satisfactory. The capacity of brooders and hovers is
often over-estimated, and half of the number of chickens
will do much better than the number usually recommended
by the manufacturer. The danger from fire, due frequent-
ly to carelessness and lack of attention, is considerable in
cheap brooders and hovers, while there is some risk in the
best grades, although proper care will reduce this to a
minimum. Individual hovers in colony houses or several
in one large house are giving satisfaction. When a lamp
is used as the source of heat, care should be taken to keep
the wick and burner properly cleaned. Brooder lamps and
stoves should be inspected several times a day. Do not
fill the brooder lamp entirely full of oil, as the heat from
the lamp will expand the oil in the bowl and may cause it
to overflow and catch fire.
Brooder stoves heated by coal are coming into very gen-
eral use in the East, while similar brooders heated with
engine distillate oil are used extensively on the Pacific
coast. These brooder stoves have a capacity of from 350
to 1,000 chicks each, but the brooding of more than 500
chicks in one flock is not advisable and even a smaller num-
ber is preferable. Most of these stoves have hovers, al-
though a few of the oil stoves do not. A stove with a hover
Large individual brooders are used in colony houses, so
that when the chickens are weaned the colony house is
available for use as a growing coop. This arrangement re-
quires a smaller investment than the long, piped brooder
house, and allows the rearing of the chicks on range to ad-
vantage. Brooder stoves of both types are usually oper-
ated in houses from 10 feet square to 14 by 20 feet and
are occasionally used in long brooder houses.
Most of the oil brooders are equipped with a wafer re-
gulator that controls the flow of oil, which is fed automa-
tically from a tank or barrel outside the house. Several
stoves may be connected with the same supply tank. This
brooding system provides good ventilation and heat enough
to keep the chickens from crowding and requires a mini-
mum of care.
Brooder stoves heated by kerosene are used somewhat in
the East, but their use is not nearly so common as that of
stoves when the early chicks are hatched.
The system of hot-water-pipe brooders consists of long
brooder houses heated with hot water, coal being used al-
most exclusively for fuel. Many of the latest of these mam-
moth brooders are giving good results, and the labor of
brooding a large number of chickens is less than when small
individual brooders or hovers are operated. These brood-
ers are suitable for very large poultry farms or where
broilers are raised during the winter months.
Method of Heating.
Brooders are heated either by overhead or bottom heat
or by a combination of the two methods. Too much bot-
tom heat does not give good results, but either the over-
head or the combination method is used successfully. The
individual brooder stoves all furnish overhead heat, but
allow the chickens to move about, which makes them one
of the most satisfactory types of brooding systems.
Many pipe systems have a hover or cover over a section
of the pipes in each pen, while others are used without
them, and each appears to give good results with different
operators. A piece of wool felt or cotton flannel is often
used for this purpose.
Gas and electricity are also used for heating brooders
and hovers with success, and, when available, supply one
of the steadiest and most convenient sources of heat.
Heaters for the mammoth brooders or hot-water-pipe
systems are usually equipped with automatic regulators,
which are operated by either expansion of water or elec-
tric contact. Both types of regulators have given satisfac-
tion. A reliable regulator is essential to success with any
of these systems.
Fireless brooders are used with success by some persons,
but require much more attention than heated brooders and
are advisable only for emergency use. As their construc-
tion is very simple, many persons prefer to build rather
than buy them. In this system of brooding, the body heat
of the chickens is the source of warmth, requiring that a
sufficient number of chickens, depending upon the size of
the brooder, be placed in the brooder to generate and re-
tain the heat. Small, wireless hovers with adjustable covers
composed of strips of cloth or feathers are used in both
indoor and outdoor brooders and in colony houses. A bot-
tle or jug of hot water is sometimes used with these brood-
ers. hot water being put in every night or as often as is
necessary to keep the chicks warm and comfortable. A box
from 18 to 24 inches square and from 8 to 10 inches deep
makes a good hover of this type. The position of the cover
used over tlie chickens in this box is regulated according
to the weather and the number of the chickens in the
brooder. In very cold weather the cover should sag so as
to rest on the backs of the newly watched chickens, and
there should be little or no empty space in the hover, while
in warmer weather or with older chickens the cover is
From 12 to 40 chicks are usually placed in a fireless
brooder, 25 being the average number. The litter in these
brooders must be changed frequently, and the chickens
must be watched carefully and closely to see that they are
comfortable and do not sweat. Fireless brooders may be
used in connection with heated brooders, using the latter
for 7 to 10 days and reducing the heat, which should be
governed by the season of the year and outdoor tempera-
tures, before transferring the chickens to the fireless brood-
er. When first placed in the fireless brooder the chickens
may have to be put under the hovers frequently, until they
learn where to get warm. Fair results are also obtained
with these brooders when used in a heated room.
Correct Temperatures For Brooding.
The best temperature at which to keep a brooder or a
hover depends on the position of the thermometer, the
style of the hover, the age of the chickens, and the wea-
ther conditions. Aim to keep the chickens comfortable.
When too cold they will crowd together and try to get
nearer the heat. If it is found in the morning that the
droppings are well scattered under the hover it is an in-
dication that the chickens have had heat enough. If the
chickens are comfortable at night they will be spread out
under the hover with the heads of some protruding from
under the hover cloth. Too much heat causes them to pant
and gasp and sit around with their mouths open.
It is impracticable to state for each style of hover or
brooder at what temperature it should be kept to raise
young chickens. In most cases it should be run at from
!0 to 100' F. when the chickens are first put in, and should
he kept at that temperature in stove brooders as the chick-
ens are able to adjust themselves to the heat, moving
nearer or farther from the heat, according to the outside
temperature. In such brooders the heat is usually kept at
this temperature as long as the chicks need brooding. In
small hovers, outdoor brooders, and pipe systems where a
tighter hover is used and.chicks do not have the oppor-
tunity to adjust themselves to the heat, the temperature
is gradually reduced to 85 F. for the second 10 days, and
then lowered to 70" or 75 F. as long as the chickens need
heat. This depends somewhat on the season of the year
and the number of the chickens, as it can be readily seen
that the heat generated by 50 chickens would raise the
temperature under the hover to a higher degree than the
heat given off by a smaller number; consequently the
amount of heat furnished by the lamp or stove will have
to be regulated accordingly. As the chickens grow larger
and need less heat, the lamps need be used only at night
and later only on cold nights. The heat is usually cut off
at the end of 5 or 6 weeks in March or April in the vicinity
of Washington, D. C., but winter chickens should have
heat for S or 10 weeks, or until they are well feathered.
(are should be taken to prevent chilling or overheating
tile chickens, which weakens them and may result in bowel
chickens s need a cool place for scratching and exercis-
ing in addition to heat. The brooder stove is usually placed
in the rear part of the brooder house so that the front of
tile house will be cooler, or the brooder house may be divid-
ed into two sections, one in which the stove is placed, and
a cool room for exercising and feeding. It is important
to get the chickens out on the ground as soon as possible
whenever the weather is good and not too cold. Indoor
brooders and hovers can be used successfully in unheated
brooder houses, except during the coldest weather in most
sections of the country. If winter chickens are being raised
it is advisable to heat the brooder house to a temperature
of 60" to 70" F. regardless of the temperature of the hover,
which often requires placing brooder pipes around the
outside walls of the brooder house. The need of this heat
depends entirely upon the brooding system and the wea-
ther conditions; but it is absolutely necessary that the heat
be kept at the desired temperature under the hover.
Care of Purchased Day-Old Chicks.
IHuyers of chicks should provide a brooder of sufficient
capacity for the number of chickens purchased and have
it in working order and regulated when the chicks arrive.
If for any reason the brooder is not ready, place the ship-
ping box in a warm room, keeping the chicks in it and
taking them out for feeding every 3 hours during the day
until the brooder is ready. It sometimes happens that de-
lay in the delivery of a brooder places one at a disadvan-
tage as to what to do with the chickens. In such cases a
fireless brooder may be constructed temporarily, as de-
scribed above. After the chickens have been placed in
their brooder and made comfortable they should be man-
aged as described in the foregoing pages.
Feeding Young Chickens.
Young chickens should be fed from three to five times
daily, depending on one's experience in feeding. Un-
doubtedly chickens can be grown faster by feeding five
times daily than by feeding three times daily, but it should
be borne in mind that more harm can be done to the young
chickens by overfeeding than by underfeeding, and at no
time should they be fed more than barely enough to satisfy
their appetites and to keep them exercising, except at the
evening or last meal, when they should be given all they
will eat. Greater care must be taken not to overfeed young
chicks that are confined than those that have free range,
as leg weakness is likely to result in those confined.
The young chicks should not be fed until they are about
48 hours old, whether they are with the hen or in a brooder.
If home mixing of feed is to be followed the first feed
should consist of baked johnny-cake broken up into small
pieces, or hard-boiled eggs mixed with stale bread crumbs
or rolled oats, using a sufficient quantity of the latter to
make a dry, crumbly mixture, or a mash of 2 parts rolled
oats, 1 part bran, and 1 part middlings by weight, mixed
with milk or with boiled eggs. These feeds or combina-
tions of feeds may be used with good results for the first
3 or 4 days. Then gradually substitute daily for two feeds
a mixture of equal parts of finely cracked wheat, cracked
corn, and pinhead oatmeal or hulled oats, to which may be
added a small quantity of broken rice, millet, or rapeseed,
or all combined, and charcoal if obtainable. If corn can
not be had, cracked kafir or rolled or hulled barley may
Commercial baby-chick scratch and chick mash may be
fed to advantage in place of the home-mixed feeds and can
be bought from almost any feed dealer. Buying these
ready-mixed feeds for small chickens is much simpler than
procuring the separate grains, and is no more expensive
unless good-sized quantities of feed are to be bought.
Milk in some form is very beneficial for small chickens
and may be kept before them as a drink and also used in
miing this moist mash. Giving the chicks a drink of milk
for the first feed is an excellent practice. Commercial milk
products, such as semisolid buttermilk or dried milk, make
excellent additions to the feed for chicks and are well worth
while for that purpose. Two per cent of dried buttermilk
may be added to the mash for little chicks, if liquid butter-
milk is not used, reducing tle amount of meat scrap ac-
Johnnycake is made as follows: Take corn meal, 5
pounds; infertile eggs (tested out from settings or from
an incubator), 6; baking soda, 1 tablespoon. Mix with
milk to make a stiff batter, and bake thoroughly. When
infertile eggs are not available use a double quantity of
baking soda and add one-half pounds of sifted meat scrap.
When the chicks are about 10 days or 2 weeks old, use
a growing mash composed of the following to take the
place of the johnnycake or bread: Rolled oats, 1 part by
weight; bran, 2 parts; corn meal, 1 part; middlings. 1 part;
sifted meal scrap, Jl part.
Where only a few chicks are raised the laying mash
(used for laying liens) may be used for little chicks by
adding 1 pound of rolled oats and 1 pound of bran to 2
pounds of the laying mash.
The mash may be placed in a hopper where it will not
be wasted, and left before the chicks at all times, or it may
be fed as a moist, crumbly mash once daily, feeding suit-
able chick grains three times a day.
When the chickens are 8 to 10 weeks old add 1 part of
ground oats and increase the meat scrap to 1 part. the corn
meal to 2 parts, and decrease the bran to 1 part in the
mash. As soon as the chickens will cat the whole meat.
cracked corn, and other grains, the small-sized chick feed
can be eliminated and the chicks be fed only three times
The chickens' growth can be hastened if they are given
sour milk, skim milk, or buttermilk to drink in addition
to the feeds. Milk is excellent to mix with the mash .
Growing chickens kept on a good range may be given
all their feed in a hopper, mixing 2 parts by weight of
cracked corn with 1 part of wheat, or equal parts of crack-
ed corn, wheat, and oats in one hopper and the dry mash
in another. The beef scrap may be left out of the dry mash
and fed in a separate hopper, so that the chickens can eat
all of this feed that they desire. If the beef scrap is to be
fed separately it is advisable to wait until the chicks are
10 days old, although many poultrymen put the beef
scrap before the young chickens from the first without bad
Chickens confined to small yards should always be sup-
plied with green feed, such as lettuce, sprouted oats, al-
falfa, or clover; but the best place to raise chickens suc-
cessfully is on a good range where no extra green feed is
required. Fine charcoal, grit, and oyster shell should be
kept before the chickens at all times, and cracked or ground
bone may be fed where the chickens are kept in small,
bare yards, but the latter feed is not necessary for chick-
ens that have a good range.
Toe Punching And Banding.
Farmers frequently keep old hens on their farms and
kill the younger hens and pullets, because they are unable
to distinguish between them after the pullets have ma-
tured. Toe punch or mark all the chickens before they are
transferred to the brooder or brood coop, so that their age
and breeding can be readily determined after they are
matured. Another method is to use colored celluloid leg
bands on the pullets in the fall, which can be purchased
at almost any supply store in a variety of sizes and colors.
These bands have no numbers on them and therefore if
used it is necessary to adopt a different color each year.
There has recently come into practice, where the hens
are trap nested or pedigree records kept of each egg, a
system known as wing banding, for permanently identify-
ing chickens. When this method is used a small, number-
ed band is placed on the leg of the chick soon after it is
hatched. When the chick is about 3 weeks old a slit is
made with a knife in the web of the wing. The band is
removed from the leg and inserted in this slit and closed,
eare being taken not to have the band so tight as to pinch
the skin. In most cases bands properly placed in the wings
of chickens will remain there throughout the life of the
bird. By keeping a record of the numbers on the bands
and knowing the number of the hen which laid the egg out
of which the chick hatched, a complete history, including
time of hatching and breeding of the birds, may be kept.
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS WITH MISCELLAN-
EOUS SUBSTANCES AGAINST THE CHICKEN
Federal Department l~ulletin No. 122S.
IBy W. M. Davidson, Entomologist. Insecticide and Fungi-
In connection with the enforcement of the Insecticide
Act of 1910 a large number of proprietary insecticides and
the ingredients entering into their composition have been
tested against the chicken mite. A brief summary of these
experiments forms the basis of this bulletin. The work
was done at the Insecticide and Fungicide Board's testing
laboratory at Vienna, Va., which is under the supervision
of Dr. A. L. Quaintance, of the Bureau of Entomology.
and under the direct charge of W. S. Abbott.
The Chicken Mite.
All the tests hereinafter recorded were made against the
common red mite of the chicken (Dermanyssus galinae
Redi). The mite feeds by sucking the blood of the chickens.
attacking them at night while they are roosting. It passes
the day under roosts and in crevices elsewhere in the chick-
en house. Occasionally a few mites are found on the fowls
during the day, and sitting hens are liable to attack both
day and night. The mite is active in all but the coldest
periods of the year and reproduces with great prolificacy.
It will live for at least three months without food.
Kinds of Tests Made, And Methods of Estimating The
A few tests were made against the mites infesting sit-
ting hens and the nest boxes occupied by them, but the
great majority were conducted against mites inhabiting
chicken houses, coops, roosts, and nest boxes used by lay-
ing liens only.
The tests included a number of materials and methods
grouped under the heading "Miscellaneous treatments,"
besides special studies of various substances applied in the
form of paints, dusts, and sprays. Details of these tests
are given under appropriate headings.
In a number of cases substances were tested in small
containers, such as jars and vials. Such tests, involving
both contact and fumigation action on the mite, were con-
sidered so severe that failure to obtain satisfactory results
thereby indicated with certainty that the materials would
be inefficient in practical use in chicken houses. Such ma-
terials might, therefore, be classed as of no value, without
In computing the degree of efficiency, in tests other than
in small containers, it was found necessary to use some-
what arbitrary terms. It is next to impossible to make
actual counts of the mites alive and dead on a roost or in
a nest box, and much more so in a chicken house. The ef-
fect of a material can le gauged only by estimating the
general mortality from the percentage of living and dead
found in the more easily observed places and by observing
how rapidly reinfestation occurs in the premises. In the
latter case the season of the year should also be taken into
account, as the mite reproduces more rapidly under higher
Many materials proved to have no value in the control
of mites. Others listed as "inefficient" failed to reduce
the mites sufficiently to prevent a speedy reinfestation.
In some such eases it appeared that a major percentage
of active mites were killed outright, but no effect was
exerted on the eggs. Materials to which the term "some-
what efficient" is applied were those in which it appeared
that 60 to 75 per cent of the mites were killed, but the
residue was large enough to bring about a speedy rein-
festation. "Moderately efficient" materials were those
which reduced the infestation greatly and prevented more
than a comparatively small subsequent reinfestation. The
term "efficient" was reserved for materials which killed
all or almost all the mites, and subsequent infestation, if
any appeared, was insignificant in proportion to the ori-
These terms apply only to single treatments. In many
cases two or more treatments were made in the same pre-
mises. While the total mortality was increased thereby,
the treatments were not progressively effective, the subse-
quent ones not equaling the original in effectiveness. Un-
less otherwise noted, the tests described herein represent
An infested roost was fumigated in a fumigatoriium of
360 cubic feet capacity for 6 hours by burning, in sawdust.
S 2-3 ounces of naphthalene. A number of mites were fumi-
gated in a tight container for 30 hours by burning the
same quantity in carbon. Both treatments were effective.
An infested nest box was treated by burning 13 grams of
pyrethrum. A chicken house was fumigated by placing in
live coals on the floor 58 cubic centimeters of a preparation
containing 7.5 per cent of borax and a small quantity of
pyrethrum. Two chicken houses were fumigated by burn-
ing respectively 1 and 2 pounds of sulphur for 4 hours.
The capacity of the houses used in these tests was 360 cubic
feet, and they were as air-tight as the average chicken
house. All the last four treatments were of little or no
A heavy anthracene oil applied on burlap strips at the
ends of clean roosts failed to prevent the access of mites
from other places in the chicken house. A few days after
the application the oil hardened and the mites were able
to cross it. Similar hands made of sticky tree-banding
material were also inefficient, even when protection was
given from the fowls by placing boards above the sticky
portion of the roosts.
A wooden roost grooved beneath so as to fit tightly to a
tin trough running the whole length of the roost and con-
training a coal-tar and mineral-oil mixture, when placed in
an infested chicken house, repelled the mites as long as the
trough contained oil to keep the wooden roosts permeated.
This roost had no effect on the mites in other parts of the
house (e. g., the nest boxes).
Substances in Food and Water of Fowls.
The preparations following were all without value when
added to the food and water of fowls: Two line-sulphur
preparations, each containing less than 12 per cent of cal-
cium polysulphids and calcium thiosulphates diluted at the
rate of 1 to 2,150 and added to food and water for 5 and
13 days, respectively; three preparations containing from
33 to 35 per cent of free sulphur, added to each quart of
food at the rate of 1 heaping teaspoonful three times a
week for 6 weeks; and one preparation containing 38 per
cent of free sulphur with a trace of naphthalene, used as
in the preceding test but for 4 weeks only.
Repellent Substances Suspended in Infested Premises.
A preparation consisting of naphthalene 14 per cent,
carbon disulphid 46 per cent, and mineral oil 40 per cent,
contained in a bottle with a wick, suspended from the roof
of a chicken house for 2 weeks, was without value. Fif-
teen grams of pyrethrum (ground flowers) was suspended
in a cloth bag from the top of an infested nest box. This
also was of no value.
Nesting Eggs, Nesting Hairs, and Nesting Materials.
Prepared nest eggs, which are primarily designed to pro-
tect sitting liens and remain in use during the period of
incubation, were used in infested nest boxes only, to de-
termine whether they would be efficient in killing or ex-
pelling the mites.
Eight tests were made with eggs of pure naphthalene.
In no case was any efficiency shown. These eggs remained
in the nests for periods as long as 25 days. Their use in
some instances caused marked injury to the fowls sitting
on them and appeared to interfere with the health of the
embryo chicks alongside them.
Five tests were made with eggs of naphthalene and par-
affin mixed. These eggs were used in five infested nests
for 2 hours on each of 3 days, at intervals varying from
6 to 8 days. None of these treatments was of value.
An egg containing 5 per cent of naphthalene and a small
quantity of formaldehyde was used for 19 days without
A plaster egg containing a tin receptacle holding a mix-
ture of naphthalene and sawdust was charged weekly with
a mixture composed of turpentine 54 per cent, formalde-
hyde 18 per cent, and water 28 per cent. This egg was
used for 4 weeks without any effect.
Two kinds of prepared nesting hair (fats 9.4 and 3.8
per cent, respectively) were placed in infested jars for 8
days. These proved valueless.
Two tests were made with nesting materials of shredded
bark and crumbled leaves of cedar. This material was
placed in clean nest boxes in mite-infested premises, and
sitting hens were employed. In both cases mite infesta-
Treatment of The Hen.
Six lens were treated by rubbing into the skin 1 inch
below the vent a preparation containing 5.6 per cent of
mercury. The fowls were kept for 16 days in an infested
chicken house. At the end of that time the house was still
Conclusions Regarding Miscellaneous Treatments.
Of the miscellaneous methods listed above only two in-
dicated any efficiency-naphthalene fumigation and the
The tests with the former were made in a fumigatorium
under optimum fumigating conditions. This method would
be of value where nest boxes, coops, or roosts were to be
treated, but an infested house could not be treated unless
very nearly air-tight. The fact that sulphur burnt at the
rate of over 6 pounds to 1,000 cubic feet was quite ineffi-
cient in a chicken house at least as nearly air-tight as the
average house precludes satisfactory fumigation under
The medicated roost was of some value, since it afforded
protection to roosting fowls for a long time, but unless
the rest of the premises are treated no protection is af-
forded fowls on the nest.
In the dusting tests various makes of hand dusters were
The following dusts were without value under natural
conditions: Air-slaked lime, Paris green, hellebore, cal-
cium fluorid, sodium fluoride, sodium silico fluoride, barium
fluoride, barium tetrasulphid, mercuric chlorid, and sul-
phur (refined and commercial). With the exception of
calcium fluorid and mercuric chlorid none of these sub-
stances was efficient even in jar tests.
Tobacco dusts containing nicotine up to 5.26 per cent
(the strongest percentage tested) were inefficient.
Dusts containing phenols up to 2 per cent were ineffi-
Since naphthalene was efficient as a fumigant, it appear-
ed that this material might have effect as a dust. Naph-
thalene of 40-mesh fineness was dusted in next boxes at
100 per cent, 75 per cent, 50 per cent, and 23 per cent
In the first of these tests it was efficient, in the second
and third (with wheat flour as diluent) moderately so, and
in the last (with sand as diluent) inefficient. Pure naph-
thalene dusted on roosts was efficient in two out of four
tests. A 4 per cent naphthalene in lime was insufficient
in a roost test, while a 12 per cent preparation in sulphur
and lime proved moderately efficient when dusted in an
infested coop. Coarse naphthalene was inefficient when
dusted in two infested chicken houses, while a naphthalene
of 40-mesh fineness was of slight value in a third.
It appeared that napthalene is efficient only in a small
circumscribed area where it may have a fumigation effect.
In more open places it has a rather weak repellent effect.
Dissolved in kerosene, the mixture was not more efficient
than pure kerosene, but dissolved in gasoline the resul-
tant mixture was more efficient than pure gasoline.
In practice, dusting with naphthalene is not a feasible
method for the control of the chicken mite.
Four infested chicken houses were dusted with the finely
ground powder of the roots of Derris sp. Undiluted dust
was efficient in one house and temporarily so in another.
In a third house a 75 per cent dust was only moderately
efficient, in a fourth test a 50 per cent dust was inefficient.
Flour was used as a diluent.
Derris powder is a remedy of value, but it would ap-
pear that two or more applications are necessary and that
it loses its efficiency if diluted more than 25 per cent. Its
action on larve and adult mites is first to stupefy them,
the insects dropping to the ground and dying after two
or three days. The material is rather unpleasant to apply.
Finely ground flowers of Pyrethrum cinerariaefoli'm
and P. roseum were efficient when dusted undiluted in a
nest box and when applied in a chicken house in two ap-
plications 33 days apart. Another house was dusted once
and a third twice (32 days between applications). These
latter tests showed only moderate efficiency, but conditions
were very unfavorable in the house treated twice.
Pyrethrum diluted with flour to 75 and 50 per cent
strengths was inefficient in chicken houses.
Pyrethrum is somewhat less efficient and less unpleosant
to handle than derris-root powder.
Finely ground sabadilla seeds (Schooenocauloan officinale)
were efficient in treating an infested nest box.
It appears probable that this material equals derris in
efficiency, but no chicken house tests were made to deter-
mine this point.
Conclusions Regarding Dusts.
From the foregoing it appears that of the dusts derris
powder is the most efficient, that pyrcthrum is of much
value, that naphthalene is efficient only in circumscribed
areas where a good fumigation effect can be obtained, and
that ground sabadilla seeds may prove efficient but re-
quire more thorough testing.
Various preparations and substances have been tested
as paints, applied with a brush. A dust consisting of naph-
thalene 23 per cent, phenols 0.6 per cent, coal-tar hydro-
carbon oils 1 per cent, tobacco dust, and siliceous material
was inefficient when mixed with water to form a thick
paint and applied on an infested nest box. A prepara-
tion containing coal-tar creosote oil 87 per cent (the re-
mainder being water) was efficient when painted over the
entire inside of a chicken house. Anthracene oil alone and
also at the rate of 1 pound to a gallon of turpentine killed
mites on roosts. Cresol in whitewash in a roost treatment
was efficient at 5 per cent, but not at 2.5 per cent. White-
wash alone was inefficient.
All efficient contact sprays are of value when applied as
paints of the infested premises do not contain deep cracks
(which harbor the mites) into which the liquid can not be
forced with a paint brush as successfully as by the spray
nozzle. While roosts can be painted without much trouble,
it is more satisfactory to spray nest boxes, coops. and
In the tests with sprays the liquids were applied with a
knapsack sprayer holding approximately 5 gallons, and a
Bordeaux type of nozzle was used in most instances. In
some cases where roosts or coops were treated a hand
sprayer was used.
Solutions Other Than Oils.
Spray lests with solutions other than oils are summar-
ized in Table i. Some of the materials contained animal
oils (whale oil). but none mineral oils.
Table I.-Results of spray materials (other than oils) against the chicken mite.
Dilution in Water. Subject of Test.
Alcohol, ethyl .. ..... ....
Form aldehyde ..................
Ferric sulphate [Fe,(SO,),
Sodium sulphur ...
D o ...... ...... .. .
Lime-sulphur (32 .I.
Derris extract .
1 to )....
1 to 9.....
1 to 9, 3 to 7
N one ..............
1 to 16............
1 to 8, 1 to 5 ....
1 to 15, 1 to 9....
1 to 600-............
1 to 75..............
1 to 1,000, 1 to 500.
1 lb. to 1 gal........
2 lbs. to 1 gal
...... R oost .. ..... ... ..
.... Roost and coop......
Chicken house, cool)
........ Roosts, nest boxes
Nest boxes ... .
....... R oosts .......... ..
..Chicken houses, nests.
..... Chicken houses ..
... D o .. .
... ...i Do
........ D o .. .......
.. Somewhat efficient.
S"Available ( llorine."
Whale-oil soap at the rate of 4 pounds to 100 gallons of water added.