• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Personnel of the department of...
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Synopsis
 Beans (Green)
 Cabbage
 Celery
 Lettuce
 Peppers
 Tomatoes
 Cucumbers
 Watermelons
 Green corn
 White potatoes
 Sweet potatoes
 Pineapples
 Oranges
 Grapefruit
 Tangerines
 Strawberries
 Miscellaneous
 Importance of marketing
 Government aid in marketing
 Distribution costs
 Standardization of containers
 Save the pine for fruit boxes
 Reference tables
 Spray schedule for fruits...
 Harvesting seasons
 Half the population of the world...
 Family budget in city and...
 Food elements per acre of different...
 Weights and measures
 Personnel of extension workers
 What and when to plant






Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 35. No. 2.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00013
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 35. No. 2.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: T. J. Appleyard, printer
Publication Date: April 1925
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Personnel of the department of agriculture
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Synopsis
        Page 6
    Beans (Green)
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Cabbage
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Celery
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Lettuce
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Peppers
        Page 16
    Tomatoes
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Cucumbers
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Watermelons
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Green corn
        Page 23
        Page 24
    White potatoes
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Sweet potatoes
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Pineapples
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Oranges
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Grapefruit
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Tangerines
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Strawberries
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Miscellaneous
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Importance of marketing
        Page 45
    Government aid in marketing
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Distribution costs
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Standardization of containers
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Save the pine for fruit boxes
        Page 62
    Reference tables
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Spray schedule for fruits and vegetables
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Harvesting seasons
        Page 81
    Half the population of the world farming and price factors
        Page 82
    Family budget in city and country
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Food elements per acre of different crops and subjects for discussion
        Page 85
    Weights and measures
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Personnel of extension workers
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    What and when to plant
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text





Volume 35 Number 2


Handbook
FOR


Florida Growers

and Shippers




FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
APRIL, 1925

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner of Agriculture
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class
matter under Act of Congress of June, 1900.


T. J. APPLEYARD, PRINTER, TALLAMASSEE, FLORIIR
woup


Volume 35


Number 2





















PERSONNEL OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE



NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner.

Miss Ullainee Barnett, Secretary to the Commissioner.


AGRICULTURAL AND IMMI-
GRATION DIVISION

T. J. Brooks, Chief Clerk.
Russell T. Mickler, Clerk.
Mrs. Lizzle Lee Leman, Clerk and
Stenographer.

PURE FOODS AND DRUGS,
STOCK FEED, FERTILIZER,
CITRUS FRUIT AND GAS-
OLINE INSPECTION
DIVISION

J. H. Pledger, Clerk.
Inspectors:
A. M. Lewis.
Ellis Woodsworth.
L. W. Zim.
J. B. Brinson.

LAND DIVISION

C. B. Gwynn, Clerk.
S. C. DeGarmo, Land Clerk.
Mrs. Laura B. Hopkins, Clerk
and Stenographer.

FIELD NOTE DIVISION

W. C. Lockey, Clerk.
Miss Bessie Damon, Clerk and
Stenographer.


PRISON DIVISION

T. E. Andrews, Clerk.

SHELL FISH COMMISSION
DIVISION

T. R. Hodges, Commissioner.
Walter Bevis, Clerk.
Miss Elizabeth Rief, Stenogra-
pher.
Russell T. Mickler, Clerk.

CHEMISTRY DIVISION

R. E. Rose, State Chemist.
Gordon Hart, Assistant Chemist.
B. J. Owen, Assistant Chemist.
A. G. Davis, Assistant Chemist.
Miss Muriel Rose, Clerk and
Stenographer.

STATE MARKETING BUREAU
DIVISION

L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner.
Moses Folsom, Secretary.
Neill Rhodes, Marketing Agent.
H. A. Maloney, Marketing Agent.
J. Summers, Multigrapher.
Paul F. Koerber, Stenographer.





















PREFACE



Agricultural Bulletins are either readable or practical
or both, if worth while. Information on agricultural
topics may be of service to one farmer and not to another.
It is sought in the present volume to be practical and to
be of service to all trucking and fruit-growing farmers.
It is my opinion that few handbooks have ever been
issued by any Department of Agriculture that are more
practical than the one herewith presented. The infor-
mation herein contained will be of service for years to
come. Its contents are not of an ephemereal character
as is the case with a large per cent of public publications.
This Department will be pleased to have expressions
on the character of bulletins desired and whether the
ones we send out are in line with the agricultural needs
of the State.
NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.













CONTENTS



Subject. Page
Preface ................................................ 8

PART ONE

Introductory ...........................................
Synopsis ..................... .................. 6
TRUCK CROPS-
Beans (green) ...................................... 7
Cabbage .......................................... 8
Celery .............................................. 12
Lettuce .................. ..................... 14
Peppers ................. ...... ................ 16
Tomatoes ....................... ................. 17
Cucumbers ......................................... 19
Watermelons ....................................... 21
Green corn ........................................ 23
White potatoes ..................................... 25
Sweet potatoes ...................................... 27
FRUIT CROPS-
Pineapples ........................ ............... 30
Oranges .................... .................... 32
Grapefruit ......................................... 34
Tangerines ....................................... 37
Strawberries ........................................ 39
Miscellaneous ........................................ 41

PART TWO

Importance of Marketing ................................ 45
Government Aid in Marketing........................... 46
Distribution Costs ....................................... 51
Standardization of Containers ............................ 56
Save the Pine for Fruit Boxes........................... 62
Reference Tables .................................
Spray Schedule for Fruits and Vegetables ................ 73
Harvesting Seasons ....................................... 81
Half the Population of the World Farming ................. 82
Price Factors ......................................... 82
Price of Materials and Relative Costs of Operating Ex-
penses ......................................
Family Budget in City and Country...................... 83
Food Elements per Acre of Different Crops ................ 85
Subjects for Discussion .................................. 85
Weights and Measures .................................. 86
Personnel of Extension Workers ......................... 89
What and When to Plant ................................ 92












PART ONE


INTRODUCTORY
In the course of a year the Florida State Marketing
Bureau receives hundreds of inquiries from Florida ship-
pers, covering practically every phase of marketing from
the field to the consumer. The inquiries have emphasized
the necessity for a work covering the basical and ele-
mentary methods of marketing. This treatise is really
an offspring of answers to inquiries from interested pro-
ducers, and, in a general way, covers the points most
often in debate by the beginner or by the inexperienced
shipper. The field is so vast, the subject so fascinating
and the store of information so accessible that it was
most tempting to make this story longer, yet brevity has
been paramount in the scheme of this little volume.
Government crop reports and records, railroad passing
and miscellaneous material was the source of much of the
information in this treatise. To these sources we referred
in order to secure the most authentic verification possi-
ble, and to the following in particular we are indebted
for painstaking checking and valuable information:
C. M. Berry, Sanford, Fla.
E. F. DeBusk, Gainesville, Fla.
Robert Bier, Washington, D. C.
Traffic Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla.
Alfred Warren, Ft. Pierce, Fla.
G. C. Hardy, Florahome, Fla.
In acknowledging our indebtedness for the cooperation
shown by the above and others, no intimation is intended
that for any error they must be held responsible, for the
general outline and final analysis was conceived by tlfe
Florida State Marketing Bureau and full credit is taken
for any errors or omissions committed in this publication.
NEILL RHODES,
Marketing Agent,
Florida State Marketing Bureau.











BEANS (GREEN)

A Florida Product Shipped Every Month in the Year.
The Per Annum Farm Value of the Florida Crop,
1919-1923 Average Was $2,423,200.

Variety.-The principal varieties grown for commer-
cial purposes in Florida are: Giant Stringless, Kentucky
Wonder, Refugee, Valentine, Tennessee Flat Pod, War-
dell Kidney Wax, and New Davis White Wax.
Location.-Principal bean producing counties in Flor-
ida are: Alachua, Broward, Hardee, Hillsborough, Ma-
rion, Palm Beach and Sumter Counties.
Seed.-About 60 pounds of seed beans will be required
for an acre, ranging 3 pecks to 1 bushel of seed. Cost
for seed string beans about $4.25, pole $1.00. Planted
usually 3 feet by 4 inches apart.
Fertilizer.-Usually 400 to 600 pounds of fertilizer are
used to the acre, running in formula 4-8-5, 5-4-4 to 5-4-5.
5-8-4, 5-7-5, etc.
Maturity.-The average time required is about 8 weeks,
the range being from 8 to 10 weeks, about 50 to 85 days
from the time seeds are planted. Beans planted in March,
for instance, will mature in April, May and June.
Yield.-Per acre basis the yield will range from 75 to
200 hampers, 125 hampers fair average of the larger sec-
tions. The State's five-year average is 113 hampers. At
Florahome the yield per acre is averaged at 100 hampers,
low mark nothing, high mark 297 hampers per acre.
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $60 to $85,
fertilizer and rental included. Figures from Marion
County indicate the cost there, per hamper, loaded ship-
ping point, at 75c to $1.00. It is estimated it will cost
40c to 50e to grow the commodity, and the picking and
hamper expense will range from 40c to 50c. Figuring
100 hampers as a basis for an acre's yield, it will cost
about $61.00 with rental, preparation, cultivation, pick-
ing, packing and selling expenses allowed, in the Flora-
home district. The average net returns have ranged $2.35
per hamper, a profit of $1.74 per hamper, $174.00 per
acre. The highest net returns on a 10-acre Putnam
County lot was $377.00 per acre, $10.00 per acre allowed
for rental.











Season.-The shipping season of beans is practically
the entire year in Florida, though shipments in carlots
and to larger markets begin in December and continue
through May.
Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard con-
tainer, carriers' billing weight 30 pounds.
Loading.-Beans in hampers are loaded ends reversed,
usually shipped 3 high, 7 wide, 30 long, or about 500
packages per carload. If beans are shipped under refrig-
eration, tariffs permit side loading ends reversed. Beans,
are as a rule, shipped under refrigeration.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 420 hampers under ven-
tilation, 350 if shipped under refrigeration.
Prices.-The highest average prices are received in the
months of November, January (latter part), and Febru-
ary through March. It is rather difficult to assign defi-
nite period of highest prices because of the uncertainty of
shipping season in the early States. The months given
have on the average shown the best prices.
Competition.-With Texas stock, also that from Louis-
iana and Mississippi, Florida has competition. The acre-
age harvested in Florida from November through June
is about equal the total acreage of the early competitive
States that is shipped the same period.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the season of 1923-24:
2,396 cars of beans.
Miscellaneous.-In Florida the green bean is more ex-
tensively grown. West Florida growers have made suc-
cess with the Kentucky Wonder, coming on the market
in the fall months. Around Citra, in Marion County, the
Pearl and Davis Wax are grown. The market preferences
vary slightly in various sections of the country. The
usual preference may be changed by newspaper adver-
tising of a new variety, leading trucking sections special-
izing on different variety, or by large contractors plant-
ing a new variety. In the past, however, the following
cities have shown a preference for the varieties indicated:
In New York City and Philadelphia the Refugee will on
the average sell for more than $1.00 over other varieties.
In Boston the Bountiful and Valentine of the green varie-
ties are tied for preference while of the wax varieties,
Wardell Kidney Wax is the preference. Perhaps the
Valentine in New York City would second only the
Refugee in popularity. The green varieties sell to good











advantage in Pittsburgh, while wax beans will not sell
to advantage in Cincinnati. Detroit prefers the Red Val-
entine and Refugee. The dark green stringless pod is
desired in Cincinnati. In Cleveland the wax and small
round green varieties are preferable. Chicago will take
the Black Valentine at a premium. In many Southern
points as Charlotte, N.C., mountain districts of Tennes-
see and Virginia, Georgia points, the Red Valentine is
the best seller. Other varieties will sell in markets
where the preferences are shown, but at a less price.


CABBAGE

Florida Is the Largest Early Section Growing Cabbage.
Produces About One-twentieth the Total
Commercial Crop.

Variety.-The varieties of cabbage planted for com-
mercial purposes in Florida are the Wakefield, Flat
Dutch, Succession, with Copenhagen and Danish in few
sections.
Location.-The principal shipping points of cabbage in
Florida are Bartow, Coleman, Evinston, Ft. Meade, Lees-
burg, McIntosh, Micanopy. The counties in general of
Alachua, Marion, Palm Beach, Polk and Sumter com-
prise the larger areas.
Seed.-Planted 36x15 inches apart 11,592 plants will
be needed to set an acre. In instances where the rows
are wider and plants farther apart, from 6,000 to 7,000
plants are used.
Fertilizer.-The usual formula for cabbage is 5-6-4,
from half to one ton per acre of balanced fertilizer
needed. If stable manure is available, from 5 to 10 tons
per acre worked in the soil properly before the cabbages
are planted will prove advantageous. If the crop shows
tardy growth when about two-thirds grown, an appli-
cation of 150 pounds sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of
soda is advisable, though if overdone may result in loose-
headed cabbage.
Maturity.-The average growing season is 90 to 120
days for Jersey Wakefield, average about 100 days from
the time the seed are sown. Succession about 135 days,
Savoy 150 days, Copenhagen about 110 days.











Yield.-The average Florida yield is 100 to 150 crates,
or about 6.75 tons per acre. In the South the general
average will range around 100 crates (barrel crates) per
acre. South Carolina has the highest yield of the early
States, averaging about 8.72 tons per acre.
Cost.-The cost per acre basis will average $75.00 to
$100.00, or 35c to 50c per hamper.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida, beginning in
January, continues through April. The peak movement
is usually reached in March.
Container.-The 11/2-bushel hamper is the container
generally used in Florida, weight about 50 pounds. This
container is specified for pointed types of cabbage as
Wakefield, Winningstadt, etc. The crate, however, is by
far the most desirable. It affords a better inspection of
the contents, better ventilation or refrigeration of the
crates than the hamper, is stronger and a more substan-
tial carrier than the hamper, can be spaced as desired in
cars, whereas the hampers must be tightly packed, and is
not as susceptible to breakage as the hamper. The 60-pound
and 120-pound crate are used in Florida as the standard
crate, the celery crate is also used in some sections. South-
ern markets prefer the crate, and cabbage in hampers in
the Southern markets will sell at a reduction under crates.
Sizes.-The number of heads per crate will range from
30 to 40 heads. Heads weighing from 1 to 4 pounds are
preferable and better sellers.
Arrangement.-In hampers, the first layer is placed
butts down, alternating to top of hamper. Butts and
faces are not joined because of a stain emanating from
the butts that mars the appearance of the cabbages. In
crates the stems are placed out, package bulged slightly.
In bulk the stems are placed down. In crates the large
and small sizes should be placed in separate containers.
Loading.-Cabbage is usually shipped under refrigera-
tion. Barrel crates are loaded tops up lengthwise of car, if
under ventilation they are loaded on side. Hampers are
supposed to be loaded on ends reversed, but this prac-
tice is not usually adopted, shippers claiming the contents
are badly shaken down by this method. Carriers permit
side or bilge loading. Under refrigeration crates are
given 2 inch space, are double stripped, loaded 3 or 4
high, 7 wide, 10 long. The number of hampers per car
will range from 420 to 500 hampers loaded on side. Dan-











ish, which is the best variety for storage and bulk ship-
ments, will run 12 to 14 tons per car, should be trimmed
2 to 4 close fitting leaves, loaded 3 to 5 feet deep in the
car, or to about half the height of car.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum for barrel crates is 200.
For half barrel crates and 11/2-bushel hampers under re-
frigeration the minimum is 350, under ventilation 420.
Prices.-The highest quotations for cabbage are usually
had in January, February and early March.
Competition.-Texas gives Florida the greatest seasonal
competition, beginning to ship in December. South Car-
olina ships from November to April. New cabbage is on
the market in April from Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina and Texas. California also gives compe-
tition to Florida cabbage. For five-year average Florida
harvested January through May 6,074 acres per season,
in the same period a competitive acreage of 16,491 acres
was met by Florida.
Shipments.-During the season of 1923-24 Florida ship-
ped 4,276 cars, including boat and express shipments.
Miscellaneous.-The principal Florida outlets are Pitts-
burgh, eastward, best sellers of domestic cabbage are
heads of 1 to 4 pounds in size, Danish 2 to 6 pounds. In
bulk loading cabbages of less than 2 pounds should be
thrown out. Flat types of cabbage are: The Enkhuizen,
Succession, Flat Dutch and Copenhagen roundish in
shape. California, Louisiana, South Carolina and Texas
have two crops of cabbage, early in the spring, second
in the winter. After November 1 shipments from New
York and Wisconsin are from storage. About two-thirds
of the New York crop and two-fifths of the Wisconsin
crop is stored; New York supplying about one-fourth of
the total carlot movement of cabbage, Wisconsin one-
eighth. Approximately 40 per cent of all carlots of cab-
bage are taken by thirteen cities. It has been estimated
that from 5 to 25 per cent of the supply in the larger
cities is homegrown.












CELERY

Florida Now Leads All States in the Production of Celery.
California and New York Rank Second and
Third, Respectively.

Variety.-The principal varieties of celery grown in
Florida are Golden Self-Blanching, Special and Green
Top. The New French strain has not proved satisfactory
at Sanford and sells at a discount under other leading
varieties.
Location.-The celery industry of Florida may be said
to be centered at Bradenton and Sanford, with approxi-
mately three-fourths the acreage at Sanford.
Seed.-Celery seed is high in price and great care must
be exercised in selection; price ranges as high as $35.00
per pound. The plants are set 30x3/2 inches and 60,000
plants will be required for one acre. The plants should
be transplanted when about 5 inches high. At Sanford
the celery is set in single rows, at Bradenton mostly two
rows to the bed.
Fertilizer.-The usual formula is 5-5-5, and about 2 to
4 tons per acre given in 3 or 4 applications. Nitrate of
soda can be supplemented on the basis of 100 to 200
pounds per acre at each application of 5-5-5 while the
crop is growing.
Maturity.-From the seedbed stage to gathering time,
about 6 months will be required.
Yield.-The yield per acre will average in the principal
districts 650 to 750 crates per acre. Florida's yield per
acre 5-year average is double that of California.
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $400.00 to
$600.00.
Season.-The season proper begins around January 1st
and continues through May to June 10. The peak move-
ment is reached in March.
Container.-The 10-inch crate, dimensions 10x20x22.
Sizes.-Sizes will range from extra large 21/2-dozens to
small 10-dozens, per crate. The 4s and 6s are usually the
preferable sizes and are the best sellers.
Arrangement.-Celery is placed in the crates tops up,
bunched and tied by dealers and in instances by shippers.











Loading.-Crates are loaded in the ear tops up, running
lengthwise the car 16 long, 7 wide, 3 high and double
stripped. The usual load per car is 336 crates, the mini-
mum of 350 crates not being loaded because 336 allows
better refrigeration. When the celery is shipped pre-
cooled the minimum is generally loaded. Celery is al-
ways shipped under refrigeration in carlots, some pre-
cooled at Sanford. Leading shippers declare that an ini-
tial icing with precooled celery is more satisfactory than
full tank refrigeration en route minus the precooling.
With precooling the minimum load can be. complied with
safely.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 350 crates.
Prices.-The highest market period is January. Again
in February and early April the market tendency is up-
ward. The highest trends on the average occur in the
months mentioned.
Competition.-The season in California is slightly
ahead of Florida's in celery, beginning in October around
the 15th, continuing through March. In addition to Cal-
ifornia's competition, storage stock also competes with
Florida celery.
Shipments.-New York and Chicago are the largest re-
ceiving markets of Florida celery. In 1923, from January
to April 21, New York City received 989 cars and Chicago
received 686 cars of Florida celery. In the season of
1923-24 Florida shipped 8,024 carloads of celery.
Miscellaneous.-Celery has been as little advertised,
perhaps, as any Florida product and it would seem, there-
fore, that the potential celery market has been hardly
recognized. Twice as much celery was consumed in 1923
as in either 1918 or 1919. Miscellaneous shipments from
Florida other than Bradenton and Sanford sections will
range around 275 cars per annum. It is safe to figure
the net value of celery to Florida growers at $5,000,000.00
according to figures released from the U. S. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.











LETTUCE

The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Lettuce Crop
Five-year, 1919-23, Average Is $1,892,200. The
Per Crate or Hamper Farm Value Same
Period Basis, $1.23.
Variety.-The varieties of lettuce grown in Florida
are Big Boston, Cream Butter, Romaine and Iceberg.
The principal variety in Florida is the Big Boston, Ice-
berg very little grown, mostly around Winter Garden
and spots in Marion County. The nights in Florida are
hardly cool enough for Iceberg, it is stated by leading
authorities.
Location.-Principal sections are Sanford and Man-
atee. The counties of Manatee, Marion, Orange and
Seminole are the leading lettuce producing areas.
Plants.-Plants are set 14x14 to 16x16 inches. About
30,000 plants will be needed for an acre basis.
Fertilizer.-On the average the fertilizer formula for
lettuce in Florida will run 5 per cent ammonia, 5 per cent
phosphoric acid, 5 per cent potash. Two applications are
necessary, the first about two weeks before the plants
are set out, the second about two weeks after setting the
plants. From 11/ to 21/2 tons will be required. Stable
manure or cottonseed meal can be used to advantage.
Maturity.-Big Boston and other varieties will mature
within 55 to 60 days from time of planting to harvesting.
Iceberg variety will mature within 60 to 70 days after
the seed are planted.
Yield.-The five-year average yield in Florida is 254
hampers per acre, though at Bradenton and Sanford 600
to 700 crates to the acre are claimed, as high as 700 to
900 crates having been produced.
Cost.-It will cost between $125 and $175, an average
of $150, to produce an acre of lettuce.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins around
Thanksgiving and continues through March 25. Two
crops are often made at Sanford, setting out and harvest-
ing taking place in the same fields.
Container.-The standard containers in Florida are the
11/-bushel hamper and New York crates, hampers being
gradually discarded. Crates are coming. It is practi-
cally impossible now to sell Florida Big Boston lettuce in
hampers in the Southern cities in competition to the pa-











pered, iced California crates. Crates will eventually be
the standard lettuce container in Florida.
Sizes.-The container will hold 24 to 40 heads of let-
tuce, a range of 2 to 4 dozen.
Arrangement.-In hampers the heads are placed stems
down, faces up, and the order of butts to butts and faces
to faces is preserved in the placing of lettuce in the con-
tainer. If the butts are allowed to touch the heads, a
stain emanating from the butts mars the appearance of
the faces. In crates the butts are placed out or down,
arranged so that tops show when the crate is opened.
Loading.-Lettuce in hampers is loaded on the sides
almost entirely, carriers permit side loading if the ham-
pers are stacked not more than 4 high. The loading runs
3 high, 7 wide, 30 long, ends reversed. If carriers' rules
are observed, shippers load on side 4 high, 16 long, 7
wide, though 6 high is occasionally loaded. The usual
number of hampers will run from 420 to 610, 400 to 500
an average. If crates are used they must be properly
braced and stripped. Lettuce is always shipped under
some form of refrigeration. Some is precooled at San-
ford and Winter Garden.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum for 1Y/-bushel hampers or
crates under ice is 350; for hampers of bushel capacity,
400.
Prices.-The highest markets are realized in November,
February and March.
Competition.-California's competition is the strongest
to Florida shipments of lettuce. The competition from
Texas is more pronounced in January through March,
although the usual Texas acreage is slightly over 1,000
acres.
Shipments.-Florida shipped during the season of
1923-24 2,087 carloads.
Miscellaneous.-There is some difference in the ship-
ping seasons at Bradenton and Sanford. In 1923, for in-
stance, the heaviest movement from Seminole County was
in December, from Manatee in January. The first of Cal-
ifornia's lettuce from the Imperial Valley moves in De-
cember. The first car of precooled lettuce ever moving
from the Imperial Valley was shipped from El Centro
on March 14, 1923. By the last of March three-fourths
of the lettuce movement from the Imperial Valley is com-
pleted, the Los Angeles district coming in for competi-
tion after March. The bulk of the Imperial Valley let-
tuce is moved in December, January and February.











PEPPERS
In Carlot Production in Florida Peppers Rank Seventh.
Variety.-The most common varieties for shipping pur-
poses grown in Florida are the Ruby King and World
Beater.
Location.-Ft. Myers, Manatee and Sanford sections,
Arcadia and Wauchula sections and in general the coun-
ties of Broward, Lee, Palm Beach and Seminole.
Seed.-Peppers are planted 36 by 20 inches apart, aver-
age number required for an acre 9,000 to 12,000.
Fertilizer.-From 1 to 2/2 tons of fertilizer should be
used on an acre of land, the formula of 4-6-3 is popular.
In addition light applications of nitrate of soda each
month while the plants are bearing will be helpful.
Maturity.-The growing season is about 90 days from
plant stage, or about 125 to 150 days from the time seed
are sown.
Yield.-The average yield per acre is from 175 to 200
crates, though as high as 300 crates are known in some
sections.
Cost.-The average cost per acre is $100. Average
from $75 to $125.
Season.-The shipping season of peppers is rather pro-
longed in Florida. Beginning around November 15th, the
season drifts through May.
Container.-The standard pepper crate, 111/4-12x14x22.
Sizes.-The pepper crate will hold from 190 to 270
peppers of the above varieties.
Arrangement.-The only arrangement in the container
that can be carried out without too much labor in packing
is to alternate the butts and crowns on the top layer.
Loading.-The crates are loaded 6 wide, 4 high, 16
long, ranging 360 to 576 crates per carload. Shipper's
average probably range 420 to 448 crates, though 350 to
400 seems the preference in some Florida sections. They
are always shipped under refrigeration.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 420 crates. Iced,
350.
Prices.-The highest markets occur in November, De-
cember, latter February, March and early April. This
zigzag of prices is rather uncertain but the time repre-
sents the nearest average to a scale that can be obtained
from destination street sales.












Competition.-Cuban peppers compete with Florida
stock. Also importations from the Bahamas give some
competition. California can be depended upon to have
peppers on the market in competition to Florida offerings.
Shipments.-Florida shipped during the season of
1923-24 1,606 cars.


TOMATOES

Rank Second in Importance of All Vegetables in the
United States. First in Shipments From Florida,
Total Express and Carlot, Season of 1923-24.

Variety.-The varieties most commonly grown for
commercial purposes in Florida are Livingston Globe
(comprising 90% of the Florida acreage), Early Detroit,
Stone, Bonny Best, Beauty, Earliana and Florida Special.
The Florida Special and Early Detroit are favorites in
the Ocala section.
Location.-Among the principal shipping points are the
following: Larkin, Perrine, Pompano, Palmetto, Ocala,
Okeechobee. The East Coast area extends from Boynton
to Florida City.
Seed.-In some sections 3,600 plants are used to set an
acre, others as high as 6,000.
Fertilizer.-From half to one ton per acre will be
necessary, given in three applications. The average
formula runs 5-6 or 7-5.
Maturity.-From the time the seeds are planted until
the fruit is picked, an average of 100 days will be re-
quired. The Livingston Globe about 114 days. The grow-
ing season from plant stage will range from 60 to 90
days in the best sections.
Yield.-The yield per acre will range from 75 to 200
crates. An average of 160 crates is about correct, though
in principal sections an average of 250 crates is claimed.
Cost.-The cost per acre will range from $75 to $125,
depending upon the amount of fertilizer used, cost of
labor, etc. The cost per crate put on the market is esti-
mated at $1 per crate, about 60c for picking, packing and
marketing. The contract price ranges from 90c to $1.25
a crate, $10 per acre given in advance.
2-Fla. G.













Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins De-
cember 15th and runs to June 20th. The East Coast will
move the heaviest portion of the crop by April 1st,
though St. Lucie County in 1924 did not begin shipments
until about 10th of April. The Okeechobee section will
begin in April, around the 15th or 20th, and continue
through May. At Palmetto and Bradenton the season
usually winds up about June 15th. Ocala section will
begin in May and continue through June, ordinarily.
Container.-The 6-basket crate is the standard carrier
in Florida.
Sizes-Arrangements-The various sizes or packs and
the arrangement in the baskets follows:
72s, choice, placed 6 flat, 2 layers, 3 and 3 along sides
of baskets (12 per basket).
84s, choice, placed 6 flat, 3-3, bottom layer; 8 flat, 4-4,
top layer.
96s, choice, placed 8 flat, 2 layers, 4-4, along sides of
basket.
108s, fancy, placed 6 flat, 3-3, bottom layer; 12 edged,
4-4-4, top layer.
120s, fancy, placed 8 flat, 4-4, bottom layer; 12 edged,
4-4-4, top layer.
144s fancy, placed 12 edged, 2 layers, 4-4-4, lengthwise
of basket.
162s, choice, placed 15 edged, 5-5-5, bottom layer; 12
edged, 4-4-4, top layer.
180s, choice, placed 15 edged, 2 layers, 5-5-5, lengthwise
of basket.
216s, placed 18 edged, 2 layers, 6-6-6, lengthwise of
basket.
Loading.-Tomatoes are loaded in cars tops up, 7 rows
wide, 4 high, 16 long. The shipper's average will range
around 448 crates, at times loaded 448 to 560 crates; av-
erage maximum loading about 500 crates. Tomatoes are
usually shipped in ventilated or dry refrigerator cars.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum on tomatoes is 420
crates per car under ventilation, 350 under refrigeration.
Prices.-The average high period stretches from De-
cember 1st through January. Again from April 20th
through May the trend is upward, usually about the time
the West Coast shipments overlap the finishing cars from
the East Coast or Okeechobee sections. March and June
are usually low months.









19

Competition.-Competition to Florida tomatoes is
rather pronounced. Mexico, from February through
April, top during February and March, is a competitor
to be reckoned with in the future. Texas, in the months
of November and December, California the entire season,
practically, and the Bahamas are strong competitors
with average season production in Florida.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the 1923-24 season
10,064 carloads.
Miscellaneous.-Tomatoes are planted in rows 4, 5, 6
and 7-foot spaces apart, 3 to 6 feet in drill. An average
of 5x4 feet will require 2,178 plants per acre, average
running around 3,600 plants per acre. Some growers re-
port as high as 6,000 plants per acre. The stakes used
for supporting vines are 5 feet in length. The most pop-
ular selling sizes are 108s, 120s and 144s, perhaps 144s
being the best of the three sizes mentioned.



CUCUMBERS

The Average Acreage of Florida's Cucumber Crop and
the Average Yield per Acre is Greater Than That of
Any Competitive State. The Per Annum Value of the
Florida Crop, 1919-1923 average, was $4,938,600.

Variety.-The principal varieties produced in Florida
are the Davis Perfect and Improved White Spine.
Location.-The most important shipping points in
Florida are: Center Hill, Bushnell, Ocala, Romeo, Wau-
chula, Webster, Williston, Winter Garden. The counties
of Alachua, Levy, Orange and Sumter.
Seed.-From 2 to 3 pounds of seed will be sufficient
for one acre, about 1,450 plants per acre; hills 5 to 6 feet
apart each way.
Fertilizer,-Usually 1,600 pounds of fertilizer will be
required for an acre of cucumbers running in formula
5-4-5 or 5-4-6. Marion County seems to prefer 5-8-6. Half
of the amount should be applied ten days before the seed
are sown, remainder ten days before the first blooms oc-
cur. If the crop indicates lack of growth, 200 pounds to
the acre of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia can
be use as a top dressing.











Maturity.-Extra early varieties will mature as early
as 50 days from the time seeds are sown, though the aver-
age will be about 75 to 90 days.
Yield,-In normal seasons the average yield per acre
in leading sections will range from 250 to 275 crates,
though 296 to 300 crates are often produced. The yield
per vine will range from 30 to 60 cucumbers; as high as
100 to 120 have been gathered.
Cost.-It will cost from $75 to $100 an acre to pro-
*duce cucumbers in Florida. Authorities in Marion
County estimate from $75 to $100, in St. Lucie County
about $80 seems the cost.
Season.-Cucumbers are shipped mostly by express as
early as November, running heavier in December and
will continue through March to June. Most of the carlots
are moved in the period March through June.
Container.-The standard container is the square
bushel crate, and the preferable container, though the
bushel hamper is used extensively, especially in small
express shipments and where the hampers are left over
from other crops.
Arrangement.-The product should be arranged evenly
in the containers, ends reversed when necessary to balance
the layers. There are from 4 to 8 dozen in the crate,
average about 6 dozen.
Loading.-Bushel crates are loaded tops up, lengthwise
the car, properly braced and stripped, running 5 high,
6 wide, 25 long; and 4 high, 5 wide, 25 long. The usual
number of crates per carload will range from 400 crates
up to 572. Cucumbers are almost without exception ship-
ped under ventilation. Occasionaly in extremely hot
weather or when decay is likely, they are iced.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 420 crates ventila-
tion, 350 under refrigeration.
Prices.-The highest prices on Florida stock occur in
the period latter January, through February, March, and
early April. Hothouse cucumbers sell in the winter
months as high as $2.00, $3.50 per dozen, the range drop-
ping to 50c dozen.
Competition.-Florida has competition with Mexico,
Cuba, Bahama mostly in the fall months. With Texas
Florida has competition in December. The Florida sea-
son frequently overlaps the season of Alabama and the











Carolinas and an overlap of any appreciable length of
time is usually disastrous to Florida, for instance the
passing season demonstrated this condition very clearly.
From the seven closest competitive States Florida usually
has an acreage equal to her own with which she must
compete. If the season is late or unduly prolonged, the
season will not be profitable.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the season of 1923-
24 1,559 cars. The season as a whole was a poor one be-
cause several plantings were made account of the cold
snaps which threw the final crop some six weeks late
and placed it on a level basis with states farther north.
Many cars were left in the fields.
Miscellaneous.-There is naturally a wide difference
in the cost per acre, amount of fertilizer used can make
the price vary greatly, the rainy seasons can increase
labor costs and other elements can force the same fields
to cost more than the preceding seasons. The figures
above regard the conservative averages, there are ex-
tremes upward and downward.



WATERMELONS.

The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Watermelon
Crop Five-Year 1919-23 Average is $1,803,600.
The Per Annum Farm Value Per Car
Same Period $233.00.

Variety.-The leading varieties in Florida are the Tom
Watson, Irish Grey and Excel, and various varieties for
home use only such as the Florida Favorite, etc.
Location.-Among the larger shipping points are:
Bowling Green, Leesburg, Live Oak, Ocala and north-
west Florida.
Seed.-From 2 to 3 pounds of seed will be required for
planting an acre.
Fertilizer.-From 600 to 1,000 pounds to the acre is
necessary to fertilize properly. The usual formula is
around 5-8-5.
Maturity.-The average growing season is 80 days, or
from 70 to 90 days.











Yield.-The average yield will be on the basis of one
carload to every 31/ acres of melons.
Cost.-The State average cost per-car basis will range
from $60 to $75. Estimates vary greatly. In Suwannee
County estimates were made at $20 an acre, while in
Marion County $50 an acre was set as a fair average.
From $50 to $75 a car should cover any section in Florida.
Season.-The first cars of melons from Goodno and
Labelle sections begin in early June, some seasons
shortly after May 15. The Irish Grey in past seasons
has been the leading earliest variety. The season con-
tinues through July 15.
Container.-With the exception of the few early in-
dividual melons shipped by freight and express in cab-
bage or barrel crates, the melons are shipped in bulk
car lots.
Sizes.-Sizes of Florida melons shipped commercially
range from 16 to 42 pounds, though nothing under 18
pounds should be shipped, and an average of over 34-36
is unusual. A 32-pound average will have a car capacity
of 924 melons loaded 4 high, 11 wide, 21 long. A 25-
pound average car will have a capacity of about 1,300
melons loaded 4 and 5 deep, 12 wide, 21 long.
Loading.-Watermelons are loaded in bulk, shipped
from Florida without exception in straight cars under
ventilation. An average car of 25 pounds and over
should be loaded only 4 deep, under 25 pounds may be
loaded 5 deep. Bedding material of native excelsior, new
mill products, hay, straw, bagasse and similar material
grown and baled outside the tick infested or quaran-
tined area and shipped in clean, disinfected cars will be
acceptable to Georgia authorities during the embargo
now in effect. A suitable bedding material should be used
to serve as a cushion and ventilation for the melons, and
storm paper along the sides of the car is advisable to
prevent bruising and defacing. Many growers load the
doorways with melons parallel to the ends of the ear or
perpendicular to the melons loaded lengthwise the car,
this method serves as a brace to the melons loaded in
the ends of car.
Minimum.-The minimum specified by carriers is 24,-
000 pounds.










Prices.-The first melons bring the highest prices al-
ways, hence in May and June the highest markets are
reached.
Competition.-With California during May there is
slight competition, and heavy competition with Texas,
Alabama and Georgia in the months of June and July.
The Carolinas are also in the deal by July. Florida
should have her crop moved by the Fourth of July if
possible.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the Season of 1923-24
5,314 carloads of watermelons.
Miscellaneous.-The Florida crop should be moved be-
fore the shipments become heavy in Georgia. If the
Florida crop were on the market by June 25th, more
money would be made by the growers. After the Fourth
of July the market will usually decline from $50 to $100
per car on Florida melons. The trade feels that after
July Fourth the Florida melons are sun baked, left-
overs, blistered and as the freight is higher than from
Georgia and the melons not as fresh they state, the price
is downward after July Fourth.
In individual melons the total production in 1923 of
the early and late melons was 41,155,000 compared to
70,759,000 in 1922 and 61,660,00 in 1921.


GREEN CORN

Ranks Low in Carlot Shipments From Florida.

Variety.-The varieties common to Florida shipping
centers are Stowell's Evergreen, Crosby's Early, Adams
Early, Long Island Beauty and Country Gentleman.
Field corn is grown in some instances and shipped for
roasting purposes, though the kernels have a tendency
to harden more quickly than the sweet corn.
Location.-The principal localities in Florida are:
Starke and Lawtey, Hampton, Sparr, Anthony. The coun-
ties in general of Alachua, Hillsborough, Orange and
Osceola might be included.
Seed.-If planted in drills from 12 to 20 pounds of
seed will be required. There are about 12,000 stalks per
acre.











Fertilizer.-Two 'applications should be given sweet
corn, 200 pounds before planting, 200 pounds about
tasselling time. The fertilizer will run in formula about
3-6-3.
Maturity.-The early varieties will mature within 70
days, though the average will be around 80 to 90 days.
Adams Early, or the extra early sweet varieties, will be
ready for gathering in about 65 days from time seed are
planted.
Yield.-The State average will not be greater than 30
to 40 crates per acre, though some leading counties,
Marion for instance, claim 100 crates per acre.
Cost.-The cost per acre of growing corn will average
$18 to $25 provided the land does not require heavy
fertilizing.
Season.-The shipping season beginning in May con-
tinues through July.
Container.-The eggplant and pepper crate is the most
common container used in Florida. On account of high
heating qualities of corn, crates should be used with as
much opening as possible to allow free air passage.
Tariffs specify the bushel crate. In Orange County the
10-inch celery crate is in demand.
Sizes.-The average crate will hold 6 to 8 dozen ears.
Arrangement.-Usually the ears are placed ends re-
versed running crosswise the crate.
Loading.-Sweet corn is loaded tops up, lengthwise the
car, ranging 5 high, 6 wide, 20 long to 4 high, 5 wide, 20
long. Crates must be properly braced or stripped and
the spacing between crates and rows is very important.
Ample air channels must be allowed for green corn is
the most difficult commodity shipped from Florida to
properly refrigerate. Body icing is recommended where
the practice does not conflict with carrier's tariffs. The
minimum load should be the goal instead the maximum.
Shippers load 320 crates to various amounts, the aver-
age is about 350 crates per car.
Minimum.-Pepper crates and bushel crates, tariff
minimum 420 under ventilation, refrigeration 350.
Prices.--Highest prices are realized during May and
June.
Competition.-Texas is the main competitor in ship-
ping green corn.










Shipments.-Express shipments and total carlots
would probably range from 100 to 150 carloads per
season.
Miscellaneous.-Green corn matures rapidly, the sea-
son is brief, and the commodity requires prompt and
experienced handling. Full tank refrigeration should be
used. From 1 to 3 tons cracked ice thrown over top of
crates is indispensable to carry green corn to Northern
markets from Florida. Corn loaded in this manner sells
at a premium over corn with only regular bunker icing.
Corn not loaded in this manner usually shows red ink
sales. Pre-cooling in ice-house or regular establishment
is beneficial before loading in the cars if body icing is
not used.

WHITE POTATOES'
Ranks First Among the Most Important Food Plants in
the United States.
Variety.-In the Hastings-Elkton potato belt the
Spaulding-'Rose is the variety most commonly grown.
In South Florida and certain sections of West Florida
the Red Bliss is the favorite.
Location.-The early crop of Bliss potatoes comes from
the Okeechobee section. Following, Federal Point ships
the earliest cars from the Hastings belt. The main crop
of Florida comes from Bunnell, Hastings, Elkton and
Federal Point, this territory embracing the area as East
Palatka, Spuds, and other outlying districts.
Seed.-For planting one acre of Irish potatoes 11 or
12 bushels of seed will be required, 400 to 600 cut tubers.
Maturity.-Potatoes on rich soil properly cared for
will mature in 60 to 80 days with average climatic con-
ditions from the time seed are planted.
Yield.-At Hastings the average normal yield per acre
is 45 barrels. In the 1924 crop, however, the yield was
only 31-33 barrels.
Cost.-It will cost about $100 an acre to grow potatoes.
Season.-The shipping season at Hastings begins about
March 20 and continues to June 1. The Okeechobee Sec-
tion shipments begin in February and continue through
April. West Florida with Holmes and Santa Rosa Coun-
ties will follow the Hastings crop.








Container.-The Standard container in Florida is the
barrel of eleven pecks or 165 pounds. The sack is not
used in any section except West Florida, where, following
the custom of Alabama shippers, the sack is used in ship-
ping Red Bliss.
Sizes.-The U. S. No. 1 round varieties have a diameter
of not less than 17/ inches, long varieties 13/4 inches.
U. S. No. 1 small range in size from 1% to 17/s inches.
The U. S. No. 2, a diameter of not less than 11 inches.
Loading.-Potato barrels are loaded on the bilge in
most sections, though end loading is specified in tariffs.
The bilge loading affords an easier means of placement.
The average number of barrels per carload is 185, rang-
ing to 200. Loaded on bilge they are stacked 3 high,
3 wide, 20 long. Potatoes are always shipped under
standard ventilation. Loaded on ends they are stacked
2 high, 5 wide and 20 long. If sacks are used they are
loaded about 400 sacks per car. A row 3 sacks wide,
tops up, is placed along each side of the car, second layer
crosswise the first loaded flat and binding the two outer
sacks; third layer placed flat on top of second layer,
flush against side of car. This affords space along side
the car and in center for ventilation.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 30,000 pounds re-
gardless of sacks or barrels.
Prices.-The highest prices are realized with the
earliest shipments, the Okeeehobee section gliding into
the Hastings shipments. The best prices on Hastings
potatoes are realized during April to May 20.
Competition.-The old crop determines in a measure
the trend of Florida potatoes. The lower valley of Texas
also affords competition. Often the Hastings crop overlaps
the early crop of South Carolina and Alabama, which
proves serious as the freight differential is favorable to
these two States compared to Florida, and new potatoes
are obtainable more quickly and cheaply, perhaps.
Shipments.-During the 1924 season Florida shipped
4,412 cars of potatoes, figures including all boat, rail and
express shipments.
Miscellaneous.-In general, the price of potatoes is
downward when the production exceeds 4 bushels per
capital, upward when production is not more than 3.2
bushels per capital. The per annum farm value of Flor-
ida's early Irish potato crop, 1919-23 average, is $4,880,-
000. Per annum farm value per bushel, same period av-
erage, is $2.42, per barrel $6.65.











SWEET POTATOES

Florida Markets 40 Per Cent of Its Crop of Sweet Po-
tatoes Within the State.

Variety.-The varieties most commonly grown in Flor-
ida are the Porto Rico, Big Stem Jersey, Triumph and
Norton Yam.
Location.-The counties of Alachua, Columbia, Gads-
den, Jackson, Jefferson and Leon grow the principal crop
of sweets in Florida.
Seed-Set 30 inches apart each way, 7,000 plants will
be needed for an acre; 14 to 18 inches apart in drills 30
inches apart, 10,000 to 12,000 plants will be required. To
produce enough slips from the first pulling for an acre,
6 to 8 bushels of seed are needed; if two or three pulling
are made, 3 to 4 bushels will be sufficient.
Fertilizer.-In Florida stable manure is used very
largely, 5 to 10 tons per acre producing very good re-
sults. The soil is so varied that a formula will not be
attempted. From 600 to 1,000 pounds of fertilizer per
acre will be needed without the stable manure. The ap-
plication should be made at least a week before setting
the plants.
Maturity.-From 100 to 120 days will be required for
the potatoes to mature from the time the plants are set.
Usually 6 to 8 weeks will be required for the plants to
reach transplanting stage from the time seed are bedded.
Yield.-The average yield for the State is 112 bushels
per acre. In leading sections a yield of 100 to 250 or 300
bushels per acre is not uncommon.
Cost.-The cost on an acre basis will vary, depending
largely upon fertilizer and labor. It is conservative to
estimate $30 to $45 an acre as an average cost.
Season.-Florida shipments begin early in July and
continue through December 15th, banked or storage stock
lasting through the following February. Alabama opens
the Southern season in July with Triumphs, followed in
about three weeks by North Carolina with the Yellow
Jersey stock. In North Carolina the peak movement oc-
curs in August. The Southern varieties are shipped
heavily in September, October and November.
Container.-In Florida the 100-pound sack is most
commonly used. Results have been fairly satisfactory











because of the comparatively short distance the potatoes
are shipped. Bulk loading is used in Florida, though the
practice, except for short hauls, should not be followed.
The bushel crate is used somewhat, also the hamper.
Tariffs provide for the bushel hamper and the 5-peck
crate. Bulk loading should not be attempted for distant
markets. Government investigation has shown, on the
basis of reports from 76 representative dealers in the
East, that the barrel is the most popular container, ham-
per second, bushel crate third, bushel basket and the 5-
peck crate at the bottom of the list. In Kentucky, Ohio,
Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, the hamper is the most
popular, barrel second. In the West there is no prefer-
ence between the bushel hamper and basket. In the South
the sack and bulk are most popular, then the crate, bar-
rel and hamper last. In Tennessee hampers are used al-
most exclusively. The Gulf Coast States are the principal
users of the sack.
Sizes.-U. S. Grades give 134 and 31/2 inches as the
minimum and maximum sizes of the diameters of sweets,
the length not less than 4 nor greater than 10 inches, but
the length may be less than 4 inches if the .diameter is
21/4 inches or more.
Arrangement.-The top layer should be representative
of the pack always. In facing the crates most of the po-
tatoes should be placed with their longest diameter
parallel to the sides of the crate. In hampers, round
stave baskets and barrels, they should be placed mostly
at right angles to the rim of the package.
Loading.-In bulk, false flooring or bedding of pine
needles or substitute material should be used as protec-
tion in cold weather and to prevent bruising. In bushel
baskets loading runs 4 high (36-foot car), 6 wide and 26
long, each cross layer double stripped. From 500 to 600
packages are loaded per car. Hampers, ends should be
reversed and loaded not more than 3 high, 500 to 700 the
.range, 600 the average in the South. Cloth top barrels
loaded on ends always, ranging 160 to 200 barrels per car.
Loaded on bilge the alternating straight method is bet-
ter: 2 rows of 3 barrels each placed end to end across the
car leaving space half the length of a barrel between the
last barrel and the side of ear; second layer is begun by
placing one row of 3 barrels on top the first 2 rows,
starting from the opposite side of car. The plan is con-











tinued in alternate rows. Advantages: Ventilation chan-
nels alongside of the car; and permits the barrels to place
better so that the bilge is not resting directly upon the
bilge of the barrel underneath.
Minimum.-The carlot minimum is 30,000 pounds.
Prices.-The best prices come in early May, June and
July shipments, prices ranging on the first sales around
$10 per barrel and narrowing down to $6 to $8 per bar-
rel as the season advances. Within the State, the best
prices are gotten in July and early August, and from the
storage or cured stock in February to April 15th. De-
cember to April best demand.
Competition.-Florida's chief competition lies with
Alabama and Georgia, also North Carolina in August.
Miscellaneous.-The basis for prices in Florida is per
100 pounds or per bushel of 56 pounds. Out of the 197
cars shipped from Florida in 1923-24, 90 per cent were
Porto Ricos. The total movement of Southern sweet po-
tatoes is divided as follows: 57 per cent Porto Ricos, 35
per cent Nancy Halls, 5 per cent Triumphs, 3 per cent
others. Over 95 per cent of the crop is harvested in Sep-
tember, October and November, and half the total car-
lot shipments move in these months. Of the 1920 crop,
3.7 per cent total production in Southern States were ship-
ped in carlots, 19.3 per cent sold in small lots, 37 per cent
consumed on farms, 9.5 per cent fed to livestock, 5.5 per
cent reserved for seed, 25 per cent lost by freezing and
other causes. The 11 States of Southern section produce
over 83 per cent of the total crop, market less than 30
per cent of total carlot shipments. The 4 States of the
Northeastern section produce less than 10 per cent of the
total crop, but ship more than 65 per cent total carlots.
The Nancy Hall is preferable west of the Mississippi
River, Central or Northern markets the most popular of
Southern varieties (north of Tennessee and east of Mis-
sissippi River). In Eastern markets north of Virginia
and east of Ohio the dry-fleshed Jersey is preferable. In
the 11 Southern States there is a combined capacity of
1.087 commercial storage houses.












PINEAPPLES

Rank Fourth Among Florida Fruits in Carlot Shipments
Season 1923-24.

Variety.-The principal varieties in Florida are the
Red Spanish, Smooth Cayenne, Abakka, Pina Blanca,
Porto Rico, Sugar Loaf.
Location.-Location of the pineapple belt in Florida
may be given as follows: A narrow section of high land
about 25 miles long, fronting on the Indian River in St.
Lucie County, and extending from Ft. Pierce to Stuart.
Seed.-About 14,000 plants will be required to put out
an acre of pineapples.
Yield.-The average yield per acre is 225 to 250 crates.
Cost.-The pineapple is a perennial plant, will cost
about $450 an acre the first two years, about $100 an
acre thereafter.
Season.-The shipping season of Florida pineapples be-
gins at Stuart about May 20th, continuing through July
25th.
Container.-The standard container for pineapples is
the crate 101/2x12x33 inches, inside measurements, the
half barrel crate.
Sizes and Arrangement.-The packing sizes and ar-
rangement in the container is as follows:
18s placed from ends, 3 layers, 3 wide, crowns re-
versed each layer.
24s placed from sides, 4 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
layers reversed.
30s placed from sides, 5 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
layers reversed.
36s placed from sides, 6 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
layers reversed.
42s placed from sides, 7 layers, 3 wide, crowns even,
layers reversed.
48s placed from sides, 6 layers, 4 wide, crowns even,
layers reversed.
Ordinarily the 18s, 24s and 30s are fancy grades, while
36s, 42s and 48s are choice.
Loading-Crates are loaded in the cars tops up length-
wise the car, 7 wide, 5 high, 10 long, double stripped.
The average number of crates per car is 350, the range
going from 300 to 385 crates to the carload. Pineapples












are usually shipped either under ventilation or in dry
refrigerator equipment.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 300 boxes or crates.
Rate based in cents per crate or box.
Prices.-The season is rather brief and hence it is
rather difficult to set aside any part of the season as be-
ing best. The best prices are obtained usually in May
and June.
Competition.-The Cuban, Porto Rican and California
pineapples offer competition to Florida stock. The can-
ned goods from Hawaiian Islands indirectly compete
with Florida pines.
Shipments.-In the season of 1923-24 Florida shipped
284 carloads.
Miscellaneous.-From the best authority the history of
the pineapple industry started about 1860, and it had a
very flattering increase until about 1909. Then the in-
dustry tumbled until 1917 almost as fast as it had de-
veloped. A certain wilt caused by a species of nematode
assisted in the decline of the industry. Of course soil,
transportation and markets have each gotten a share of
the blame for the partial downfall of the pineapple crop.
The industry has gradually advanced since 1917 from ex-
press shipments to nearly three hundred carloads per
annum. With experiments under headway that show
promise of controlling the wilt, it is believed the indus-
try has a possibility to exceed even the million box pro-
duction of long since.








32

ORANGES
The Five Most Important Countries in the Order of Their
Production Are United States, Spain, Italy,
Japan, Palestine.
Variety.-The principal varieties grown in Florida are
the Parson Brown, as the earliest; Valencia, as the lat-
est; and the following: Pineapple, King, Lue Gim Gong,
Washington Navel, Ruby and Homosassa. About two-
thirds the California crop are Navels, one-third Valen-
cias.
Location.-The location of the citrus fruit area in
Florida is rather broad. It might be compared to a trape-
zoid whose laterals extend from Florida City to St. Au-
gustine, St. Augustine to Cedar Keys, Cedar Keys to San-
ibel Island, and from there to Florida City.
Trees.-The number of orange trees per acre will av-
erage 64 in checked rows.
Fertilizer.-There is a wide variation in citrus for-
mulas, ranging 2-8-10, 3-8-3 to 10, and 4-8-3 to 8.
Maturity.-The average date at which the bloom dis-
appears and the fruit is set is March 20 to April 1. The
growing season from this period until the fruit is picked
can be quickly ascertained from the following table:
The Homosassa ripens Nov. 25, remaining on trees until
Jan. 15. The King ripens February 1 to April 30. The
Lue Gim Gong ripens in March, remaining on trees until
April-June. The Ruby, December 15, on trees to March,
shows blood February 10. Parson Brown ripens October
20, on trees until March. Pineapple, December 10, on
trees to March. Valencia ripens March 10 to June. The
Washington Navel, October 20, to January. In general,
6 to 8 months will be required from the bloom stage to
time fruit is ready to pick.
Yield.-The average yield per tree is 1.9 boxes, about
125 to 135 boxes per acre.
Cost.-The cost per box on the tree ranges from 55e to
92c, an average of 72c. The cost of picking, hauling,
packing, including container and loading is from 85e to
91c per box. Picking 8c, hauling 8c, packing and loading
75c, selling about 18c, total cost f.o.b. shipping point
$1.09 box. The average cost per box of graded, packed
oranges loaded in the car will range $1.60 to $1.75 per
box.










Season.-The shipping season lasts about 7 months, be-
ginning in October and continuing through May with
scattering shipments through June. Season in general is
considered Sept. 15 to July 1.
Container.-The bulge pack is used in Florida, 12x12x
24.
Sizes-Arrangement.-The sizes of oranges and the ar-
rangement in the crates are shown, as follows:
80s, diameter 41/ inches, 4 layers, 10 each.
96s, diameter 4 inches, 4 layers, 12 each.
112s, diameter 312 inches, 4 layers, 14 each.
126s, diameter 31/ inches, 5 layers, 13 each, 1-3-5, 12
each, 2 and 4.
150s, diameter 3 inches, 5 layers, 15 each.
176s, diameter 27/s inches, 5 layers, 18 each, 1-3-5, 17
each, 2 and 4.
200s, diameter 2% inches, 5 layers, 20 each.
216s, diameter 22 inches, 6 layers, 18 each.
252s, diameter 23/8 inches, 6 layers, 21 each.
288s, diameter, 21/4 inches, 6 layers, 24 each.
324s, diameter 2 inches, 6 layers, 27 each.
The most popular sizes are those ranging from 1-26s
to 216s.
Loading.-Oranges are loaded in the cars crates on
end, 2 stacks high, 6 rows wide and usually 30 boxes
long. Crates are properly speced and stripped. The
average number of boxes per car is 360, range from
360 to 432 boxes per car. Usually dry refrigerator equip-
ment. In the old days the prevailing opinion has been
that citrus did not need refrigeration, though of late
this opinion has lessened. Oranges under refrigeration
are increasing. When decay is apparent or evident, and
during the warmer periods of the season oranges are
shipped under ice.
Minimum.-The tariff minimum is 300 boxes. An aver-
age of 80 pounds per box is estimated on oranges, a
tariff minimum of 24,000 pounds per carload. In bulk,
rate in cents per 100 pounds.
Prices.-Highest prices begin with the earliest sound
fruit, immediately preceding the holidays, and late in
the season when supplies are more nearly exhausted.
There is always a lull following the heavy Christmas
shipments lasting usually until January 10. At the close
of the season prices improve, and ordinarily the months
3- Fla. G.











of October, November and early December are the best
ones.
Competition.-The main competition is with California,
although Porto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Honduras, Japan
and Italy, give us a share of competition though not
serious.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the Season of 1923-24,
total all express, rail and boat shipments 36,046 carloads.
From Jan. 15 to April 29, 1924, Florida shipped about
15,900 cars of oranges, of which 14,616 were sent to some
300 cities in the United States and Canada, mostly to the
South and Northeast with less than 2 per cent west of
the Mississippi river.
Miscellaneous.-Of the recent 1923-24 crop New York
alone took about one-fifth of Florida's total output. At
the following points precooling plants are operated:
Beardall, Brissons, Arcadia, Florence Villa, Kissimmee,
Miami, Mt. Dora, Oak Hill, Orlando, Winter Garden and
Winter Park.


GRAPEFRUIT

The Average Annual Exportation of American Grape-
fruit for the Three-year Period Ending June 30,
1924, Was 233,000 Boxes, of Which Can-
ada Took All Except 11.2%.

Variety.-The varieties of grapefruit in Florida are:
Duncan, McCarty, Marsh Seedless, Silver Cluster,
Triumph and Walters.
Location.-A triangle with the base running from St.
Augustine to Cedar Keys with the apex at Miami would
with the exception of Lee County include the principal
grapefruit producing area in Florida.
Trees.-There is an average of 49 grapefruit trees to
the acre in Florida.
Fertilizer.-The area is so widespread in Florida and
the soil so varied that a definite certain formula cannot
be prescribed to apply to even a majority of the acreage.
However, the following are leading formulas in the
State: Range of 2-8-0, 3-8-3 to 3-8-10, 4-8-3 to 4-8-8.
Maturity.-The average growing season or time at
which the bloom disappears, to the picking or harvesting











period, is about 8 months. Some of the earlier varieties
will yield within 7 months. The Triumph fruits ripen
November 1, will remain on trees until January. Silver
Cluster December 1, will remain on trees until April.
Marsh Seedless February 1, will remain on trees until
May. McCarty February 1, on trees until June. Duncan
December 20, picking continues until April. The Walters
November 10, picking continues until April.
Yield.-The yield per tree State's average is about 2
boxes, or about 100 boxes per acre.
Cost.-It will take about 85c to 90c a box to pick, haul,
pack and load fruit in cars. From the best authority at
Gainesville, figures indicate that it will cost on an aver-
age in Florida 52c per box to produce grapefruit on the
tree, about 25% less than oranges. Total cost per box
packed and loaded cars about $1.40.
Season.-The shipping season in Florida begins about
October 15, though express and few carlot shipments
begin as early as Sept. 15. The season will continue late,
running through April. Some shippers insist upon a
season of Sept. 15 to June 30.
Container.-Bulge pack, crate 12x12x24 estimated
carrier weight of 80 pounds each.
Sizes-Arrangement.-The various sizes per box and the
arrangement of the pack as follows:
28s diameter 6 inches 3 layers, 5 fruits in 1 and 3, 4 fruits
in layer 2.
36s diameter 5 inches 4 layers, 4 fruits in 1 and 3, 5
fruits in 2 and 4.
46s diameter 5 in hies 5 layers, 5 fruits in 1-3-5, 4 fruits
in 2 and 4.
54s diameter 43/ inches 6 layers, 4 fruits in 1-3-5, 5 fruits
in 2-4-6.
64s diameter 41/2 inches 4 layers, 8 fruits each.
70s diameter 41,4 inches 5 layers, 9 fruits in 1-3-5, 4 fruits
in 2 and 4.
80s diameter 41/8 inches 4 layers, 10 fruits each.
96s diameter 4 inches 4 layers, 12 fruits each.
The most popular sizes are the 54s, 64s, and 70s.
Loading.-Boxes are loaded on end 2 high, 6 wide, 28-
30 long. The top tier, if any, must be placed on sides
lengthwise the car. The usual boxes per car 28 long 336,
20 long 360, ranging from 360 to 432 boxes to the aar-











load. The fruit is usually shipped in dry refrigerator
cars or ventilator cars, although there is a great increase
every season in the number of cars of citrus shipped
under refrigeration.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 24,000 pounds or 300
boxes at the estimated weight of 80 pounds per box. In
bulk the weight minimum is the same, rate figured in
cents per 100 pounds.
Prices.-The highest prices on grapefruit are realized
with the first shipments in October, then in November
and early December.
Competition.-There is competition to Florida grape-
fruit from Arizona, California, Texas, Porto Rico and
Cuba.
Shipments.-Florida shipped in the Season of 1923-24
23,066 cars of grapefruit.
Miscellaneous.-There is not too much grapefruit if it
were properly distributed. If all the United States' and
Porto Rican grapefruit were consumed by only the United
States and Canada, there would be 3 1-3 grapefruit per
annum per capital or 1 grapefruit every 109 days. Ac-
cording to Government figures just released, the per
capital consumption of grapefruit in the United States is
6.5 pounds compared to only 2.5 pounds per capital in
Canada. Florida grapefruit enjoys a rather wide distri-
bution. From Jan. 15 to April 29 some 8,433 cars of
grapefruit were distributed among 473 points, about 16%/
went to States west of the Mississippi river, and prac-
tically every State received Florida grapefruit. Most of
the Canadian larger markets received grapefruit from
Florida. Florida can give some better distribution to
grapefruit than oranges because California's production
will hardly go higher than 500 cars per annum. The
United States supplies 941/ of Canada's imported grape-
fruit.












TANGERINES

Rank Third in Florida Fruit Shipments

Variety.-The Dancy is generally used the entire citrus
section, practically the only variety in Florida.
Location.-The location is almost identical with that
of grapefruit and oranges.
Trees.-The average number of trees per acre is 66.
Maturity.-Eight months are required for tangerines
to mature. The bloom disappears and the fruit is set
March 20th to April 1st, the Dancy ripens November 25th
to December 25th, remaining on trees until about Feb-
ruary 15th.
Yield.-The yield per tree is 1.7 boxes on the average.
Number boxes per acre will range 110 to 115.
Cost.-The average cost per box on the tree, according
to the best authority on the question, is 81c. Tangerines
will cost about 10% more on the tree than oranges. Pick-
ing 20c, hauling 8c, packing 90c. Cost f. o. b. shipping
point unsold $1.18. Total cost loaded cars will range
$1.75 to $2.00 per box.
Season.-Tangerines are ready for shipment about
Thanksgiving, lasting about three months as an average
season. Through the months of November, December,
January, February.
Container.-The standard container in Florida is the
strap or box, usually spoken of in terms of half strap,
strap, etc.
Sizes-arrangements.-The various sizes of tangerines
and the arrangement in the crates are as follows: (Half
straps).
48s 3% inches diameter 2 layers of 12 each (one side).
60s 312 inches diameter 3 layers of 10 each.
76s 31/4 inches diameter 3 layers of 13 each in 1 and 3,
12 in 2.
90s 3 inches diameter 3 layers of 15 each.
106s 27/8 inches diameter 3 layers of 18 each in 1 and 3,
17 in 2.
120s 23/ inches diameter 3 layers of 20 each.
144s 25/ inches diameter 4 layers of 18 each.
168s 21/2 inches diameter 4 layers of 21 each.













196s 23/ inches diameter 4 layers of 25 each in 1 and 3,
24 in 2 and 4.
216s 21/4 inches diameter 4 layers of 27 each.
224s 21/8 inches diameter 4 layers of 28 each (252 size
for small fruit).
The most popular sizes and best sellers are 144s, 168s
and 196s.
Loading.-Tangerines are loaded in cars, half straps,
on ends, 12 wide, 2 high, 30 long, double stripped, or 6
wide, 2 high, 60 long. The usual custom is 12 wide, 2
high, 30 long in order to have the stacks shorter. The
usual number of half straps per carload will range 720.
Tangerines are usually shipped in refrigerator cars, iced
at times, at other times dry refrigerator equipment used.
Precooling of citrus is considered essential in many sec-
tions.
Minimum.-Tariff minimum is 600 or double the mini-
mum of 300 on grapefruit and oranges. If the half strap
is used an estimated weight of 40 pounds is considered
by carriers and one-half the regular charge on oranges
is assessed, or if the two half straps are united the re-
gular weight of 80 pounds is estimated and regular
minimum applying on oranges is in effect. Precooled
fruit carries a minimum of 360 boxes.
Prices.-The highest prices on tangerines are realized
in the December holiday trade and the early stock com-
ing in before Thanksgiving.
Competition.-California is the source of the greatest
competition.
Shipments.-In the season of 1923-24 Florida shipped
1,129 cars.
Miscellaneous.-In general the above can be applied
to Satsumas, except the location. The Satsuma is pro-
duced largely in north and northwest Florida.












STRAWBERRIES

The Per Annum Farm Value of Florida's Strawberry
Crop Five Year (1919-23) Average is $846,400.
The Per Annum Farm Value Per Quart
Same Five-year Average is 27 Cents.

Variety.-For commercial purposes the varieties of
strawberries planted in Florida are the Missionary and
Klondyke, with the Missionary far ahead of all other
varieties in preference.
Location.-The larger and more important shipping
points of berries in Florida are: Plant City, Starke,
Hampton, Lawtey, Kissimmee, Kathleen, Dover, Lake-
land, Galloway. The counties of: Bradford, Dade, Hills-
borough, Osceola, Polk.
Seed.-Strawberry plants are usually set 14 inches
apart in rows that are from 30 to 36 inches apart. Plants
should be set if not every year, at least every two years.
From 12,000 to 15,000 plants will be required for an acre.
Fertilizer.-Five tons of stable manure thoroughly
mixed into the soil before planting can be well used.
About 1,500 pounds of commercial fertilizer will be
needed to the acre, and should be applied in three ap-
plications. The first application before setting, second
in six weeks, third when the first crop is setting. And
with the third application 100 pounds nitrate of soda can
be included to good advantage.
Maturity.-Strawberry plants are set in the fall, usu-
ally September and October. They will come into bear-
ing within three to four months. Proper ripeness for
picking will depend on the distance the berries will be
shipped, but usually from three-fourths to full red color
indicates the proper stage for harvesting.
Yield.-A five-year average yield for Florida straw-
berries (1919-23), gives 1,893 quarts per acre. In the best
sections 2,500 to 3,000 quarts are not uncommon for an
acre's yield.
Cost.-If new plants are used each year, and the aver-
age amount of commercial fertilizer is used, an acre of
strawberries will cost from $175 to $250. In the sections
specializing on berries the higher figure seems the nearest
to the actual cost. It will cost from 10 to 12c per quart
to grow strawberries in the field or from 12 to 15c per













quart to produce, harvest, deliver, and pay all overhead
expenses.
Season.-In December there are express shipments of
strawberries from Florida. However the season proper
begins in January and continues through April.
Container.-Most of the strawberry shipments by ex-
press from Florida move in special pony refrigerators
of 32-qt., 64-qt., and 80-qt. capacity, the 80-qt. being the
one most used. For short distances by express where
refrigeration of any kind is not considered necessary,
the 32-quart crate is used.
Arrangement.-The arrangement of strawberries in
the fillers is a very important step in marketing them.
Too little attention has been given this feature, and what
attention has been given has been largely in the leading
sections. Not only should the top layer consist of firm,
attractively placed berries, but the entire pack should
be as good as the top tier. The berries are placed caps
on in the quart baskets, the following being the methods
employed in arranging the top layer: In the top layer
the berries are all pointed one way; top layer stems are
placed down and tips up in the fillers; the top layer is
arranged with the berries placed butts against the sides
of the basket all around, points toward the center of the
basket. Neither a slack pack nor one so tight that the
berries will be bruised or crushed, should be tolerated
by the field or packing foreman.
Loading.-Strawberries in carlots should be shipped
under refrigeration always regardless of the distance.
The 32-quart crate is ordinarily placed lengthwise the
car, stacked 16 crates long, 6 crates wide, 96 crates in
the bottom tier of the car. From 150 to 200 crates are
loaded in the same manner with the stacks beginning at
the ends of the car and running toward the center of the
car. The average is apparently low, which is accounted
for in the ample spacing between rows and tiers for cold
air channels and proper refrigeration.
Minimum.-Under refrigeration the tariff minimum
for 32-quart crates is 175.
Prices.-The highest prices of course are paid for the
first berries, prices ranging in dollars-per-quart. In the
season proper, however, the months of January, Febru-
ary and early March are the best ones. By April com-












petition has become more serious, the shipments heavier,
and the prices lower.
Competition.-In Louisiana we have the greatest com-
petition, which State begins to ship in a small way in
February, shipments increase in March and reach the
peak in April. By March there are scattering shipments
from Alabama, Texas and Mississippi in addition to those
from Florida and Louisiana.
Shipments.-In the season of 1923-24 according to car-
riers records, Florida shipped some 842 carloads of
berries.
Miscellaneous.-More than half the Florida crop is
harvested in February and March. Plant City, Florida,
is the largest winter producer of strawberries in America.
At times the Florida f.o.b. prices are equal to those at
destination. In 1918 Florida shipped 79 cars of berries,
compared to 1,035 cars in 1923. The Government Statis-
tician reports the Florida 1924 crop at 5,735,000 quarts
valued at $1,606,000.



**MISCELLANEOUS

Express and Local Freight Shipments.

BEETS.-The principal varieties of beets produced in
Florida are Crosby's Egyptian, Extra Early Eclipse,
Crimson Globe and Detroit Dark Red. From the time
seed are planted 60 to 65 days will be required for beets
to mature. Plants are set in rows, 12 and 14 inches apart,
plants about 4 inches apart, or 12x4 to 14x4. Approxi-
mately 100,000 plants will be required to set an acre.
From 11/2 to 2 tons of fertilizer will be needed to the
acre, 3 applications made. The first application made 10
days before setting the plants in the field. The formula
of 6-6-5 is generally used. The principal container in
Florida is the 10-inch celery crate. The average number
per carload will range 336 to 350, and beets should be
shipped under refrigeration. The cabbage barrel crate,
bushel hamper and open stave barrel are permitted for
beets by tariffs of Florida carriers (tops on). The mini-
mum per carload is 350 refrigeration, 420 ventilation.
Beets have been seldom shipped from Florida in carlots,











though they would be on a large scale if interior, body
icing were permitted by the carriers. New York City is
perhaps as good average outlet and market as any other.
CARROTS.-Leading varieties of carrots in Florida
are Scarlet Horn and Danvers Half Long. About 120
days will be required to mature the roots from the time
seeds are planted. Carrots are not grown extensively in
Florida, never in carlots. Most of the stock used by
Florida dealers is imported from other States. Along
the East Coast of Florida the carrots sold there arc
mostly imported. The product is not yet properly graded
in Florida and until the leading trucking centers spe-
cialize on this product, it will not be sold as well as the
product from other States properly graded. The bushel
crate is the usual container. The bushel hamper, bushel
crate, stave and open barrel are mentioned in tariffs. If
shipped in carlots, should move under refrigeration.
EGGPLANTS.-The Black Beauty is decidedly the
most popular variety of eggplant grown in Florida. The
Florida High Bush is grown mostly on high land. The
Black Beauty variety of eggplant will require 120 to 135
days to mature. Six ounces of seed will be sufficient for
planting an acre, or about 3,000 plants when set in rows
5 feet apart, 36 inches in drills or rows. From 1 to 2
tons of fertilizer of the formula 5-5-5 are used in two
applications. The first application is given.2 weeks be-
fore the plants are set, remainder 3 to 4 weeks after the
first application is made. From 350 to 400 crates will
make a carload. The standard container used by Florida
shippers is the pepper or eggplant crate. Tariff minimum
420 crates ventilation, 350 under refrigeration. Should
be shipped under refrigeration. Usually, eggplants cor-
respond to peppers in both planting and growing seasons.
ENGLISH PEAS.-The Alaska Extra Early is the
quickest grower and most popular variety of English
peas produced in Florida. The Thomas Laxton and
Florida McNeil are favorites in some sections. The Lax-
tonians are very large in size. About 2 bushels of seed
per acre will be required for sowing. The rows are usu-
ally 4 feet apart, 1 seed every inch in the rows. From
500 to 800 pounds of fertilizer will be necessary for one
acre with stable manure added. Peas will mature within
60 to 70 days after the seeds are planted. Shipped from
Florida in carlots and by express largely.











OKRA.-Perkins Mammoth Podded okra is the best
variety grown in Florida for shipping purposes. Other
varieties grown are the Long Green, White Velvet,
Dwarf Prolific (lowland). Under normal conditions okra
will mature in about 60 days from the time seeds are
planted. Okra should be thinned to 12-inch stand, rows
3 feet apart. From 600 to 800 pounds of fertilizer will
be required for thin land, or stable manure without any
fertilizer is sufficient. The bushel hamper is the usual
container, especially to Southern markets, although the
6-basket crate and other containers are used to Northern
markets. Okra from Florida is shipped almost entirely
by express, or in mixed cars.
ONIONS.-In Florida the Crystal Wax, White Ber-
muda and Australian Brown compose the leading varie-
ties. Onions are set 4 to 6 inches apart in drills or rows
from 12 to 15 inches apart. About 90,000 plants will be
needed to set an acre, or from 8 to 12 bushels of onion
sets. Sets are not very extensively grown in Florida, can
be obtained from Texas dealers. Usually 2,000 pounds
of fertilizer will be needed for one acre, and in addition
4 to 10 loads of well-rotted stable manure. The formula
will average 6-5-5 and 3 applications should be made.
Poultry manure is excellent for fertilizing onions. For
increasing the size of the onions, 200 pounds nitrate of
soda or sulphate of ammonia scattered broadcast between
the rows will be very beneficial. The State average yield
is only 119 crates, though 400 to 500 crates on the best
land is not an uncommon production. The best prices
in Florida are usually had in March, April and early
May. The bushel crate is almost exclusively used, al-
though the hamper and 100-pound sack are used at times.
The average wholesale price in Florida, Jacksonville in
particular, for White Bermudas through March, April
and May will average $1.75 per crate for fancy Number
Ones. Yellow onions will require about 125 days to
mature from the time seed are sown, white onions about
120 days. Onions with tops on as. shallots for express or
local shipments are sent in bushel crates, bushel hampers
and barrels, cabbage and celery crates. The minimum
carload in bushel crates and hampers is 400, barrels 200.
Competition is had with importations from Egypt, Hol-
land and Spain. With the United States onions, Cali-
fornia and Texas onions afford the greatest competition











to Florida stock. Louisiana supplies the greatest com-
petition on shallots, in fact Florida has not undertaken
any considerable acreage because of the comparative
monopoly that Louisiana has on the shallot industry,
particularly in the middle or central cities. They are
shipped almost exclusively in barrels with 3 layers
cracked ice, one layer in center, other layers half way
to ends.
SQUASH.-Varieties usually grown in Florida are
Cocozelle, Early Yellow Bush, White Bush. Squash will
produce in about 60 days and occasionally as early as 45
days from the time seed are planted. From 800 to 1,200
pounds of fertilizer to the acre will be needed, all applied
before planting except on very thin ground. The earlier
varieties are set in checks 4x4 feet, later varieties in
checks 6x8 feet, planted usually 4 and 5 seeds to the hill.
Yellow squash is preferable in the Southern markets.
Containers used most generally, are the eggplant or pep-
per crate and the cucumber (square bushel) crate. The
yield per acre will average 150 to 300 boxes in good sec-
tions. The tariff minimum on bushel crates 400, cabbage
barrel crates 200. There is limited demand for squash,
and it is a risky crop to produce on a large scale.

**Bulletin 29 "Commercial Truck Crops of Florida" is
available at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., is
authentic and well edited, and could be used to good
advantage in connection with this publication.












PART TWO

Valuable Tables and Comments
FOREWORD
In preparing and selecting the material for Part Two
the purpose has been to keep to the policy of Part One
and furnish practical information in the form of tables
and comment serviceable to the busy farmer in his ever
widening sphere of work.
T. J. BROOKS,
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture.


PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE ON
COOPERATIVE MARKETING
Recognition of a high order was given co-operative
marketing of live stock by President Coolidge in his
speech at the International Live Stock Exposition at
Chicago. No President has ever endorsed farm organiza-
tion and praised co-operative live stock marketing at
such length in a public address.
"The principle of cooperation in producing, financing,
buying and marketing must be encouraged to the utmost
practical development.
"The Government must encourage orderly and cen-
tralized marketing as a substitute for the haphazard and
wasteful distribution methods of the past.
"If our live stock industry were as efficient in market-
ing as it is in producing, results would be far better.
"To bring relief as early as possible there must be close
attention and well directed study of marketing.
"As regards co-operative marketing, an astonishing
measure of progress has been made in recent years.
"Orderly production is a necessary preliminary to or-
derly marketing."-Excerpts from President's Address.
"Every one knows that the great need of the farmer
is markets. The country is not suffering on the side of
production. Almost the entire difficulty is on the side of
distribution."-Message to Congress, December 3. 1924.











INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE

There is one great International Institution which
stands for governmental aid to agriculture: The Inter-
national Institute of Agriculture, Rome, Italy. This in-
stitution is supported by all the leading nations of the
world. The primary object in the mind of David Lubin,
who conceived the idea of the institution, was to supply
to all concerned the information concerning production
and markets that was possessed by the great manipula-
tors of prices in the Exchanges of Europe and America.
The institution has been broadened to include practically
everything that concerns not only agricultural produc-
tion and distribution but economic and sociological as-
pects of rural life.
The point where the International Institute of Agri-
culture fails to reach the individual producer in a prac-
tical way is that it cannot furnish timely information to
the people. It takes too long to gather, compile and re-
port data on production and price to be of immediate
service in marketing farm products. The other kinds of
information which it disseminates are valuable to students
of these subjects.

NATIONAL BUREAU OF MARKETS

As the result of the work of the Farmers' Unio:- be-
fore committees of Congress the Federal Government be-
gan tentatively to work on the marketing problem in
1912 when the "Office of Markets" was established.
Since then it has developed into quite a comprehensive
Bureau in the Department of Agriculture. After passing
through several stages of development and organization
-changing names three times-it is now a part of the
"Bureau of Agricultural Economics."
The functions of the Bureau, as stated by Dr. H. C.
Taylor, Chief, are as follows (the caps are our):
(1) Investigating and encouraging the adoption of im-
proved methods of farm management and farm practice,
including the ascertainment of the cost of production of
the principal staple agricultural products.
(2) ACQUIRING AND DIFFUSING AMONG THE
PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES USEFUL INFOR-
MATION ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH THE











MARKETING, HANDLING, UTILIZATION, GRADING,
TRANSPORTATION, AND DISTRIBUTING OF FARM
AND NON-MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS AND
THE PURCHASING OF FARM SUPPLIES, INCLUD-
ING THE DEMONSTRATION AND PROMOTION OF
TIHE USE OF UNIFORM STANDARDS OF CLASSI-
FICATION OF AMERICAN FARM PRODUCTS.
(3) Collecting, compiling, abstracting, analyzing, sum-
marizing, interpreting, and publishing data relating to
agriculture, including crop and livestock estimates, acre-
age, yield, grades, stock, and value of farm crops, and
numbers, grades, and value of livestock and livestock
products on farms.
(4) COLLECTING AND DISSEMINATING TO
AMERICAN PRODUCERS, IMPORTERS, EXPORTERS
AND OTHER INTERESTED PERSONS INFORMA-
TION RELATIVE TO THE WORLD SUPPLY OF AND
NEED FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS,
MARKETING METHODS, CONDITIONS, PRICES,
AND OTHER FACTORS, A KNOWLEDGE OF WHICH
IS NECESSARY TO THE ADVANTAGEOUS DIS-
POSITION OF SUCH PRODUCTS IN FOREIGN
COUNTRIES.
(5) Investigating and certifying to shippers and other
interested parties the class, quality, and condition of cot-
ton and fruits, vegetables, poultry, butter, hay, and
other perishable farm products when offered for inter-
state shipment or when received at such important cen-
tral markets as the Secretary of Agriculture may from
time to time designate, or at points which may be con-
veniently reached therefrom, under such rules and re-
gulations as he may prescribe, including payment of such
fees as will be reasonable and as nearly as may be to
cover the cost for the service rendered: Provided, That
certificates issued by the authorized agents of the depart-
ments shall be received in all courts of the United States
as prima facie evidence of the truth of the statements
therein contained.
(6) Collecting, publishing, and distributing, by tele-
graph, mail, or otherwise, timely information on the
market supply and demand, commercial movement, loca-
tion, disposition, quality, condition, and market prices
of livestock, meats, fish, and animal products, dairy and
poultry products, fruits and vegetables, peanuts and their










products, grain, hay, feeds, and seeds, and other agricul-
tural products.
(7) Enforcement of the United States Cotton Futures
and Cotton Standards Act. This legislation involves the
regulation of future exchanges; the promulgation of uni-
form standards for cotton by the Department of Agricul-
ture which are mandatory standards for interstate and
foreign commerce; the preparation and sale of copies of
these official standards; the conduct of a cotton-price
quotation service so that producers and others interested
in spot cotton may have accurate information as to
prices, and that grades other than Middling delivered
on future contracts may be settled for at actual com-
mercial differences in value; the classification by repre-
sentatives of this Department of cotton delivered in ful-
fillment of future contracts; the classification of spot cot-
ton upon request; the licensing of cotton classes, etc.
(8) Enforcement of the United States Grain Standards
Act. This legislation involves the promulgation of uni-
form standards by the Department of Agriculture for
grain and the compulsory use of such standards when
grain is shipped by grade for interstate or foreign com-
merce; the licensing of inspectors, and the supervision
of the inspection of grain, etc.
(9) Administration of the United States Warehouse
Act. This work covers the licensing of warehouses by
representatives of this bureau for the storage of certain
farm products; the inspection of such warehouses, and
the enforcement of the provisions of the law, and the re-
gulations of the Department governing such warehouses.
One of the main purposes of the Warehouse Act is to
furnish a form of warehouse receipt which is generally
acceptable as collateral for loans.
(10) Enforcement of the Standard Container Act,
which is an act to fix standards for Climax baskets for
grapes and other fruits and vegetables, and to fix
standards for baskets and other containers for small
fruits, berries, and vegetables, and for other purposes.
(11) The Completion of the Work of the Domestic
Wool Section of the War Industries Board which involves
the distribution to growers of excess profits collected
from dealers who handled the 1918 wool clip under the
Government regulations which fixed the price of wool
and limited the profits which might be made.











NEW SHIPPING-POINT INSPECTION SERVICE
BECOMES POPULAR

Rapid growth in the Federal-State co-operative ship-
ping-point inspection service established July, 1922, is re-
ported by the United States Department of Agriculture.
More than 45,000 inspections were made during the last
six months of 1922 at hundreds of loading points in 19
States. The organization consisted of approximately 250
local inspectors and 35 supervisory inspectors. l'lans arc
now being made to extend the scope of the service to
other States beginning with the coming fiscal year.
Interest in the service spread quickly from one State
to another, the department says. In some States all fruits
and vegetables grown within the State were subject to
inspection upon the request of shippers, while in other
localities only a limited number of commodities were
included. Colorado reported 17,240 inspections; Cali-
fornia 12,204 inspections; Idaho 7,412; Washington 4,150;
and New Jersey 1,512. Other States that now have ship-
ping-point inspection under the cooperative arrangement
are Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New York.
North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Da-
kota, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
"Influencing proper grading and standardization of
farm products and effecting a uniform application of
recognized standards in the various States are among the
chief advantages of the shipping-point inspection ser-
vice," according to F. G. Robb, in charge of the work
for the United States Department of Agriculture. "In-
stead of shipping low quality products to market and
sustaining the loss of that portion which is rejected be-
cause of inferior quality or condition, shipping point in-
spection enables the shipper to correct such deficiencies
at loading point before the car leaves his control. Sav-
ings in freight charges on below-grade stock and higher
net returns are thereby effected. Properly graded and
correctly packed fruits and vegetables bring a premium
on the market.
"A Federal-State certificate of quality and condition
at time of loading is an aid in making f. o. b. sales, and
assures the city dealer of standard products. In the event
of litigation with carriers or receivers, the shipper is pro-
tected in Federal and State courts if he can produce a
4-Fla. (G.












certificate showing that an impartial inspection had been
made of his car at loading point and that the contents
were up to the required standard."
Mr. Robb pointed out that although shipping-point in-
spection is a form of insurance, "it will not attain its
highest goal until growers and shippers learn that their
products will be accepted because they are in prime con-
dition and not merely because they are backed by a cer-
tificate. '
This service in Florida is in cooperation with the State
Marketing Bureau, where information can be had by
those interested. Inspection of fruits and vegetables per
season have been as follows:
1922-3 ... ...... ......................... ................................................. 500 cars
1923-4 ........................................................................ ................. 8,420 "
1924-5, from Oct. 1, to Jan. 15................................ 3,649 "


OTHER SERVICE RENDERED BY THE STATE
MARKETING BUREAU

The Marketing Bureau compiles reports as to fruits,
vegetables, crops and livestock grown in the state and
shipped out of the State; it promotes co-operation among
farmers and furnishes to the fullest extent possible a
marketing service for the producer. It serves Florida
farmers and growers by giving accurate information re-
lative to suitable containers, loading methods prevailing
quotations and market condition in leading centers; by
giving promptly the reliability and commercial standing
of dealers throughout the United States, Canada, Cuba,
etc.; by securing lowest prices on fertilizers, seeds and
other farm necessities for farmers; by protecting ship-
pers against irresponsible commission houses, brokers,
receivers and contractors; by collecting accounts and
handling claims for shippers who are unsuccessful in
making collections and not familiar with entering and
handling claims against carriers and transportation com-
panies; by giving daily market quotations to the press
on all products in season; by arranging honest and re-
putable 'connections in all principal markets for shippers
and handling carlots direct when required; by handling
almost everything produced and not merely any spe-
cialty; by assisting small farmers particularly who per-












haps need such help most of all; by taking personal in-
terest in responding promptly to the individual and col-
lective needs of growers, dairymen, livestockmen, poul-
trymen, etc.


COLLECTING DATA ON DISTRIBUTION COSTS

Domestic Commerce Division Offers Help to the
Manufacturer.

By Irving S. Paull, Chief, Domestic Commerce Division,
United States Department of Commerce.
(American Food Journal.)

Mrs. Jones picks up her morning paper. A story, per-
haps printed in black face type to give it more pro-
minence even on the front page, catches her eye. She
reads it, and then indignantly explodes. "Of course-
the robbers!"
What is it she has read? Merely another of those very
common "stories" telling of the wide spread in price
between the raw material and the finished proluct of the
food factory as sold over the retail counter.
Now, there are a good many "Mrs. Joneses" in the
country. If each of them sees that story and gets the
same reaction, what has happened? Nothing much! Only
that several hundred thousand women have had more
firmly implanted in their minds the impression that they
are paying for the provisions a lot more than there is
any justification for charging. That's all!
Several hundred thousand women have lost just a little
more confidence in their local grocers and the entire food
industry. That isn't much, is it?
Possibly their impressions are confirmed a day or two
later by a leading editorial on the subject in the same
paper that carried the story to them. Perhaps a lot of
these women discontinue buying some particular food
product for the time being anyway, with a resulting loss
in volume to one or more factories, a larger number of
wholesalers and a very large number of retailers. That
isn't much, either, is it?
Who is at fault? Certainly not "Mrs. Jones." She has
no reason to doubt the plausibility of matter appearing












in her favorite paper. Certainly not the fault of the
editor of that paper. He received the story by wire from
one of the great press associations. Nor can the fault be
laid at the door of the press association, nor at that of
the writer of the story. Each is furnishing "news" as
he saw it, with the best of intentions.

Where the Real Fault Lies

The fact of the matter is that the real fault lies with
the people engaged in the food industry. Such stories are
written and printed as half truths. Everyone knows that
a half truth may be, and generally is, a very dangerous
thing.
The stories are written around facts, of course; but
they are not written with full knowledge of all the facts.
Were they written with all of the facts in hand, the
chances are that very few, if any of them, would ever be
printed. Because the chances are that if all the facts
were given, they wouldn't make a very good story, as
stories are rated by the press.
But until the food industry gets busy and learns the
facts about its own business, and tells those facts to the
people, stories will continue to be written and printed,
stories which tell the truth so far as they go, but which
go only far enough to make the public "peeved" instead
of giving the real facts which should be told.
Let me say right here that there is no intention to at-
tempt to justify the price which is to-day charged for
any article of food. The question of price does not enter
into the matter at all. It isn't the matter of price that
makes such stories as are printed "good," it is the ques-
tion of spread.
Are Prices Too High?
Perhaps the prices charged for some of our food pro-
ducts are too high. I do not know whether they are or
not. Further I do not believe that the food manufacturer
knows himself. But if they are too high, we will all agree
they should come down.
On the other hand, they may merely look to be too high,
as compared with the price of the raw material. There may
be many reasons, and very good ones, for saying that food
prices to-day are more than reasonable. There may be eco-
nomic reasons why they cannot be made lower. And here is










the point I wish to emphasize: If they are too high, the facts
should be found and a readjustment made. If there are eco-
nomic reasons why prices are reasonable, the facts should
be found, analyzed and given to the public.
The American people are exceptionally fair-minded.
When they know the acts they may usually be depended
on to apply them intelligently. Perhaps the wide "spread"
between the cost of raw material and the price of the fin-
ished product cannot be reduced. There may be facts which
will prove this. But (if they do exist) until they are told
to the public, the cry of "robber" will continue to go up
from thousands of homes every time "Mrs. Jones" reads
one of those "stories." And the food industry will suffer
correspondingly.
Distribution Problems

Personally, I believe that most of the difficulties encoun-
tered are due to distribution problems. It costs something
to distribute our goods. As a matter of fact "it costs like
thunder," as one prominent man has said. Perhaps it costs
too much. Several industrial leaders say that it does. A
man very prominent in the auto industry was quoted as so
declaring not long ago. According to report he told his as-
sociates at a dinner that when it costs $500 to place in the
hands of the consumer, a machine costing $1,000-includ-
ing profit-to manufacture, "something is wrong."
There are many people who will agree with this view.
They will be inclined to believe there is quite a lot of waste
in distribution. Yet only a few people have really. "dug
into" the facts regarding distribution.
Some astonishing facts were brought out at the hearings
of the Joint Commission of Agricultural Inquiry, in 1922.
One was that only 29 per cent of all the people who work
for wages or profit are engaged in producing raw material,
while the other 71 per cent are rendering some service in
manufacturing, transportation, distribution and allied acti-
vities. In other words, for every person engaged in pro-
ducing, about two and one-half persons are engaged in ren-
dering service.
Now, all service costs something. Perhaps there is too
much service. Many will be inclined to think there is.
Again, perhaps the cost of that service is too high. That
question may have a large bearing on the matter of
"spread" in price. There are a lot of things to be con-











sidered. But when we mention these things, we are simply
guessing. We don't know whether there is too much ser-
vice or not; and we don't know whether that service costs
too much. But we should know all of these things-and
so should the public.
Many Facts Unknown
Some things are known, however, which the public should
be told. or example, it was discovered at the hearings
of the joint commission, above referred to, that the pro-
ducts o0 agriculture, trom which our stood is derived, come
into market in relatively small lots of raw material, for
which the producer is unwilling to accept any responsi-
bility. They are ungraded, unstandarized, unsponsored.
The producer simply brings them to the local market, says
"there they are," and turns away.
When they reach the local market these products must
be graded, sorted, assembled-if not sold for local con-
sumption-prepared for shipment. All this costs some-
thing; but how many people know of these things? Not
many. As a result the public leaps a big mental hurdle
when thinking about "costs"-it takes a jump from the
price of the raw material at the farm, or at the local mar-
ket, clear over to the finished product at the retail counter.
As a matter of fact there are a lot of service costs which
accumulate before the raw material even reaches the food
factory. It costs something to manufacture them, after
they do reach the factory. And between the factory and
the retail counter there are other service costs which ac-
cumulate. It may be interesting to look into this.
First of all, the raw product must be hauled to the local
market in the farmer's wagon or truck. There it is graded;
after which comes another haul to the terminal market.
But there are items of service which must be performed in
the terminal market before it goes into the hands of a
buyer or broker, or goes into cold storage or into a ware-
house. Perhaps it may be necessary only to unload it;
but it may have to be switched, elevated, stored, weighed,
tested, and, in case of live stock, fed and watered. All this
costs something.
Leaving the terminal market the product must again be
shipped to the plant of the industrial converter. More
transportation charges accumulate here. And do not over-
look the fact that up to this point all these services have
merely brought the raw product to the door of the factory.











More Costs Added

Actual process of manufacture adds another charge.
Then the completed product must be shipped again, pos-
sibly to be warehoused. That costs something, too. Then
the wholesaler gets it, and in his plant it is handled and
stored against receipt of orders. Still more costs accumu-
late in this process.
The wholesaler ships it, on order, to the retailer. Here
comes in another charge for transportation. The retailer
puts it in stock, only to take it out again when he has a
call for that particular article, and delivers it to the cus-
tomer's home. And only then has the finished product
reached the hands of the consumer.
Now consider: The services of thousands of people are
necessary to get this raw product from the farm to the
market, the factory, and through the channels of distribu-
tion. Buildings are necessary, with their charges for rent,
light, heat, power, depreciation, interest, repairs, etc., in
both local and terminal markets, as well as in the process
of manufacture and distribution.
In order to handle and distribute the products of the
farm and the factory, the services of thousands of men
must be at command, men to handle the product itself; to
operate the railroads which haul it; keep the tracks in re-
pair; work the telegraph wires; drive trucks and delivery
wagons. It is impossible to here trace out all the different
agencies which are employed; but some idea of this may
be gained when we remember that we must go back to the
coal mines where is produced the coal to heat the boilers
of locomotives and steam plants, and to the forests and
logging camps where trees are cut to furnish lumber for
cases, crates, etc., used in shipping. Few people know these
facts, or think about them if th'y do know them.
Factory processes, although highly perfected, must cost
something. Here again rent, heat, light, power, interest,
taxes, insurance, payroll, depreciation, spoilage and many
other service charges must be taken into account. And so
it goes, all along the line, from factory to wholesaler,
wholesaler to retailer, and retailer to consumer.
These are only a few of the many contributing costs and
charges that add to the "spread" between the cost of a
bushel of grain, for example, as delivered to the elevator
in the local market, and the price the consumer pays for
the same amount of grain when manufactured into any one
of the many forms of cereal foods on the market to-day.











Cost of Distribution

It may teem astonishing, even to food-product men, that
of the dollar the consumer paid for certain branded food
products in 1921, the cost of distribution was more than
50 cents, including the profits of manufacturer, wholesaler
and retailer; while in certain instances the distribution cost
was greater than 65 cents. Yet these facts were brought
out by the studies of the Joint Commission of Agriculture'
Inquiry, above referred to. The cost of production neces-
sarily was the difference between these figures and 1, or
from less than 35 cents to less than 50 cents, including
the cost of the raw material.
In other words, the cost of distribution, including three
profits, was in some cases more than twice the cost of pro-
Unction, including raw material, and more than three times
as much as the raw material brought the producer.
Is it any wonder that "Mrs. Jones," reading these facts
in her paper, rather explosively comments on "robbers?"
Write your own answer.



STANDARDIZATION OF WOODEN SHIPPING
CONTAINERS

Legislation By Congress and Thirty-five States Protects
Buying Public and Simplifies Manufacturing Methods.

(From The Barrel And Box).

With the idea of safeguarding the buying public, Con-
gress and the legislative bodies of thirty-five states have
enacted into law provisions for the compulsory use of
standard containers in the sale of fruits, vegetables and
other food commodities.
The number of commodities for which containers are
standardized in the different states varies, but practically
every state that has taken action along the line of stan-
dardization has given consideration to either or both apples
and berries. Illinois leads the states, with standard speci-
fications on the following containers: Berry boxes, fruit
and vegetable barrels, cranberry barrel, bushel crate for
cranberries and blueberries, one-third barrel crate, box or











basket for fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable con-
tainers of less than one bushel capacity to be of the stan-
dard capacity of one, two, three, four, five, six, eight, six-
teen and twenty-four quarters, standard dry measure.
Strikingly dissimilar, Indiana, her neighbor on the east,
has only standardized the apple barrel and apple box,
which are the same as those provided by the Federal
Statute.
Several associations of container manufacturers have
put into effect standard styles and sizes. These are recog-
nized by members of those particular clubs and by the
shippers they serve. The National Basket & Fruit Package
Association hp, done and is doing good work along this
line. Possibly'Iie most persistent organization in fostering,
developing and enforcing standardized packages is the
Southern Crate Manufacturers' Association of Jackson-
ville, Fla. In addition to standardizing their products,
members of this association have succeeded in having them
adopted by the growers, endorsed by the Bureau of Farm
Economics and approved by the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission.
Through the thorough work of H. A. Spilman, inves-
tigator in package standardization for the Bureau of Farm
Economics, styles and sizes of packages have been reduced
considerably in number.

Illinois Statute Typical of Many States

Typical of the law in many of the states is the Statute
enacted by the general assembly of Illinois, which reads
as follows:
"The standard barrel for fruits, vegetables and dry
commodities other than cranberries shall be of the follow-
ing dimensions when measured without distention of its
parts: Length of staves, twenty-eight and one-half inches;
distance between heads, twenty-six inches; circumference
of bulge, sixty-four inches, outside measurement; and the
thickness of staves not greater than four-tenths of an inch;
provided, that any barrel of a different form having a capa-
city of 7,056 cubic inches shall be a standard barrel. The
standard barrel for cranberries shall be of the following
dimensions when measured without distention of its parts:
Length of staves, twenty-eight and one-half inches; dia-
meter of heads, sixteen and one-fourth inches; distance
between heads, twenty-five and one-fourth inches; circum-











ference of bulge, fifty-eight and one-half inches, outside
measurement; and the thickness of staves not greater than
four-tenths of an inch.
"It shall be unlawful for any person to offer or expose
for sale, sell, or ship any other barrels for fruits, vege-
tables, or other dry commodities, or to offer or expose for
sale, sell, or ship any fruits, vegetables, or other dry com-
modities in other barrels than the standard barrels as de-
fined in this section, or subdivisions thereof known as the
third, half, or three-quarters barrel; provided, however,
that nothing in this section shall apply to barrels used ir
packing or shipping commodities sold exclusively by weight
or numerical count; and, provided, furth4 that no bar-
rel shall be deemed below standard within the meaning of
this section when shipped to any foreign country and con-
structed according to the specifications or directions of the
foreign country to which the same is intended to be
shipped.
"It shall be unlawful to procure or keep for the purpose
of sale, offer or expose for sale, sell or give away baskets
or other open containers for berries or small fruits, hold-
ing one quart or less, or to procure or keep for the purpose
of sale, offer or expose for sale, or sell berries or small
fruits in baskets or other open containers, holding one
quart or less, of any other than the following capacities,
when level full; one quart, one pint, or one-half pint,
standard dry measure."

States That Have Standardized Containers
Following is a list of the states that have standardized
various types of fruit and vegetable containers, together
with the names of enforcing officials and brief descriptions
of the containers:
California-Director of Agriculture, Sacramento. Apple
box; apricot, plum and grape baskets; berry boxes, pear
boxes;, half pear boxes; peach, grape and cantaloupe
crates; cherry boxes and lug boxes.
Connecticut-State board of agriculture, Hartford. Ap-
ple barrel and box.
District of Columbia-Superintendent of weights, meas-
ures and markets, Washington. Apple barrel, cranberry
barrel; climax baskets; six-basket and four-basket carriers;
berry boxes; lug boxes; hampers; round stave baskets;
apple and pear boxes and onion crates.











Florida-Any magistrate. Tomato (four-quart till)
basket; six-quart carrier and orange box. (Note: The law
gives the dimensions of the tomato basket but does not pre-
scribe its capacity.)
Idaho-Director, bureau plant industry, Boise. Peach
and prune box (suit case); apple box and lettuce crate;
cherry crate.
Illinois-Director of trade and commerce, Springfield.
Egrry boxes; fruit and vegetable barrel; cranberry barrel;
bushel crate for cranberries and blueberries; one-third bar-
rel crate, box or basket for fruits and vegetables; contain-
ers for fresh fruits and vegetables of less than one bushel
capacity to be of the standard capacity of one, two, three,
four, five, six, eight, sixteen, and twenty-four quarts,
standard dry measure.
Indiana-State commissioner of weights and measures,
Indianapolis. Apple barrel and apple box.
Iowa-Dairy and food commissioner, Des Moines. Berry
boxes, climax baskets.
Kansas-State board of health, Topeka and state sealer
of weights and measures, Lawrence. Barrel; two bushel
box; one bushel box; berry box. (Note: State law provides
that the two bushel box shall contain 4,704 cubic inches,
which is six quarts more than two United States standard
bushels; and that the bushel box shall contain 2,352 cubic
inches, which is three quarts more than one United States
standard bushel. The berry box is standardized on the
basis of the liquid quart and pint and is therefore, under
the United States standard container Act, illegal for inter-
state shipments.
Kentucky-Commissioner of agriculture, Frankfort. Ap-
ple barrel.
Maine-Commissioner of agriculture, Augusta. Apple
barrel and box; berry boxes.
Maryland-Chief inspector, bureau of weights and meas-
ures, Room 24, City Hall, Baltimore. Berry boxes, but
permits the sale of short boxes when so marked.
Massachusetts-Division of standard, department of
labor and industries, State House, Boston. Apple barrel
and box; cranberry barrel; berry boxes; bushel and half
bushel lug boxes.
Michigan-Director, bureau of foods and standards,
Lansing. Climax baskets for grapes and other fruits and











vegetables, baskets and other containers for small fruits
and vegetables and berries.
Minnesota-Commissioner of weights and measures, St.
Paul. Berry boxes.
Missouri-Enforcement not lodged with any particular
official. Apple barrel.
Montana-Commissioner of agriculture, Helena. Apple
box.
Nebraska-Secretary of agriculture, Lincoln. Berry
boxes.
Nevada-Commissioner of agriculture, Reno. Berry
boxes.
New Hampshire-Commissioner of agriculture and com-
missioner of weights and measures, State House, Concord.
Apple barrel and box; berry boxes.
New Jersey-State superintendent of weights and meas-
ures, Trenton. Barrel; cranberry box; fruit and vegetable
baskets and boxes.
New Mexico-Local public weighmasters. Apple box;
pear box; berry boxes on the basis of liquid quart and pint.
(Note: Such berry boxes are illegal for interstate shipment,
since they fail to comply with the United States standard
container Act.)
New York-Director, bureau of weights and measures,
Albany. Barrel.
North Dakota-Deputy chief inspector of weights and
measures, Agricultural College. Berry boxes.
Ohio-Chief, division of foods, dairy and drugs, Colum-
bus. Climax baskets, small fruit baskets, hampers and
round stave baskets.
Oregon-State sealer of weights and measures and state
board of horticulture, Salem. Apple and pear boxes; berry
boxes; cranberry barrel and box.
Pennsylvania-Bureau of standards and bureau of mar-
kets, Harrisburg. Climax baskets; berry boxes; four-quart
till baskets; six-basket crate; thirty-two-quart berry crate,
fruit and vegetable barrel; cranberry barrel.
Rhode Island-State board of agriculture, State House,
Providence. Bushel and one-half bushel lug boxes.
South Dakota-Commissioner of agriculture, Pierre.
Fruit and vegetable barrel; berry boxes.
Tennessee-Superintendent of weights and measures,
Nashville. Berry boxes; bushel crate to hold heaped bushel
2,688 cubic inches (twelve by fourteen by sixteen inches.)












Texas-Commissioner of agriculture, Austin. Four bas-
ket crate; six-basket crate; folding onion crate; orange box
and berry box and crate; hampers, round stave baskets;
market or splint baskets; three.and four-quart till baskets.
Utah-Chief, dairy and food division, Salt Lake City.
Berry boxes.
Vermont-Commissioner of agriculture, Montpelier. Ap-
ple barrel and box.
Washington-Director of agriculture, Olympia. Pear
box; cantaloupe crate; apple box; peach box; prune box;
berry, cherry, potato, cabbage and watermelon crates;
Washington standard cranberry barrel (one-third United
States cranberry barrel.)
West Virginia-Commissioner of agriculture, Charles-
ton. Barrel.
Wisconsin-Dairy and food commissioner, Madison. Ap-
ple barrel; cranberry barrel; bushel crate for cranberries
and blueberries; berry boxes; fruit and vegetable contain-
ers of less than one bushel capacity to be of the standard
capacity of one, two, three, four, five, six, eight, sixteen,
or twenty-four quarts.
Containers Legalized by Federal Legislation
Federal legislation which has standardized containers is
divided into the standard barrel act, the standard container
act and the net weight amendment of section eight of the
food and drugs act.
The standard barrel act is enforced by the Bureau of
Standards, Department of Commerce. It provides for the
fruit and vegetable barrel, cranberry barrel and the three-
quarter, one-half and one-third barrel.
The standard container act standardizes for interstate
commerce: 1. Climax baskets; two, four, and twelve quarts,
dry measure. 2. Berry boxes; one-half pint, one pint, and
one quart, dry measure. 3. Till baskets and other contain-
ers for small fruits and vegetables to be of the capacity of
one quart or multiples thereof. It is enforced by the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agri-
culture.
The net weight amendment to section eight of the food
and drugs act provides for a statement of the quantity
of the contents, in the cases of foods if in package form,
in terms of weight, measure or numerical count, and is
enforced by the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of
Agriculture.












SAVE THE PINE FOR FRUIT BOXES

(From the Wenatchee Daily World, Wenatchee, Wash.)

North Central Washington is vitally interested in the
forest protection campaign which is being promoted by
the United States Forest Service with the co-operation of
all good citizens everywhere. It is not only from a desire
to conserve the forest resources of the entire state that the
people of this part of the state should take it upon them-
selves to help prevent destructive fires. The fruit box sup-
ply of the state depends upon saving the pine trees that
are growing in this part of the state.
There is a general tendency on the part of the unthink-
ing public to assume that the timber of the State of Wash-
ington is inexhaustible. The same attitude was adopted
by the people of Michigan and Wisconsin less than a half
century ago and to-day there is less pine standing in the
two states than would supply one day's demand of the
industry.
Figures prepared by Forest Service officials show that
there are approximately 3,500,000,000 feet of standing
pine suitable for fruit boxes in the territory known as
north central Washington. If all the boxes used annually
were made of local pine, about 75,000,000 feet would have
to be cut for this purpose. It is estimated that an equal
amount is used for lumber, which would mean that even-
tually at least 150,000,000 feet will be cut annually to sup-
ply the local demand. At this rate the pine timber in this
part of the state would last less than one-fourth of a cen-
tury. But it is assumed that the demand will increase each
year and thus materially reduce the number of years that
the standing timber would last at the higher rate of con-
sumption.
Statistics show that there is as great an area of timber
destroyed by fire each year in the United States as is cut
off in logging operations. Unless this useless destruction
and waste of timber is stopped we shall see the end of all
available timber within the lifetime of many people.
The Pine Box Manufacturers' Association of north cen-
tral Washington hopes to supply an increased percentage
of the fruit boxes used in this territory each year until
none but home grown and home manufactured boxes are
used in shipping the district's fruit crop. This would mean,











first, that several hundred additional men would be em-
ployed in this territory; second, that all of the money,
amounting to from $2,000,000 to $3,000,000, spent for fruit
boxes would be kept at home.to increase the commercial
and financial resources of this section; and, finally, the
fruit growers would be able to pack their product in a
better box than is made anywhere else.



REFERENCE TABLES

GOVERNMENT WHITEWASH FORMULA

What is known as Government Whitewash is made ac-
cording to the following formula:
One half bushel lime slaked with hot water in covered
vessel and strained through seive to eliminate coarse
particles.
One peck of salt dissolved in hot water.
Three pounds rice boiled to thin paste.
One pound melted glue.
Half-pound whiting.
Add coloring matter to suit.
Mix all ingredients well while hot; add five gallons hot
water and let stand one week in closely-covered vessel.
Apply whitewash while hot for best results.

AMOUNT OF PAINT REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN
SURFACE

It is impossible to give a rule that will apply in all cases,
as the amount varies with the kind and thickness of the
paint, the kind of wood or other material to which it is
applied, the age of the surface, etc. The following is an
approximate rule: Divide the number of square feet of
surface by 200. The result will be the number of gallons
of liquid paint required to give two coats; or, divide by 18
and the result will be the number of pounds of pure ground
white lead required to give three coats.


















TIME FOR MATURITY OF VEGETABLES


The 30 fall and winter vegetables with the number of

days from planting to maturity are:-


Vegetable No. Days
B eans ...... .............................. .... ..... 50 to 90
B eet ........................................ ...................................... ........ 90 to 110

B eet, chard ........................................... 70 to 90


Broccoli ..................
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage ...................
Carrot .............. ...
Cauliflower ..............
Celeriac ............

Celery .......................
C h icory .......................
C h iv es ........................
C ollards .......................
Corn salad .................
C ress ........... ...............
E n d ive ...... .................
Garlic .........................
Horse-radish .....
K ale ..........................
Kohl-rabi ................

L eek ...........................
L ettuce .....................
M ustard .......................
Onion seed ...............
Onion sets ...............
Parsley ....................
P arsnips .......................
P eas .....................
R ad ish ...................
Salsify .....................
Spinach .....................
Turnip .....................


100
120
90
70
90
90
120
90
60
90
60
60
90
90
180
60

90
180
60
60
120
80
90
90
50

30
90
70
60


------------- .........
---------------- -
- ........... ----------
............................
........... -1 -
--------------------
----------------------------
----------------------------


............. ..............
.....................
............. ....... --
---------- ............
--------------- ...........
-- ---- ---------------


.... ............
---------- -
.. .........
........................
.......... -
-------------- .............
--------------------- -
- ---- ---------------------
... ................

.................
...................... -


..................


................................................
................................................
- .............................................
................................................
................................................
........................................
............................. --
....................... ...................
--------------------------- I ....................
..........................................
........................................
........................................
...............................................
---------------------------------------
- ................................... --
................................................
........................................ -

............ -- .....................
................................................

................................................
--------------------- .............. ---------
................................................
------------ ............ --
-------------------- ...........................


............. -- ...............
.............................. -
------------- ...................
.................................









65

PROPER DISTANCES FOR PLANTING


Oranges on C. trifoliata.....................
Kumquats .... .... ....................................
Peaches and Apples......................... ..........
P lu m s .................................... ............................
Japan Persimmons ...............................................
Pears, general varieties.............. ....
Grapes, bunch varieties.....................................
Grapes, Muscadine type........................
F ig s .......... ......................................... .......
Pecans ............... ..................


............... 18 to
........... 10 to
................ 18 to
................ 15 to
.............. 15 to
................ 20 to
................ 8 to
................ 18 to
......... 12 to
-..-....... 40 to


NUMBER OF SHRUBS OR PLANTS FOR AN ACRE


Distance Apart
3 in. by 3 in............. ............... ..
4 in. by 4 in ......................................
6 in. by 6 in............ ................... ..
9 in. by 9 in........................... ......................
1 ft. by 1 ft......................................
2 ft. by 1 ft.....................................................
2 ft. by 2 ft.................. ............. ......
3 ft. by 1 ft.......... ........................
3 ft. by 2 ft....................... ...............
3 ft. by 3 ft.....................................
4 ft. by 1 ft............................ .........
4 ft. by 2 ft................. ................................
4 ft. by 3 ft..........................................
4 ft. by 4 ft......................... ...................
5 ft. b y 1 ft......................... ............. .....
5 ft. by 2 ft......................................
5 ft. by 3 ft... ... .............................
5 ft. by 4 ft............. ...................
5 ft. by 5 ft.................................... .....
6 ft. by 6 ft...... ............ .......................
7 ft. by 7 ft..........................................
8 ft. by 8 ft. .......... ...............
9 ft. by 9 ft.................................... .......
10 ft. by 10 ft..... .................. -.....
11 ft. by 11 ft........ ............. ............
12 ft. by 12 ft.................................. ...........
13 ft. by 13 ft...................................... ..
14 ft. by 14 ft................................
5--Fla. (.


No of
Plants
.................................696,960
-- ........................ 392,040
...................................174,240
...................................... 77,440
............ ................ 43,560
...................................... 21,780
..................................... 10,890
.................................... 14,520
........................... 7,260
................... 4,840
.................................... 10,890
................................... 5,445
.... .................. 3,630
................ 2,722
....................... 8,712
.............. 4,356
............. 2,904
.. ............... 2,178
.............. 1,742
................................ 1 ,2 1 0
........... ................. 8 8 1
................. .................. 6 8 0
.............. 537
.... ............ 435
--.-- ..- .. 360
.... .................... 3 0 2
............. 25,7
... ........ ................... 2 2 2


30 ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.
30 ft.
10 ft.
25 ft.
15 ft.
60 ft.










66

15 ft. by 15 ft............ ....... .. 193
16 ft. by 16 ft.... ................................ ........ .......... ........ 170
17 ft. by 17 ft........................... ...................... 150
18 ft. by 18 ft............................. .. ...................................... 134
1 9 ft. b y 1 9 ft........................................ ...... .................................... 12 0
20 ft. b y 20 ft.. .. ....................................... ................................. 10 8
25 ft. by 25 ft:............................................................... 69
30 ft. by 30 ft......................................... ................... 48
33 ft. by 33 ft.... ......................... ..... ........................... 40
40 ft. by 40 ft......... ....................... ..... ..................... 27
50 ft. by 50 ft......................... ...... ... ............... ..... 17
60 ft. by 60 ft... ....... ............... .... ......... ...... 12
66 ft. b y 66 ft....................................................... .. ............. 10

NUMBER OF NAILS TO THE POUND

3 penny fine, 1 -inch....... ................................................ 700
3 penny com., 11/4-inch ............................... 480
4 penny com ., 11/2-inch.. .........3........... .. .................................. 300
6 penny com ., 2-inch .................. ...... .... ............ ..... 160
8 penny com ., 2/2-inch...... ............................................... 92
10 penny com ., 3-inch................................................... ..................... 60
16 penny com ., 31/2-inch.......................................... ................. 32
20 penny corn., 4-inch.................................. ...... ....... ..... 24
40 penny com., 5-inch ................................. 14
60 penny com ., 6-inch.... .............. ...... ...................... .............. 8
8 penny fence, 21/2-inch...................................................... 50
10 penny fence, 3-inch.................. ... -- ---------- ....... .......... 34

CONTENTS OF WAGON BOX

Multiply length in inches by width in inches and this
result by height in inches. Divide this result by 2150.42.
This will give you the exact number of bushels.
A common wagon box is .about 10 ft. long and 31/2 ft.
wide, and will hold about 2 bushels for every inch in depth.
To find the approximate number of bushels, multiply
the depth of the wagon box in inches by 2, and you have
the number of bushels.
If the wagon box is 11 feet long, multiply the depth in
inches by 2 and add one-tenth of the number of bushels
to itself.
A bushel to the inch is calculated for corn on the cob.













TEMPERATURES TO REMEMBER


Fahrenheit
W after freezes .......................................................... ..........32
Danger of frost........................ ......................... 36
R refrigerator ................... ......................................... 45 to 55
Reopening of cream ..................................... 65 to 70
Room, people working......................................................... 55
Room, people not exercising.............................................. 68 to 70
O f body, m outh........................................................................... 98.6
In cu b ator ......... ........................................ ........................ 103
W ater b oils at .................................. ...................................... 212
Pasteurizing m ilk ................................................ ........................ 145
For syrup, 11 pounds to gallon.................. ............ 219


WEIGHTS OF VARIETIES OF PEANUTS


Jum bo ............................
Virginia Runner
Virginia Bunch ....
Spanish ........................


Number of Nuts in
One Pound
In Pods Shelled
....................... 120 160
............. 170 195
.................. 130 165
............ 310 365


CONTENTS OF BOXES AND BINS


Length
5 feet
5 feet
5 feet
7 feet
9 feet
13 feet
4 ft. 8 in.
24 inches
26 inches
12 inches
8 inches
8 inches


Breadth
3 feet
3 feet
3 feet
5 feet
6 feet
8 feet
2 ft. 4 in.
16 inches
151/2 inches
111/2 inches
8 inches
8 inches


Depth
2 feet
3 feet
4 feet
3 ft. 9 in.
5 feet
6 feet
2 ft. 4 in.
28 inches
8 inches
9 inches
8 inches
41/8 inches


Per Cent
Loss
in Shelling
33.33
14.70
29.92
17.74


bushels
bushels
bushels
bushels
bushels
bushels
bushels
barrel
bushel
bushel
peck
gallon













RELATION OF SIZE OF FARM TO PER CENT OF
BOYS THAT LEAVE IT


Acres Farmed
At
3 0 o r less.............................................
31 to 50........................................ .................
51 to 100..................................... .................. ----...
101 to 150.............................. ..............
151 to 200........................... ....................
Over 200 ................................ .... ............


PER CENT OF SONS
On Other Not
SHome Farms Farmers
21 33 46
52 22 26
75 8 17
78 10 12
72 10 18
84 8 8


One of the chief reasons boys leave the farm is because
there is not enough work to make it pay to stay.-War-
ren's Farm Management.

BANK LOANS TO FARMERS

Average term of personal and collateral loans to farm-
ers: Per cent of banks reporting various average terms,
March, 1921.


State

North Carolina .........
South Carolina ....
Georgia ....... .......
Tennessee .........
Alabama ..............
M ississippi ..................
Arkansas ............
Louisiana ... .......
Oklahoma ..... ......
Texas .......... ..........


1 to 3
Months


3 to 6 6 to 9
Months Months


HOW TO MEASURE EAR CORN IN THE CRIB

Multiply the length in inches by the width in inches and
this result by the height in inches. Divide by 3888 and you
have the contents in bushels of corn; or
Multiply the length in feet by the width in feet, and
this result by the height in feet. Multiply by 4, divide by
9 and you have the contents in bushels of corn.


9 to 12
Months


Over 1
Year





1.8


.3


t











ELECTRICAL UNITS DEFINED
OHM.-Unit of resistance.
Ampere.-Unit of current.
Volt.-Unit of electro motive force: one volt equals one
ampere of current passing through a substance having one
ohm of resistance.
Coulomb.-Unit of quantity; amount of electricity trans-
ferred by a current of one ampere in one second.
Farad.-Unit of capacity; capacity of a condenser
charged to a potential of one volt by one coulomb. A mic-
rofarad is one-millionth of a farad.
Joule.-Unit of work; equivalent to energy expended in
one second by one ampere current in one ohm resistance.
Watt.-Unit of power; equivalent to work done at the
rate of one joule per second. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts.

SHINGLES REQUIRED IN A ROOF
To the square foot it takes 9 if exposed four inches; 8 if
exposed 41/2 inches, and 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches to the
weather.
Find the number of shingles required to cover a roof 38
feet long, and the rafters on each side 14 feet. Shingles
exposed 41/2 inches.
28x38=1064 (sq. ft.) x 8=8512 shingles. Ans.
To find the length of rafters, giving the roof one-third
pitch: take three-fifths of the building. If the building is
30 feet wide, they must be 18 feet long, exclusive of pro-
jection.
MASON WORK-BRICK
Lime, 1/s8 barrels, and 5/% yard sand will lay 1,000
bricks.
One man with 11/4 tenders will lay 1,800 to 2,000 bricks
per day.

TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF TONS OF HAY
In Square or Oblong Stack.-Multiply the length in feet
by width in feet and this by 1/2 the height. Divide the re-
sult by 300.
In Round Stack.-Square the distance around the stack
in yards. Multiply this by 4 times the height in yards.
Point off two places from the right and divide remainder
by 20.











USEFUL INFORMATION
To find diameter of a circle, multiply circumference by
.31831.
To find circumference of a circle, multiply diameter by
3.1416.
To find area of circle, multiply square of diameter by
.7854.
To find surface of a ball, multiply square of diameter
by 3.1416.
To find side of an equivalent square, multiply diameter
of the circle by .8862.
To find cubic inches in a ball, multiply cube of diameter
by .5236.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity
four times.
Double riveting is from 16 to 20 per cent stronger than
single.
One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs about 53 pounds.
One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to 50
pounds.
One ton of coal is equivalent to two cords of wood for
steam purposes.
A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 pounds 1
foot per minute, or 550 pounds 1 foot per second.
The friction of water in pipes is as the square of velo-
city. The capacity of pipes is as the square of their dia-
meters; thus, doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its
capacity four times.
A "miner's inch" of water is approximately equal to a
supply of 12 United States gallons per minute.
About Water.-It requires about 11/ gallons to fill an
ordinary wash bowl, 30 gallons to fill the average bath tub,
and from 4 to 7 gallons to flush the closet.
A gallon of water (United States Standard) weighs 8 1-3
pounds and contains 231 cubic inches.
A cubic foot of water contains 71/ gallons, 1728 cubic
inches, and weighs 621/ pounds.
The average family uses 25 gallons per day for each per-
son. Figure your requirements accordingly. Watering of
cattle, sprinkling of lawns, etc., should be figured extra.
With 40 to 50 pounds pressure per square inch, an or-
dinary 3/4-inch garden hose nozzle requires about 6 gallons
per minute when throwing a solid stream, or about 4 gal-
lons when spraying.











It requires approximately 16 gallons to sprinkle 100
square feet of lawn; 20 gallons will soak it thoroughly.

About Belting.-Advice concerning the use of leather
belts to get the best results is given by an old mechanical
engineer.
The hair side and not the rough, or flesh side, of the belt
should run next to the pulley for two reasons:
First, only the flesh sides will stretch. The hair side will
not stretch except under very great strain; and if the hair'
aide is out, there is a constant tendency to crack it. Second,
the hair side being the smoother, is forced by the power in
much closer contact with the surface of the pulley. With
this greater contact the belt grips the pulley more firmly
-there is less slippage, less loss of power and less burning
the belt.
Another thing, many people use too small pulleys with
the result that the belt runs too slowly and is under exces-
sive and unnecessary strain. Use larger pulleys and run
the belt faster. They will carry the power with less strain.
A speed of 3,000 feet per minute is about the most efficient
for leather belting.
Another thing,, in dressing a belt do not use resin or
soap. Resin or soap will cause the leather both to rot and
to collect moisture.











SHORT METHOD FOR FIGURING ACREAGE

A short and simple method for reducing any given or
known land measurements in rods to acres.
Take a field 40 x 60 rods. To find the area in square
rods, multiply one by the other, which in this case will
give 2,400 square rods. Instead of dividing by the number
of rods in an acre, as is customary, multiply the result,
which in this case is 2,400 square rods, by .00625, which
gives 1,500,000, and when 5 decimal places are pointed off
as carried by your multiplier, the result is 15 acres. viz:

40 rods 2400 sq. rds.
60 .00625

2400 sq. rods. 12000
4800
14400

15.00000

The decimal equivalent .00625 holds good no matter
what the measurements may. be, and will invariably give
an accurate result. As the decimal equivalent .00625 car-
ries five decimal places, it is necessary that five places be
pointed off in each and every product obtained by multi-
ply-ng thereby.











A SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR CITRUS

The following spraying schedule is the result of a con-
ference held at Orlando, Florida, February 27, 1919, par-
ticipated in by H. R. Fulton, J. R. Winston and J. J. Bow-
man, pathologists, and W. W. Others, entomologist, U. S.
Department of Agriculture; H. E. Stevens, pathologist,
and J. R. Watson, entomologist, Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, and E. W. Berger, entomologist, State Plant Board.
This combined schedule is based on the work to date of
State and Federal investigators, and represents their com-
posite judgment regarding the central of citrus insects and
diseases by spraying, control of the enemies usually destruc-
tive on grapefruit in an average season, provided the spray-
ing is done thoughtfully. Oranges will usually require
three applications (Nos. 7, 8, and 9.) Under conditions
unusually favorable for disease or insect increase certain
or all the remaining applications will be required in ad-
dition.
Be cautious about using lime-sulphur solution when the
temperature is above 900. If used under this condition,
use the weaker strength and be sure of the accuracy of the
Beaume test and the diluting.
The Bordeaux mixture requires 3 pounds of bluestone
and 3 pounds of first grade quicklime in 50 gallons of
water. Never use air-slaked lime. If hydrated lime or in-
ferior grade of quicklime must be used make it 4 pounds.










A SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR CITRUS

Citrus Time of I Enemy
No. Fruit Application Material I Remarks
1 Grapefruit* IJust before first liordeaux mixture I Scab I To be applied if scab is abundant on old leaves.
flush 3-3-50 I When Bordeaux mixture is used it must be
SI followed by two of the specified lime sulphur
SI applications within two months to reduce
_I I scale.
2 Grapefruit* Just before petals I IAme sulphur sol.] Scab I To be applied if scab infections appear on new
open I 82 Beaume; 21% Rust mites Igrowth, or if rainy weather favorable for
I gal. in 100 gal.i Red spiders scab follows first application.
When 1-3 to 1-2 Lime sulphur sol.1 Scab I Add the nicotine if 25 or more thrips per bloom
3 Grapefruit* the petals are off 2% in 100 gal. Thrips are present.
and p 1 u a Nicotinel Rust mites
Orange** I sulphate 13 oz. Red spiders I
I in 100 gal. I
4 Grapefruit* i 7 to 10 days afterbLime sulphur sol., Scab
third application! 2 gal. in 100' Thrip1
I gal. I Rust mites
"_i Red spiders
5 Grapefruit* 7 to 10 days after Lime sulphur sol.] Scab ITo be given if rainy weather favorable for scab
fourth applica- 1 21 gal. in 1001 Rust mites infection follows fourth application.
tion gal. Scale
I Crawlers
6 Grapefruit April 5 to 15 I Lime sulphur sol.l Rust mites I If any two of our Nos. 3. 4 and 5 have been
S2 gal. in 100 tol Tearstain I given, this can be omitted; otherwise this
1% gal. in 100 I s the critical spraying for rust mites on
SI grapefruit.
7 Grapefruit In May when fruit Oil emulsion 1%I White fly The oil emulsion should be used so that the
and is at least 1 in.! plus dry soda Scale insects I diluted spray material should contain 1%
Orange in diameter I sulphur 2 lbs. in' Rust mites I of oil. i. e., if the emulsion contains 66% of
I 100 gallons I oil. 1% gallons would be required for 100
II gallons of water.
8 Grapefruit I n June I Lime sulphur sol. Rust mites On oranges this is the critical rust mite spray,
and I 2 gals. in 100 to Tearstain if the fruit has not received any previous
Orange I 1% gal. In 1001 lime sulphur application.










n Grapefruit Probably in Sep-I Oil emulsion 1% i White fly I To be given if scale or white fly is noticeable.
and member or Octo- IScale insects I
Orange ber. but certain-1
ly before Feb. 1 I
10 Grapefruit November to I Lime sulphur sol. Rust mites I To be given only .if rust mites are noticeable.
and I January I 2 gal. in 100 to
Orange I I 1 in 100 gal. I
The scab applications may be required on highly susceptible varieties of orange of the I.id glove type.
** Required on round oranges only when thrips are abundant.







-C
en











SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR OTHER CROPS
FRUITS-APPLES, QUINCES PEARS-WHEN TO SPRAY

1 Spraying 2 Spraying 3 Spraying 4 Spraying
I I
What to spray for While Trees Are Just before As Blossoms Fall Three Weeks Later
_I DIormant Blossoming
Scale Treatment Lime-sulphur con- Lime-sulphur con- Same as second Bordeaux mixture
Fungus spores centrate one gal- centrate one and 4-4-50 with one
Tent caterpillor Ion to eight gal- a half gallons to lb. powdered ar-
Bud moth Ions water [ 50 gallons water! senate of lead
Coddling moth I
Leaf spot
Canker work I
Rooty mold
hitter rot
Scab ___
PEACH. PLUM. APRICOT, CHERRY
SI. I Four to Five Weeks
SWhile Trees Are Ten Days After I Two Weeks After Before Fruit is
Dormant Blossoms Fall I Second Due to Ripen
Scale Treatment Lime-snlphur con-) Arsenate of lead] Boiled lime" sul- Self-boiled lime sul-
Fungus spores contrate one gal-1 one Ib. 50 gal-1 phur 8-8-50 andl phur 8-8-5O
Curl Inn to eight gal-I Ions water with one lb. arsenatel
Curcullo Ions water I milk of lime of lead
Brown rot I from 5 Ihs. un-
Scab I slacked lime I










PECANS

SWhen Trees Are As Soon as Fruit After Growth After Fruit Sets
I Dormant I Starts Starts

Scale insects Treatment Lime-sulphur eon- One and half lb.| Lime-sulphur one Shade Trees
Blight centrate one Fal- arsenate of lead and half gall ons
Scab Ion to 8 gallons and 5 lbs. un- to 50 gallons Shade trees should
Bud moth water slacked lime 50 water and 1%I be sprayed with
Case worms gallons water lbs. upslacked first spray for
Caterpillars lime I'cnns in case of
Leaf spot scale. If leaf-eat-
Leaf spot ing Insects attack
shade trees spray
with 1% pounds
pwd. Ar. of Lead,
S5 pounds un-
slaked lime. to 50
Gallons water

GRAPES
I T- D t o


en ays 0 w
Weeb Before .Tust After Fruit Weeks After I
Blossoms Open I Sets Second Spray I

Bordeaux mixture] Same as first I Sam- as first andl
S4-4-.0 and pwd. add 40% nico-I
arsena*e lead I tine sulphatel
1% lbs. sol. 1/4 Pt. to 50
gallons of mix-I
I ture
I I


For leaf hopper,
spray against un-
der side of leaves


Treatment


\nt"rarnose
Black rot
Mildew
Berry moth
Leaf folder
Rose chufer
Flee beetle
Crap" aphis
Leaf hopper


I











ASPARAGUS
Beetles Arsenate of Lead, WhVen beetles first appear, followed at 10-
I 4 lbs. powder to day intervals as necessary. Also on old Do not spray while cutting for use, then
50 gallons I plantations after cuttings cease. I disc field, throwing soil over crowns.
Rust Control by spraying Permit no plants to mature during cuttingS
I unsatisfactory I season.| Secure resistant variety, like Palmetto.
BEAN
Anthracnose [ Pick and burn dis- (1) As plants break through ground. Since this disease is carried on the seed,
I eased pods (2) When first pair of leaves expand, use seed only from healthy plants, perf-
I Bordeaux, 5-5-50 (3) When pods have set. erably from a disease-free locality.
CABBAGE
Cabbage worm Arsenate of Lead Arsenate of lead when worms first appear.I Add a little soap to the water to make the
Cabbage looper I or Hellebore Repeat as necessary till heads are poison stick.
__formed. Then use hellebore. I
Cutworm I Wrap paper around the stem when plants] Avoid planting on sod land.
____are set, sinking it in soil. I
Club root I Pull up and burn Spread lime on ground in spring, 1 lb. tol Practice rotation. Avoid infected land. Do .1
I plants 8 sq. ft. Work it in before setting plants. not get diseased plants. 00
Black rot I Pull up and burnl Soak seed 15 minutes in corrosive subli-I
I plants mate to kill spores wintering thereon.I

CANTALOUPE AND CUCUMBER
Bacterial wilt [I Kill the beetles which spread the disease
(as below). I
Anthracnose I Bordeaux % I hLen vines begin to run. Follow with 2 Use a short spray rod with angle nozzle to
Downy mildew I more applications at two or three-week reach the undersidee of leaves for cucum-
Melon rust I intervals. ber troubles.
Striped beetle Bordeaux with ar-a As beetles appear. Repeat as necessary. I Bordeaux aids in repelling beetles.
senate of lead I
Melon aphis or Nicotine sulfate I On first appearance of lice. Repeat as
louse I necessary. Pull up and burn badly in-i
I h.fested plants at once.
S uas~h h br I m~l


I rlc Lue uugs anl cruns them. Place
Small piece of board near the hills, col-
Icting bugs found underneath every
Morning.


May cover plants vith cloth protection.
Leave several small squashes in field
after first ,-*ost. Collect and burn cu-
cumber insects which vill collect thereon
in large numbers.


.S uLaIs ugU










.CELERY
Leaf spot I Bordeaux On young seedlings in seed bed. Follow Some varieties seem more resistant than
by three later sprayings at 2-week In-1 others.
Stervals if necessary. i
CORN-POP AND SWEET
Smut I No satisfactory Cut off and burn smutted areas befofel Rotate crops.
I remedy they break open. I
Corn ear worm I No satisfactory | Dry arsenate of lead is sometimes dusted Kill the worms as found as ears are pre-
remedy on before the corn ear fully silks out. I pared for use.
1 LETTUCE
Drop or wilt Pull and burn dis-1 Soak the diseased area with Bordeaux or Burn all lettuce trash.
eased plants at with Bluestone solution, 1 lb. 7 gal.
once I
POTATO
Early blight I Bordeaux IWhen plants are 6 inches high. Make 21 Bordeaux arsenate of lead is the usual com-
Smore applications at 2-week intervals. bination spray for potato field diseases.
Late blight Bordeaux Continue spraying as aboveat 2-week In-
Tip burn i tervals if thought necessary throughout
season. i
Colorado potato I Arsenate of lead When young beetles first appear. Repeat When Bordeaux is used in a combination
beetle as new broods hatch, spray it tends to repel the flea beetles.
Flea beetle
Scab I Soak clean tubers in 1 pint formaldehyde
I to 30 gal. water 2 hours, then dry and
I cut to plant.
POTATO. SWEET
Black rot I elect out sound tubers. Soak 2 hours. Bed
Stem rot I Formaldehyde, 1-30 and transplant in clean soil. Vine cut-
Wilt. etc. tings are safest for general planting.
SQUASH AND PUMPKIN
Insects and diseases, with treatment, as cantaloupe, which see.










TOMATO
Fusarium wilt Spraying ineffective) Develop resistant strains. I
I Sterilize soil (in green houses).
Anthracpose I I Keep plants up from ground.
Blossom end rot I Caused by lack of moisture or excessive moisture. Strike a prcper balance and cultivate properly.
Early blight I Bordeaux As for blight on potatoes, which see.
Late blight I
Leaf spot I

WATERMELON
Anthracnose I Bordeaux | Soon after vines begin to run. Again 2 or
II 3 weeks later.
Wilt Formaldehyde, 1-40 Soak seed 10 minutes. Do not plant in in-
I fected soil.
ROSE
Powdery mildew I biorabe Lime sulphur 1-40 or Flowers oft Apply on first appearance of disease, and 0
I I SRulphur. | at intervals as may be necessary.
BLACKBERRY AND RASPBERRY
Orange rust I Dig utp and burnI Since these diseases are perennial in the Do not plant infei ted stock or use ground
Cane blight all infected plants canes. spraying is useless after first in- previously infected.
Crown gall I as soon as noted fection occurs.
Anthracnose I Lime sulfur (1i In spring before growth starts (2%
gal. in 50).
(2) When new shoots are 6-8 inches high
(1%Y gal. in 50).
(3) Just before blooming period. Dilute
as above.
STRAWBERRY
What to spray for I Treatment When to Spray' Remarks
Leaf spot I Bordeaux Before blossoms open. Additional applica-I Renew beds frequently. May mow off and
I tons if spot appears. I burn foliage after. berries are picked.












FRUIT HARVESTING SEASONS FOR U. S.

(Florida Months Italicized)

Crops-Months.
Apples--lay, June, July, August, September, October
and November.
Apricots--April, May and June.
Avocados-July, August, September, Ostober, November
and December.
Blackberries-April, May and June 15.
Blueberries-May, June and July.
Cherries-May, June and July.
Cranberries-September and October.
Currants-April, May and June.
Dewberries-March, April, May and June.
Figs-June, July, August, September, October, Novem-
ber and December.
Grapes-July, August, September, October, November
and December.
Grapefruit-January, February, March, April, Ma. ,
June, July, November and December.
Gooseberries-April, May and June.
Japanese Persimmons-October, November and Septem-
ber.
Lemons-January, February, March, April, May, June,
July, August, September, October, November and Decem-
ber.
Limes-January, February, March, April, May, June,
July, August, September, October, November and Decem-
ber.
Mangoes-May, June, July, August, September, Octp-
ber, November and December.
Oranges-January, February, March, April, May, June,
July, August, September, October and December.
Peaches-April, May, June, July, August, September,
October and November.
Pears-July, August, September, October and November.
Plums-May, June, July, August, September, October,
November and December.
Raspberries-May, June, July, August and September.
Strawberries-January, February, March, April, May,
June, July, August, September, October, November and
December.
6-Fla. G.











HALF OF WORLD'S WORKERS ENGAGED IN
AGRICULTURE

Fully one-half the workers of the world are now engaged
in agriculture, according to figures published by the United
States Department of Agriculture. Of all occupied men
and boys in 23 leading countries, 51.4 per cent are engaged
in agriculture, and, of all occupied women and girls, 50.6
per cent follow agricultural pursuits, statistics show. The
figures do not include the large agricultural populations
of Russia, China, Serbia, Hungary, Argentina, and Brazil.
The largest number of both male and female agricul-
tural workers in the countries covered is in India, where
71,000,000 males and 34,000,000 females are so employed
and comprise 72 per cent of the total number of workers.
The United States is second with 11,000,000 male and
2,000,000 female agricultural workers, or 29 per cent of all
employed persons.
The figures were compiled to show that problems con-
cerning agricultural workers affect a larger number of
workers in almost every country than those engaged in
manufacturing, mining, lumbering, or commerce, and in a
few countries more than in all these industries combined.



TWO POWERFUL FACTORS CONTROL THE PRICE
SITUATION

1. Costs of Raw Materials and Labor.
This factor represents the principal item in the cost
of manufacture and is an item over which neither the
farmer nor the manufacturer has control.
2. Volume of Production.
This depends entirely upon the demand for equip-
ment and is within the control of the farmer alone.

Let's Take Up the First Factor

In 1913 the farm equipment industry, after three-quar-
ters of a century of progress, and development of improved
methods of production, had become established on a sound,
efficient basis. Record-breaking numbers of machines were
sold at rock-bottom prices.










83


Thin came the war and several years of economic up-
heaval. Prices of everything-raw materials, wages, farm
products-rose to new heights. But farm equipment prices
went up the least of all. Since that time there have been
declines for many products which had the most sensational
rises-but labor and materials are still high. For the
material that goes into farm equipment, manufacturers
are now paying double what they paid in 1914.


Oak lumber............................3 times as high
Pole stock................. ...............1/ "
Pine crating ........... ..............twice
Steel bars.................................... tim es
Soft center plow Steel...twice
Cold rolled steel .................t.wice
P ig iron...........................................1 tim es
C ok e............................................... 2
Cotton duck........ ............... 2


as in
"


1914
"


(e ~c
'' ''
'' ''


And Labor, which is a large item.in all manufacturing
costs, is considerably more than double what it was in 1914.



FAMILY BUDGETS IN CITY AND ON FARM

How do the spending habits of farm and city families
compare? Investigations by the Department of Agricul-
ture and the Bureau of Labor Statistics provide an in-
teresting comparison. In looking over the figures, keep in
mind that the farm families didn't have from $1,500 to
$2,000 in cash to spend. Actual cash income was only
around $1,000, and the balance came from the food, fuel
and house rent furnished by the farm. On real income,
however, the city and country families are closer together
than most of us would expect.


Food ...................... .. ........ .....- -.$
Clothing ..................... .................
Rent (house only)................................
Education, travel, amusement, etc....
Sickness ......................-- ................
Furniture and furnishings ................
Savings and life insurance...............
Heat, light and miscellaneous........

T otal ............................. ............


Town Farm Owner Tenant
Family Family Family
572.00 $ 651.00 $ 600.00
257.00 283.00 212.00
207.00 304.00 221.00
60.00 152.00 72.00
68.00 86.00 83.00
84.00 38.00 30.00
137.00 70.00 49.00
244.00 290.00 241.00

$1,629.00 $1,874.00 $1,508.00











WHAT PART OF THE FARMER'S OPERATING EX-
PENSES IS CHARGEABLE TO IIIS IMPLEMENTS?

A few generations ago practically 90 per cent of our
population worked the farms t6 feed themselves and the 10
per cent in the cities. To-day 30 per cent raise food enough
for themselves and the 70 per cent in the cities. Yet farm
machines, which make all this possible and which have
brought to the farm all the good things of life, can be
charged only 4 to 8 per cent of the total yearly farming
expense. The farm machine industry, the most basic of all,
and directly responsible for farm wealth, holds a very
modest position in proportion with its usefulness. Farm
machines have taken comparatively few of the farmer's
dollars, but these have created the wealth which makes
radio sets, electric lights, automobiles, pianos, and educa-
tion possible on the farm.



RULE FOR DETERMINING COST OF PRODUCTION

1. Cost of Labor and Material-Apply current rates for
the labor and materials used; if accounts were not kept
use average rates and prices.
2. Operating Expenses Per Acre-Divide the total cost
of labor and material by the percentage for the given crop
of all crops included.
3. Total Cost of Production-Ascertained by adding the
interest charge or the cash rent paid for the use of land.
4. The Cost Per Bushel or Ton-This is ascertained by
dividing the acre cost by the yield per acre.












FOOD ELEMENTS PER ACRE FROM DIFFERENT
CROPS

The following table from Farmers' Bulletin Number 877
shows the comparison of the food elements produced an-
nually by the acre of land when utilized in the production
of various food crops:

Pounds
Food Crops Yield Per Acre Calories Protein Calories
Bushels Pounds Per lb. (Diges'le) Per Acre
Corn .......................... 35 1,960 1,964 147.00 3,124,240
Sweet Potatoes........ 110 5,940 480 53.50 2,851,200
Irish Potatoes............ 100 6,000 318 66.00 1,908,000
Rye ........................... 20 1,200 1,506 118.80 1,807,200
W heat ..................... 20 1,200 1,490 110.40 1,788,000
Rice, unpolished ...... 40 1,154 1,460 55.40 1,684,840
Rice, polished........- .... 1,086 1,456 50.00 1,581,216
Soy Beans ................ 16 860 1,598 294.70 1,534,000
Peanuts .................... 34 524 2,416 126.20 1,265,018
Oats .......................... 35 784 1,600 89.40. 1,254,400
Beans ....................... 14 840 1,337 157.90 1,123,080
Cow Peas ................ 10 600 1,421 116.40 852,600
Buck Wheat ........... 24 600 1,252 34.5 751,800



SUBJECTS FOR DISCUSSION BY FARMERS CLUBS

1.-Things that determine what crops should be raised.
2.-The determining factors in selecting farm machinery.
3.-Items to be included in estimating the cost of produc-
tion.
4.-The kind of banking facilities needed by farmers.
5.-Farm demonstration for the promotion of production.
6.-Farm demonstration for more economic marketing.
7.-Advantages and disadvantages of
(a) Individual farm management.
(b) Corporation farm management.
(c) Co-operative farm management.
8.-Agencies that control price.
9.-Advantages and disadvantages of
(a) Individual marketing.
(b) Corporation marketing.
(c) Co-operative marketing.
10.-Agencies that determine the cost of living.
12.-Old and new methods of production and distribution
compared.










WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

(Dearborn Independent.)

Confusion in the buying and selling of commodities in
the United States continued until May 19, 1828, when Con-
gress acted specifically in the matter. The uncertainty
with respect to coinage largely influenced action at this
time. On the date just mentioned, the troy pound came in-
to use, and from this emerged the avoirdupois pound uhi-
versally used to-day. The troy pound, consisting of a brass
weight, had been obtained in 1827 by Albert Gallatin,
Minister of the United States at London, and it was deliv-
ered by special messenger to the director of the Mint at
Philadelphia. This weight was a duplicate of the imperial
troy pound of Great Britain. The casket and packages con-
taining this troy weight were kept under seal until Presi-
dent John Adams visited Philadelphia and verified the
authenticity of the seal. Formal ceremonies were conducted
on October 12, 1827, when President Adams expressed be-
lief that this brass weight was a duplicate of the pound
weight of Great Britain. The Act of Congress of 1828,
however, only made this pound the standard for coining
money, but this in effect became the fundamental standard
weight for this country. From this was developed the
avoirdupois pound, and whether you buy a pound of meat
or a pound of dirt to-day you are governed by this standard
of weight.
Two years after the troy pound was legalized for coin-
ing money, the Senate authorized a resolution directing the
Secretary of the Treasury to make a comparison of the
weights and measures then in use at principal custom
houses. Discrepancies, to be sure, were found, some of the
weights and measures being too small and others too large.
The Secretary of the Treasury then, in obedience to the
Constitution requiring that duties, imposts, and excises
shall be uniform, assumed the responsibility of standard-
izing weights and measures. First, certain units or definite
representations of quantities were adopted, namely, the
yard of 36 inches, the avoirdupois pound of 7,000 grains,
the gallon of 231 cubic inches, and the bushel of 2,150.42
cubic inches.
The basis for the standard yard was the 36 inches com-
prised between the twenty-seventh and sixty-third inches
of an 82-inch bi'ass bar, which was made for the Coast Sur-











vey of the United States Treasury by a man i:. London.
This bar had been brought to this country in 1813 by F. R.
Hassler, superintendent of the Coast Survey. The 36-inch
space on this bar was assumed to be identical with the
English standard at 62 degrees Fahrenheit, although no
direct comparison had been made. The avoirdupois pound
adopted by the United States Treasury was derived from
the troy pound in the Mint at Philadelphia, in accordance
with the equivalent that one avoirdupois pound equals
700/5760 pounds troy. This is in keeping with standards
in England.
The units of capacity-liquid and dry measures-at that
time, were the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches and the
Winchester bushel of 2,150.42 cubic inches. The wine gal-
lon was introduced in England, in 1707, during the reign
of Queen Anne, but this measure was abandoned in 1824
in favor of the new imperial gallon, containing 10 pounds
of water. This was also applicable to the bushel of 2,150.42
cubic inches. And, by the way, the bushel is the earliest
capacity measurement of which there is a record, a copy
of it being made in obedience to an order of Henry the
Seventh. This, too, has been abolished in England in favor
of the bushel of eight imperial gallons. Thus, strangely
enough, the gallon and bushel in England and America still
vary, those in this country being 17 per cent and 3 per cent
smaller, respectively. R. W. Smith, in charge of weights
and measures administration of the Bureau of Standards,
tells this writer that these differences naturally create con-
fusion in commercial transactions conducted by citizens of
the United States on the Canadian border.
The establishment of fundamental standards of weights
and measures had made such progress as to cause Congress
to pass the following resolution on June 14, 1836: "Re-
solved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the
Secretary of the Treasury be, and he hereby is, directed to
cause a complete set of all weights and measures adopted
as standards and now either made or in progress of manu-
facture for the use of the several custom houses, and for
other purposes, to be delivered to the Governor of each
State in the Union, or such person as he may appoint, for
the use of the States, respectively, to the end that a uni-
form standard of weights and measures may be established
throughout the United States." And, although there is no
law prohibiting such a procedure, the different States have











not varied from these standards of the pound, the yard,
the gallon, and the bushel. "Fortunately," indicates Mr.
Smith of the Bureau of Standards, "there is more or less
uniformity in weights and measures throughout the United
States." Consequently, by 1850, most of the States had
been supplied with sets of these standard weights and
measures. A complete set of these representative units are
inclosed in a glass case and located in the hall on the second
floor of the administration building of the Bureau of
Standards. These units include a brass half-bushel, a yard
qr meter bar, and capacity measures from a gallon to half
a pint.
The most important legislation enacted by Congress,
with reference to weights and measures, was the legalizing
of the metric system in 1866. This, in effect, means that
the Bureau of Standards has accepted the meter and kilo-
gram as fundamental standards. The meter is a bar
made of iron, with a cross-section of 9 by 29 millimeters.
The original meter was constructed by the French com-
mittee of weights and measures; hence, it is frequently
termed "Committee meter." The kilogram, called the
Arago kilogram after a distinguished physicist, consists of
a platinum cylinder with flat bases, the edges being slightly
rounded. There is no mark or stamp on this weight, other
than a faint mark of 0 near the center of the base.
Not only does the Federal Government maintain,
through the Bureau of Standards, jealous supervision of
the standards of weights and measures, but states, cities,
and counties employ sealers of weights and measures. Both
Federal and State governments are now largely concerned
with the administration of laws governing the biblical
principal, namely, "that full measure shall be meted out
to you." That is to say, these governmental ag,-nci-s are
concerned with the problem of seeing thal' boft buyers and
sellers shall receive equitable dealings when trading in
pounds, gallons, bushels, or yards. There are, however,
numerous instances of fraudulent practices in the applica-
tions of the instruments of weights and measures.
Nature is a dependable source in searching for these
standards; something that is unchangeable. And, having
established these units of representatives of the pound,
yard, bushel, and gallon, it is necessary that the Govern-
ment sees to it that these standards are scrupulously ob-
served.











Finally, as you have doubtless noted, the standards of
weights and measures are arbitrarily fixed by Congress.
This same power could, if it so deemed, arbitrarily destroy
these units of value. That is to say, Congress could enact
legislation that would seriously affect the gallon of milk,
the bushel of wheat, the yard of cloth, or the grains that
make up the American dollar.



EXTENSION DIVISION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Wilmon Newell, Director, Gainesville

A. P. Spencer, Vice Director ................Gainesville
E. W. Jenkins, District Agent, Central Florida.Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, District Agent, South and East
Florida .............................. Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, District Agent, North and West
Florida ............................. Gainesville
R. W. Blalock, Boys' Club Agent .............Gainesville
J. M. Scott, Animal Industrialist ............ Gainesville
J. Francis Cooper, Agricultural Editor........ Gainesville
II. L. Brown, Extension Dairyman............Gainesville
E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citrus Pathologist.. .Gainesville
N. R. Mchrhof, Extension Poultryman......... Gainesville
M. R. Ensign, Entomologist and Plant Patholo-
gist ................................. G ainesville
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent (Colored).. Tallahassee

County Name and Address
Alachua-F. L. Craft .......................Gainesville
Baker-R. F. Ward........................ Macclenny
Bay-R. R. Whittington .................. Panama City
Brevard-W. G. Wells. .................... Cocoa
Broward-C. E. Matthews.............. Fort Lauderdale
Columbia-C. A. Fulford...................Lake City
Dade- J. S. Rainey ............................. Miami
Duval-W. L. W:tson ..................... Jacksonville
Duval (Assistant)-J. O. Traxler ...........Jacksonville
Duval (Assistant)-II. B. Landsen ......... Jacksonville
Encambia-Wingate Green ...................Pensacola
Hamilton- J. J. Sechrest ............... ... Jasper











Hendry-E. L. Stallings ...... .............. LaBelle
Hillsboro-R. T. Kelley ......................Plant City
Jcfferson-E. H. IFin.yson ..................Monticello
Lake-Lco H. Wilson..................... ...Tavares
Lee-W. R. Briggs ................. ..... Fort Myers
Leon-G. C. Hodge ........................ Tallahassee
Levy-N. J. Allbritton ........................ Brcnson
Liberty-A. W. Turner ................... .....Bristol
Madison-B. E. Lawton .................. .... Madison
Manatee-Ed L. Ayeis ..................... .Bradenton
Marion- ........................... Ocala
Okaloosa-R. J. Hart....................... Laurel Hill
Okeechobee-H. P. Peterson ................. Okeechobee
Orange-C. D. Kime .......................... Orlando
Osceola-J. R. Gunn ....................... Kissimmee
Palm Beach-S. W. Hiatt .............. West Palm Beach
Pasco-J. A. Shealy ........................ Dade City
Polk-Verne Wilson (Assistant Agent)* ......... Bartow
Putnam-
St. Lucie-A. Warren .................... Fort Pierce
Santa Rosa-John G. Hudson .................... Milton
Seminole-B. F. Whitner, Jr.................... Sanford
St. Johns-Phil S. Taylor ................. St. Augustine
Taylor-R. J. Dorsett ........................... Perry
Volusia-T. A. Brown ......................... DeLand
Wakulla-

Also Assistant Agent, Hillsboro County.


FLORIDA EXTENSION DIVISION

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORKERS

Wilmon Newell, Director, Gainesville

Miss Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstra-
tion Agent ............................. Tallahassee
Miss Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Home
Demonstration Agent.................... Tallahassee
Miss Lucy Belle Steele, District Home Demon-
stration Agent. .................. .. .Tallahassee
Miss Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstra-
tion Agent ............................. Tallahassee











Miss Eva Richardson, Home Dairy and Nutri-
tion Agent .......................... Tallahassee
Miss Isabelle S. Thursby, Food and Marketing
Agent ....... ....................... Tallahassee

County Name and Address
Alachua-Miss Lou C. Hamilton............. Gainesville
Citrus-Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore. .............. Inverness
Collier-Miss Motelle Madole ................. Everglade
Columbia-Mrs. Grace F. Warren ............. Lake City
Dade-Miss Pansy Norton ....................... Miami
DeSoto-Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill ................. Arcadia
Duval-Miss Pearl Laffitte ................. Jacksonville
Duval (Assistant)-Miss Louise Pickens ..... Jacksonville
Escambia-Miss Floresa Sipprell.............. Pensacola
Gadsden-Miss Eloise McGriff .................. Quincy
Hernando-
Hillsboro (East)-Mrs. Blanche G. Shore..... .Plant City
Hillsboro (West)-Mrs. Mary S. Allen .......... Tampa
Holmes-Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle................. Bonifay
Lake-Miss Marie Cox........................Tavares
Lee-Miss Sallie B. Lindsey ................. Fort Myers
Leon-Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum ................. Tallahassee
Manatee-Miss Margaret Cobb ............... Bradenton
Marion-Miss Christine MeFerron ................. Ocala
Nassau-Miss Pearl Jordan................. Fernandina
Okaloosa-Miss Bertha Henry ................. Crestview
Orange-Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor ................. Orlando
Palm Beach-Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan.... West Palm Beach
Pasco-Mrs. Harriette Ticknor ............... Dade City
Pinellas-Miss Luella M. Rous. .............. Clearwater
Polk-Miss Lois Godbey........................Bartow
Polk (Assistant)-Miss Mosel Preston............ Bartow
St. Johns-Miss Anna E. Heist............St. Augustine
Santa Rosa-Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen........... Milton
Sumter-Miss Uarda Briggs ................... Bushnell
Suwannee-Miss Corinne Barker................Live Oak
Taylor-Mrs. Anabel P. Powell................... Perry
Volusia-Miss Orpha Cole ..................... DeLand
Walton-Miss Josephine Nimmo..... .De Funiak Springs











NORTH FLORIDA

Alachua, Baker, Bay, Bradford, Calhoun, Clay, Colum-
bia, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Ilamil-
ton, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, LaFayette, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa, Putnam, Santa Rosa, St.
Johns, Suwannee, Taylor, Union, Walton, Washington,
Wakulla. Area, 14,304,800 acres.

SOUTH FLORIDA

Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Dade, De-
Soto, Flagler, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Hills-
borough, Lake, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Monroe,
Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas,
Polk, Sarasota, Seminole, St. Lucie, Sumter, Volusia.
Area, 20,851,160.

NORTHEAST DIVISION

The Northeast division includes eleven counties with
an area of 4,667,820 acres. It occupies much of the St.
Johns River Valley. It has some of the best lands of
Florida and produces more Irish potatoes to the acre
than any other part of the United States that markets as
early in large quantities.
Jacksonville in this division is the largest city of the
State and occupies a most advantageous position-so
much so that it is called "The Gateway to Florida." It
is a railroad center and shipping port for river and ocean
traffic.

LEADING PRODUCTS OF NORTHWEST AND
NORTHEAST FLORIDA

The following is a list of leading crops and live stock
raised commercially in North Florida:
Cotton, corn, oats, wheat, sugar cane, sorghum cane,
Japanese cane, tobacco, rice, field peas, soy beans, velvet
bean hay, stock pea hay, natal grass hay, kudzu hay,
native grass hay, millet, rye, velvet beans, peanuts, sweet
potatoes, Irish potatoes, cabbage, watermelons, tomatoes,
string beans, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, lima beans, 'egg
plants, cantaloupes, English peas, beets, squashes, pep-












pers, strawberries, pecans, peaches, figs, pears, Japanese
persimmons, grapes, plums, oranges, grapefruit, bananas
(in limited quantity), poultry and eggs, dairy products,
honey, wool, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, mules. This
section has elevators for grain and packing houses for
the beef and pork industries.

WHAT AND WHEN TO PLANT

North and West Florida

Asparagus-January, February.
Brussel Sprouts-January, February, September, Oc-
tober, November.
Beans-March, April, May, August.
Beets-February, March, August, September, October,
November.
Corn-February, March, April.
Cotton-March, April.
Cabbage-January, February.
Cauliflower-January, September, October.
Collards-January, February, March, November.
Cantaloupes-March, April.
Cucumbers-March, April.
Eggplants-February, March, April, May, June, July.
August.
English Peas-February, March, April, September-
October (McNeil pea).
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
tember.
Kale-March, September, October, November.
Kershaw-March, April.
Kohlrabi-March, April, August.
Leek-January, February, March, September, October.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, September.
October, November, December.
Onions-January, February, August, September. On-
tober, November, December.
Okra-March, April, May, August.
Parsley-February, March, April, July.
Parsnips-February, March, April, October, November.
Radishes-January, February, March, April, Septem-
ber, October, November, December.












Rutabagas-February, March, April, August, Septem-
ber, October.
Sugar Cane-March.
Strawberries-January, November, December.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Salsify-February, March, September.
Spinach-February, August, September, October.
Squash-March, April, May, August.
Turnips-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October.
Tomato Plants-March, April, May, June, July, Au-
gust.
Tobacco Plants-April.
Watermelons-April.

Forage Crops

Burr Clover-January, February, March, April, May,
November, December.
Japan Clover-May, June, July, August, September,
October.
Crimson Clover-February, March, April.
Bermuda Grass-March, April, May, June, July, Au-
gust, September, October.
Carpet Grass-March, April.
Velvet Beans-April, May.
Peanuts-April, May, June, July.
Rye and Rape-January, February, March, December.
Vetch-February, March, April.
Soy Beans-April, October, November.
Cow Peas-June, July.
Beggar Weed-April, May.
Kudzu-November, December.

Crops That Can Be Raised on Same Land Same Year

Oats, bunch velvet beans, rape.
Oats, cow peas, rape.
Irish potatoes, corn.
Irish potatoes, and cow peas or velvet beans.

Good Silage Crops


Corn, Napier grass, sorghum, Japanese cane.











Fruits

The leading fruits of this section are the fig, peach,
pear, satsuma, grapes, plum, persimmon, and blueberries.
The Satsuma is a supplement to the round orange, mak-
ing Florida an all-year orange producer, as the two over-
lap in seasons of ripening.
Berries

SThe principal berries cultivated are the strawberry,
blackberry, and dewberries.
Nuts

The counties comprising North Florida produce four-
fifths of the pecans of the State.


CENTRAL DIVISION

The Central Division comprises sixteen counties with
an area of 9,471,560 acres. This division produces the
bulk of the citrus fruit and the garden truck of the State.
Its shores are laved on the east by the Atlantic and on
the west by the Gulf of Mexico, the high land ridge oc-
cupies the center.
It contains the splendid city of Tampa, which vies with
Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston as a Gulf shipping
port. This section produces three-fourths of the phos-
phate mined in the United States.


WHAT AND WHEN TO PLANT IN CENTRAL
FLORIDA

Asparabus-January (seed), February.
Brussels Sprouts-January, February, March, Septem-
ber, October, November.
Beans-February, March, April, May.
Beets-January, February, March, September, October,
November.
Cabbage-January, February, June (seed); July, Au-
gust, September, October, November (seed) ; December.
Cantaloupes-February, March.












Cauliflower-January (seed); March, June (seed);
July, August, September, October.
Cucumbers-February, March.
Collards-January, February, March, April, May, Au-
gust, September, November, December.
Celery-June (seed) ; July (seed) ; September, October.
Cotton-February, March, April.
Corn-January (early) ; February, March, April.
Dasheens-April.
Eggplant-March, April, May, June, July, August.
English Peas-February, March, April-October (Mc-
Neil pea.)
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
tember.
Kohlrabi-March, April, August.
Kale-February, March, August, September, October,
November, December.
Leeks-January; February, March, September, Octo-
ber, December.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, September,
October, November, December.
Mustard-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October, November.
Onion Sets-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October, November.
Oats-January, November, December.
Parsley-February, March, April, June, July.
Parsnips-February, March, April, September. Octo-
ber, November.
Pumpkins-June, July.
Peppers-February (seed); March, April, May. June,
July.
Radishes-January, February, March, April.
Rutabagas-February, March, April, June, July, Oc-
tober.
Rape-January, February, March, August, September,
October, November, December.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Squash-March, April, May, June, July, August, Sep-
tember.
Strawberries-October, November, December.
Spinach-February, August, September, October, No-
vember.
Spanish Onions-January, February, March.










Tomatoes-January (seed) Febriuary, March, April,
May, June, July, August.
Turnips-January, February, March, April, August.
September, November, December.
Watermelons-May, June, July.
Winsor Beans-August.

Forage Crops

Bermuda Grass-March, Aprli, May. June, July, Au-
gust, September, October.
Carpet Grass-March, April.
Velvet Beans--April, May.
Peanuts-April, May. June, July.
Rye and Rape-January, February, March. December.
Vetch-February. March, April.
Soy Beans-April, October, November.
Cowpeas-June, July.
Beggar Weed-April, May.
Kndzu-November. December.
Napier Grass, Meeker Grass. Gorduma Grass.

CROPS THAT CAN BE RAISED ON SAME LAND
SAME YEAR

The shorter the length of time required for a crop to
mature the greater number can be grown on the same
land. The following may be mentioned:
Oats, Bunch Velvet Beans.
Oats, Cowpeas, Rape.
Irish Potatoes, Corn.
Irish Potatoes, Cowpeas. Velvet Beans.
Tomatoes, Lettuce, English Peas.
A number of vegetables may be planted in the fall for
winter shipping and then followed by field crops in spring.
Silage Crops-Corn, Japanese Cane, Napier Grass.


7-Fla. (;











SOUTHERN DIVISION

South Florida presents the truly semi-tropical part of
the United States. It comprises fourteen counties with
an area of 11,376,781 acres. It has one of the largest in-
land fresh water lakes in the world. Miami, "The City
Wonderful," is on the east coast, Ft. Myers on the west
and Key West at the southern extremity of the United
States, in touch with the trade of the southern hemis-
phere.
Citrus fruit growing, trucking and live stock raising
are the principal industries. More than five million acres
of this division was originally under shallow water-the
Everglades. Since drainage and reclamation have proved
it to be of wonderful agricultural possibilities it is being
turned into ranches, field crops and trucking farms.



WHEN AND WHAT TO PLANT IN SOUTH FLORIDA
(Tampa, Orlando, Titusville and Southward)

Beans-January, February, March, April, May, June
(butter) ; August (snap).
Beets-January, February, March, September, October,
November.
Brussels Sprouts-January, February, March, Septem-
ber, October, November.
Cucumbers-February, March, April, August, Septem-
her.
Cabbage-January (seed) ; February, March, June
(seed); July, August, September, October, November,
December.
Corn-February (early); March, April, May.
Carrots-January, February, August, September, Oc-
tober, November.
Cauliflower-January (seed); February, March, Au-
gust (seed) ; September.
Collards-January, February. August, September, Oc-
tober, November, December.
Cantaloupes-February, March, July, August.
Dasheens-April.
Eggplant-January, February, March. April. May,
June, July. August.










English Peas-January, February, August, September,
October.
Irish Potatoes-January, February, March, August,
September.
Kale-January, February, March, August, September,
October, November.
Kohlrabi-January, April, August.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October, November, December.
Mustard-January, March, August, September, Octo-
ber, November, December.
Okra-February, March, September.
Onions-January (seed); February, March, April, Au-
gust, September, October, November, December.
Peppers-February (seed); March, April, May, June,
July, August.
Pumpkins-March, April, May, June, July.
Radishes-January, February, March, September, Oc-
tober, November, December.
Rape-January, February, August, September, Octo-
ber, November, December.
Rutabagas-August, September, October, November.
Squash-February, March, April, May, June, July, Au-
gust, September.
Spinach-January, February, August, September, Oc-
tober, November.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Sugar Cane-January, February.
Strawberries-October, November, December.
Tomatoes-January (seed); March, April, May, June,
July, August.
Turnips-January, August, October, November.
Velvet Beans-March, April.
Winsor Beans-August.
Watermelons-February, March, April, May.

Forage Crops

Para grass, Natal grass, Rhodes grass, Napier grass,
Bermuda grass, carpet grass, Augustine grass, cowpeas,
soy beans, velvet beans, millet, rye. To the above list
may be added a number of native wild grasses.










CROPS THAT CAN BE RAISED ON SAME LAND
SAME YEAR

South Florida grows crops all the time so that the num-
ber of things that can be grown in a year on the same
land depends on the length of time it takes to mature the
crops that are planted.
Silage crops are the same as those of other parts of the
State.




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