Front Cover
 South Florida and Northwest...
 Northeast division
 Leading products of northwest and...
 What to plant and when to...
 Escambia county
 Santa Rosa county
 Okaloosa county
 Walton county
 Holmes county combines specialized...
 Washington county
 Bay county
 Jackson county
 Calhoun county
 Franklin county
 Liberty county
 Gadsden county
 Leon county
 Wakulla county
 Jefferson county
 Taylor county
 Madison county
 Lafayette county and Dixie...
 Suwannee county
 Hamilton county
 Alachua county
 Columbia county
 Union county and Baker county
 Bradford county
 Nassau county
 Clay county
 Putnam county
 St. Johns county
 Duval county
 Important questions answered, much...
 Weather bureau records
 Records of Pensacola station of...

Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 34. No. 1.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00012
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 34. No. 1.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture, State for Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: January 1925
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    South Florida and Northwest division
        Page 4
    Northeast division
        Page 5
    Leading products of northwest and northeast Florida
        Page 6
    What to plant and when to plant
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Escambia county
        Page 15
    Santa Rosa county
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Okaloosa county
        Page 19
    Walton county
        Page 20
    Holmes county combines specialized horiculture, general truck farming
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Washington county
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Bay county
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Jackson county
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Calhoun county
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Franklin county
        Page 35
    Liberty county
        Page 36
    Gadsden county
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Leon county
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Wakulla county
        Page 42
    Jefferson county
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Taylor county
        Page 45
    Madison county
        Page 46
    Lafayette county and Dixie county
        Page 47
    Suwannee county
        Page 48
    Hamilton county
        Page 49
    Alachua county
        Page 50
    Columbia county
        Page 51
    Union county and Baker county
        Page 52
    Bradford county
        Page 53
    Nassau county
        Page 54
    Clay county
        Page 55
    Putnam county
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    St. Johns county
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Duval county
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Important questions answered, much of which applies to North Florida
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Weather bureau records
        Page 74
    Records of Pensacola station of U. S. weather bureau
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
Full Text

North Florida


Commissioner of Agriculture


Volume 35

Number 1

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter under
Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special rate of post-
age provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized September
11, 1918."

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Florida is a unit. All so-called "divisions" are arbi-
trary and used for convenience only in designating differ-
ent parts of the State. There are no natural divisions of
the State marked off by nature, separated by mountain
ranges and widely differing climates.
The common method of separating the State into di-
visions is:
West Florida, North Florida, Northeast Florida, Cen-
tral Florida and South Florida. So far as latitude and
climate is concerned West, North and Northeast Florida
are all the same. North Florida is no further north than
West Florida and Northeast Florida.
Therefore, for convenience in dealing with the products
as influenced by climate and soil conditions we have
divided the State into North Florida and South Florida.
We are issuing a bulletin dealing with each of the two
divisions. They are issued by the Immigration Bureau
of the Department of Agriculture.
The North Florida division contains all north of what
has been designated as Central Florida and South Florida
contains the counties commonly designated as belonging
to each of those sections.
The counties belonging to each section are as follows:


(Beginning on the western border and extending east-
ward to the Atlantic)

Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes,
Washington, Bay, Jackson, Calhoun, Franklin, Liberty,
Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Taylor, Madison, La-
Fayette, Dixie, Suwannee, Hamilton, Alachua, Columbia,
Union, Baker, Bradford, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Putnam,
St. Johns. Area, 14,304,800 acres.


Brevard, Citrus, Flagler, Hernando, Hillsborough,
Lake, Levy, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas,
Polk, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia.
Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, DeSoto, Glades, Har-
dee, Highlands, Hendry, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Okee-
chobee, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Lucie. Area, 20,851,160


Northwest Florida is bounded on the east by the far-
famed Suwannee river, and on the west by the Perdido;
on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the south
by the Gulf.
This part of Florida comprises 20 counties, with a
superficial area of 9,658,440 acres, which is 27 per cent
of the area of the State. There are one and a half mil-
lion acres more than the area of Holland, with 6,000,000
people, who export $1,000,000,000 worth or products an-
nually. Switzerland has an area of 10,224,640 acres and
contains 3,831,000 population. Florida has 1,250,000 peo-
ple, estimated.
This part of Florida has splendid forests and Switzer-
land has practically none. This part of Florida has far
greater possibilities agriculturally than Switzerland. This
section of Florida has immense deposits of fuller's earth,
largest in the western hemisphere-Switzerland has none.
This part of Florida produces a variety of farm products
that Switzerland can not produce, and has better facili-
ties to develop commerce with the whole world.
The northern boundary of this section is south of the
northern boundary of Mexico, south of the sunny skies of
Italy, in the same latitude as the Holy Land.
This section raises 40 per cent of the corn crop of the
State; 88 per cent. of the cotton; 97 per cent. of the
tobacco; amounting to more than $2,000,000. Gadsden
County produces 80 per cent. of the Sumatra variety of
shade tobacco grown in the United States. This same
county produces three-fourth of the fuller's earth pro-
duced in America. The northwest section produces 25 per
cent. of the pecan nuts of the State. It has the largest
grove of Chinese oil nut trees in the United States with

the exception of California-in Leon County. Leon also
leads in dairying, and has one of the largest co-operative
creameries in the State.
This section has the largest forest of Tumion Taxifolium
or "Gopher Wood" trees in America, in Liberty County.
It has the largest government forest reserve south of the
Apalachian range, in Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Walton
Counties. It has two State Parks-Natural Bridge in
Leon, and St. Joe in Calhoun County. In Leon County
are situated the Capitol, Supreme Court, Florida State
College for Women, and the A. & M. College (colored.)
The asylum for the insane is at Chattahoochee in Gads-
den County. The Industrial School for Boys is located in
Marianna, Jackson County.
This section produces 33 per cent. of the naval stores
of the State, and 80 per cent. of the oysters-the most of
which come from Franklin County.
At Pensacola, Escambia County, is found the finest
harbor south of Newport News.


.The Northeast division includes eleven counties with
an area of 4,667,820 acres. It occupies much of the St.
Johns River Valley. It has some of the best lands of
Florida and produces more Irish potatoes to the acre
than any other part of the United States that markets as
early in large quantities.
Jacksonville in this division is the largest city of the
State and occupies a most advantageous position-so
much so that it is called "The Gateway to Florida." It
is a railroad center and shipping port for river and ocean


The following is a list of leading crops and live stock
raised commercially in North Florida:
Cotton, corn, oats, wheat, sugar cane, sorghum cane,
Japanese cane, tobacco, rice, field peas, soy beans, velvet
bean hay, stock pea hay, natal grass hay, kudzu hay,
native grass hay, millet, rye, velvet beans, peanuts, sweet
potatoes, Irish potatoes, cabbage, watermelons, tomatoes,
string beans, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, lima beans, egg
plants, canteloupes, English peas, beets, squashes, pep-
pers, strawberries, pecans, peaches, figs, pears, Japanese
persimmons, grapes, plums, oranges, grapefruit, bananas
(in limited quantity), poultry and eggs, dairy products,
honey, wool, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, mules. This
section has elevators for grain and packing houses for
the beef and pork industries.


North and West Florida

Asparagus-January, February.
Brussel Sprouts-January, February, September, Oc-
tober, November.
Beans-March, April, May, August.
Beets-February, March, August, September, October,
Corn-February, March, April.
Cotton-March, April.
Cabbage-January, February.
Cauliflower-January, September, October.
Collards-January, February, March, November.
Cantaloupes-March, April.
Cucumbers-March, April.
Eggplants-February, March, April, May, June, July,
English Peas-February, March, April, September-
October (McNeil pea).
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
Kale-March, September, October, November.


The following is a list of leading crops and live stock
raised commercially in North Florida:
Cotton, corn, oats, wheat, sugar cane, sorghum cane,
Japanese cane, tobacco, rice, field peas, soy beans, velvet
bean hay, stock pea hay, natal grass hay, kudzu hay,
native grass hay, millet, rye, velvet beans, peanuts, sweet
potatoes, Irish potatoes, cabbage, watermelons, tomatoes,
string beans, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, lima beans, egg
plants, canteloupes, English peas, beets, squashes, pep-
pers, strawberries, pecans, peaches, figs, pears, Japanese
persimmons, grapes, plums, oranges, grapefruit, bananas
(in limited quantity), poultry and eggs, dairy products,
honey, wool, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, mules. This
section has elevators for grain and packing houses for
the beef and pork industries.


North and West Florida

Asparagus-January, February.
Brussel Sprouts-January, February, September, Oc-
tober, November.
Beans-March, April, May, August.
Beets-February, March, August, September, October,
Corn-February, March, April.
Cotton-March, April.
Cabbage-January, February.
Cauliflower-January, September, October.
Collards-January, February, March, November.
Cantaloupes-March, April.
Cucumbers-March, April.
Eggplants-February, March, April, May, June, July,
English Peas-February, March, April, September-
October (McNeil pea).
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
Kale-March, September, October, November.

Kershaw-March, April.
Kohlrabi-March, April, August.
Leek-January, February, March, September, October.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, September.
October, November, December.
Onions-January, February, August, September. On-
tober, November, December.
Okra-March, April, May, August.
Parsley-February, March, April, July.
Parsnips-February, March, April, October, November.
Radishes-January, February, March, April, Septem-
ber, October, November, December.
Rutabagas-February, March, April, August, Septem-
ber, October.
Sugar Cane-March.
Strawberries-January, November, December.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Salsify-February, March, September.
Spinach-February, August, September, October.
Squash-March, April, May, August.
Turnips-January,. February, March, April, August,
September, October.
Tomato Plants-March, April, May, June, July, Au-
Tobacco Plants-April.

Forage Crops

Burr Clover-January, February, March, April, May,
November, December.
Japan Clover-May, June, July, August, September,
Crimson Clover-February, March, April.
Bermuda Grass-March, April, May, June, July, Au-
gust, September, October.
Carpet Grass-March, April.
Velvet Beans-April, May.
Peanuts-April, May, June, July.
Rye and Rape-January, February, March, December.
Vetch-February, March, April.
Soy Beans-April, October, November.
Cow Peas-June, July.
Beggar Weed-April, May.
Kudzu-November, December.

Crops That Can Be Raised on Same Land Same Year

Oats, bunch velvet beans, rape.
Oats, cow peas, rape.
Irish potatoes, corn.
Irish potatoes, and cow peas or velvet beans.

Good Silage Crops

Corn, Napier grass, sorghum, Japanese cane.


The leading fruits of this section are the fig, peach,
pear, satsuma, grapes, plum, persimmon, and blueberries.
The Satsuma is a supplement to the round orange, mak-
ing Florida an all-year orange producer, as the two over-
lap in seasons of ripening.


The principal berries cultivated are the strawberry,
blackberry, and dewberries.


The counties comprising North Florida produce four-
fifths of the pecans of the State.


West Florida contains 4,947,400 acres.
It has in actual cultivation 380,000 acres.
It has in farms 856,550 acres.
This leaves 4,090,850 acres not in farms.
Much of the lands not in farms yields heavily in lum-
ber and naval stores.
The agricultural interests of West Flordia are just
coming into its own. This section of the State is adapted
to general farming and to highly specialized fruit and
vegetable crops. It is ideally adapted to the growing
of Satsumas-it is indeed "Satsumaland."

Satsumas, Plums, Grapes
It has no fewer than a half million acres suitable for
the growing of Satsumas. It is a splendid plum growing
section. By growing the Excelsior and other varieties
which are bred from crosses of commercial plums with
the native wild plum they are practically immune from
diseases which beset the Eastern plum.
It is a grand grape country. By growing those varie-
ties which have been developed by Munson and Zimmer-
man, which are immune from the common grape diseases
the grape can be made one of the most lucrative crops of
the State.
One hundred thousand acres planted to Satsumas, at
maturity, should yield to these nine counties $100,000,000
annually. Suppose they yield half this amount, it would
mean a stream of $50,000,000 poured into the pockets of
the growers of this fruit alone every year.

Would Yield Millions
An equal area in plums and grapes would yield other
millions, which would make West Florida one of the
richest sections per capital in the whole country. Blue-
berries come in for a great development in these coun-
ties and the possibilities of this fruit have already been
fully demonstrated in Walton and other counties.
West Florida can raise vegetables of a variety that out-
class many States where vegetables growing is one of the
great vegetables assets. All the staple crops are raised,
which makes it a self-dependent and self-supporting agri-
cultural section. No need for money to leave here for
food grown in other sections.

Some Leading Crops
Some of the leading crops are cotton, corn, oats, wheat.
sugar cane, sorghum, Japanese cane, tobacco, rice, field
peas, soy beans, velvet beans, hay, kudzu, millet, rye, vel-
vet beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, cab-
bage, watermelons, tomatoes, string beans, cucumbers,
onions, lettuce, lima beans, egg plants, cantaloupes, Eng-
lish peas, beets, squashes, peppers, strawberries, pecans,
peaches, pears, Japanese persimmons, satsumas, plums,
grapes, poultry, eggs, milk, butter, wool, hogs, cattle,
2-N. Fla.

There is no better place to raise fowls. The country is
adapted to them and the market is not far away. The
State does not produce poultry and eggs enough to begin
to supply itself. Eggs are shipped into Florida every
winter from Minnesota and other extreme northern

Water Power Utilization

This section possess the best water power sites in the
whole State and they are just beginning to be utilized.
Marianna already has her electric lights and electric
power furnished by a plant six miles out on Dry Creek.
If she can do that'from a "Dry" Creek what can you
do with the numerous wet creeks and rivers of this sec-
tion ? There is also an ice factory not far from Marianna,
on another stream, that turns out solid blocks at 25 cents
per hundred. Every town in West Florida ought to have
hydro-electric power-and will some day-the cheapest
power in the world. You have the timber to furnish fac-
tories which should be run by hydro-electric power.
Such factories could compete with any factories in the
country. There are sites being selected and capital get-
ting ready for some of those forward-looking projects.
West Florida is on the map-and on the map of Florida.
She is destined to be on the map of North America as a
place of mark on the lips of millions.



"The King; The King! The regal roamer of the deep.
From out the deep, mysterious submarine gardens of the
gulf stream each spring when nature, all the world
around, above and below, calls to its living animal cells
to increase their kind until balanced co-ordination, comes
the king of fish in mighty rushing schools upon the Gulf
coast of Florida, and as the anglers push forth in their
fleet boats, rod and reel eagerly adjusted for the fray,
the home fires are lighted for the feast. From Key West
to Pensacola, poet and prevaricator vie each with the

other in heralding the great season of the king fish of
Florida waters. Where he cometh and where he goeth
no man knoweth, but while he is with us the center of
the stage is his and happiness and plenty are in the land.
Presently, as mysteriously as he came, the king fish will
have gone, and no man, speaking with authority, can tell
the story of his pilgrimage, being merely able to aiffrm
that, true to the hour of his tryst with Florida's West
Coast waters, he will once more approach and be received
as royally as any king could wish."

Tarpon Plentiful at Pensacola

Nowhere in all the world is this regal denizen of the
deep found in greater numbers or in easier access than
right here at Pensacola, which, because of its geogra-
phical location, practically midway of the spring, sum-
mer and early autumn feeding ground of the king fish,
which in Gulf waters extends from the Florida capes on
the south and east, to the Mexican coast on the south and
west, is vouchsafed a longer Tarpon season, year after
year, than any other point included in the semi-annual
itinerary of this wonderful fish. And the great attrac-
tion of Pensacola for the enjoyment of the sport of an-
gling for the Silver King lies chiefly in the fact that as
yet, the sport isn't overdone here. Indeed, while the fish
have been known here all the while, comparatively little
indulgence in the sport of angling for it has been had
here until within the past few years. This, because of
the profligate plentitude of other species of fish here-
abouts to satisfy the angling ambitions of local Nimrods,
plus the fact that Pensacola has never heretofore been
exploited to the world at large as the angled's paradise
which it really is.

Arrives in Early May

Nevertheless, all of the waters adjacent to Pensacola
are included in the itinerary of the king fish as he passes
on his pilgrimage in the springtime, from whence no man
knoweth, along the Gulf coast from Key West to the Mex-
ican coast, and thence back again in autumn to disappear
at Key West, until next springtide. And his appearance
is made with clock-like precision, both in spring and
autumn. Early May is the time of his arrival and here

at Pensacola, as suggested above, because of its geogra-
phical location, midway of the semi-annual itinerary,
never a day passes but Tarpon are seen and may be taken
in the waters of Pensacola Bay and its tributaries during
the season of the fish's pilgrimage through the Gulf.

Most Plentiful in June and July

During the months of June and July there are thou-
sands on thousands of the fish here; aye tens of thousands
of them, and in certain localities within an hour's motor
boat ride of the city docks it is no uncommon sight to see
a score, sometimes more of them, leaping into the air
while feeding upon the smaller fish. And what a thrill
is such an experience to one who loves the sport of

Both Fresh and Salt Water Fishing Available

Geographically situated with peculiar advantages as
to both salt water and fresh water fishing, there is no
place in the country where both of these alluring sports
can be enjoyed with less effort or inconvenience. Nor,
because of this fact, is it necessary that there should ever
be a "closed season" on fishing here. Spring and sum-
mer, autumn and winter, it matters not what the season,
there is always the very best class of sport for the an-
gler at and near Pensacola. And better still, no season
is better than another season for the sport. Of course
that isn't to say that angling for all of the species of
fresh water fish is as good here in late autumn and winter
as it is in spring, early summer and autumn; nor that
fishing for the many species of salt water fish which are
indigenous to the waters of this locality, is as good
throughout the spring and summer as it is in autumn
and winter, and vice versa. But it is to say, and it will
bear repeating, that there is never a season of the cycle
when angling isn't of the very highest class here, for the
species of fish which are in season at the period.

Fresh Water Fishing in Spring and Autumn

To illustrate: Fresh water angling, that is to say for
bass and trout and a score of species of bream and perch,
which are indigenous to the fresh water streams and

lakes of this section, is at its best in early spring and in
autumn, and yet throughout the summer season this class
of angling is indulged in quite extensively; and through-
out the winter months fishing for bass is never entirely
abandoned by some anglers, notwithstanding its com-
parative precariousness and uncertainty.

Salt Water Species Most Numerous

Salt water fishing, however, for the edible species par-
ticularly, is a much different proposition. And by a great
number of anglers this sport is regarded with much
greater favor than the quest of the fresh water species.
Certainly there are a greater number of species of salt
water fish than fresh, therefore the variety of the sport
of salt water fishing is much greater and has a greater
number of devotees the year through.

Speckled Trout, or Squeatague

Without doubt, however, angling for the speckled sea
trout, or squeateague; the redfish, or channel bass; the
bluefish, the Spanish mackerel and the sheephead are the
most indulged in sports hereabout, for the reason that
these species are plentiful in local waters at one season
or the other the year through. And then, too, all of these
fish are classed as game species.

Non-Edible Species, Besides Tarpon

In the line of big fish angling-that is to say the non-
edible game fish-there is no locality anywhere which
could possibly excel the environs of Pensacola. And there
is such a wide range of species to fish for. As stated
above, as unfailing as the change of the seasons, there
are two runs of Tarpon passing here every year-the
spring and autumn runs, which practically overlap one
another here. Then there is the king mackerel, the bari-
couda, the ling, the amberjack, the covilla or yellowtail,
and during the months of July and August, there is the
giant ray, or devilfish, to entertain the most ambitious
as well as discriminating angler to be found in the world.
Pensacola is indeed an angler's paradise!

The Norfork Works-Naval Stores-Pensacola


A cres ................................... .............. ....... ..... ................. 420,480
Acres reported in farms....................... ..................... 40,017
Acres not reported in farms............................................. 380,463
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................... 17,296
Escambia County is the most western county in Florida,
being bounded on the west and north by Alabama. The
county seat and principal city is Pensacola, which has one
of the finest ports on the Gulf Coast. Escambia County
has won first prizes at the Florida State Fair and other
fairs, and offers splendid opportunities for general agri-
culture, horticulture, dairying, and manufacturing indus-
tries. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad and the Gulf,
Florida & Alabama Railroad serve Pensacola. The ship-
ping is extensive, and reaches practically all ports of the
world. Eseambia, voted two million dollars for road im-
provement, and a portion of this money will be used with
State and Federal aid to build a splendid bridge across
Escambia River. The plans have been approved by the
Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, and the State Road
Department will proceed with the work with as little de-
lay as possible. The highway leading to the splendid
beaches near Pensacola will be hard-surfaced, as well as
all main and some lateral roads, the old Spanish Trail
being one of the first to be completed through the county
east and west. There is a tourist camping ground near
Pensacola. Pensacola is a modern city, with fine hotel,
trolley lines, numerous railroad wharves, and beautiful
parks. There is fine fishing, hunting, and surf bathing
within easy reach of the city, by automobile-'and boat.
The Escambia County Fair is an annual event of much
interest, showing the fine products and fruit grown in
this favored section. The agricultural agents of the
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company give special
attention to the counties along their route, from New
Orleans and Mobile to Pensacola and River Junction, at
which latter point the L. & N. connects with the Sea-
board Air Line Railway and the Atlantic Coast Line
Railway, for points east and northeast, and also the
Apalachicola Northern Railway leading to the Gulf Coast
at Port St. Joe and Apalachicola. Escambia county is now
devoting attention to Satsuma orange groves, and within

Acres ...................................................__....................... 656,640
Acres reported in farms ................... ... ............................ 61,352
Acres not reported in farms..................................... ........ 595,288
Acres reported in actual cultivation.............................. 27,014
Santa Rosa County is on the east side of Escambia Bay,
and is plentifully supplied with navigable waterways,
numerous creeks and small bays. The Blackwater and
Yellow Rivers are the larger streams. Milton, the county
seat, is the largest city, and is a market for lumber and
naval stores. For many years the Satsuma orange has
been grown here profitably, and other citrus fruit is
grown. There are a number of large stock farms, and
some kind of a crop can be grown every month in the
year. Diversified farming is taking the place of one-crop
methods, to the advantage of local farmers. Milton is on
the main line of the P. & A. Division of the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad, and is also served by the F. & A. Rail-
way. A national reserve forest is in Santa Rosa County.
Hunting and fishing and bathing are excellent in this
section. At Bagdad are large sawmills. Highway im-
provement has begun and a brick road extending east-
ward for six miles or more has been constructed and is a
part of the Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1. The
State Road Department in co-operation with the counties
of Santa Rosa and Escambia will build a fine bridge
across Escambia Bay, the plans having received final ap-
proval of the Bureau of Public Roads, Washington.
There is a ferry at historic Floridatown, where General
Jackson embarked to go to Pensacola; a good schedule
is maintained for the convenience of motor tourists.
While there is no regular motor camp at Milton, there
are several groves where tourists may camp. There are
more sheep in Santa Rosa County than in any county in
Florida, and many cattle and hogs. The dairy industry
is growing, and fruit culture is receiving special atten-
tion, particularly the Satsuma orange and blueberries.
Now that the timber is almost gone and much of the
land is being fenced and put into cultivation, the question
aries as to the possibilities of success with live stock if
handled in the same way as in done in older agricultural
The two essentials of success with live stock are water
and feed.


The man beginning the raising of cattle can, by fencing
cut over lands and grazing them closely, soon have pas-
tures of large carrying capacity which will furnish good
grazing for ten months of the year. Carpet grass and
Lespedeza, or Japan Clover, are both volunteer grasses
in all parts of Santa Rosa county and both flourish under
close grazing, and when fire is kept out, soon covers all
lowlands and gradually spreads to the higher lands. Both
these grasses grow to better advantage on lands which
have grown cultivated crops for two or three years and
when supplemented with Bermuda and Burr Clover make
the best permanent pasture for this section.
Under present conditions the most practical plan for
cattle raising is to use pure bred sires on the native cows.
The native cows are cheap and hardy and the first cross
produces a thrifty and growth animal.


Pork production in Santa Rosa county has not received
the attention it deserves. With the many crops suitable
to the production of pork which make big yields, pork
can be produced very cheaply. See tabulation for graz-
ing crops under agriculture. Peanuts, Soy Beans and
Velvet Beans are rich in protein and these fed in connec-
tion with Sweet Potatoes, Chufas, Artichokes and a small
amount of corn supplemented with grazing crops, will
produce pork cheaper than it can be produced in the big
corn growing states. In addition to this the winters are
mild, but little shelter is needed and each sow will easily
raise two litters a year.
The Alabama Experiment Station found that when corn
alone was fed it cost $7.63 to produce one hundred pounds
of pork, as compared with $1.85 when the corn was sup-
plemented with peanut pasture. In a second experiment
the cost per hundred pounds on corn alone was $7.00
against $2.22 with the addition of peanut pasture. In
another experiment it was found that on an acre of land
capable of producing fifteen to twenty bushels of corn,
the peanut fed as a soiling crop in conjunction with
corn was equal in feeding value of 59.9 bushels of corn.


There are more sheep in Santa Rosa County than any
other county in Florida and they are exceptionally free
from disease of all kinds, and when properly cared for
at and after lambing time, will produce under range con-
ditions an increase of from 75 to 100 per cent. Small
flocks well cared for would be profitable.
Santa Rosa county has been one of the foremost sheep
ranches of the South for the past fifty years.- Approxi-
mately 100,000 pounds of wool are shipped from Santa
Rosa County every year.
Cattle, hogs and sheep in Santa Rosa county are per-
haps freer from disease of all kinds than any other stock
raising section in the country.

Fruit and Nut Growing

Such fruits as Peaches, Pears, Plums, Figs, Mulberries,
Grapes, Scuppernongs, all varieties of bunch grapes,
Strawberries, Blueberries, Blackberries, Dewberries,
Huckleberries with proper attention make very profitable
Our soils are peculiarly adapted to the successful and
profitable production of such hardy Citrus fruits as the
Satsuma Orange, Grapefruit, Kumquat and Lemon. The
growing of these Citrus fruits is rapidly becoming a most
profitable industry in this section.
It is conceded that Santa Rosa county, Florida, was
the pioneer in the successful production of the Paper
Shell Pecan in the United States. All types of our soil
will grow successfully this most delicious and profitable
of all nuts.
Fish and Game

Not the least of the many attractions of this section
are the splendid opportunities offered for fishing and
hunting. The streams, lakes ,bays and bayous of Santa
Rosa county are abundantly stocked with a great variety
of fresh and salt water fish. These are easily caught at
any season of the year, and in addition to furnishing
splendid sport to the fisherman adds an important factor
to the industrial production of the county, being largely
used locally, while large quantities are shipped to other
markets. In addition to the fish proper our salt water

courses are well stocked with oysters, large quantities
of which are gathered and marketed.
Game is still plentiful in Santa Rosa county. Although
disappearing from the more thickly settled portions, still
quail, doves, squirrels, foxes, raccoon, oppossum, turkeys,
rabbits and ducks are plentiful while deer and bear are
often killed by the skilled hunter.


A cres ....................................... ................................ 607,360
A cres reported in farm s......................... ............................... 73,369
Acres not reported in farms ............ ........................ 533,991
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................. 28,144

Okaloosa County is the second county east of Pensacola,
on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Crestview, the
county seat, is famous as the blueberry center. The Old
Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1-passes through Crest-
view, and highways lead to Camp Walton and Valparaiso,
two delightful coast resorts on Choctawhatchee Bay, on
the Gulf Coast, reached by automobile from Crestview,
via the Government Road. Laurel Hill, Baker and Holts
are other smaller towns in Okaloosa County. Blackwater,
Yellow River and Shoal River, with numerous creeks and
springs, afford plenty of water for livestock. Agriculture,
live-stock, lumber, naval stores, turpentining, and blue-
berry culture are the chief industries. The Florida
National Forest, of about 270,000 acres, surrounds the
city of Valparaiso and provides a perpetual hunting and
fishing reservation for the sportsman. The Bay is a land-
locked harbor, and Santa Rosa Sound connects this sec-
tion with Pensacola Bay. There is boat service, carrying
mail and a small number of passengers at a trip, between
Pensacola and Valparaiso, and later on it is expected that
there can be daily boat service. There is plenty of good
game and fishing in this section. Diversified agriculture
is replacing the naval stores industry. Great develop-,
ments are being planned for this section, and all of
North Florida. The railroads are giving cooperation
through their agricultural agents, who visit the territory
frequently, encouraging the farmers and assisting in
finding markets and preparing exhibits for local fairs

and the State Fair, and also the South Florida Fair, at
Tampa, where many of the northern counties make fine


A cres ..................................................................... ................. .. 677,120
Acres reported in farm s........................................... 24,787
Acres not reported in farms .. ................................ ..... 652,333
Acres reported in actual cultivation.......................... 20,000

Walton County is one of the best general agricultural
counties in northwestern Florida. The main line of the
Louisville & Nashville railroad traverses the county from
west to east, furnishing good transportation from prac-
tically every section of the county. DeFuniak Springs,
is the county seat.
Naturally, the soil readily responds to every claim of
agriculture. It produces corn, cane, cabbage, potatoes,
sweet potatoes, velvet beans, tomatoes, peaches, pears,
etc., in fact about everything that can be grown any-
where, can be grown in Walton County. One of our
farmers made 435 bushels of sweet potatoes per acre;
another 100 bushels of corn per acre; another 600 gallons
of ribbon cane syrup per acre, and we have one ten acres
growing 51 varieties of fruit. We have Satsuma orange
trees producing 2,000 oranges per tree. They bring 40
cents a dozen, and you plant 70 trees per acre. You can
readily see what an acre in Walton means. We have pear
trees bearing 25 to 50 bushels per tree. You plant 100
of these trees per acre.
This county is headquarters for grape growing. We
have one of the best vineyards in the south. It is the
home of the Ellen Scott, the Carmen and the Amalaga.
the three famous grapes.
It is also the home of the June blueberry. This county
is the mother of the first orchard ever produced in the
This orchard has trees 32 years old making 40 quarts
to the tree. The tree nor fruit seems to be subject to any
disease as yet, hence they have never been sprayed. This
fruit sells from 20 to 50 cents per quart and you plant 300
trees per acre. This gives you another peep into what

another acre in Walton will do. In 32 years in these or-
chards there has never been a crop failure, nor one 5c
spent for spraying.
Our county is also specially adapted to live stock. Hog
raising is on the list with all our progressive farmers. A
great hog man from Indiana said that Walton county was
second to none in hog raising. Our native razor back
hogs are leaving our county just as fast as they can get
dressed, and the purebreeds are taking their places. The
climate demands but little protection, and grazing crops
growing every day makes this an ideal hog county. It
takes but little to set his table, and it is all easily grown
and prepared for him.
The dairy is another great asset to this county; because
of its adaptability to the growing of forage and grain
crops, it ranks with the first for dairying. Napier grass,
Japanese cane, Carpet grass, Bermuda grass, are all suc-
cessfully grown here.
There is a Government forest reserve of 270,000 acres
in this section, providing fine hunting for sportsmen. The
Choctawhatchee river is navigable for many miles. Gen-
eral farming and fruit culture are supplanting naval
stores, as the supply of pine diminishes. The cut-over
lands offer splendid ranges for cattle. The all-year cli-
mate enables the farmer to have some kind of crop grow-
ing every month, if desired.


Vast Areas Uncleared Cut-Over Land Form Greatest
Compact Body of Good Farm Lands in State-
Bonifay is Progressive
A cres ........................ ....... ..................... ......... ........... 293,120
Acres reported in farms......................... ........................ 190,367
Acres not reported in farms........................ ......... 120,753
Acres reported in actual cultivation ..................... 52,143
By William A. Sessoms.

Holmes County is "The Heart of the Highlands of West
Florida;" it is an epitome of all that is best in Satsuma-
land. Less than 15 per cent. of its 435 square miles is

Road Building in Florida

under fence, and large portions of this are not yet under
cultivation. Holmes county is noted for the high per
cent of its good general farm lands. Scarcely an acre
that has not good air and water drainage, or easy facili-
ties for drainage. Its good loam soil, with a good sandy
clay subsoil, is readily brought to a high degree of pro-
duction. Some excellent records have been made: 100
bushels of corn to the acre, 56 bushels of oats, over 700
gallons of syrup, and similar records in other farm crops.
Holmes county's vast stretches of uncleared high pine
cut-over land constitute the greatest compact body of
undeveloped good general farm lands in the state, or in
the United States, for that matter.

General Farming

Development has been along the line of diversified
farming and stock raising. A middle of the road course
has been pursued in planting cotton. As a result of these
things neither boll weevil nor business depression has so
seriously affected the farmers of this county. Few farm-
ers have quit the farm and forced sales are practically
unknown. We are sure that this course will be wisely
followed in the future. We have soils and sites that can-
not be excelled for Satsumas and pecans, and all other
fruits adapted to West Florida. Large developments are
being carried out along all these lines, but back of it all
is the strong support of a diversified agriculture that will
give us the only possible protection against uncertainties
that attend specialty production anywhere, in any line.

The Population

The splendid financial conditions are partly due to the
character of the population. A large proportion own and
operate their own farms. Less than ten per cent are col-
ored and practically all of these are engaged on public
works, showing no tendency to occupy farms or move
into the country. The sturdy native American stock of
English and Scotch blood prevails. The people are a
country's best resource. These people, as one would
naturally expect, are devoted to religion and education.
The county high school, with its Smith-Hughes agricul-
tural department, is located at Bonifay. It offers the full
twelve years public school course and ranks high in our

educational system. Bonifay, the county seat, is a thriv-
ing little city on the L. & N. railroad and is easily reached
from all parts of the county over a system of sand clay
roads, built from the best of all road-making material
obtained right along the roadway, at the small cost of
$800 per mile, so that the county is not heavily taxed for
their construction. The Old Spanish Trail, one of Amer-
ica's great transcontinental routes passes through our
county, and is fast becoming a great artery of automobile
commerce and travel.

Bonifay is a good growing town of about 1,500 popu-
lation. It has grown right on through post-war depres-
sions and is now catching step with the foremost in the
present march of progress. Bonifay is neat and home-
like. It has a young growing look that makes you step a
little livelier. It has good churches, a most excellent
school, attractive and up-to-date business houses, well-
kept houses and lawns, a good public library, the finest
of deep well city water, and a high tension hydro-electric
line. Best of all Bonifay has an efficient city govern-
ment. All these advantages have been attained and main-
tained on a levy of 25 mills on a 50 per cent valuation
basis. Who has beaten that record? Bonifay needs and
intends to have some industries that will fit into our
development. The hydro-electric power available will
make this an advantageous place for such. While at pre-
sent the power is limited, it will soon be greatly increased
to meet all possible needs.

The Poultry Business

With improved markets for poultry and eggs, there is
growing up a keener interest in poultry husbandry. With
the fine air and water drainage, the excellent soil texture,
and fertility to raise an abundance of home-grown feed,
there is every facility to insure success in poultry rais-
ing. In a community of croppers and tenant farmers this
industry does not thrive; it is quite at home in a com-
munity of small farmers, living right at home. Poultry
will certainly become a great asset to our county when
its lands are settled and quantity production is possible.
It will be one of a very few great poultry sections.

The Horticultural Prospect

Holmes county is in the very heart of Satsuma land.
Her rolling lands afford orchard sites for all kinds of
fruits, berries and nuts. Satsumas and pecans are already
being planted on a large scale. Of the Satsuma stock
available for planting in the next two years Holmes
county is already assured of her full share. Every small
farm will afford facilities for several lines of horticulture
or trucking, as is shown by present development. Here
again the background of diversified general farming
gives stability to the specialized industry. The man who
farms his own acres can plant and care for a small
orchard with little added expense, and can subsist from
his farm while his trees come to bearing. He is safe
against the uncertainties of season and the market.

Holmes County Homes

The best of all is that Holmes county is high, well
drained, healthful and pleasant to live in. Good water is
abundant. Mosquitoes are not troublesome. A splendid
people welcome newcomers and make them feel at home.


A cres ........................ .......... ............ ............ ....... 469,320
A cres reported in farm s............ ............ ........................... 94,014
Acres not reported in farms ........................... 375,306
Acres reported in actual cultivation........................... 32,960

Washington County is one of the best general agricul-
tural and livestock counties in Northern Florida. Vernon
is the county seat. At Chipley is a large packing plant
that furnishes an all-year market for cattle, hogs and
poultry. Chipley is the largest town in the county,
situated on the Louisville & Nashville Raliway and the
Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1; it is a progressive
community and gives support to the farmers, through
the packing plant and the banks, and also provides a
home market for much produce. Trucking crops are
grown, and a considerable acreage is now being planted
to Satsuma oranges. The farming season here is twelve
: -N. aln,

Country Scene in Washington County

months, if desired; but usually the farmers let the soil
recuperate for a month or two, so as to require less fer-
tilizer. Near Chipley are several beauty spots. On the
Holmes river, near Vernon, the wonderful sink known
as "Falling Water," and the cave and Natural Bridge
are objects of interest. Washington county has taken
many prizes at fairs for general farm crops, honey,
syrup, and various fruits, and corn and forage crops.
Farmers are beginning to give more attention to building
good pastures, and they grow most of the feed on the
farm. Dairying is also developing in this county. Road
development is being pushed as rapidly as possible. Land
values are excellent, but the price is still reasonable. All
through-tourist travel over the Old Spanish Trail passes
through Chipley, and the developed farms are an interest-
ing sight along the highways of the county. The pro-
gressive business men of (hipley, realizing the value of
payrolls to a town, are giving every encouragement to
new industries; one of them, the shoe factory, furnishes
a good market for hides produced in the county, and
also for skins and furs. It also has a packing house for
meats. Pecans, grapes, figs, oranges, grapefruit and small
fruits will grow in this section. The farmer can have
practically anything that will grow in Florida.
Chipley is within easy distance of the gulf, making it
pleasant and convenient to spend week-ends within sight
and sound of the booming surf. So many families are in
the habit of doing this that a little summer resort, Sea
Grove, has come into being since the last "history" was
written. At Sea Grove the surf bathing and salt water
fishing are fine, and the price of an acre or two of land
on which to build a camp is so small as to be within the
reach of the most modest means. Judge Ira L. Hutchin-
son, who, along with several other gentlemen, developed
Sea Grove, and with whom it is still a big pet, says that
while lots can be bought for almost nothing, once they
are acquired, they are considered the most valuable pos-
sessions of the purchaser, who quickly forms a habit for
the sea breezes that sweep the white beach, the balmy
nights alight with the liquid splendor of the moon and
the song of the mocking bird which is just the kind of
music for such a stage setting.
Washington county has many beautiful lakes within
its borders-probably more than any other county in
West Florida. Most of these lakes lie in the southern

half, although several of extensive areas lie in the north-
ern half in the western part of the county.
There is probably no prettier body of water in the
state than Big Blue Lake, in the extreme southern part
of Washington county. It is surrounded by high hills
and white sand beaches, and the deep blue fresh water
is as clear as a crystal. It is considerably larger than
Court Martial Lake, just one mile over in Bay county,
also a lake of beautiful shore lines.
There are hundreds of fresh water lakes in Southern
Washington and Northern Bay counties which some day
will be made beautiful home sites, as has been done in
the famous Crooked Lake section in Polk county, where
the land in its native state was almost an exact dupli-
cate of Washington county's lake section.

The Glen St. Mary Nurseries Have a Branch in Washing-
ton County

That company acquired 560 acres of land from the
Dekle Land Company, of Chipley, and the work of clear-
ing it for the placement of their general nursery stocks
has already been commenced. It is thus that the call for
Satsuma plants is to be answered.
Persons living without the boundaries of Florida are
likely to miss the full significance of the coming of this
nursery to Chipley. It means that Dr. H. H. Hume, the
greatest, perhaps, of all the authorities on the citrus tree,
after making a careful examination of Washington and
adjoining counties, when he inspected several fine young
groves just coming into bearing, has concluded that here
is to be found citrus land of the finest kind. The stamp
of approval of such a man as the President of the Glen
St. Mary Nurseries Co., ends forever the discussion as to
whether the Satsuma can be grown profitably here. The
Glen St. Mary Nurseries Co. does the largest general
nursery business in America, and probably the largest
in the world. The branch at Chipley will carry not only
Satsuma plants, but will supply plum, pecan, sand pear,
grapes, Japanese persimmon and all other general nurs-
ery fruit and nut trees that have been found by experi-
mentation to be peculiarly adapted to this soil and

A cres ............................................ 4.............8...........8........... 442 ,880
A cres reported in farm s .............................. .. ......... .. 9,000
A cres not reported in farm s ...................................................... 436,880
A cres in actual cultivation................................................ 4,000
Bay County is located on the North Gulf Coast, and is
accredited with having one of the finest land-locked har-
bors on the Gulf. Naval stores and lumber have been
the chief industries until the past few years, when general
agriculture, citrus culture and livestock have received
more attention from the farmers. At Millville is the
largest sawmill owned by the St. Andrews Bay Lumber
Company. Excellent grapefruit, sweet oranges and Sat-
suma oranges are grown in Bay County, particularly at
Lynn Haven, St. Andrews and Panama City. The present
Satsuma development in this county on an immense scale
is attracting wide notice. The scarcity of trifoliata stock
will retard the industry, but the nurseries are endeavor-
ing to grow sufficient to supply all demands, and hun-
dreds of groves will be planted within the next eighteen
months, it is expected. The land in this part of Florida
is especially adapted to the Satsuma orange, and they
are produced over a wide territory, covering several
counties. There is good hunting and fishing in this sec-
tion. The open range is still available in the cut-over
lands, but as more farms are developed, the price of land
will advance and livestock will be confined to the pre-
mises of the owner. Dairying is now being developed in
this section, ad there is always a market for poultry.
Panama City is served by the A. & St. A. Bay Railway.
For many years, St. Andrews (Bay County) has been a
favorite resort for the people of Florida, Alabama and
Georgia, and many own cottages along the shore, which
extends for many miles. There is a canal connecting
East St. Andrews Bay with the Apalachicola River, built
by the Government at a cost of approximately $500,000.
This canal will become a section of the Atlantic-Misssis-
sippi Canal and inland waterway (from Cumberland
Sound, via St. George's Sound, to the Mississippi River
at New Orleans). Captain Sheppard of the U. S. Navy
said of St. Andrews Bay, a few years ago: "St. Andrews
is the most beautiful sheet of water I have ever visited,
except the Bay of Naples." There is considerable com-
merce through the port of St. Andrews, annually.



St. Andrews Bay, Panama City, Bay County


A c res .......... .............. ................ ............... .......... ..................... 6 17 ,6 0 0
A cres reported in farm s............................ .......... .... 288,477
A cres not reported in farm s................... ........................... 329,123
Aeres reported in actual cultivation .......................... 174,468

Jackson countyy is the first county west of the Apala-
chicola River and extends for a considerable distance
along its shore. The county seat is Marianna, a progres-
sive city set in the midst of a fine agricultural country.
The Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1-passes
through the heart of 1he city, as does the North-and-
South National Bee-Line Highway, which latter crosses
the Old Spanish Trail here and extends southward to
Port St. Joe and Apalachicola on the Gulf Coast.
Jackson County- produces one-fourth of the short staple
cotton grown in the State. Diversified farming is the
rule in this county, and dairying is one of the chief in-
dustries. Plums, peaches, figs, pecans, melons and berries
grow in abundance, and Satsuma oranges are now being
planted in extensive groves. Very few counties offer more
to the prospective homeseeker than does Jackson county.
The ('hipola River, a beautiful stream, connects Marianna
with the port of Apalachicola, for small boats, and the
fishing in this river and connecting streams is as good as
can be found anywhere. The Louisville & Nashville Rail-
road and the Marianna & Blountstown Railroad, and Ala-
hama & Florida Railway serve Jackson County. There
are marketing agencies in this county, and one can farm
for the full twelve months, if desired. The big packing
house at Chipley offers a constant market for cattle, hogs
and milk-fed poultry. From Marianna a good highway
extends to the St. Andrews Bay country, where fishing
a;dl surf-bathing may be enjoyed. Deer, wild turkey,
squirrels and quail are found in the western and southern
portions of Jackson County, and this is a favorite resort
for sportsmen. About 1hree miles northeast of Marianna
is the wonderful "Long Moss Spring," made famous by
Car(oline Lee Ilentz, the novelist. It is the source of a
stream which flows into the Chipola River. This is also
a good section for hilceberries and all small fruits.


.... ',.;

Plum Growing in Jackson County


A cres ....................... ............... ........................................ 7 62 ,8 80
A cres reported in farm s.................................................... 68,171
Acres not reported in farms............................................... 694,709
Acres reported in actual cultivation........................... 23,636

Calhoun County lies west of the Apalachicola River
and has an area of about one thousand square miles; a
part of it borders on the Gulf of Mexico and St. Joseph's
Bay. There is splendid hunting and fishing in this section,
and large range for cattle. Blountstown is the county
seat and the largest town. There are extensive naval
stores operations in the county. The main highway,
north and south, is the North-and-South National Bee-
Line Highway (Nashville to the Gulf) which extends also
to Port St. Joe and Apalachicola. This highway is State
Road No. 6 of the Florida system. Wewahitachka, Altha,
Idlewood and Dalkeith are other communities in Cal-
houn County. Idlewood is a famous fishing resort on the
Dead Lakes (or Chipola Lake). Calhoun county is the
home of Tupelo honey, and Satsuma and other oranges,
Ponderoso lemons, grapefruit, and various small fruits.
General farm crops grow well, but there are few deve-
loped farms, as lumber, naval stores and fishing are the
chief industries. Port St. Joe used to be an important
port, and in the development that is sure to come to the
Gulf Coast ports, will again be a port of call at some
future day. The first Constitutional Convention was held
at St. Joseph, in the winter of 1837-38, and a monument
has been erected on the site of the old convention hall
to preserve to future generations this historic spot. The
Florida Legislature appropriated $10,000 for the monu-
ment, which was dedicated January 11, 1923. The Apala-
chicola Northern Railroad and Marianna & Blountstown
Railroad serve this territory, and there is also water
transportation by steamers that ply between Columbus,
Ga., and Apalachicola, Florida. The main highway now
occupies the roadbed of one of the first railroads in
America, and for twenty miles or more is straight as an
arrow, with but one curve. It is destined to be a favorite
highway for tourists.

Sugar Cane Growing in Calhoun County


A cres ...................................................... ........................ 346,240
Acres reported in farms ........................................ 700
Acres not reported in farms.............................................. 345,540
Acres reported in actual cultivation ...................... .......... 400

Franklin County is fortunately situated for the future
development of water commerce. Apalachicola River and
Apalachicola Bay connect with St. George's Sound, the
Gulf of Mexico, and via the Government canal (a $500,000
project built by the United States) with St. Andrews Bay,
a fine land-locked harbor. Apalachicola, the county seat,
is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name,
which is formed by the junction of the Chattahoochee and
Flint Rivers, 136 miles inland; hence, Apalachicola as-
sumes the title of "Gateway to the Chattahoochee Val-
ley." The system comprising the Chattahoochee, Flint,
Chipola and Apalachicola Rivers is the greatest navig-
able system east of the Mississippi River and south of the
Ohio. The Chattahoochee is navigable for 210 miles
south from Columbus, Ga., and the Flint River is navig-
able for 150 miles south from Albany, Ga.; the Chipola
River is navigable for fifty miles and the Apalachicola
is navigable for 136 miles, its entire length from the Gulf
of Mexico. The land-locked harbor at Apalachicola ex-
tends along the shore for fifty miles and is from one to
eight miles in width; this harbor is known as St.
George's Sound (extending to Carrabelle); Apalachi-
cola Bay and St. Vincent Sound are formed by a chain
of three islands, St. George, St. Vincent and Dog Island.
The entrances to the harbor are: East Pass, separating
Dog Island from St. George, is the main entrance, main-
taining a natural depth of 22 feet over the bar; West
Pass, separating St. George Island from St. Vincent,
maintaining a depth of thirteen feet and used chiefly by
the. coastwise steam and sailing vessels; Indian Pass,
separating St. Vincent from the mainland, is used only
by a large fleet of small fishing craft. This harbor will
be used as a section of the proposed Atlantic-Mississippi
There is a lighthouse at Cape St. George.
John Gorrie, the inventor of the process of manufactur-
ing ice, whose statue is in the Hall of Fame in Washing-

ton. The city has erected a beautiful monument in one
of the parks in his honor and is visited by hundreds
for the fine Apalachicola oysters and shrimp that are
shipped to market over a wide territory. A favorite
drive from Apalachicola is to Lagoon Beach, on the Gulf
near St. Joe, on the route of State Road No. 6, which is
also the route of the "North-and-South National Bee-
Line Highway," from Nashville to the Gulf at this point.
There is fine fresh and salt water fishing and excellent
hunting in season, and various fine beaches offer surf-
bathing all the year. The steamer Tarpon makes weekly
trips to Apalachicola and Carrabelle, from Mobile; there
is also water transportation between Apalachicola and
Columbus, Ga., and Bainbridge, Ga. About sixty tons of
honey are annually produced in Franklin county. Naval
stores and the fisheries are the chief sources of income,
although general agriculture is now receiving more at-
tention. The extensive area of cut-over lands is adapted
to cattle raising, and sheep. Truck growing, poultry,
pecans, dairying, can be made of great value to this sec-
tion. The Apalachicola Northern Railroad serves Apala-
chicola and the western portion of the county, connect-
ing at River Junction with the L. & N., Atlantic Coast
Line and Seaboard Air Line railroads; the G. F. & A.
Railroad connects Carrabelle with Tallahassee and points
north, there being a small boat line to transfer passengers
and freight from Carrabelle, via St. George's Sound, to
Apalachicola, daily. There are extensive sawmill opera-
tions in this territory, and turpentining.


A cres ....................... . ................... ..... .......................... .............. ............ 52 6,7 2 0
A cres reported in farm s ...................... ............................. 16,508
A cres not reported in farm s............................ ................ 510,212
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................... 4,315

Liberty County is bounded on the West by the Apala-
chicola River, which is destined to become one of the
great arteries of water transportation in the Chatta-
hoochee Valley, and is already used regularly by boats
plying between Columbus, Georgia, and Apalachicola,
Florida. Bristol is the county seat and largest town.

Lumber and naval stores are the chief industries, but in
recent years general agriculture and stock raising have
been given more attention. Fine cypress forests abound
in this section. Many traces of the aborigines of America
are found in Liberty County, including some Indian
mounds. During the hunting season, quail, doves, duck,
squirrel, bear and deer are killed by the sportsmen.
There is good fishing, and good beaches are easily reached
from Bristol. This section is served by the Georgia,
Florida & Alabama Railway, via the stations at Arran,
in Wakulla county, and Carrabelle, in Franklin county,
on St. George's Sound, and also by the Apalachicola
Northern Railroad, which runs between River Junction,
(where it connects with the Louisville & Nashville, At-
lantic Coast Line and Seaboard Air Line Railways) and
Apalachicola and Port St. Joe, the southern terminus.
A great deal of lumber, naval stores, turpentine, farm
produce, honey, syrup, and some fruits are shipped from
Liberty County. The "Columbus (Ga.)-Apalachicola
Highway" will pass through Quincy and Bristol en route
to the Gulf terminus at Apalachicola in Franklin county.
Citrus fruit is grown for home consumption. This sec-
tion is adapted to the Satsuma orange, blueberries, and
figs and pecans as well as truck crops. There is excellent
opportunity in this part of the State for extensive cattle
ranges and general farms. Sheep and goats are raised
profitably. There is always good demand for poultry.
Diversified farming offers good returns to those who have
means to sustain them until the farm becomes nearly or
quite self-sustaining.


A cres ............................................................. ............ . ............ ........ 345,600
Acres reported in farms..................... ...................... 188,371
Acres not reported in farms...................... .... ....... .... 157,220
Acres reported in actual cultivation.................. 54,120

Gadsden County is famed for the superior tobacco grown
under shade; the annual crop brings in several million
dollars. Quincy, the county seat, is a progressive city,
with paved streets, a White-Way throughout the business
district, and fine schools, churches and homes. The Gads-

Dairy Herd in Gadsden County

den County Court House is one of the handsomest public
buildings in North Florida; the grounds occupy an en-
tire city block, around which the business houses are
grouped, forming an attractive civic center. Gadsden
County is served by six railroads, the Seaboard Air Line
Railway, Atlantic Coast Line, Louisville & Nashville
Railway, Georgia, Florida and Alabama Railway, Apa-
lachicola Northern Railway, and the Pelham & Havana
Railway. There is through Pullman service between
Havana, in eastern Gadsden county, and Atlanta, Ga.;
passengers for Quincy change cars at Havana. There are
sixteen tobacco packing plants in the county, most of
them in Quincy; a peanut oil mill at Hardaway; a fifteen-
thousand-bushel sweet potato storage warehouse at
Greensboro; fine cane syrup is made in this county and
shipped to distant markets. Citrus fruit is not grown
commercially, but for domestic consumption. Neai Hav-
ana, Gadsden county, is a fine commercial pecan grove
containing nine hundred bearing trees, over fifteen years
old. Pecans, figs, grapes, melons and small fruits, garden
truck, staple and forage crops produce well in Gadsden
county, and dairying is becoming second in importance
to the tobacco industry. Gadsden farmers can ship cream
to the Tallahassee creamery, in unlimited quantities, all
the year. The Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1-
crosses this county from east to west for a distance of
about thirty-six miles. Victory Bridge, over the Apala-
chicola River, is at the extreme end of the county and
is one of the finest concrete structures in the United
States; it has been dedicated as a Memorial to the Florida
soldiers of the World War. Gadsden county has several
fuller's earth mines which produce over 80% of the
total world's supply. It is used as a decolorizer of oils
and for refining purposes. There are numerous beautiful
streams and springs in the county, and hunting and fish-
ing, as well as golf, are enjoyed by the people. Lillian
Springs, near Quincy, is one of the attractions of the
county. The Florida Legislature in 1923 provided for
tick eradication in Gadsden County, and the work has
been completed, this premitting movement of cattle from
this section to any other State, which will mean greater
revenue to the stockmen. At Greensboro is a Smith-
Hughes Vocation School. The Florida State Hospital for
the Insane is located at Chattahoochee. River Junction
is an important trading center, and a port of call for the

steamers plying between Columbus, Ga., and Apalachi-
cola, Florida. Gadsden County tobacco has taken prizes
at Paris and other expositions an dfairs, the latest award
being the Gold Medal and Diploma at the South Florida
Fair, Tampa, in 1922.
In this County is located an Experiment Station, de-
voted to the tobacco interests of the State.


A c re s ..................................................................................................................... 4 5 7 ,6 0 0
Acres reported in farms............................................ 233,864
Acres net reported in farms......................................... 223,736
Acres reported in actual cultivation....................... 86,786

Leon County is second in cotton and one of the leading
dairy counties of the State, with a modern creamery at
Tallahassee, the Capital City and county seat. Some por-
tions of the county are 280 feet above sea level. Maurice
Thompson, the novelist, has described this section of
Florida as being a "genuinely Piedmontese landscape,
the like of which cannot be found elsewhere in the far
General agriculture, poultry, dairying, small fruits,
cotton, tobacco, pecans, figs and grapes are the chief
sources of income to the farmers. Very fine corn is pro-
duced in Leon county, and the tobacco grown under
shade took first prize at the Florida State Fair. The
Seaboard Air Line Railway and the Georgia, Florida &
Alabama Railway serve the county. The Old Spanish
Trail-State Road No. 1-and the Western Branch of the
Dixie Highway (Atlanta to Tampa and St. Petersburg,
via Americus, Albany, Thomasville (Ga.), Tallahassee
and Perry, Florida) meet at Tallahassee; the Tallahassee-
to-Gulf Highway, from Tallahassee to Apalachicola,
Florida, will be constructed with the bond issue money
of Wakulla and Leon counties, with some State aid. The
"Capital-to-Capital Highway" will also be established
between Tallahassee and Atlanta, there to connect with
highways leading to the Capitals of other States.
Many years ago, there was an extensive vineyard at
the old Fort San Luis place, two miles west of Tallahas-
see, and a very superior champagne was manufactured

and shipped to the wine markets. East of the city is
Lake Lafayette, a portion of the 22,000 acres granted to
Marquis de Lafayette by the Congress of the United
States, in recognition of his services to America. The
Hill City Golf Course is located about one mile east of
the Capitol and- is considered by experts as being an ex-
ceptionally beautiful and sporty nine-hole course. The
former home of Prince Charles Louis Napoleon Achilles
Murat, son of the King of Naples, is still standing and is
a Mecca for tourists. The Prince and Princess Murat
are buried in the old Episcopal Cemetery at Tallahassee.
Prince Murat was Mayor of Tallahassee, and also served
on the Governor's staff. The Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical College (for Negroes) is one mile south of the
city. One of the oldest railroads in the United States-
the Tallahassee-St. Marks Railroad, now a branch of the
Seaboard Air Line Railway-connects Tallahassee by rail
with the old Port of St. Marks. This port may be re-
stored at some future date.
The scenery in this section is semi-tropical, with beau-
tiful live oaks, magnolias, hickory, pine and other trees.
The Cherokee rose and yellow jasamine grow in profusion
along the highway in spring, adding much to the delight
of a motor trip through the country, and in May the mag-
nolia blooms fill the woodlands with rare perfume.
At Lake Bradford, about six miles southwest of Talla-
hassee, is the Lake Bradford Country Club, where are
bathing houses, a pavilion for dancing, boats, and light
In the Northern portion of Leon County are the estates
of the Griscombs, Bakers, Tiers, Whitneys, Fleischmanns,
Ronalds, Scotts and Mackintoshes, where splendid farms
and registered livestock are to be seen. The Boston-
Florida Plantation, owned by Mr. J. A. Mackintosh and
Mr. L. W. Scott, took the Grand Champion Prize at the
South Florida Fair, Tampa, in 1923, for the best indi-
vidual farm exhibit; it contained practically everything,
from hay and forage crops to oranges, grapefruit, and
dairy products.
The Florida State College for Women, an institution
costing over a million dollars, is one of the finest schools
in the United States. This year there are over twelve
hundred students, many of them from distant States, and
seventy-five instructors. During the summer months, the
College is used for the Summer School, where teachers

come for post-graduate courses. The public is invited to
attend many of the concerts and lectures there, during
the winter months.
Near Tallahassee is fine fresh and salt-water fishing,
good hunting in season, and the beaches along the Gulf
Coast can be reached by automobile or train.
The Florida Legislature in 1921 appropriated th esum
of five thousand dollars for the erection of a monument at
Natural Bridge on the St. Marks River, commemorating
the famous defense of Tallahassee by the students of the
West Florida Military Academy, at the time a co-educa-
tion institution and now the Florida State College for
Women at Tallahassee. The monument was dedicated
with fitting ceremony on Memorial Day, April 26, 1923.
The St. Marks River is mentioned as a portion of the pro-
posed Atlantic-Mississippi Canal.


Acres ........................................................................... 385,280
A cres reported in farm s ..... ........................................................ 49,687
Acres not reported in farms........................................... 335,593
Acres reported in actual cultivation.............................. 12,329

Wakulla County is located on the North Gulf Coast,
immediately south of Tallahassee, There are many thou-
sand acres of unoccupied land in this county and it is a
favorite place for sportsmen, as the hunting in season and
the fishing all the year-both fresh and salt-water fishing
-are as good as can be found anywhere in the State.
There are curative mineral springs in different parts of
Wakulla County, at Panacea Spring, on Dickson Bay, and
the famous sulphur spring at Newport, formerly owned
by the Beecher family. Several small resorts are being
developed in the county, along the Wakulla River and
the coast beaches. There are several natural wonders in
this county, among them the Lost River, a stream which
rises and disappears mysteriously, and is probably one of
the shortest rivers in the United States, and the remark-
able Wakulla Spring, the source of the Wakulla River.
Wakulla Spring is said to cover about 4.38 acres and is
of punchbowl shape, with limestone sides covered with
beautiful water mosses kept in constant motion due to the

swift flow of the water from its mysterious subterranean
source. The water is transparent and one can see small
objects on the bottom of the spring, as the water has a
peculiar magnifying quality which renders all objects
seen beneath the surface of unnatural size. Seen from
the shore, the central portion of the surface is of an in-
tense blue, and the manifold reflections of overhanging
trees, clouds and sky produce a weird and exquisite pic-
ture that is impressed upon the memory. It is a favorite
beauty-spot for tourists, and the annual Wakulla County
picnic is held in the grove. During sessions of the Flor-
ida Legislature, the lawmakers and State officials are the
guests of the Wakulla people at their annual picnic.
Wakulla County has recently bonded for $200,000 for
road improvement; the highway from Atlanta to Apala-
chicola will pass through this section and State aid has
been promised the county for this improvement. Sheep,
cattle, hogs and poultry, general agriculture and naval
stores are the industries, and fishermen derive a consid-
erable income from their catches. St. Marks, on Apala-
chee Bay, thirty miles south of Tallahassee, was formerly
an important Gulf port, but the harbor was filled in dur-
ing the war to prevent an attack upon the Capital City;
in future years traffic may be restored. The Seaboard
Air Line Railway and the Georgia, Alabama and Florida
Railway serve this county.


A cres ........................................................................ 3 7 4 ,4 00
Acres reported in farms ............................. ........... 211,683
Acres not reported in farms ................ ................ 162,717
Acres reported in actual cultivation ..................... 90,056

Jefferson County is famous as the greatest producer of
watermelon seed in the United States, carloads of them
being shipped annually to the great seed houses of Amer-
ica and foreign countries. It is also a leader in the pecan
industry, both in commercial trees and nursery stock, of
the papershell and other varieties. Many new groves are
being planted. While some citrus fruit is grown, there
are no commercial groves in this county. Naval stores,
lumber, staple crops, forage crops, tobacco, cotton and

Beggarweed in Jefferson County

~__~ _

small fruits bring good revenue. The county will have
permanent fair grounds, and this will give new impetus
to agriculture and stock raising. At Monticello, the
county seat, is a small creamery, which will be enlarged
as the dairy industry develops. The Old Spanish Trail
-State Road No. 1-passes through Monticello and the
Western Branch of the Dixie Highway crosses the south-
ern part of the county. The Seaboard Air Line Railway
and Atlantic Coast Line Railway, and the Tallahassee
Southeastern Railway serve Jefferson County. The pro-
posed Atlantic-Mississippi Canal will cross the lower por-
tion of the county, using the St. Marks River as the con-
necting link to reach St. George's Sound. While tobacco
is not grown as extensively as in Madison, Leon and
Gadsden Counties, the quality is the equal of the best
produced elsewhere. There is excellent hunting and fish-
ing in the county, which extends to the Gulf coast.


A cres ....................................... ................... ........................... 680,960
Acres reported in farms........................ ................... 54,703
Acres not reported in farms .......................... ... ........... 626,257
Acres reported in actual cultivation.......................... 13,804

Taylor County extends from the Steinhatchee to the
Aucilla River, and along the picturesque Fenholloway,
near Hampton Springs, is excellent fishing and hunting
in season. Perry, the county seat, is a great market for
lumber and naval stores. Along the Gulf Coast side very
fine oysters may be found. Among the attractions of
Taylor County are Econfenee, Hampton Springs and
Emerson Springs; Hampton Springs, the most noted, is
reached by a paved road and is about six miles from the
city of Perry; it has been a resort for many years. There
are three railroads in the county, the Live Oak, Perry &
Gulf Railway, South Georgia Railway and the Tallahas-
see-Southeastern Railway; the latter at present goes only
to Covington, but plans are being made to compel the ex-
tension of this railroad to Perry, so as to provide a
through line to Tampa from Tallahassee and points north
and west. The hunting and fishing are very good in this
section. The cut-over lands offer good ranges for cattle.

Owing to the lumber industry, there are not so many
farms in Taylor County, but the agricultural possibilities
are excellent.


A cres .......... ....... ....................... ............ .. ....... ............ 4 60 ,160
Acres reported in farms ................... --- ................. 161,752
Acres not reported in farms................................... 298,408
Acres reported in actual cultivation........................... 95,050

Madison County is the center of the Sea Island Cotton
Belt, and also produces a large quantity of fine shade-
grown and sun tobacco. Madison, the county seat of
Madison county, is the largest town and has recently
made great progress in development. In addition to live-
stock, general agriculture, lumber, naval stores, cotton
and tobacco, thousands of bushels of rye and oats are
marketed annually. Pecans, figs, grapes, some citrus
fruit, watermelons and berries produce well in this sec-
tion. Most of the stock feed is grown in the county, and
dairying is adding to the farmers' income. The Old Span-
ish Trail-State Road No. 1-crosses Madison County
from east to west; the National Highway enters the
county on the northern edge and connects at Madison
with the Old Spanish Trail. The western branch of the
Dixie Highway traverses the southern portion of Madi-
son County for several miles. The proposed Atlantic-
Mississippi Canal will cross the southern part of Madison
County. There is a goodly number of developed farms,
and when the $350,000 bond issue has been expended on
the lateral roads of this county, Madison will attract the
homeseeker who wishes to live in a twelve-month farming
section. There is good drainage in the county, and gen-
eral health conditions are excellent. Madison County is
served by the Seaboard Air Line Railway and the Geor-
gia & Florida Railway.


A cres ...................... ...... .............. ......... ...... ........ .... ........ 3 34 ,7 2 0
Acres reported in farms ... ... ................. ................... 85,943
Acres not reported in farm s........................... .................. .. 248,777
Acres reported in actual cultivation............................. 46,167

Lafayette County lies south of Suwannee County. It
used to border the Gulf of Mexico, but about two years
ago the Florida Legislature created the County of Dixie
from the southern portion of Lafayette County, so the
only way to the Gulf now is via the Suwannee River, or
across Dixie County. Lafayette County contains large
forests of superior pine and cypress; naval stores is the
leading industry, with lumber as the second one. While
there are not many developed farms in this section, those
under cultivation produce well and show what can be
done with proper effort and rotation of crops. All stand-
ard crops, garden truck, fruit of various kinds, pecans,
figs and melons can be grown on the farm. There is con-
siderable open range land in this county, and on this ac-
count the cattle industry will take on new importance
within a few years. The dairy industry is progressing,
and poultry is always a revenue producer. The country
is high and rolling, and well drained. State Road No. 2
serves this section, from Lake City, and there is also a
highway connecting Mayo, the county seat, with Live
Oak. The Live Oak, Perry & Gulf Railway traverses
Lafayette County. When the proposed Atlantic-Missis-
sippi Canal is constructed, using a portion of the Suwan-
nee River, Lafayette County will be directly benefited by
this inland waterway.


Number of acres............. ............... .... .... 461,440

Dixie County, one of the youngest counties in Florida.
was formerly a part of Lafayette County, and borders on
the Gulf of Mexico. Cross City is the county seat. The
chief industries are lumber, naval stores, cattle, hogs and
general agriculture. There is considerable range land in
this section. The county highways will be improved as

fast as conditions will warrant. The proposed Atlantic-
Mississippi Canal will touch the northern portion of Dixie
County, using the Suwannee River for a considerable dis-
tance. Local water transportation will afford means of
moving crops, naval stores and lumber to the western
Gulf Coast ports. Land prices are reasonable, and with
proper cultivation good crops can be produced. Pecans,
figs, grapes and various small fruits can be grown to ad-
vantage; there is always a local market for eggs and poul-
try and dairy products. The future of this county will
be as prosperous as other larger counties; railroad facili-
ties will be improved in the near future.


A cres ............................. ....... ..... ........... ... .................. 44 2,880
A cres reported in farm s.............................. ....................... 274,664
Acres not reported in farms.............. ................ 168,216
Acres reported in actual cultivation.................................... 169,071

Suwannee County is encircled on three sides by the
famous Suwannee River, one of the most picturesque
streams in the country. Live Oak, the county seat, is a
progressive city and enjoys the distinction of being one
of the foremost hog markets in North Florida. A pack-
ing house furnishes a means of producing bacon of
rare quality, which tops the market in price. The ac-
tive Farm Bureau markets livestock, fruit and general
farm crops, and eggs and poultry bring in a revenue esti-
mated to be in excess of two hundred thousand dollars.
Dairying is becoming a leading industry; much sweet and
sour cream are shipped and producers report good pro-
fits. Rice has been successfully grown in Suwannee
County. Cotton and all staple crops are grown. The
Suwannee County Fair is an established institution and is
highly educational; it is well supported by local farmers,
and the prize exhibits at fairs held in other sections of
the State have won many awards. There are cattle, swine
and poultry associations in the county; by co-operation
the farmers standardize many crops, both in type and
time of planting. Very fine cane syrup is produced.
Lumber, naval stores, and livestock are the greatest rev-
enue producers now, but general agriculture will soon

take the lead, with the rapid disappearance of the forests.
Live Oak is on the Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1.
The Seaboard Air Line Railway, Live Oak, Perry & Gulf
Railway, and the Atlantic Coast Line serve Suwannee
County. According to the U. S. Geological Surveys, the
clearest uplifts in the State occur near Live Oak; non-
metallic minerals known to exist in this county are phos-
phate of lime, of which there are large deposits, kaolin
and fuller's earth, moulders' sand and large deposits of
building stone; there are many varieties of clay. Pecans,
walnuts, figs, and some citrus fruit are grown. The rural
life is pleasant, and the schools are considered to he ex-


A cres ........................................ ................ ........ ......... 3 3 7,92 0
A cres reported in farm s.................................. .................. 132,225
Acres not reported in farm s ................ .................... 205,695
Acres reported in actual cultivation ................................ 45,993

Hamilton County is bounded on the North by Georgia
and on the South by Suwannee and Columbia Counties.
It is traversed by the beautiful Suwannee River. Jasper
is the county seat, a thriving town. At White Springs is
a famous resort, patronized by people from Florida and
other States. State Road No. 2 of the Florida road system
passes through Hamilton County, north and south, and
the Georgia Southern & Florida and the Atlantic Coast
Line Railroads serve this section. Fine livestock, general
farm crops, trucking, fruit culture, lumber and naval
stores bring large revenue annually to the people of this
county. There is much through travel over the highways,
as State Road No. 2 connectes at Lake City with the paved
section of the Old Spanish Trail-State Road No. 1-a
fine, smooth, hard-surfaced highway all the way to Jack-
sonville. This is a great honey and syrup section, and
considerable Sea Island cotton is produced. The thrifty
farms already developed give promise of great wealth in
the future from general agriculture, pecans and fruit.
The climate is as good as any in Florida, which is saying
a great deal. There is no need of irrigation; drainage is
good. Like most of the counties of this State, there is
good fishing in the lakes and streams, and hunting in

season. The proximity to good markets in Georgia and
Florida makes this county a good place for permanent
residence for those who expect to derive income from a
home farm. This county is also on the route of the pro-
posed Atlantic-Mississippi Canal.


A c res ...................................... .. ................................... ..... 8 0 7 ,6 8 0
A cres reported in farm s ................................. .. ................... 307,551
A cres not reported in farm s.... ................. .... ............ .... 500,129
Acres reported in actual cultivation............................... 125,667

Alachua County is located just east of the Suwannee
River in the ridge section of the State. It has the best
railroad facilities of any county in the State except
Duval. With an area of 807,680 acres it has half a mil-
lion acres in farms but only 125,000 acres in crops. It
raises twenty-five different field and truck crops in quan-
tities that reach a valuation of one and three-quarter mil-
lions annually. Livestock, poultry and dairy products
raise this amount to more than two and three-quarter
millions annually.
Alachua contains ten of the 279 banks of Florida, one of
the five bank clearing-houses, the State University, Col-
lege of Agriculture and the Experiment Station.
Alachua is seventh in population, which is equally
divided between rural and urban.
The Santa Fe River, which forms the northern boun-
dary, offers sites for water power development. This
county lies in the phosphate belt and has deposits of no
mean proportions. It is one of the best of the livestock
counties, leading in horses and stands second in the pro-
duction of hogs.
Gainesville, backed by one of the most productive and
stable districts of the State, both agriculturally and in-
dustrially, and the site of the University, is one of the
social centers of Florida. Situated nearly 180 feet above
sea level, in a belt of copious natural springs, this beau-
tiful little city, with its densely shaded streets, seems well
set for a community of ideal homes and intellectual cul-
htre. The tabernacle which was the center of general

religious activities and the annual meeting place of the
National Bible School is now municipal property, and the
city has donated it to the local post of the American Le-
gion. The plan is to develop it as a civic center of public


Columbia County adjoins Baker County on the west,
and is one of the finest agricultural counties in Florida.
Fine Sea Island cotton is one of the main crops; tobacco,
garden truck, forage crops, fruit of various kinds includ-
ing berries, and pecans, walnuts, figs and grapes bring in
good incomes. At Lake City, the county seat and leading
community, a dehydrating plant has been built and will
be a boon to local farmers. The Old Spanish Trail-State
Road No. 1-passes across Columbia County and is paved
from Lake City eastward, all the way to Jacksonville.
This section of State Road No. 1 was formally dedicated
to traffic by a big celebration held at Lake City in July,
1923, and attended by more than ten thousand persons.
State Road No. 2, from the north, also passes through
Lake City, en route to South Florida via Gainesville; it
has been improved and will be hard-surfaced as soon as
possible. There are still extensive forests in Columbia
county, and many sawmills throughout the county; it is
said that Florida contains a greater number of classified
woods than any other State in the Union, and many prizes
at fairs held in other counties, and the local annual Fair
attracts many thousand visitors. Railroads serving
Columbia county are the Seaboard Air Line, the Atlantic
Coast Line and Ga. Southern and Fla. There are many
beautiful lakes in this section, and dairying is becoming
one of the most profitable industries. There is a good
local market for poultry and farm products.


N um ber of acres........................................ ................................ 143,000
Acres in actual cultivation........................ ................... 40,000

Union County was created in 1921 from Bradford.
County .
The territory now included in Baker, Bradford and
Union counties was formed into New River county
December 21, 1858. On February 8, 1861, Baker county
was formed from the northern portion of New River and
the-name of the southern part was changed to Bradford
county, December 6, 1861. Union was created from Brad-
ford by the Legislature of 1921. The boundary line be-
tween Union and Bradford counties is the New River.
Twenty field and trucking crops do well in Union
County. Figs, peaches, pecans, plums, and berries are
among the fruits grown. It offers as good facilities for
growing live stock as others of the northern counties.
The State Prison Farm is located in this county and has
shown great possibilities in the way of diversified farm-
ing. This farm consists of 17,000 acres, one third of which
is improved.
Lake Butler, the county seat, is a beautiful little town
of a thousand people, located on the shore of a beautiful
lake covering more than a section of land. Two main line
railroads cross at Lake Butler. The two roads put any
place within the county within ten miles of a shipping
point by rail. As this section of the State has never under-
gone a real estate boom there is a quantity of new lands
that can be had at very reasonable prices. This make
Union a county of opportunities.


Number of acres.-......................... ........................ 375,680
A cres in actual cultivation............................... ................. 16,000

Baker County is the second county from the Atlantic
Ocean. It has not yet been exploited as have other coun-
ties in Northern Florida, but potentially it is one of the
best agricultural counties, and cattle, hogs and some
sheep are raised, adding to the income of the farmers very

materially. The Georgia Southern and Florida Railroad,
Atlantic Coast Line, and the Seaboard Air Line Railway
traverse Baker County. The Old Spanish Trail-State
Road No. 1 of the Florida system of roads-is now paved
the entire length across the county, from east to west line.
In addition to general agriculture, there are numerous
sawmills, and naval stores is a leading industry. Mac-
elenny is the county seat and the largest town in the
county. Recently $20,000 bonds were voted to build a
modern school house. At Olustee is the monument erected
by the State of Florida commemorating the battle there
during the Civil War. At Glen St. Mary is located one
of the leading nurseries of the State, embracing over eight
hundred acres. The climatic conditions are good all the
year, and the thrifty farmer can, by rotating crops, make
his farm produce twelve months of the year. Like other
counties of Florida, Baker has excellent possibilities. The
local commercial organization will furnish more specific
information desired. Further highway improvement is
contemplated in this section.


A cres ....................................... .............................. ................ ............. 180,800
A cres reported in farm s................................................................ 56,718
Acres not reported in farms.................................................. 124,082
Acres reported in actual cultivation............................... 22,653

Bradford County has 180,800 acres and one-third im-
proved. The county is on a plateau 180 feet above sea
Four railroads furnish adequate facilities for shipping.
Cotton, corn, rice, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts,
beans,, melons, sugar cane, hay, are among the leading
crops. Every part of the county has an abundance of
water at all seasons of the year.
Figs, peaches, Japanese persimmons, pears, pecans,
plums and grapes, do well in Bradford county. In 1922
the county produced $126,420 worth of strawberries.
Poultry, eggs and dairying are profitable and on the in-
crease in the county.
Live stock, including cattle, horses, hogs, sheep and
goats thrive and can he fed as cheaply as anywhere in the

State. It is close enough, with the shipping facilities of-
fered by the railroads, to furnish a ready market at Jack-
sonville for anything produced.
Starke, the county seat, is on the Seaboard Air Line
and an important shipping point. A few miles out is
Kingsley Lake, round and two and a half miles in dia-
meter, with clean sand beach and water fed entirely by
mineral springs. The pellucid waters mirrow the shady
shore with its scenery of hickory, oak, magnolia, sweet
bay, dogwood and pine draped with Spanish moss swing-
ing in the sunlight and shadows swaying before the
breezes. It is a great place for bathers to take a dip in
the refreshing waters.


Number of acres ......................... ...................... 403,200
A cres in actual cultivation....................................................... 6,000

Nassau County is the extreme northeastern county of
Florida, touching the Atlantic Ocean, Cumberland Sound
and extending for some distance along the St. Mary's
River, which is the dividing line between Georgia and
Florida for a considerable distance along the northern
border of the State. Fernandina, on Amelia Island, is the
county seat, and the largest town. Other towns are Cal-
lahan, Crawford and Yulee.
At Fernandina are important canning factories for sea
food and many thousand tons of shrimp, fish and oysters
are annually shipped from this point. Naval stores and
and the cattle industry bring large revenue. While there
are not a large number of developed farms in Nassau
county, the general conditions for farming and dairying
are good, and various fruits can also be grown to ad-
vantage. The proximity to Jacksonville insures a good
market within short haul from Fernandina and Callahan.
The Port of Fernandina is one of the best on the lower
Atlantic Coast. Cumberland Sound has an anchorage
area of 32 square miles of deep water, from 40 to 90 feet
deep, and is a refuge for large boats in time of storm.
The proposed Atlantic-Mississippi Canal, from Cumber-
land Sound to the Mississippi River, will here connect
with the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway extending to

Portland, Maine, and also to Miami, making Fernandina
an important bunker coal port. There is fast mail service
to the North and West, as well as steamship transporta-
tion to New York. The county is served by the Atlantic
Coast Railway and the Seaboard Air Line Railway.


A cres .......................... ..... ........... ... .......... 394,880
Acres reported in farms................. ................ ........ .. 16,963
Acres not reported in farms....................... ... ..... ... 377,917
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................... 4,494

Within an hour's ride of Jacksonville over the Atlantic
Coast Line is Green Cove Springs, the county seat of Clay
county. It has 394,880 acres, but only 16,963 in farms.
Seventeen different kinds of crops and ten kinds of fruit
are raised commercially. The soil is suitable for many
kinds of crops; hammock lands along the rivers and
streams, rolling sand-hill lands between the many creeks,
and moist black lands adjoining the hammock lands. The
leading crops are corn, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes,
sugar cane, and various vegetable crops grown for the
early markets. Peaches, pears, plums and persimmons
(Japan) are shipped to northern markets.
The county still has considerable timber interests.
There is a fine macadam road from Jacksonville along
the St. Johns River to Orange Park in the northeastern
part of the county; thence through a picturesque and
semi-tropical country to Green Cove Springs, the county
seat, which derives its name from the beautiful spring
of the same name. The St. Johns River steamers also
make frequent trips between the two places. There are
beautiful side trips to the home of Harriet Beecher
Stowe, to Middleburg and other interesting points.
A number of years ago Magnolia Springs was quite a
resort because of the medicinal qualities of the springs
which gave the place its name. An extensive hotel com-
prising seven buildings was erected on a tract of 290
acres. The buildings overlook the St. Johns River and
command a splendid view. After the expenditure of
some quarter of a million dollars-in 1908-it was pur-
chased for the purpose of founding a private university

preparatory school; this was done and under the name
of the Florida Military Naval Academy has been for
many years under the superintendency of Colonel George
W. Hulvey. It is an accredited institution and its
graduates may enter West Point or any other university.


By J. W. Hart,

Secretary Chamber of Commerce of Palatka

A cr es ....................... ... .......... ............... . .............................. 4 8 1 ,2 8 0
A cres reported in farm s...................................... ............... 50,218
Acres not reported in farms............ ....... ........... 431,062
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................ 20,966

Putnam county is of two topographic divisions, the
flatwoods or low lands, and the high lands. It lies within
the drainage basin of the St. Johns River, a stream ap-
proximating one mile wide in its full course northward
through the entire length of the country. Fine lakes dot
every section of the county, giving the whole area of flat
and rolling lands good drainage. Flowing artesian wells
are obtained in all parts of the county at an approximate
cost of $200.00. Citrus fruits, peaches, and Irihs potatoes
have been the largest crops in the last fifteen years, and
with acreage being added annually these planting seem
well intrenched as the forest agricultural pursuits. The
trucking industry, however, is being developed and pro-
fitable crops of giant string beans, cassava, cabbage,
celery, honeydew and watermelons are noted.

Citrus Fruits

The growing of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, will be
found along all bodies of water, the largest groves bor-
dering Crescent Lake, and the St. Johns River at Federal
Point, Palatka, San Mateo, Welaka, and Crescent City.
The influence of these bodies of water is generally recog-
nized in climate conditions. Prosperous groves in the
west part of the county will be found in the Interlachen

section. They are situated on high pine lands with yellow
Fertilization is necessary. Young groves are fertilzied
with a relatively high nitrogen mixture while more phos-
phoric acid and potash mixtures are used for bearing
trees. Applications vary from 500 to 1,000 pounds per
acre. Following the removal of the crop the groves are
thoroughly cultivated and followed with cowpeas, beg-
garweed, etc.
Potatoes, a winter truck crop, are the earliest on north-
ern markets with a consequent usual high price level. A
Bladen fine sandy loam, quite prevalent east of the St.
Johns River, stretching from East Palatka to Federal
Point in Putnam County has been found particularly
adapted. The fields are prepared in November and
December, beds 3 to 4 feet apart being made with disk
cultivators. The crop matures in 90 to 100 days after
planting and is marketed usually in April. Fifty barrels
to the acre are considered a fair yield, although 75 bar-
rel yields are not uncommon.
Sugar cane is grown on almost every farm in Putnam
county. Large yields give a high grade and good quan-
tity of syrup, a rule without seeming exception.
In the Florahome section of northwest Putnam string
beans of the giant stringless type have come into a pro-
minence because of the enormous yields, high quality and
midsummer crop. Florahome muck lands, in a rolling
area, vary considerably from many types of muck soils
in that they seem inflammable. Here, in a season when
all the south is searching for fresh vegetables, is an area
that has produced as high as 210 hampers to the acre,
which in the 1922 markets brought from $2.00 to $2.50
per hamper at the Florahome express office. About 300
acres were planted in the year mentioned and the crop
was oversold. 1925 will probably find the acreage
doubled with probably 600 to 1,000 more acres available.
Corn continues the principal field crop usually follow-
ing potatoes in the area of approximately 23,000 acres
comprising the East Palatka, Federal Point, and Hastings
potato section, the latter adjoining St. Johns county.
Corn crops of forty to sixty bushels per acre are ob-
tained. Following potatoes corn is planted by April first
to get largest yield. Velvet beans are also a profitable
and easily grown crop. Sweet potatoes yield around 130
bushels to the acre and are extensively grown in the

Cane Milll Operated at the Boys' Industrial Farm, Marianna

county. Sweet potato flour mills are being financed to
take care of each year's full crops.
Pecans have proved profitable although not intensively
or extensively grown in recent years. Peanuts are a pro-
fitable crop and becoming more extensively grown with
the increasing number of hogs raised.


A cres ............................. ................ ................ ......... .4............... 407,040
Acres reported in farms.................. .......... ................. 23,422
Acres not reported in farms............................................... 383,918
Acres reported in actual cultivation................................ 10,150

St. Johns County is another one of those old-settled
counties which has been only partially developed. With
407,040 acres only 23,422 were reported as in farms in
1922. It has within its borders one of the greatest Irish
potato sections in the world. The year above mentioned
the acreage in potatoes was 10,115 and produced $1,699,-
744 worth. Other seasons they brought better prices and
yielded a much larger sum. The section where this crop
is grown is known as the "Hastings District" and ex-
tends from a few miles east of Hastings to Palatka in
Putnam county.
St. Johns county leads all other Florida counties in the
grape industry.
This county boasts of the first permanent white settle-
ment in North America. No other county has so much
unique history. Its county site is St. Augustine, the most
ancient city of the United States. It is a quaint city of
seven thousand with magnificent temples and hotels. It
was chosen as the home of Henry M. Flagler, the
developer of the East Coast of Florida. The East Coast
Railroad from Jacksonville to Key West is a monument
to his vision and enterprise.
The old city gates still stand at the northern entrance
to the city. Facing the delightful land-locked sea front
stands old Fort Marion, one of the best preserved speci-
mens of military architecture of the late Middle Ages to
be found in the world. Its four bastions of St. Paul, St.
Peter, St. Augustine and St. Charles are still connected
with massive walls of coquina, surrounded by sentry

Palm Grove in St. Johns County

towers, and around the great central court are casements
and dungeons. Distinct traces of the old time moat are
outside the walls. There is a torture chamber, uncovered
in 1833, and a chapel, and the Council Chamber, and the
Court Room and other mementoes of a cruel age. Osceola,
the great Seminole chief, was once confined here. It has
the oldest house in America.


A cres ............................................................................. ........................... 503,040
Acres reported in farms.......................... 105,902
Acres not reported in farms ...................................... 397,138
Acres reported in actual cultivation............................ 22,519

Special Points of Historic and Scenic Interest

On the 2nd of April, 1512, records from the archives
of the Spanish Government in Catholic monasteries show
that Juan Ponce de Leon, companion of Columbus,
landed some miles north of St. Augustine on the beach,
and it has never been ascertained whether it was in St.
Johns or Duval county. There is a pleasing tradition
that Ponce de Leon, in searching for the fabled "foun-
tain of youth," camped for a while on the grounds now
occupied by the Young Women's Christian Association
summer home at Keystone Bluff.
There stands now on these grounds a live oak tree, the
largest in Florida, considered to be over four hundred
years old, and supposed to be the tree that Ponce de Leon
camped under while in this vicinity.
On May 1, 1562, Jean Ribault entered the St. Johns
River, which he named the River May, in commemoration
of the day on which the discovery was made. Crossing
the bar in one of the smaller boats, Ribault landed on
the northern side of the river, where he met native
Indians assembled, and after giving them a few presents
he crossed the river to the south shore, where he picked
out a knoll on the high embankment and erected a stone
column bearing the arms of France. Ribault had been
commissioned by Admiral Coligny to pick out places of
settlement and explore in the name of Charles IX.
Ribault, after erecting the monument in the vicinity of

k'9~~sT ., t ""

Grapes Grow in North Florida

St. Johns Bluff on the south bank of the St. Johns River,
sailed away.
In 1564 another French expedition, under command of
Rene de Laudonnier, sailed into the River May, in the
month of June, and brought with him a colony of Hugue-
nots. Laudonnier landed at the spot where the monu-
ment left by Ribault stood, the colonists at once begin-
ning to fortify the place by building a fort of logs and
staves. It was in the form of a triangle. This fort cov-
ered a considerable area, as six hundred colonists lived
within its walls. Some of the colonists sailed up the St.
Johns River twenty leagues, and it is safe to assume that
these were the first white men to behold the site upon
which Jacksonville now stands. This colony finally
reached the state of famine. Laudonnier seized the great
Indian Olata-Utina, chief of the Indians in this vicinity,
and held him as ransom for supplies. This created
enmity on the part of the Indians, who would not supply
them with any more food or favor them. On August 4,
1565, Sir John Hawkins unexpectedly arrived, and seeing
the plight of the French, he supplied their immediate
needs. News of this French colony in Florida had al-
ready reached Spain and induced Phillip II of Spain to
dispatch Pedro Menendez de Aviles to drive out the
French colony and take possession in th ename of the
King of Spain. He arrived at the mouth of the St. Johns
River September 4, 1565, where he gave battle. Seeing
that the French colony outnumbered him in tents and
men, he sailed south, landing at St. Augustine, which on
the 6th of September he named in honor of that Catholic
saint. On the 17th of September, 1565, Menendez marched
from St. Augustine and attacked the French Fort Caro-
line, which he destroyed, killing all of the colonists
except sixty, among which were Laudonnier and twenty-
five of his followers, who escaped, boarding their vessel
and setting sail for France, thus ending French attempt
to colonize the New World at that time.
At the present site of South Jacksonville, a mile east
of the present South Jacksonville ferry, back from the
river 250 yards, the Spaniards built a fort called San
Nicholas. The present location of the city of Jackson-
ville was first known as Wassa Pilatka by the Indians,
signifying the place where the cows crossed or could
swim over. This finally became the crossing place of
travel between St. Augustine and Pensacola, also the

-r. A

Pablo Beach Scene in Duval County

road north to Georgia. This was known as the King's
Duval County has an area of 503,040 acres, only 22,000
of which are under actual cultivation. In it is situated
the State's metropolis, Jacksonville, a city of approxi-
mately 100,000, surrounded virtually by a wilderness.
Due to its stragetic location, it is the principal gateway
to the State. This city by the St. Johns, has grown
rapidly during the last few decades. It is a commercial
and industrial city, and is favored as a winter resort.
There is a great diversity of soils and conditions in
Duval in the area not farmed. Some of it is in timber,
some needs draining and some is held merely for en-
hancement in value.
The taxable value of the county is more than $60,000,-
000. This is based on a supposed-to-be 40 per cent. valua-
tion, which shows that there are properties in Duval, a
large proportion of which is in Jacksonville, worth
$150,000.000. The bank deposits of the city amount to
$40,000,000, which is $400 per capital. The bank clearings
are $625,000,000 annually.
Jacksonville industries have $32,000,000 invested, with
a payroll of $9,000,000 annually. The exports approxi-
mate $10,000,000 annually to fifteen foreign countries.
Jacksonville is amply accommodated by railroads and
ocean-going vessels. It has a splendid deep water harbor
on the St. Johns River, twenty miles from the Atlantic
Great opportunities for investment are open in this
growing city, and farming near so good a market always
offers splendid opportunities to those who wish to follow
dairying, poultry-raising and truck farming.


W. L. Watson, County Agricultural Agent

What are the predominating types of soils in Duval
Ans.-The soils of Florida as a whole are perhaps
more variable in character than most any other Southern
State, and Duval County is not an exception to the rule:
but the fact that they are variable doesn't mean that
some are good and that others are worthless, for, as( a

matter of fact, each soil type is adapted to its peculiar
For instance, the Portsmouth, or level pine, lands of
Duval county are best adapted for the production of such
crops as corn, sugar cane, Irish potatoes and for the var-
ious forage crops used in connection with live stock farm-
ing; while the Norfolk fine sand or the higher pine land
soils are better suited to the growing of early truck and
garden crops. The two mentioned constitute about one-
half the area of the county, while the balance is made up
of high black-jack ridges, hammocks and very low swamp
The black-jack ridge type, while not adapted to the
profitable production of corn, cane or Irish potatoes is
admirably suited to such fruits as Japanese plums and
persimmons, grapes and certain other fruits, and is ideal
for poultry raising. It has also been proven that Kudzu
and sweet clover, two very excellent soil builders and
pasture plants, can be successfully grown on this type
of soil.
The hammock lands are very well adapted to both
truck and general field crops, while the very low swamp
lands, when properly drained and limed, are ideal for
sugar cane, corn, cabbage, onions, and many other crops.
What about subsoil?
Ans.-Most of the soils of the county, with the ex-
ception of the black-jack ridge, are underlaid with a cho-
colate formation, commonly known as hardpan, of vary-
ing thickness and at depths ranging from twelve inches
to two or three feet below the surface, which serves the
same general purpose as clay, when not too near the sur-
face, for the prevention of leaching the plant food from
the feeding depths of the plant roots.
Do any of the soils have a clay subsoil?
Ans.-Yes; there are areas of considerable extent
scattered here and there in practically every section of
the county having a sand clay subsoil at about the same
depth as the hardpan.
What about the prices for farm lands in Duval County?
Ans.-The prevailing prices of farm lands in Duval
county are no higher than they are in other counties of
the state. Indeed, they are far below the prices that are
being asked in the more highly developed sections. With
the exception of the small improved farms and the adja-
cent lands within a radius of five or six miles of the city

good unimproved land in moderate sized tracts may be
had at from $25.00 to $75.00 per acre, depending, of
course, on its location, quality of soil, proximity to hard
surfaced road and, to some extent, with whom you are
dealing. In very large tracts of half section or more,
the average price asked would not exceed $40.00 per acre.
What class of settlers inhabit the rural sections of the
Ans.-The rural sections of Duval county are settled
by fully 90 per cent white farmers, some of whom are
native born, and by other good white settlers from var-
ious states of the Union.
What about rural schools?
Aus.-The rural schools of the county are in a rank
with any other county in the State. The county superin-
tendent of public instruction, a man of unusual ability,
is assisted by a very capable lady, who visits regularly
every rural school in the county, to see that each one is
kept up to a high plane of efficiency. School wagons,
with drivers, are furnished to transport the children to
and from school.
Are the mosquitoes very bad in the rural districts?
Ans.-No more so than in any other section of the
North or South where this insect is prevalent. There are
numerous places in the North, even in Alaska, where
mosquitoes are worse than they are in Duval county.
How are the health conditions?
Ans.-There is not a more healthful section in the
South than Duval County, when the ordinary rules of
sanitation and health are observed. I have known of very
few cases of malarial fever during my seven years of
residence in this county.
What are the most important truck and garden crops
that have proven profitable to grow on Duval county
Ans.-Briefly stated, every variety of truck and garden
crop usually grown in the South can be, and is being,
profitably grown in Duval county, the most important
of these being Irish potatoes, cabbage, onions, cucumbers,
string beans, tomatoes, egg plant, peppers, lettuce,
squash, spinach, watermelon, cantaloupes, turnips, lima
beans, carrots, okra, radish, sweet corn and strawberries.
Celery, while not extensively grown in this county, some
of as fine yields and of as fine quality as was ever grown
in the state has been grown here.

What staple crops are best adapted to Duval county
Ans.-Corn, oats, cowpeas, sugar cane, sweet pota-
toes, rice, velvet beans, rye, peanuts, chufas and many
others of minor importance.
What about the roads? All the main highways are
hard surfaced and the lateral roads are being rapidly
How many months of the year can crops be grown
in Duval county?
Ans.-There is not a month in the year that crops of
some of the ones mentioned cannot be grown here in this
county. Among the common field and forage crops that
thrive and those which seem to feast on our very coldest
weather are: Oats, rye and rape. These are all sown in
the months of October and November and furnish a most
luxuriant green pasture for all kinds of live stock dur-
ing the winter and early spring months. Some of the
truck and vegetable crops that are only slightly or not
at all injured by the lowest temperatures are cabbage,
onions, spinach, rutabaga turnips, radishes, collards and
Where properly conducted, does poultry raising pay
around Jacksonville?
Ans.-Those who have used good judgment in the
management of their flocks, in the way of proper feed-
ing and culling out the star boarders, beginning with and
maintaining only the numbers that could be given the
proper attention, have demonstrated beyond any doubt
that there is not a place in the world where poultry farm-
ing can be made more profitable than in Duval county.
Does the Dairy business pay near Jacksonville?
Ans.-The same answer given on poultry would also
apply to this question. Milk, for the past several months,
has been retailing in Jacksonville for 20 to 25 cents per
quart. The dairy business, when advantage is taken of
the almost unlimited opportunities for providing all the
year round pastures and the great variety of feed and
forage that can be grown, is undoubtedly the most pro-
fitable phase of agriculture in Duval county.
Does feed put into silos keep well in Florida?
Ans.-Absolutely yes.

How many tons of corn ensilage have been known to
be produced on Duval county soils?
Ans.-It isn't uncommon to make as much as ten tons
per acre, and there are instances where as much as 15
tons of corn and cowpeas have been harvested and put
into silos in the vicinity of Jacksonville.
With proper soil management, fertilization and culti-
vation, how many bushels of corn will the best types of
soil produce per acre?
Ans.-From forty to sixty bushels.
How much commercial fertilizer is necessary to pro-
duce such yields?
Ans.-If the mechanical and physical condition of the
soil has been properly seen after, that is to say, if
thoroughly drained and a deeply prepared seed bed with
a reasonable amount of humus supplied, from six to
eight hundred pounds will be found profitable.
What is the usual yield of sweet potatoes when grown
on the soils best adapted, and where good farming
methods are practiced?
Ans.-From 200 to 300 bushels per acre.
What price does the farmer usually receive for sweet
Ans.-The market for sweet potatoes in Jacksonville
ranges from 75 cents to $2.50 per bushel. They are sel-
dom below $1.00.
Is sugar cane a profitable crop in Duval county?
Ans.-If all the land in Duval county that is naturally
adapted to the profitable production of this crop were
planted, the acreage in this county alone would equal
the entire acreage that is planted in the State of
Is there any way to provide green pasture during the
winter and early spring?
Ans.-Yes; oats, rye and rape, if planted in October
or early in November (preferably October), will furnish
excellent pasturage during this time, and in case of oats
if grazing is ceased by the first of March they can be
depended upon to grow out and make a cutting of from
one to two tons of fine hay per acre.
Would you recommend planting citrus fruit in Duval
county, on a commercial scale?
Ans.-I would not.

F -

.' .1~

Satsumas in Jackson County

Is bee culture profitable?
Yes, if intelligently handled. Thousands of pounds of
honey could be produced in this county annually.
What grasses have been found best for permanent
pasture purposes?
Ans.-Bermuda and carpet grass intermixed with
How many months of the year will these grasses fur-
nish grazing for all kinds of livestock?
Ans.-About eight months.
What is the average yield per acre?
Ans.-With very ordinary methods, from fifteen to
twenty tons are produced.
Can citrus fruit be grown as high up in the state as
Duval county?
Ans.-Yes. There are several fairly large groves at
Mandarin, and orange and grapefruit/'trees are common
in all parts of the county, and we would heartily recom-
mend the planting of a few trees for home use, but as a
business proposition, the risk from winter killing would
be too great, except the Satsuma variety, a small but very
hardy variety that will stand temperatures still lower
than we usually have here in Duval county.
What other fruits have proven their adaptability to
the climate and soils of Duval county?
Ans.-Several of the improved varieties of bunch
grapes, as well as the scuppernong and Thomas, figs,
plums, Japanese persimmon, peaches and pears.
Has the pecan nut tree proven successful in Duval
Ans.-Yes; there arc several fine orchards here in this
county and more are being set out.
Ho wold do the trees have to be before they begin to
bear profitable crops?
Ans.-Pecan trees, when properly handled, will begin
to bear some nuts when they are four or five years old;
but it usually takes from ten to twelve years before they
really begin to pay a profit on the investment, but from
that age on the increase is continuous until they are fifty
or more years old. I have no hesitancy in advising any
one who comes to Duval county to plant pecans.
In the case of new settlers coming into Duval county,
who would, of course, be unfamiliar with farming condi-

tions there, would the County Agricultural Agent visit
and give them his counsel and advice upon request?
Ans.-Absolutely yes.
What are the main requisites in the man who decides
to buy and operate a farm in Duval county?
Florida would be further along in agricultural develop-
ment to-day had it not been for the floods of misleading
literature that have been broadcasted throughout the
country, with pictures and stories telling how different
ones from the North and other places who, with little or
no capital, had come here and amassed great fortunes,
giving the impression that nature did the work while the
people sat idly under the shade of an orange tree and
watched the dollars grow. The same rules that make for
success anywhere else in the world are the rules that
bring success ii .l county. Fortunes awaits no honest
man if he does ;: rk intelligently, conscientiously and
persistently. I'. 'is exactly true of the man who comes
to Duval county to farm. Furthermore, we would not
advise any man to take up farming here or anywhere
with no more than enough money to buy the land, and
have to trust to Providence to, in some way, manage to
live by working out, and in other ways, for two or three
years until he can get his farm improved and equipped
as it should be before realizing any profit from it. It
doesn't require a fortune to begin farming in Duval
county, but it does require some capital above the cost
of the land, and the essential improvements. This is just
as true with the man who goes to any other state in the
How much capital will it take to buy, develop and
equip a ten-acre farm in your county, with the view of
raising some poultry, the keeping of a cow, and truck
gardening as a specialty?
Ans.-This is about the query that is received through
the mail from hundreds of people from all parts of the
country. It is a very difficult question to answer; in fact,
it is impossible to give a definite answer to this question.
The old adage, "There is as much in the man as there is
in the land," will apply in this case with full force. The
writer has known of a few instances where men have
come here with very little capital, but with lots of grit
and common-sense, and have made good on the farm. On
the other hand, he has seen others come to this State with

ample funds, with very little knowledge of the farming
game, and also with less desire to get right down to hard
work, prove a dismal failure. It must be understood that
it usually takes the first year to put a new farm into a
productive condition. Indeed, the man who succeeds in
making a newly-cleared farm more than self-sustaining
the second year is somewhat above the average. This
applies to the man who expects to depend on the crops
that he grows and sells from his soil. With dairying or
commercial poultry raising, where most of the feed is
bought, much quicker returns may safely be expected,
but the initial cost of either of these branches of farming
would also be a good deal greater, than the man who
starts out to do general farming, or truck gardening.
To the man who knows how to farm "back home" and
who contemplates coming here to engage in general
diversified farming on the intensified -' 1, using ten
acres as a unit, I think three thousand "s would be
about as little as would be safe to conn, u with. We
are more inclined to encourage the purcha_ and develop-
ment of 20 and 40-acre farms, which are large enough
to provide for the raising of more live stock, the pro-
portionate cost of which is not near so great, and as a
rule the larger farm will prove the safest in the long run.
Jacksonville has 125,000 population; 200 manufactur-
ing plants; the largest naval stores market in the world;
the largest lumber market on the Atlantic Coast. One
hundred and ten passenger and express trains enter and
leave every twenty-four hours. Forty-seven miles of ter-
minal tracks, and all switches and signals are operated
from an electric tower. Forty thousand express cars,
100,000 passenger coaches, one million freight cars handle
one and a quarter million package pieces of baggage
through the million dollar terminal annually.



The following tables set forth the official Government
figures as compiled at the Weather Bureau at Jackson-
ville Florida. These figures give the mean temperatures
covering the period of years by months, from 1901 to
1915. The lower table gives the mean precipitation over
the same period of years calculated by months. The
reader is asked to pay particular attention to the even
temperatures as shown by these figures, and the general
distribution of rain throughout the twelve months of the

Year Jan. Feb. [Mar. Ap'l. May|.'ne July| Aug.| Sept] Oct.I Nov.I Dec.
I Il I I ,
1901 .. 4.2 52.4 00.41 63.2 T5.41 7S.1 82.61 80.1 78.01 69.51 56.4 52.8
1902 i 52.2r 50.6 62.41 07.2 77.8 80.3 83.0 81.0 77.4 71.0 65.9 57.1
1903 ...52.8 59.2 66.8s 5.5 72.5 77.9 81.2 82.01 70.8 68.81 59.0 50.4
1904 ... 50. 56.6 65r.01i 0.4 73.0 77.0 80.4 80.4 78.0 70.3 00.0 55.6
190 . 49.8 5,2. 1 3.41 68.7 78.1 79.6 82.0 79.09 7.8 10.4 63.8 53.5
1900 ... 56.0 54.31 00.06 6R.0 73.2 80.8 80.4 81.4 80.1 68.2 62.0 56.0
1907 .. 61.158.2 69.8 64.0 74.8 78.3 81.7 81.8 70.0 68.3 62.2 55.6
1908 5. 4.01 53.2 67.71 73.8 75.2 78.4 80.2 80.4 76.3 67.0 03.6 00.8
1900 .. 5.2 58.2 63.6 60.8 73.81 80.4 80.8 81.7 77.0 70.2 64.8 51.4
1010 ... 53.0 55.2 04. 67.9 74.01 78.8 81.0 80.5 76.6 72.0 59.5 50.8
1911 ...58.2 61.0 04.3 70.0 73.7182.4 81.0 80.6 81.5 75.0 01. 060.2
1912... 52.61 52.5 62. 70.8 77.6 78.21 81.8 81.8 81.0 73.2 -i59. 59.8
191 ... 63.6 58.4 64.8 07.3 74.3 78.31 82.3 80.8 77.3 69.2 03.2 58.2
1914 552 55.3 57.7 7 74.8 82.8 82.0 82.0 77.2 71.5 61.6 54.6
1915 .. .... .... 55.8 66. 77.8 79.8 81.8 82.8 70.8 73.4 66.0 53.8
Means .. 55.3 57.51 62.8) 68.6 75.1 80.2 82.2 81.6 78.4 70.5 62.3 56.0


Year I Jan.| Feb. Mar. Ap'l.IMay| June July) Aug. Sept.| Oct. Nov. Dec.
I I l I I I-
1o01 2.64 6.76 6.57 1.08 5.31 0.64 4.26 6.121 7.38 1.37 0.36 2.73
1002 .0.08 3.64 4.20 2.02 1.82 3.65 6.69 4.74 12.78 5.90 4.18 5.82
1903 .4.44 5.23 2.55 1.54 14.80 3.22 2.54 6.60 2.80 2.83 3.82 1.66
1904 6.77 .70 1.35 0.81 2.00 4.92 5.25 2.74 6.09 11.70 2.26 1.68
1005 .180 4.05 6.47 2.02 (0.68 2.72 5.14 10.07 6.18 2.89 0.60 5.65
1900 3.46 3.06 1.02 0.30 14.31 4.58 8.96 5.38 2.29 2.30) 0.01 1.09
1907 0.14 0.55 0.76 5.27 5.40 2.71 5.55 6.53 10.44 1.37 1.96 4.39
1908 2.24 2.98 1.10 2.93 3.07 4.35 9.68 2.90 21.70 2.07 0.47 0.90
1909 1.17 1.51 4.24 1.80 2.26 8.03 8.43 5.18 4.98 0.08 0.99 2.30
1910 1.06 2.43 1.89 0.69 2.18 6.72 6.13 5.82 3.12 8.02 1.64 1.07
1911 0.89 0.13 2.16 0.30 3.33 2.06 2.35 10.16 0.90 5.26 2.68 4.20
1912 4.76 2.65 3.27 4.96 3.53 9.62 6.74 5.32 7.69 3.17 0.82 2.91
1913 1.53 4.87 5.87 1.32 1.06 4.55 6.28 3.32 3.74 1.35 0.32 4.49
1914 .3.31 4.55 1.84 0.30 2.00 1.32 5.13 8.47 6.31 2.34 3.87 5.20
1915 4.10 2.44 2.47 0.49 3.67 1.55 9.36 4.08 8.41 5.45 1.07 3.46
Means 2.90 3.20 3.26 2.58 4.03 5.28 6.32 6.00 7.85 4.7212.17 3.05



The average summer maximum temperature, consider-
ing the months of June, July and August, is 86.5 degl 'es,
and the average minimum temperature for the same
months is 74.3 degrees. The warmest summer of record
was that of 1881, with an average mean temperature of
82.5 degrees, while the coolest summer occurred in 1894
when the mean temperature averaged 79.0 degrees. Tem-
peratures of 90 degrees or higher occur on the average
15 times yearly, while only twice in the history of the
station has the temperature exceeded 100 degrees. The
average winter minimum temperature, considering the
months of December, January and February, is 46.8 de-
grees, and the average maximum temperature for the
same period is 61.3 degrees. The warmest winter or
record occurred in 1889-1890, with an average mean tem-
perature of 62.6 degrees, and the coldest winter was that
of 1885-1886, with an average mean temperature of 49.6
degrees. On that average the temperature goes below
freezing but seven days of the year, and during the en-
tire period of record there have been only four years with
temperature below 15 degrees. The average date of last
killing rost in spring is February 22nd, and the average
date of first killing frost in autumn is October 27, making
the average growing season 248 days.

Temperature Extremes-Pensacola

Cd 'e 'd

S0 ) C Cd
Z E rQ 4p-i CQ 0S. rA

*Also other dates.


------------ ----- ---
..... ..... 97
---- 93
........... 93
............ 93
..... .... 97
.... 93
-..- ..... 96
.... ...... 99
... ....... 94
-- ..... 94
...... 97
........... 95
............ 94
.- .... 97
... .... 101
-.- .... 93
...... .... 99
--- .... 98
-.--.. 97
-- .-.... 98
..--.... 97
. ... 103
...- .... 97
............. 95
............ 96
........ 94
-..-.-. 96
--.... 98
-...- 93
-.- --.. 97
..... ... 95
--... .. 96
.- .-.- ... 97

.... ...-- 95
-.-.-- ..- ...- 97
-.- ...- 92
.... --.. 91
.--.- 99
.- -..- 93
- -. ...... 94
. .... ..... 94
--- 94

8-29 17
*6-15 28
7- 3 25
7-16 29
7-20 16
6- 3 24
8-15 15
7-29 20
7-14 26
7-18 29
7- 5 25
6-281 29
6-11 23
7-25 23
6-30 14
9-10 11
7-31 22
6-21 17
7-21 20
6-16 7
8-20 19
7-12 17
8-23 24
7-27 26
9-30 29
8-25 15
8-25 26
9- 1 32
8-15 28
8-17 21
9- 8 26
8- 8 18
9- 4 24
7-18 31
7- 5 27
6-22 32
*5-27 23
7-29 17
8-16 18
7- 7 17
6-13 24
7-31 33
6-15 31

i----- -- --
1- 6
2- 9
1- 3
2- 7
3- 2
2- 8
1- 5
1- 2
12- 5
1- 4
2- 3
2- 3
1- 4
3- 1
2- 8

1- 2
2- 6
2- 7
3- 3
3- 5
2- 6
2- 8
3- 5
3- 7
3- 4

12- 6
12- 5
12- 4
12- 4
12- 5
12- 7
12- 4
12- 5
12- 9
12- 1
12- 8








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