Front Cover
 Personnel of the department of...
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Apostrophie to the plow
 The plowman
 Machinery and invention
 Care of farm machinery
 Farm implement sales
 Trade record in world agricult...
 Trade of Unites States with...
 Latin American trade
 What kind of tractor you need
 Tractors, or horses, or both?
 Cost of operation of teams and...
 Horse power of gas engines
 Kerosene for tractor fuel
 Choosing the right tractor
 Auto licenses
 The motor cultivator
 Don't let the tractor loaf on the...
 How farmers use tractors
 When and how to use the tracto...
 The tractor is the farmer's greatest...
 Should I buy a tractor?
 Tractors on southern farms
 Finds the ideal tractor after many...
 Care contributes to the tractor's...
 Cutting operating costs of tractors...
 Average life of tractors
 Twenty tests of a good farmer
 Farming by radio
 Industry and citizenship
 Bond issues for roads, purchasing...
 Federal reserve bank statement,...
 Farm implements and equipment
 Value of plow lands
 Productivity of various countr...
 Publications for distribution

Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 34. No. 3.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00011
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Vol. 34. No. 3.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture, State for Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: July 1924
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Personnel of the department of agriculture
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Apostrophie to the plow
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The plowman
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Machinery and invention
        Page 14
    Care of farm machinery
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Farm implement sales
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Trade record in world agriculture
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Trade of Unites States with tropics
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Latin American trade
        Page 26
        Page 27
    What kind of tractor you need
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Tractors, or horses, or both?
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Cost of operation of teams and tractors
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Horse power of gas engines
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Kerosene for tractor fuel
        Page 46
    Choosing the right tractor
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Auto licenses
        Page 50
        Page 51
    The motor cultivator
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Don't let the tractor loaf on the job
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    How farmers use tractors
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    When and how to use the tractor
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The tractor is the farmer's greatest helper
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Should I buy a tractor?
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Tractors on southern farms
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Finds the ideal tractor after many trials
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Care contributes to the tractor's success
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Cutting operating costs of tractors in corn belt
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Average life of tractors
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Twenty tests of a good farmer
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Farming by radio
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Industry and citizenship
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Bond issues for roads, purchasing power of farm products, and average price of stocks
        Page 107
    Federal reserve bank statement, farm labor supply and demand
        Page 108
    Farm implements and equipment
        Page 109
    Value of plow lands
        Page 110
    Productivity of various countries
        Page 111
    Publications for distribution
        Page 111
        Page 112
Full Text

Volume 34 Number 3



JULY, 1924

Commissioner of Agriculture

Entered January 81, 190P, at Tallahassee, Florida. as second-class matter under
Act of Congress of June. 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special rate of post-
age provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 8, 1917. authorized September
11, 1918."

i. 1

Personnel of the

Department of Agriculture

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner
Miss ULLAINEE BARNETT, Secretary to the Commissioner

T. J. Brooks, Chief Clerk.
Russell T. Mickler, Clerk.
Mrs. Lizzie Lee Leman, Clerk and

J. H. Pledger, Clerk.
A. M. Lewis.
Ellis Woodworth.
L. W. Zim.
J. B. Brinson.

C. B. Gwynn, Clerk.
S. C. DeGarmo, Land Clerk.
Mrs. Laura B. Hopkins, Clerk and
W. C. Lockey, Clerk.
Miss Bessie Damon, Clerk and

T. E. Andrews, Clerk.
T. R. Hodges, Commissioner.
Walter Bevis, Clerk.
Miss Elizabeth Rief.
Russell T. Mickler, Clerk.
R. E. Rose, State Chemist.
Gordon Hart, Assistant Chemist.
B. J. Owen, Assistant Chemist.
A. G. Davis, Assistant Chemist.
Miss Muriel Rose, Clerk and
Newell B. Davis, Chemist.
C. E. Shackleford, Clerk.
L. M. Rhodes, Commissioner.
Moses Folsom, Secretary.
Neill Rhodes, Marketing Agent.
H. A. Maloney, Marketing Agent.
J. Summers, Multigrapher.
Mrs. M. E. Keane, Stenographer.

Printed by Th' Record Company, St. Augustine, Florda

Volume 34

Number 3



JULY, 1924

Commissioner of Agriculture

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter under
Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special rate of post-
age provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized September
11, 1918."


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Preface . . . . .. 5
Introduction . . 7
Apostrophe to the Plow . . .. 10
The Plowman ..... ... ....... .. 12
Machinery and Invention .. 14
Care of Farm Machinery .. .. . .. 15
Farm Implement Sales . .. . 17
Trade Record in World Agriculture . 20
Trade of United States with Tropics . ... . 23
Latin American Trade . ... .. . 26
What Kind of Tractor You Need 28
Tractors, or Horses, or Both? . 30
Cost of Operation of Teams and Tractors . 37
Horse Power of Gas Engines . . 43
Kerosene Burning Engines . .. .. 46
Choosing the Right Tractor .... .. . 47
Auto Licenses ................. 50
The Motor Cultivator . .. . 52
Don't Let the Tractor Loaf on the Job . . . 56
How Farmers Use Tractors . . 60
When and How to Use the Tractor . 63
The Tractor the Farmer's Greatest Helper . ... . 66
Should I Buy a Tractor? . .. 69
Tractors on Southern Farms .. .. 74
Finds Suitable Tractor After Many Trials . .. . 78
Care Contributes to Tractor's Success . . .. 81
Cutting Operating Costs .. . . 83
Average Life of Tractors . . 85
Terracing ..... ..... .... 87
Twenty Tests of a Good Farmer .... . .. 91
Farming by Radio .............. 97
Industry and Citizenship . ... .. .100
Bond Issues for Roads .. 107
Purchasing Power of Farm Products . .. 107
Price of Stocks . .. . .. . 107
Federal Reserve Banks . 108
Farm Labor Supply and Demand . .108
Farm Implements and Equipment . .. 109
Value of Plow Lands. . . . 110
Productivity of Various Countries . . .111
Publications for Distribution . . .111


T HE investments in Farm Machinery and Implements in
the United States is approximately $2,ooo,ooo,ooo.
This amount is about forty per cent of the investment in
Every effort has been toward increasing the capacity of
machinery to handle acreage and the efficiency of machinery
with respect to man. This process can continue for some time
yet. As population increases the time will come when the task
will be to get more from an acre rather than increase the man-
power to handle acres.
There is need for a greater variety of implements and ma-
chinery on the farms of Florida than in any other State. This
is due to the great variety of crops and the various kinds and
conditions of soil cultivated.
The use of improved farm machinery in Florida is constantly
on the increase. There has been quite a lapse of consumption of
farm machinery in the great agricultural States during recent
years-during the period of depression following the World
We have given much space to the question of farm tractors.
The changing from horse-power to gas-engine power presents
so many problems that it is an open question just when it is
advisable to make the change, to what extent the change should
be made and the character of tractor that is needed when changes
are made.
We have used quite freely articles on this subject appearing
in the agricultural journals-always giving full credit to the
journal and the author. We are indebted to the agricultural
press for this privilege. The greater part of the photographs
were furnished us by boards of trade or by machinery manu-
No inventory or enumeration of the different character of
implements and machines used by the farmers of the State has
ever been made. The relative amount of investment in the
various kinds of machinery is not known.
This number of our Quarterly is sent out in the hope that
it will serve a useful purpose to the farmers of the State.
Very truly yours,
Commissioner of Agriculture.



Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture
AN'S existence tpon the earth is dependent upon his ability
to make the soil yield him a subsistence. Modern civil-
ization rests on farm machinery to as great an extent
as on any other agency of industry.
If the use of farm machinery were abandoned for one year
the whole structure of society as now organized would collapse
-barbarism would follow.
Man's mastery over nature is exemplified in marked degree
by the man-power production in farm and factory. The present
number of inhabitants of the world could not subsist by crude
methods of production.
Efficiency wins out in the struggle for existence. Efficiency in
agriculture is considered of such vital importance that govern-
ments employ specialists to instruct farmers in efficiency of
production and marketing. Governments do not appropriate
funds to aid in instructing those engaged in manufacturing, min-
ing, transportation, merchandising, banking, etc.
Farm machinery has made modern progress possible. At the
beginning of our government 70 per cent of the population lived
on farms. Since the introduction of improved machinery farm-
reared men and women have gone to factory, mine, commercial
and professional pursuits until only 29 per cent of the population
is left on the farm.
The population of the United States increased from 1870 to
19Io 140 per cent. During the same period the number of
farmers increased only 113 per cent. The increase of cattle was
140 per cent. Corn production increased 206 per cent. Wheat
213 per cent, and cotton 358 per cent.
The best lands lost most heavily in population-where the
best machinery was introduced and to the greatest extent.
The three largest grain States lost in farm population 36,000
from 19oo to 1910, yet increased grain production 21 per cent.
The average production per year per each inhabitant of
19oo census-five-year period ending 1899, 44 bushels.
The average production per year for each inhabitant of 1920
census-five-year period ending 1919, 48 bushels.
Soil conservation is even more important than improving
farm machinery, but the two should go hand in hand.

The amount produced per hand in the United States is
greater than that produced in any other country in the world-
due to machinery.
Intensive, hand-power farming on the European or Asiatic
standard means the waste of the most worthwhile thing-Human
Life Power.
During the winter of 1778, when General Washington was
in command of the first army of American Independence, the
little band of patriots nearly starved to death at Valley Forge.
Only I0,000 men and three million people back of them and yet
could hardly feed them. The country was fresh and fertile, the
population mostly rural and food scarce. Of course, the lack of
quick transportation was an additional handicap.
Yet the great American Army of 1918 did not know the
smallest fear of hunger. There were four million soldiers
mustered into service, two million of them three thousand miles
away on foreign soil, an ocean between, yet the feeding of this
vast army was not all the task assumed, millions of soldiers and
civilians of other lands were fed from American fields. Besides
enough were left for the industries to turn out the greatest
quantity of manufactured supplies ever produced in a like period
of time.
This wonderful change in the producing power of the nation
had not been wrought by skyscrapers or electricity but by im-
proved farm machinery. Improved transportation made it pos-
sible to get the food and other necessities from point of produc-
tion to field of action, but the materials were made on the farm
that fed and clothed the armies. No industry stands ahead of the
farm-equipment industry in service to the nation.
During the years of reaction after the war, when prices were
falling, the sale of farm machinery fell off tremendously. Partly
because there was less wastefulness in the care of machinery,
partly because of mending old machines rather than buy new
ones, but primarily because the income of the farmer would not
justify replenishing his store of farm equipment. The sale of
farm machinery in 1922 as compared with 1914 was less than
Looking ahead ten years, judging by present rate of increase,
we may be a nation of 125,000,000 people. Some 70,000,000
of these will be actual urban dwellers and fully 90,0o0,000 will
be non-farming population.
The solar energy of a hundred million years ago helped to
make the coal beds of earth. The minerals melted in the crucible


of a moultcn earth millions of years ago made the beds and veins
of ores which man digs and refines in his crucibles to the quality
required for machinery. Man is drawing heavily on the stored
wealth of eons of time.
The most fundamental fact in economics is that agricultur-
ists form the dominant economic class. The means of subsistence
are derived from the daily revenue of solar energy through the
operations of agriculture. The accessories of life are derived,
in great part, by the augmentation of this revenue out of the
capital store of energy preserved from geological ages.
Life depends on a continuous flow of energy which can be
utilized organically. Agriculture is primarily the source of that
flow. No matter how much mechanical energy man may harness,
this supply of organic energy must be furnished from the same
source-solar energy through agriculture. Mechanical energy
in the form of farm machinery is a means to an end-the hus-
banding of solar energy in form suitable for mechanical use in
clothing and shelter and for organic use in food.

Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture
BACK in the childhood of the world thy crude beginnings laid
the foundation of progress.
Thou hast husbanded the sunbeams and showers and laid
bounties at the feet of man.
Thou hast lifted pastorial drudgery from the back of him
who stands at the portals of the world.
Mankind waits attendance on thee.
Thy fruits balance the ledgers of civilization.
The sun that shines, on thy handiwork is tempered by the
hopes of all peoples.
Thy exchange is current in every bank.
Past generations have left no more princely dower than thee
as a testimony of their stewardship.
On the banks of the vapid Nile, before ponderous Pyramids
reared their crests to the sun, before Pharaohs ruled or Israel
slaved, it was thee that fed the teeming millions from Egypt,
"the grainery of the world."
The sunny slopes of Assyria knew thee; Babylon was fed
by thee in the valleys of the Tigres and Euphrates; by thee
lived millions more in the sun-lit, mystic land of Ind.
The valley of Aesdraelon was tilled by thee before its soil
was drenched with the blood of many nations.
The terraced hills of Greece knew thee in palmy days of
yore, e'er Paul preached in Ephesus or thundered idolatry from
the crest of Mars Hill.
Rome was made possible by thee. Thou built the empire
whose conquering armies planted her eagles in the frontiers of
unknown lands and whose dominions included the then known
It was thee that fed the beggars that walked the streets
of Bagdad, filled the plates at Belshazzer's feast and sated the
appetite at Cleopatra's revels.
Want of thy gifts hath brought want to many lands, tortured
millions with hunger, lined streets of cities with the famished
and left heroes to die on battlefields.

During the Dark Ages-the thousand years of the lapse of
civilization-the race was preserved and modern civilization
made possible by thee.
Then man turned his attention to multiplying thy service and
marvelous progress began its onward march.
Through thee man increased his power a thousand fold;
commerce leaped forward beyond the most daring dreams; the
horizon of man's vision widened as the hum of thy industry filled
the air.
Today thou art the power behind the thrones of empires;
the dynamic force that sets the standard of strength of nations;
the liberator of civilization.
Wert thou to cease thy ministrations cities would perish, their
streets would grow up in grass and weeds, houses would be given
over to owls and bats, cobwebs would hide the abandoned and
doomed, progress would be dead and civilization would be lost.
The few who would be left would have to begin all over again
in the most primitive way the march upward and onward, and
ten thousand years from now antiquarians would exhume buried
ruins of our cities and read with astonishment the records of our
To carry thy tribute to the inhabitants of every clime iron
monsters race across continents on tracks of steel, and panting
ships cut the surf of every sea.
From hills and plains watered by copious libation, from ir-
rigated deserts, from frost-chilled bleaks of the north, from the
sun-bathed zones of the south, comes thy message as ye turn the
stubborn glebe; commerce listens and answers with peans if
fruitful harvests come with the seasons, but mourns if harvests
fail. The wheels of industry whirl or stop at thy bidding.
From thy cornucopia pours that upon which mankind depend
for existence. He that guides thee in the furrow is marshalled
under the flag that compels the allegiance of every nation,
kindred, tongue and people, in every clime, in every age, from
the garret to the throne, from the beggar to the king.
Thou wilt continue to be a prime essential of service to man
till the twilight of time shall fold the canopy of heaven for the
last sleep of the world.

Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture

No longer "The Man with the Hoe" is he
Who tills the soil. In his place, in this day,
Is the Ploughman who looks the world in the
Face unafraid. Forged steel turns the stubborn
Glebe. Tractors do his bidding when he calls;
Sunshine and showers come with the seasons,
And nature laughs a bountiful harvest
To feed the few millions of earth.

No longer "bowed by the weight of centuries,
The emptiness of ages in his face,"
He mounts his iron steed, commands, and Lo!
Renders lighter the burdens of the world.
Responsive to rapture and despair-
As are the royal, the rulers and lords-
He claims dominion o'er land and sea, traces
The stars and searches for power.

"The creature dreamed by Him who shaped the suns
And pillared the firmament with light;"
Familiar with nature's wondrous secrets,
"Conversant with Plato and Pleiades;"
Last fruitage of time's many tragedies
And upward climb of turbulent mankind;
The future must reckon with this Ploughman,
Who holds his hand on the throttle of the world.







Manufacturers' Record
EVERY advance in mechanical science means a benefit to
humanity and to the soul of mankind. The locomotive,
the steam engine, the internal combustion engine, the au-
tomobile, the farm tractor, are all mighty steps in civilization's
upward movement from the direst drudgery-drudgery which
cannot as a general proposition uplift souls, but which deadens
mind and soul and body too.
"The weary ploughman plodding his homeward way" is very
beautiful in theory and in poetry, but the ploughman who can
sit behind a tractor and do his work with less of physical strain,
has more of mental power left for the uplifting of his soul. The
housewife, whose drudgery over the wash tub, for instance, now
lightened by the electric washing machine, is none the worse
mentally or spiritually for the lessening of the burden which had
been dragging womankind down to the grave.
The electric light which illumines millions of homes, and
the streets of every civilized city, is an advance step for civili-
zation over the darkness of former years, and, indeed, as great
an advance over the oil illumination as that was a step beyond
the darkness before petroleum was known.
Modern discoveries have made it possible to extract nitrates
from the air, and thus assure for all time to come fertiliza-
tion to save our soil from deterioration. The supply of foodstuffs
is thus forever guaranteed and without such an invention or
discovery our soil might have become exhausted-not only the
soil of this country, but the soil of other countries, for heavier
fertilization is saving the soil of other lands.
The telephone means the betterment of life, the lessening of
life's burden, the saving of many lives; and just as the wireless
calls for help when ships are battling against ocean storms, so
help can be called for the sick in emergencies which in former
years would have sent millions of people to their graves, saved
now by the power of the telephone reaching the physician in
time. Souls are uplifted not destroyed by the telephone.
The radio opens to all thinking men a vista where the mind
staggers and only the soul can look out and grasp a little of what
the radio means when men can listen to the sound of voices
thousands of miles away, when the Gospel preached in one church
may be heard a thousand, or two thousand, or three thousand

miles distant by people who might never have had the privilege
without the radio. Thinking men are realizing that that is but
indicative of the power given to the human soul to send out its
message to Almighty God and catch, when hearts are attuned
to it, an answering reply.
The radio opens up to the thoughtful man or woman some
conception, dazzling in its overwhelming importance, of the
possibilities of the other world, where the finite mind can expand
unto infinite things as great in extent over what we now know on
this earth as the radio is greater than what anyone one hundred
years ago would have dared to forecast as the possibility of the
A thousand and one illustrations of equal interest and equal
influence of machinery and inventions upon the uplifting and
saving of mankind could be given.

ILLIONS of dollars have been wasted by farmers not tak-
ing proper care of their machinery. Exposure to weather
rots the timbers and rusts the metals of all machinery.
It is economy to shelter a machine the same as it is to shelter a
horse. Americans are proverbially a wasteful people. In nothing
is this more fragrantly exemplified than in the treatment of ma-
chinery. When implements were few and simple this waste was
not so great. As machinery became more complicated and costly
the waste was more manifest and expensive. The cultivator, the
binder, the thrasher, the tractor have each added to the need of
care of farm equipment. The need for skill and attention has
reached an acute stage in the use of the gas engine. Neglect and
abuse spell ruin. Machinery protection is pocket-book protection.
Shelter is not the only requisite: To prevent rust all parts
not painted should be oiled. Damp atmosphere will rust. All
parts that must stand friction must be oiled when in use. There
is an art in handling machines of every kind-especially tractors.
Ignorance, incompetence or carelessness can ruin a costly machine
in a few minutes. Shop expenses may mean the difference be-
tween profit and loss in operation. The more you know of
practical physics the better you can manipulate machinery.
Study your machine. Get on to the mechanism and save worry
and breakage.




T HE National Association of Farm Equipment Manufac-
turers is sending out some interesting circulars in regard
to the price of farm implements as compared with the price
of other things. In giving some details in regard to the cost of
the raw material which goes into the manufacture of farm imple-
ments, it has shown that most of these materials are costing from
two to three times as much as in 1914, and labor more than
double what it was at that time. Following this it is said:
"With material and labor two or three times as high as in
1914, it would be fair to assume that equipment made out of
these elements should cost the farmer twice what he paid in
1914. While some machines are selling at such figures, the
average of all farm machines is much lower. Keep in mind,
too, that farm machines have been substantially improved in
durability and efficiency, and are not comparable with 1914
Another feature in connection with the cost of farm imple-
ments is the great decrease in output by reason of the failure
of farmers to purchase. These figures as given by this asso-
ciation show that the production in 1922 of farm implements was
about one-third or one-half, and in some cases even less than in
1914. This decreased production, leaving a large part of the
factory capacity unemployed, necessarily considerably increased
the cost of manufacturing.
Fortunately, the tide has turned and rather better financial
conditions of the farmers is enabling them to begin buying
implements somewhat more freely, but until farmers get back
to the ability which they had in 1914 to equip their farms with
adequate machinery, the farm business of the agricultural imple-
ments business will suffer. One of the statements made in a
circular recently issued by the association says: "Twenty of
the leading companies have lost $50,000,000 in two years." But
in spite of these losses and the high cost of materials, this industry
is doing its best to serve the farmers at the lowest figures com-
patible with present conditions. Another statement made in the
circular says: "The farmer pays less money pound for pound and
quality for quality for the machines that do his work, than he
pays for any other similar manufactured article he buys."
In studying the condition of the farmers it is well to study
how depression in agriculture has hit the implement manu-

facturers; how their depression has hit the iron and steel and
other industries which furnish the raw materials for the vast
agricultural implement business of the country. Judging by the
comparative figures of 1914 and 1922, the farms of this country
must be exceedingly short of adequate equipment and implements
for handling their business to the best profit. The figures are as
(United States Government Figures)
1914 1922
Plows .............................. 1,335,104 431,409
Harrows ............................ 764,666 254,458
Corn Cultivators ...................... 378,934 89,633
M owers .............................. 274,521 80,484
One-Horse Cultivators ................ 254,158 58,619
Grain Binders and Headers ............ 215,386 41,458
Sulky Rakes .......................... 139,565 30,019
Corn Planters ........................ 114,657 21,783
Cotton Planters ...................... 101,256 17,874
Broadcast Seeders .................... 106,018 46,889
Grain Drills ......................... 89,370 17,606
Corn Binders ......................... 52,087 9,638
H ay Loaders ......................... 25,865 15,891
T hrashers ............................ 13,548 8,885
Reapers .............................. 56,982 1,869
Corn Shellers ......................... 74,319 44,579
Listers ............................... 37,953 10,391
Land Rollers ......................... 22,470 1,777
Soil Pulverizers and Packers .......... 12,724 2,940
Rakes, Side Delivery .................. 20,213 9,155
Rakes, Sweep ................. ..... .. 23,304 9,051
Stackers .............................. 6,437 1,651

Practically all other lines of farm
similar declines.

equipment have had

1 11. k

power Farmind Tools


UR farm machinery multiplies food producing power the
world over. Exports of agricultural machinery and im-
plements go to over 1oo countries in every part of the
globe. They now total over $50,ooo,ooo a year and have aggre-
gated more than $700,000,000 since 1900.
The farmers of the world are paying tribute to the genius
of the American inventor and the integrity of the American
manufacturer. They bought from us last year over $50,ooo,ooo
worth of agricultural machinery and implements, a larger value
than in any earlier year, and this big total was distributed to
more than a hundred different countries, colonies and islands of
the world. The 1923 exports, says the Trade Record of The
National City Bank of New York, not only exceeded in value
those of any earlier year but are practically double those of 19Io,
three times as much as in 1900, and thirteen times as large as in
And they go literally to every corner of the inhabited world.
American plows sent out in 1922, the latest year for which details
are available, went to 80 different countries, colonies and islands;
harvesters and reapers to over 30; thrashers to 27; and farm
tractors to over 50 countries. American machines are digging
potatoes in France, Argentina, Australia, India, Japan, South
Africa, Armenia, and Kurdistan; our hay rakes and tedders are
"tedding" in Latvia, Ukraine, Guatemala, Bolivia, Egypt,
Chosen, and Palestine; our incubating machines are hatching
chicks in Czecho-Slovakia, Russia, Barbadoes, Colombia, Java
and Hejaz; and the coffee drinkers of Hongkong, Jamaica, China,
Belgium, Kwangtung, and the Far Eastern Republic are luxuriat-
ing in "real cream" produced by American cream separators.
The variety of American implements which the agriculturists
of the world now demand has also greatly increased. In 19oo
the export classification of our government only named "plows
and cultivators," "mowers and reapers," and a small group of
"all other agricultural implements," amounting to less than
two and one-half million dollars. Now the export group of
agricultural machinery and implements includes no less than
30 different types of machines and implements for the use of
the devotee of agriculture. Dairy machinery went to 45 different
countries in 1922, hand garden plows to 52 countries, farm
tractors to 70, and American cotton gins to 24 countries and

The United States is by far the world's largest producer of
agricultural implements. The census of 1920 showed the capital
invested in this industry at $367,000,000, as against $62,000,000
in 188o, and puts the value of the outturn of "agricultural imple-
ments" at $305,000,000 in 1919 against $69,000,000 in 1880.
Canada, Australia, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa, and the
European countries are the largest takers of our exportation of
this class of product. The 1920 exports of agricultural ma-
chinery and implements to Canada alone were approximately
$o0,ooo0,oo, Argentina over $6,000,000, France about 7Y2
million dollars, and Europe as a whole over $15,000,000. The
aggregate value of agricultural machinery and implements ex-
ported since the beginning of 19oo is over $700oo,o,0oo.
The enlargement of world food production accompanying
the increased use of farm machinery is illustrated, says the Trade
Record, by the fact that the world wheat crop has advanced from
22 billion bushels, speaking in very round terms, in 1891 to over
4 billion in recent years; corn from 22 billion bushels to over
4 billion; potatoes from 4% billion bushels in 1900 to nearly
6 billion in 1913; oats from 2/2 billion bushels in 1897 to 4/2
billion in 1913; and sugar from 9,713,000 long tons in 1900 to
19,209,000 in 1923. The growth in world power of food pro-
duction through the use of machinery is illustrated by a recent
statement by the United States Department of Agriculture that
the amount of human labor required to produce a bushel of
wheat is now only ten minutes as against three hours in 1830.



- It 71.- i -1

L ~~

' ~C~*L~; !

BIG gains in our imports from and exports to the tropical
world. We take its raw materials and foods and pay for
them in the products of our factories.
Trade of the United States with the tropical world has
shown a remarkable growth since the beginning of the war.
Whether or not it is because of the disarrangement of trade
methods resulting from the war, or the opening of new steamship
routes by the Panama Canal, the increased activities of the auto-
mobile for land transportation in the tropics, or even the in-
creasing use of tropical products which followed prohibition,
it is at least a fact,-says the Trade Record of The National City
Bank of New York, that our trade with the tropics has in-
creased approximately 130 per cent in value since 1913, while
that with the non-tropical world increased but about 75 per cent
in the same period.
With the dangers to sea-borne commerce which existed dur-
ing the war, European countries gradually reduced their tropical
imports for re-exportation purposes, and as a result the United
States developed her direct purchases from the tropical countries
and at the same time increased her direct sales to them.
Considering as tropical or at least sub-tropical the American
areas lying between Northern Mexico and Southern Brazil, the
continent of Africa except the South African Union, and the
countries and islands lying between Northern India, the Philip-
pine Islands and Central Australia, the. number of political
divisions with which we interchange merchandise-countries,
colonies and islands-is 35, and our trade with them has grown
from approximately $1,o6o,ooo,ooo in 1913 to about $2,447,-
ooo,ooo in 1923. The total value of merchandise brought direct
from the tropical world (including our own tropical islands)
advanced from approximately $640,000,000 in 1913 to about
$1,62o,ooo,ooo in 1923, while the exports to these areas in-
creased from about $400,000,000 in 1913 to approximately
$830,000,000 in 1923.
While a part of this apparent increase, says the Trade Record,
is probably due to the fact that certain tropical products prior
to the war reached us from the European countries and were
accredited to them in our trade statistics, it is quite apparent
that our trade with the tropics has enormously increased. Practi-
cally all the tropical countries have increased the percentage

which American products form of their imports. Our own official
statistics show that our imports from Cuba advanced from $125,-
000,000 in 1913 to $376,000,000 in 1923, and the exports thereto
from $73,000,000 in 1913 to $192,000ooo,ooo in 1923. Our im-
ports from India advanced from $5,000,000 in 1913 to $55,000,-
000 in 1923, and from Egypt an increase from $17,ooo,ooo to
$39,000,000. Our imports from South America increased from
$198,259,ooo in 1913 to $466,817,000 in 1923, and our exports
to that continent from $146,515,000 to $269,618,000.
The big increases in our imports from the tropics occur in
rubber, fibers, sugar, coffee, coco, and fruits, and the gains in
exports to that area consists chiefly of manufactures.
This increase in our trade to the tropical world and especial-
ly in the market which it offers for our manufactures is especially
of interest, adds the Trade Record, in view of the great possibili-
ties of increasing the producing and consequent buying power of
that part of the world. The tropical and sub-tropical belt, ex-
tending the world around between the 30th parallels of north
and south latitude, has over one-third of the habitable land area
of the world, much of it with far greater producing power per
acre than that of the temperate zones, and with the increasing
exportation of its natural products which would follow improved
transportation facilities by railway and automobiles would come
an increased demand for the products of the American factories.

I .


The Agricultural Review
T HE trade of the United States with Latin America for
1923 showing an increase of 25 per cent in exports to the
southern republic and 29 per cent in imports from those
over 1922 reflects the healthy development of inter-American
trade and should go far to dissipate the feeling prevalent in some
quarters that American exporters are not "holding their own"
in Latin American markets, according to Dr. Julius Klein,
director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Total trade for the year with Latin America (excluding
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands) amounted to $I,743,919,000ooo.
Of this $693,627,000 were exports, which shows an increase in
value of 115 per cent over 1913-14, whereas our exports to the
rest of the world gained 6813 per cent. Imports from Latin
America of $10,305,292,000 represented, generally, not only
greater quantities but better prices for our purchases in that
As in the past, the larger part of this trade was with our
nearer neighbors, the West Indies and the countries on the Carib-
bean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. These furnished 63 per cent of
the imports from and took 50 per cent of the exports to Latin
America in 1923. This does not include our own islands in the
West Indies (Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands), who alone
purchased goods on the mainland to the value of over $75,ooo,ooo.
These markets are of particular interest to our farmers, for
besides taking a fair share of the output of our factories and
mills they are large buyers of the products of our farms. In 1923
they took nearly $2,500,000 worth of butter and cheese, $17,-
ooo,ooo of lard and substitutes, upwards of $Io,ooo,ooo of meat,
$4,500,000 of milk, $18,ooo,ooo of flour and nearly $1,000,000
of rice. Mexico and Cuba alone bought from us nearly $4,500,-
ooo worth of eggs and Mexico took raw cotton to the value of
nearly $2,000,000. Sugar-growing Cuba took nearly $500,000
worth of sugar and other sweets and Mexico paid us nearly
$2,000,000 for gasoline.
While complete commodity figures for the year are not yet
available, enough are shown to indicate that most of our usual
exports are holding their own or gaining ground against our com-
petitors in Latin America. Probably the most notable gain is in

automotive vehicles. Other items for which an increase is indi-
cated are naval stores, cotton hosiery, southern yellow pine,
petroleum and gasoline (except in the British West Indies),
galvanized iron sheets, tin plate, wire nails, sewing machines
(except in Argentina), adding machines, printing presses, harvest-
ers, motion-picture films, musical instruments and phonographs.
Some of the items showing a loss are cement, incandescent lamps,
automobile tires in a good many countries, and some classes of
cotton goods which are beginning to be manufactured in consider-
able quantities in Latin America. One of the most marked de-
creases is in news print paper, while on the other hand book
paper shows an increase.
Some of our more important purchases in Latin America in
1923 were: In Argentina, hides and skins, $30,000,000; wool,
nearly $20,ooo,ooo, and many million dollars worth of linseed.
Brazil, nearly $116,ooo,ooo for coffee (of our total imports of
1,407,856,000 pounds of coffee, 934,759,000 came from Brazil),
goat skins over $3,500,000, cacao, nearly $5,ooo,ooo, and rubber
over $5,000,000. Colombia, some $34,000,000 for coffee alone.
Chile, around $21,ooo,ooo for copper and $30,000,000 for
nitrate. Cuba, around $350,000,000 for sugar, $25,ooo,ooo for
tobacco, $2,750,000 for iron and $3,000,000 for copper ore.
Central America, $16,000,000 for coffee and $1,500,ooo for
cabinet woods. British West Indies, $3,250,000 for cacao. Do-
minican Republic, $2,666,000 for cacao and over $2,ooo,ooo
for sugar. Ecuador, over $4,ooo,ooo for cacao. Mexico, $1,666,-
ooo for raw cotton, $8,ooo,ooo for sisal, nearly $17,ooo,ooo for
copper ore, and upwards of $50,000,000 for petroleum. Peru,
$2,333,000 for sugar and $9,500,ooo for copper. Uruguay,
over $5,000,00o for hides and nearly $15,ooo,ooo for wool.
Venezuela, $2,333,000 for cacao and $8,ooo0,000 for coffee.


HE kind of tractor you need is determined by: i. Size of
farm. 2. Kind of crops grown. 3. Condition of soil as
to drainage and topography. 4. Who is to handle the
There is no rule of thumb to be laid down and followed.
Commbn sense is the only guide. However, if one is raising wheat
he knows that he needs a different set of machines from what he
needs if he is raising truck crops. If the raising of livestock is
the prime business the kind and number of machines should be
different from a farm growing sugar beets, sugar cane, or cotton.
The kind of tractor suited for wet lands, especially muck and
peat lands, is different from the kind needed in a dry-farming
In the Everglades the .caterpillar type of tractor is best; in
fact the only kind usable in the very soft Everglade lands. In
any tractor the point of contact of the draft with the motor
should be low enough and far enough in front to prevent the
possibility of the tractor rearing up and falling back with the
driver. In point of expense the question of gas and oil burners
should be considered. To a great extent the type of plows to be
used will determine the kind and character of tractor best suited.
As to the relative amount of horse power and motor power
that should be used there is only one rule--common sense. It all
reverts back to the particular conditions to be met by the kind,
extent and character of the farming done. The labor supply and
the character of that labor enters largely into this equation.



_ __

The Farm Journal
E VERY farmer knows what he can do with horses. He knows
how many acres of land he can plow in a day with a team,
how many acres of corn he can cultivate, how much hay or
grain a team can haul, how far, in what time and return in good
condition. He knows how much feed a horse should eat, how to
bed him, groom him, water him, harness him, even to shoe and
doctor him in a pinch. He knows which of his horses are depend-
able and which are skittish and apt to shy or try to run away at
a certain corner in the road. He knows the one that balks and
knows how to start him again when he does balk.
Does the farmer know as much about his tractor? No. And
that's largely responsible for tractor failures, when failures occur.
It is not the sole reason by any means, but it probably has been the
cause of more disappointment with tractors than any other single
Professor Rauchenstein, of the University of Illinois, who is
one of the best authorities on farm power, says that unless a man
is willing to study the tractor thoroughly and give his tractor as
good care as he does his horses, he had better let tractors alone.
Horses and Mules are Standard
Horses (I include mules) are the standard source of motive
power on American farms. Even after the tractor propaganda
during the war and the increase in use of tractors, both then and
subsequently, official studies show that in the Corn Belt 70 per
cent of the draw-bar work is done by horses, and in the Wheat
Belt of the Great Plains, 60 per cent. On most farms outside of
these areas the use of horses runs higher in proportion.
Professor Hibbard, of the University of Wisconsin, says
many a farmer could make a far more economical use of his
horses than he now does. Hibbard is a farmer as well as a pro-
fessor of agricultural economics, and he knows what he is talking
about. If you have three little 1200-pound horses, you could
probably get just as much or more work with less feed and man
labor out of two 1600- or x8oo-pound ones. Or you might keep
all the horses'busy more days in the month than you do now. A
horse eats whether he works or not, and the more he eats the
more he should work. Nothing is gained by idle horses. Before
you buy a tractor you should be sure that you are getting the
greatest possible efficiency out of your horses.

Americans Like To Use Machinery
The Americans are a "mechanically gifted race" and Ameri-
can farmers will throw the horse into the discard if they can
find a more convenient or more economical source of power or
rapid transit. The truth of that statement is borne out by the fact
that autos have crowded horses off the roads. Now the fact
that farmers as a whole have still about as many horses as ever,
certainly shows that the laws of economics are holding farm
horses in a secure position.
Farmers are not in the least sentimental in this matter. The
government men who are studying farm power in co-operation
with the State agricultural colleges found that if Corn Belt
farmers, on buying tractors, disposed of work stock, they sold
geldings and kept their mares, leaving a larger percentage of
mares on these tractor farms than before the tractors were
The burden of proof is not with the horse; it's with the
machine. We know what the horse will do, and we know his
limitations; we don't know so much yet about the tractor.
Horses will do the same work as well as, or better than, it can
be done with tractors. Indeed, I should make that statement
stronger: Work done by horses properly hitched and handled is
so standard that the highest praise that can be given the quality of
work done by a tractor is to say that it will do its work as well
as it can be done by horses. Moreover, the horses will do the
work considerably cheaper, when the costs of feed, oil and fuel
are normal.
Government and State studies bring that fact out clearly.
The plowing trials made last September in Australia verified it.
In that case six different makes of tractors were compared and a
six-horse team was also tested. The most costly plowing by a
tractor was $2.21 per acre and the cheapest was $1.23; the
horses did it for $1.20. On the other hand the poorest perform-
ance in speed of tractor plowing was .888 acre an hour, and the
best was 1.264 acres; the horses did .807 acre an hour.
In a Hurry, Use a Tractor
Our government investigators found that with horses one
man requires over thirty-five days on Corn Belt farms to plow
1oo acres. A two-plow tractor will enable him to do the work in
sixteen days and with a three-plow tractor he can do it in twelve.
The lesson 1 get out of these facts is this-if you want to do your
plowing at the least possible cost in money, use horses; if you are
in a hurry and want to do the work at the least possible cost in
time, use a tractor.



Most sensible farm-horse owners are willing to concede that
the tractor has its place; most sensible manufacturers have
abandoned the idea of the horseless, or completely motorized
farm. Both these extreme views still have staunch advocates,
however, who wield trenchant pens, and no doubt both sides will
open fire on me with full-pen batteries.
Idle Power Is Costly
It is an exceptional farm that uses a tractor more than fifty
days (two months of working days) each year; the average is
nearer thirty. Figure out for yourself how much it means if you
lose one of these days on account of a breakdown due to lack of
You know men who never have any trouble with their horses,
and you know others whose horses pick up everything that comes
along, from distemper to strokes of lightning. It's just the same
with farm machinery; although we all like to tinker with it, some
farmers always break something every time they touch a lever,
while others can make any old machine "run like a bird."
Granted that a new tractor owner has learned how to operate
and care for it, what will he do with it? Investigations have
shown clearly that the draw-bar work on Corn Belt farms falls
into three classes-that which is best done by tractors, that done
almost entirely by horses, and that in which neither may be used.
In the first class are plowing, disking and harrowing; the
jobs done by horses exclusively are planting, cultivating and husk-
ing corn, mowing, raking, farm hauling and doing chores; pulling
grain drills, binders, and hayloaders and similar work may be
done either by tractors or horses.
Some one, I think it was Rauchenstein, quotes an Illinois
farmer who said that the men in his neighborhood who were
succeeding with their tractors were those who were not using
them to gather eggs. The government men state that "the con-
structioo of most four-wheeled and crawler types of tractors is
such that they are not satisfactory for cultivating corn," and
they conclude that the horse requirements of the farm using the
tractor will be governed by those of corn-plowing time.
Plowing, Disking, Harrowing-Soft Jobs for Tractors
The tractor has shown its ability to pull a plow, disk and
harrow combination as effectively as horses, and it will put the
job out of the way so much more quickly that the time saved
easily compensates for any additional cost. This time-saving ele-
ment is the most important item in favor of the tractor. The
man who wins will he the one who can produce cheapest.


Labor is a heavy charge against the farmer; time-saving is
labor-saving. Therefore, the man who can save the most labor
is likely to have the most to show for his year's work and most
time for recreation. If he uses the tractor right, there is nothing
that will help a farmer better to get through a backward spring;
with a dependable lieutenant, he can put a headlight on his tractor
and plow for twenty-four hours a day until the job is done. Now
that means a lot in spring plowing; it may mean enough to repay
the entire cost of the outfit.

Tractors in the Wheat Country
In Kansas they have learned a comparatively new fact. Ex-
periments at the Hays Branch Experiment Station, located in
the wheat country, have shown marked increases in the yield of
wheat per acre from land plowed in July compared with that
plowed a month or two later. But July is harvest time, and all
the power is needed for that. The Kansas people say that there
is only one way for the wheat farmer to get his land plowed in
July. That is, to use a harvester-thrasher, pulled by a tractor,
which will rush the harvesting through rapidly giving time for
the plowing by a tractor at the most profitable season.
More Time to Think in Tractor Farming
Another advantage, emphasized by implement men, is that the
use of the tractor gives the owner more time for other things.
When the tractor is being used the horses will not require so
much attention. Just as the automobile has materially added to
the farmer's ability to get around and see folks, so the tractor,
properly handled, increases the amount of leisure which the
farmer has by making it possible to rush through seasons of
heavy work in less time than when horses only are used. The
man who uses a tractor thus has more time for planning his work.
The size of farm has something to do with the selection of a
tractor. In many reported cases the purchase of a tractor resulted
in the ultimate purchase of more land. Corn Belt farms using
tractors average about 250 acres, while those in the Wheat Belt
will run about twice as large. The amount of belt work which
may be done with a tractor has also some importance, but a
tractor should not be purchased with this as the primary object
unless the buyer figures on doing a lot of custom work.
The Middle West and certain far western regions seem to be
prime tractor territory. The stony farms of the East are more
readily plowed by horses. If the plow strikes a boulder, the
horses stop; if you are using a tractor, something breaks. The

South is naturally good tractor territory, but the average negro
laborer can not be trusted with expensive machinery. A mule is
better suited to his temperament.
Pay the Dealer When You Buy the Tractor
Finally the matter of cost must be thoroughly considered.
Have you the cash to pay for the machine? If not, wait until you
have. You will do the implement dealer and yourself a favor if
you refuse to sign a note to pay for it.
Are you making all the use you can of your horses? You will
gain little or nothing if you add an additional burden to farm
power equipment which is already sufficient. Consult your
neighbors who are using tractors before you buy.
Always remember that grindstones are cheaper than men,
teams and machinery. See that all your tools and knives are kept
in first-class condition.


Upland, California.
IN so few instances are full cost records available, covering
horse and mule costs for farm work, that detailed costs of
such a company as the Liberty Groves are of unusual value,
for they are necessarily kept with most accurate classification and
detail. The accountant says:
"Our by-laws compel us to work at actual cost. Therefore
we must clean up each year's business at the end of the fiscal year.
Part of our team costs consist of interest on investment, upkeep,
insurance and depreciation on the barn, on the house of the care-
taker and on all horse-drawn equipment. To the tractor, we
charge similar items on the tractor house, on all tractor equip-
ment, and on all special tools needed for purely tractor repairs
and tractor equipment repairs. Others may put these items into
the overhead account, but the Liberty Groves has found it best
to call these items Operating Costs, in order to get satisfactory
comparisons of its various operating departments.
"This corporation, started during the war for the purpose of
taking care of the groves owned by those called into military
service, proved to be a long-needed move for owners of small
groves, who were continually competing with each other in
getting labor or teams for cultural work and other items of grove
expense. A steady campaign has been worked out which elimi-
nates paying fancy prices each spring for rush work.
"Capital for equipment is raised through an assessment of $35
per acre. It is the intention of the corporation to so protect its
assets that this assessment may be returned in full to any retiring
member, and, up to the present time, this has been done in every
case. Charges for work done are due 30 days after presentation.
As the corporation must ultimately charge on an actual cost basis,
hourly rates for work done during the calendar year are on an
estimated basis. At the end of the calendar year these costs are
accurately determined, each member's account recalculated on
these actual cost rates and the total difference assessed or re-
funded to each member.


Team Costs (Two Animals Per Team) In Dollars Per Hour.

Feed and water .......................... 0.185
Less manure sold .......................... 0.010 0.175

B lacksm ith ...................................... 0.022
Caretaker ............................... ... ... 0.012
Loss of tim e (a) .................................. 0.014
Veterinary .................. .................. 0.005
H ired team s ..................................... 0.003
Repair harness ................................... 0.013 0.244

Teamster (wages) (b) ........................... 0.444 0.688


Repair large tools ................................ 0.045
Repair small tools .............................. 0.002
Repair miscellaneous equipment ................... 0.006 0.053


A automobile (c) .................................. 0.056
Care of grounds ................................. 0.003
Insurance ....................................... 0.004
Interest ......................................... 0.033
Sundry ..................................... .... 0.020 0.116

Depreciation, teams and equipment (d) ............ 0.078

TOTAL, per hour ............................ $0.935

(a) Time lost in moving from one grove to another.
(b) Rates for teamster and driver are based on average rate of
all classes of labor.
(c) Automobile used in moving from one grove to another.
(d) Each horse or mule is depreciated $25 per year. Each
tractor is depreciated 50c for each hour worked.



Tractor Costs in Dollars Per Hour.
Fuel and grease .......................... 0.362
Labor repairing ........................... 0,254
N ew parts ................................ 0.359
Lost tim e (a) .............................. 0.021 0.996

Driver (b) ...................................... 0.444 1.440

Repair large tools ................................ 0.146
Repair sm all tools ............................... 0.008
Repair miscellaneous equipment ................... 0.031 0.185

A automobile (c) .................................. 0.272
Care of grounds ............................... 0.017
Insurance ....................................... 0.020
Interest ......................................... 0.162
Sundry .......................................... 0.063 0.534

Depreciation of tractors and equipment ............ 0.616

TOTAL, per hour .......................... $2.775

Ratio of team to tractor hourly costs .............. 1 to 3
Ratio of team to tractor costs, using actual payroll
wages per hour of teamster and of tractor driver,
instead of average of all classes (b) ........... I to 3%
Ratio of amount of farming work done per hour by
team and tractor ................................ Ito 21/
(In 1921 the corporation owned 6 teams and 4 tractors.)

(a) Time lost in moving from one grove to another.
(b) Rates for teamster and driver are based on average rate of
all classes of labor.
(c) Automobile used in moving from one grove to another.


"We cannot venture more than an opinion of the efficiency
of the tractor-either as to work done or value of the investment
-for the man doing general farming whose crops are cleaned
from the ground each year and whose teams must be idle certain
months of the year.
"This opinion, however, is that his proposition is very little
different from ours. Our groves have about Ioo trees perma-
nently fixed in the ground and they must be cared for culturally
about 12 months in the year. We cannot use a large tractor,
owing to the small space between the trees.
"We have concluded that for our work, the tractor is too
expensive for us to use. We have found that it is not a necessity,
though desirable for spring rush of plowing and subsoiling, and
for some heavy soil cultivating. By many it is thought to do a
better cultivating job at all times, but in such cases, an extra team
could be used.
"We do not feel that the tractor has caused the unusual hard
pan, but that this is due to the three winters of little rainfall,
calling for 12 months' irrigation and cultivation each year. We
have found the tractor absolutely useless on our gravelly or rocky
soils. Even the tractor frames have broken under the strain, and
no driver will stay with the job long and hold up under the rack-
ing he receives."
"We have used as many as 8 teams and 6 tractors of three
different makes. Our three years' experience has decided us to
sell all but one of our tractors which we will keep as an emer-
gency insurance and to satisfy any member who prefers tractor
work for any special time.
"Several advantages will accrue in replacing these tractors
with teams. Our average labor rate will be less, owing to the
elimination of the mechanic and tractor driver. And we will be
free from two nightmares-the constantly falling purchase price
of the tractor with the depreciation it entails, and that of the
constant, expensive machinery replacements and repairs."
(Signed) T. R. WOODBRIDGE.
(President and General Manager of the Liberty Groves Op-
erating Corporation, Upland, California.)

Hoard's Dairyman
W HAT is the horse power of a 4-cylinder motor having a
4Y4-inch bore and a 5" stroke? What size pulley is
recommended ?
Carney, Mich. J. H.
A horse power is defined as being 33,000 foot pounds per
minute, that is, 33,000 pounds lifted one foot in one minute or
550 pounds lifted one foot in one second.
The horse power of any engine, whether gas or steam, de-
pends upon several factors, namely, pressure in the cylinder,
length of stroke, area of piston, and number of strokes or revolu-
tions per minute. The mechanical efficiency of any engine will
depend upon lubrication, condition of the engine, and load. If
lubrication is poor, if there is leakage past the piston rings, or
the valves are dirty or if the load is uneven, the efficiency will be
When the horse power of an engine is given it means very
little unless we know whether it is the whole amount of power
produced by the burning fuel or the power actually delivered to
the belt or draw bar. For instance, most tractors are rated at
8-16; 12-20, etc., meaning 8 horse power at the draw bar and
16 horse power at the belt; the difference being the amount lost
in transmission. The two kinds of horse power are known as
the indicated horse power (I. H. P.) and the brake horse power
(B. H. P.). The latter is the one usually wanted since it is the
power actually measured by some kind of a brake or it may be
figured by assuming a certain efficiency factor.
The indicated horse power of an engine may be found by
using the formula: Plan divided by 33,000 in which P equals
mean effective pressure in the cylinder, L equals length of stroke
in feet, A equals area of piston in square inches, N equals number
of power strokes per minute, 33,000 equals number of foot
pounds per minute in one horse power.
The objections to the use of this formula are: the H. P.
found is theoretical, not what is actually delivered and the diffi-
culty if not impossibility of finding a value for P. The pressure
in the cylinder at the instant of ignition may be and generally
is from 200 to 4oo pounds per square inch while the pressure at
the instant just before exhaust may be very low. The mean
pressure will usually be from 70 to IOO pounds per square inch.
Practically all gas engines are rated by their manufacturers
according to the formula D2N divided by 2.5 equals HP, in

which D equals diameter of cylinder, N equals number of cylin-
ders. This formula is derived from the first one as follows:
P is assumed as 90 pounds per square inch. The piston speed
is taken as 1,000 feet per minute. The mechanical efficiency is
assumed as 75 per cent. Using this formula, the H. P. of the
engine in question is D2N divided by 2.5 or 4.25 times 4.25 times
4 divided by 2.5 equals 28.9 H. P.
While this formula is almost universally used at present, it
is probable that it will have to be modified in the near future
due to the facts that lower mean effective pressures and lower
piston speeds are being used on many of the heavier types of
engines. Better workmanship and materials also tend to raise
the mechanical efficiency.
The diameter of the power pulley will depend entirely upon
the speed of the engine and the belt speed desired. The speed of
the engine in question was not given but it probably is not far
from I,ooo R. P. M. There has always been more or less con-
troversy as to the speed at which a belt is most efficient. At the
present time a speed of 2,600 feet per minute is considered about
right. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers has
been trying for some time to get the various manufacturers to
adopt a standard belt speed and proportion their pulleys accord-
ingly; 2,600 feet per minute is a speed suggested. If these figures
are used the pulley in question would be 2,600 divided by I,ooo
or 2.6 feet in circumference. Then 2.6 times 12 divided by
3.1416 would make the pulley about Io inches in diameter.
In the majority of cases the pulley is not on the crank shaft
but on a short shaft set at right angles to the crank shaft. When
this is done the speed of the pulley shaft is nearly always reduced,
frequently about one-third. If this is the case, the pulley speed
will be about 650 R. P. M., then the pulley should be 2,600
times 12 divided by 650 times 3.1416 or 15.28 inches in diameter.
The face of the pulley should be about 9 inches.
Minnesota. A. G. TYLER.
The reasons why draw-bar rating is hard to figure are
plainly apparent. Draw-bar horsepower represents the horse-
power developed by the engine, less:
(1) The power lost in the transmission.
(2) The power necessary to move the tractor.
(3) The power lost by friction of the lugs or wheels on
the ground.
(4) The power necessary to drive the lugs into the ground.
(5) The power lost in wheel slippage.
From this analysis you can readily see that draw-bar power is
impossible to rate unless all ground conditions are specified. As


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s r
L I'



1 ~ ~~clr, r~~rrrr .

ground conditions differ practically everywhere, it means that
rated draw-bar horsepower is of little or no value because no
two conditions are the same.

During the season of 1904, becoming convinced that the use
of gasoline for fuel was too expensive for the average farmer,
Hart-Parr Company conducted a series of experiments with
kerosene. That winter they perfected and demonstrated the
first successful method of burning kerosene and distillate for
fuel. In the summer of 1905 they equipped all Hart-Parr trac-
tors in the field with kerosene burning carburetors, and from
that time on, Hart-Parr Company has built kerosene-burning
tractors only. To Hart-Parr Company, therefore, also goes the
credit of introducing the burning of kerosene and low-grade
fuels to farm power machinery.


The Farm Journal
BY OWNING a tractor that fits his farm, Joe Dalson, who
lives near me, can cultivate more acres per day and at a
lower cost than any of his neighbors. Selection of the
right tractor was not a matter of luck, however, but was due to
a system carefully worked out by Dalson beforehand. The plan
is simple, and one that any farmer may do well to copy.
"My farm contains 150 acres," Dalson explained to me, "and
I estimated that a tractor should replace my extra hired man
and his two horses, at a noticeable saving in time. In this surmise,
I was not far from correct.
"I figured the number of acres my hired man handled, also
the cost of his labor, time and equipment. With these figures I
called on an agent, and asked him to show me a machine that
would perform this amount of labor, with first cost and running
expense. It looked easy, and the agent referred to one in his
catalogue with operating cost far below my expectation. The
first cost overbalanced things, however, and the agent was forced
to admit that the model was too large for my needs.
"I visited three dealers before I found a machine that came
up to my figures. This was examined at the shop, until I was
thoroughly acquainted with its working parts.
"The first season proved that my plan was workable. It
also revealed some changes. One was, that the tractor did not
reduce the cost of regular farm work, but it enabled me to
handle a greater acreage, at a saving in time and extra man-
power. By operating the machine myself, I released a hired man
to perform minor labor with the team. An unskilled man could
do this latter work, at a reduction in cost. I kept the tractor
'popping' whenever possible, going from one job to another,
leaving the horses to finish up in small and irregular fields, etc.

Began Early, Worked Late
"I began early and worked late; there was no harnessing or
grooming to do, and no feed required when the machine was
idle. This formed a considerable saving in the course of a year.
"While a tractor cannot replace horses entirely on a farm
such as mine, I find that the machine can perform numerous
chores not possible with a team. I refer to belt work, such as
grinding, sawing wood, turning fanning-mill, and other machine



''~ '

work on rainy days. I have prepared for this, and the advan-
tage forms a considerable item.
"Were I to change farms with any of my neighbors, I would
change tractors. I believe in fitting the machine to the farm.
To do this, I would figure my future needs beforehand, and
seek a machine to meet my requirements."

"When the tractor salesman plowed this field last year," said
my neighbor, "there was a little three-cornered piece left that I
had to plow out with horses and it took longer than it would to
plow two acres with the machine. I don't know how else you'd
go at it, either, but-"
I resolved at once when I got my tractor that there should be
no three-cornered pieces left when I got through. At the same
time, it was not easy to see how it could be avoided, for the first
field was roughly a right-angeled triangle.
What I actually did was to plow it in "lands" wider at one
end than at the other. I always worked on the inside, and as soon
as the narrow end was reduced in width to the point where I
could just turn easily (in this case about twenty-five feet) I
would let the furrow run out before I got to the end, then swing
around and strike it at a corresponding point on the other side.
I continued this until the whole strip was the same width
throughout, always leaving just enough unplowed ground to
turn on. Then I plowed this turning strip out in the usual man-
ner by going clear through to the ends.
It happened that the next field I had to plow was one that
extended for a half-mile along a winding river. There were no
definite corners. The general shape was somewhat like an egg.
Applying the principle I had used on the triangular field, it was
a simple matter to plow round and round, raising up the plows
at the extreme point at each end, and continuing thus until the
ungainly field was reduced to a narrow strip, of even width,
winding down through the middle of the area.
What is the one which will best suit your needs? Some
requisites of good tractor construction are:
(I) Surplus power for peak loads,
(2) Economy in burning Kerosene Fuel,
(3) Simplicity of operation,
(4) Accessibility for quick repairs,
(5) Adaptability to all kinds of draw-bar and belt work,
(6) Durability of construction,
(7) Ease and safety of the operator.

A COMPLETE report from the audit of the records in the auto-
mobile license department of the State Comptroller's
office for 1923 shows total receipts of $1,959,805.41 for
the year with a total of 158,411 motor vehicles upon which
licenses were paid. Receipts for 1923 show a gain of $421,463.15
over those for 1922, which amounted to $1,959,805.41.
The detailed report of the auditor upon automobile license
receipts for 1923 follows:
A-Motorcycle, not including side car, 973, $4,475-
B-Motorcycle side car, 286, $799.50.
C-Passenger car in private use, 125,754, $1,248,730.25.
D-Passenger car for hire; seating capacity 7 passengers or
less, not including driver, 3,038, $117,038.77.
DN-Same as series D owned by non-resident, 7, $304.75.
E-Passenger bus for hire, seating capacity 8 to 16, not in-
cluding driver, 185, $21,994.98.
F-Passenger bus for hire, over 16 passengers, not including
driver, 53, $12,208.40.
G-Truck, pneumatic tires, private use, 23,823, $362,165.60.
H-Truck, solid tires, private use, 930, $51,874.77.
K-Hearse, ambulance or casket wagon, 149, $2,900.
N-Motor vehicle in private use, owned by a non-resident,
transient visitor or tourist, 341, $1,467.16.
M-Dealers in motor vehicles for demonstrating cars for
sale, 587, $3,962.25.
S-Truck, pneumatic tires, for hire, 1,516, $92,891.40.
T-Truck, solid tires, for hire, 14, $1,185.50.
U-Hotel bus operating between depot and hotel only, for
hire, 36, $2,174.
W-Trailer, pneumatic tires, private use, 60r, $5,335.44.
X-Trailer, pneumatic tires, for hire, 22, $894-75.
Y-Trailer, solid tires, private use, 94, $2,707.14.
Z-Trailer, solid tires, for hire, 2, $56.25.
Ch.-Chauffeur, one who is employed to drive a motor
vehicle, must not be less than 18 years old, 2,292, $4,072.
Tr.-Io,625, $10,625.
TEM-34,385, $8,596.25.
Dup. Tags-2470, $2,470.
Dup. Certif.-Ioo, $o00.
Dup. Ch.-I, $i.
Total receipts, 1923 $1,959,805.41
Total receipts, 1922 $1,538,342.26
Gain .. $ 421,463.15


(In Progressive Farmer)
WE FIND a family relationship in mechanics as well as in
genetics, and the older a particular type of machine be-
comes, the more models are we apt to find, just as a
family increases in size as the years go by. This is particularly
true of tractors. The smaller and lighter tractors are the
younger sons, each designed to do work fitted to their ability.
One of the youngest, but at that a stalwart member of the
power family is the motor cultivator. It is not in the heavy-
weight class and it hasn't the rugged constitution to do the
heavier plowing, but it will do any of the light jobs on the farm
as well as horses, and in conjunction with a heavier tractor, the
motor cultivator will enable a farmer to practically dispense with
horses if he desires to do so.
Many farmers have hesitated to purchase a tractor because
they felt it would not do all the work of the farm, and they
figured that if it was necessary to keep work stock for certain
jobs they might as well use them for all classes of work. In fact,
there were many corn farmers who felt that tractors would never
be extensively used in the Corn Belt, because they were not
designed to cultivate row crops, and cultivation is one of the big
items in corn culture.
Cultivates Row Crops
To meet this specific need, the motor cultivator was perfected,
and today there is no reason why a farmer who devotes most of
his fields to the growing of corn, potatoes, beans, cotton, or other
row crops, cannot perform all of his field operations by machin-
ery. With a tractor to do the heavy plowing and a light motor
cultivator to cultivate with, and to use for other light tasks,
horses can often be dispensed with entirely, with a saving in
time, trouble and expense.
The motor cultivator is a two-row machine which will ordi-
narily cultivate about 16 to 18 acres per day, or twice as much
as can be done with a team of horses. It is equipped with a three-
speed selective gear so that the speed of the outfit can be regu-
lated to meet conditions. It is easily guided by a single front
wheel which runs between two rows, and the two rear wheels
run outside the two rows. The machine is easily turned, since

power can be applied to one rear wheel while the other remains
stationary, the front wheel acting as a caster in turning.
Arrange Rows
When the motor cultivator is used in the same field from the
commencement of the season until harvest, it is possible to so
arrange the rows that all necessary operations can be carried on
without danger of injury to the growing crops. The motor
cultivator is ideal for planting corn, cotton, beans, and other row
crops, and when so used the rows will be uniform in width and
the later cultivation can be done between rows with the utmost
speed and regularity. Almost any kind of farm implement can
be attached to this power machine, and where desired, special at-
tachments can be secured for use in the growing of beans, cotton,
or other crops.
While light in construction the motor cultivator has sufficient
power to pull a considerable load, and owners find them even
better than the heavy tractors for raking hay, drilling, harrow-
ing, or for operating a manure spreader.
In growing crops a farmer must carry throughout the entire
season enough work animals to cultivate the rows during the
growing season, and many of these horses are mere boarders for
the rest of the year. The motor cultivator, with an operator, will
do fully as much work as two teams and drivers, thus economiz-
ing on both human and animal power. By using either two or
three-shovel gangs in either pin break or spring trip style, the
crops can be cultivated very satisfactorily.
Special equipment has been invented for planting corn with
a motor cultivator, and the outfit will do both checking and
drilling, or just drilling alone. For planting cotton it is also
possible to secure special attachments, and the peculiarities of
different row crops have all been studied and provided for by
farm implement makers.
The motor cultivator has been successfully used to cultivate
a wide variety of row crops, including potatoes, peas, beets, as-
paragus, tomatoes, and tobacco, and many farmers are using
these power plants for performing all the seasonal operations
from seeding to harvesting.
Does Belt Work
The motor cultivator has sufficient power to do a wide
variety of belt work, and comes equipped with a belt pulley so
that the engine can be utilized for light belt work. For pumping
water, grinding feed, sawing wood and other similar work, the
motor cultivator will prove very satisfactory, and will often save

the wear and tear on a heavier tractor motor used for this
The draw-bar work of the motor cultivator is not restricted
to cultivation and planting, for many owners use them for pulling
potato diggers, for which they have ample power, and their
lightness and easy control in the field enable the operator to dig
a lot of potatoes in a day. While some owners even do plowing
with the motor cultivator, it is not made for this kind of work,
and it is best to leave the heavy work for tractors or horses. For
harrowing fields, however, the motor cultivator will do admir-
ably, and the lightness of the outfit prevents packing of the soil.
The motor cultivator may also be used in harvesting grain,
as it will easily pull a grain mower and binder. When both a
tractor and motor cultivator are available on a farm, both ma-
chines can be used to advantage during the harvest season, thus
doubling the amount of work that can be performed in a day.
By using the tractor for the heavier machines, and the motor
cultivator for the lighter work, an ideal combination can be
effected by the power farmer.

Harvesting Hay
For cutting, raking and stacking hay, the motor cultivator
will prove very satisfactory. Being geared to a speed faster than
a team can walk, the motor outfit can cut the hay faster than ani-
mals, and then pulling a side-delivery rake the hay can be raked
and piled in windows in better shape and in faster time than
almost any other method. The machine being tireless, work can
be carried on continuously from sunup to sundown, and the labor
of operating the outfit is not as trying on the man as is the driving
of a team of horses.
For hauling the cured hay to the stack, and in elevating it on
the stack, the motor cultivator will take the place of the tractor
or horses, and on every farm there are many odd jobs that the
motor cultivator can successfully do. Even in winter the ma-
chine can be used for cutting up into cordwood the dead and
down trees from the woodlot.
With a heavier tractor for the rough work, and a motor
cultivator for the lighter jobs, the power farmer can feel abso-
lutely independent of animals for any of the work to be per-
formed on the farm.



Progressive Farmer
Belt Work to Keep the Tractor Busy
T HE more work found for the tractor and the more jobs it
can do, the better the returns for the money invested in
it. Most tractors are constructed and used primarily for
field work, particularly plowing, disking, and seedbed prepara-
tion, but owners and prospective purchasers should not overlook
the fact that a tractor will work equally well on the belt. There
are few farms on which there is not some work requiring station-
ary power.
If the tractor is to be used to any extent for belt work there
are some important points to be considered in choosing the ma-
chine: First of all, choose a tractor with ample power to handle
these belt-driven machines with ease. It is better to have a
little surplus power and work the thrasher, feed mill or ensilage
cutter up to its capacity than to have the machine too large for
the tractor, placing undue strain on the engine and necessitating
feeding the thrasher or ensilage cutter lighter.
Second, choose a tractor with a well-located belt pulley. This
makes it easier to put on the belt and line up. In this connection,
too, see that the belt will easily clear all parts of the tractor, that
is, will not rub on a wheel, axle, or some brace.
Third, the larger the belt pulley, both in diameter and width
of face, the better. A large pulley gives better belt contact, hence
less slippage.
The advantages of tractors for belt work are becoming recog-
nized more and more by the manufacturers and, consequently,
they are now giving more attention to the design of their ma-
chines from this standpoint.
Proper Lubrication-Less Trouble
The old saying "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound
of cure" is certainly applicable to the tractor. The best preventive
for most tractor troubles is proper attention to lubrication of all
parts. Every tractor owner should know all about the lubrication
of his machine, including the motor, the transmission, the steering
mechanism, the wheels and other moving parts. When a tractor
is at work all parts are under a continuous heavy strain. This
means that should any part fail to receive oil or grease, even for

a short time, it will wear very rapidly and soon cause trouble.
On the other hand with proper lubrication, there will be little or
no wear, in spite of the heavy strain, high pressures and high
The.best way to get acquainted with the lubrication of your
tractor is to study the instruction book supplied with it. Usually
the matter of lubrication is the first thing the manufacturer men-
tions in his instructions, because he realizes that the success of his
business as a tractor manufacturer depends upon the service given
by his product in the hands of the user, and this service depends
largely upon proper lubrication.
The lubrication of the engine is, of course, most important.
The engine is the heart of the machine and has many small, deli-
cate parts, anyone of which might put the entire mechanism
out of commission, should it fail to function properly as a result
of lack of oil even for a few minutes. Every tractor owner should
study the instruction book and the tractor itself until he under-
stands clearly how oil gets to such vital parts as the crank-shaft
bearings, cylinder walls and pistons, piston pins, camshaft bear-
ings and gears, push rods and rocker arms.
Another unpardonable offense is to use a cheap, inferior
motor or transmission lubricating oil, or an oil of the wrong grade.
Some tractor manufacturers list in their instruction books the
brands or trade names of various oils which they know will prove
satisfactory for use in their tractors. The users of these ma-
chines should use these oils whenever possible, even though there
may be considerable difference in price.
Likewise do not use a light or a medium oil in a tractor if the
manufacturer recommends a heavy motor oil. Tractor engines,
as a rule, require a heavier oil than automobile engines, due to
the fact that they operate under a constant heavy strain which
means higher cylinder, piston and bearing temperatures.
Hands Off the Magneto
Practically all makes and models of tractors are now equipped
with a magneto for ignition. These magnetos are delicate and
complicated mechanisms and, like the wasp or rattlesnake, will
give less trouble if they are not molested or tampered with. At
least be sure that the trouble is in the magneto before removing
it from the engine or taking off any parts.
The failure of a magneto to produce a good spark is due, in
most cases to two things: First, to pitted, worn, dirty or im-
properly adjusted breaker points, and second, to worn, dirty or
broken distributor or collector ring brushes.



The breaker points consisting of two metallic points-one
movable and one stationary-are found on the end of the arma-
ture opposite the drive coupling. On some magnetos, they rotate
with the armature-on others they remain stationary. In either
case, at certain positions in the armature rotation, these points
are made to separate or break by a cam or cams. This space or
distance between these points at the time of breaking is very
important. In most magnetos it should be about 1-64 of an inch.
The small magneto wrench supplied with the motor has a thick-
ness gauge attached to it for testing and setting these points. One
point is always so constructed as to make it adjustable in order to
adjust this space.
After several months of use the magneto breaker points are
apt to become rough and pitted. In such cases they should be
carefully smoothed up with a special breaker-point file which can
be obtained at any garage or hardware store. Dirt, grit, moisture,
or oil may sometimes get on the points. When the magneto fails
to produce a spark, examine the points for any of the troubles
All tractor magnetos have one or more carbon brushes in the
distributor and some have a collector ring brush. If you are
satisfied the breaker points are functioning properly, then see if
any of these little carbon brushes are missing, broken or worn
down too short to make contact. They are cheap and easily re-
placed and every tractor owner should keep a supply on hand.

Progressive Farmer
W ITH a tractor I (I) gin cotton, (2) grind corn, (3) car-
ry cotton to the market, haul cotton seed and fertilizer,
and while going along I drag the roads.
I have a sandy-soil farm and I use a double cutaway harrow
that carries seven feet at a trough.
I take my tractor and harrow and break up the field. Then
my boys come in behind me with the mules and horses and make
the terraces, then prepare the land for cultivation. In the summer
I always plow my stubble land with the tractor. I also pull up
stumps, remove buildings, haul great logs from the bottom of the
hill to the top so they can be carried to the saw mill. My tractor
can pull a pony saw mill and when automobiles and trucks are
stuck in the mud I take my tractor and it always gets them out.
I also saw wood with it.
Now to be true, I believe if my mules and horses could talk
they would say: "We could not get along without a tractor."
The most useful piece of machinery that can be used on the
farm is, I believe, a tractor, and everything that I have under-
taken to do with my tractor has proved a success.
Anderson, S. C. JAS. B. MCCOY.

Tractor Comes in Handy
Farms in this section on the average are too small for one to
purchase such an expensive machine as a tractor; therefore, co-
6peration is the common practice in buying such a machine, three
or four farmers buying it together. The person using it pays all
expenses for gasoline, oil, etc., also for breakage or repairs if
The tractor comes in mighty handy for breaking and getting
land in order. It also comes in handy for thrashing grain and
peanuts. Summer before last we used tractor power for thrash-
ing our grain. It is always customary for the farmer who is
thrashing to take his team and pull either engine or separator to
the next neighbor's place. With the tractor this is not the case,
as the owner hitches the separator on behind the tractor and
carries both engine and separator.
Prince George County, Va. WM. H. H.

The Tractor Overcomes a Late Start
In figuring out the profits derived from farm machinery and
implements the balance sheet on my tractor shows a considerable
profit over any other piece of machinery on my farm.
Four years ago I was considerably handicapped in the early
spring on account of wet weather and it was rather late before
I could get into the fields to start my spring work. It was espe-
cially late before I could get my spring clover and grass seeded
and by the time the ground would work it had begun to get so
hot that stock not used to work suffered considerably from heat.
This further delayed my spring work and caused the late-seeded
grass and clover to die during the annual summer dry weather.
I began to figure on a solution to this annual trouble, and fell
upon the tractor. I disposed of one team and invested the pro-
ceeds with some added in a tractor. I have used the tractor for
three years now and figure that it has paid for itself several
times, not to mention the fact that it is so much more easily cared
for than the team I sold.
Again, I have not missed a stand of clover and grass since I
owned the tractor because during the rush spring work I could do
so much more in the few days allowed by the weather. If the
seasons were all the same and these varying dry and wet times
would not come I could make out with teams, but they have
always come and always will, I guess.
Carroll County, Tenn. R. C. AUSTIN.

A "Neighborhood" Tractor
I have noticed in our neighborhood that the farmers let one
tractor do the cutting of the land when they get ready to plant.
One man owns the tractor and cuts for several neighbors for so
much per acre and a small charge for mileage where the distance
is a few miles from his home. They have not found it convenient
yet to break with tractor as some of our land is rough and the
plows not stout enough to resist roots, stumps, and rocks, though
I notice some farmers doing nice work where they have prepared
their land for it. The same tractor also furnishes power for
thrashing wheat, oats, and sawing wood for the neighborhood.
Orange County, N. C. W. A.

Produce More and Cheaper Feed With Tractor
Until recently I depended upon horses and mules, and was
never able to turn my stubble land nor practice other methods
that I knew would be advantageous to the land and to myself.
Knowing that the use of lime, legumes, and livestock was
the surest way to improve my land, I increased my acreage in
summer legumes and increased my livestock with some dairy
cows and a few head of beef cattle. When spring came and the
feed supply growing smaller daily, I feared that the livestock
route was wrong.
Two years of such experience showed me the necessity of
producing more and cheaper feed. With the labor supply be-
coming scarcer, the routine work about the farm increasing, and
six idle horses during the winter, I had a problem that could be
met only with a tractor.
Considering the tractor, I saw the change would necessitate
considerable expenditure for new implements, though a good
many of my horse-drawn tools could be used advantageously.
Finally I made the change. Reduced my work stock to four
brood mares, and purchased a tractor, plow, and disk harrow.
With this equipment and my horse-drawn tools, I have been able
to work over 200 acres of land. I am able to get my corn in on
time, to plow most of my stubble land in time for peas, to get a
cover crop on every acre in the fall, and take care of not only all
of my belt work but do considerable for my neighbors profitably.
I am convinced that it will pay a farmer to own a tractor if
he can use 1oo acres for crops and will keep enough livestock
to consume all of the feed produced. From a cooperative view,
I believe the joint ownership of various power machinery would
be more profitable than the ownership of the tractor because the
tractor can be put to so many uses that it would be hard to ar-
range a convenient schedule for any group of farmers, but this
does not apply to the other machines.
Powhatan County, Va. C. B. BRowN.

Tractor for Many Jobs
The tractor is the best piece of machinery that I ever owned.
I plow and work my own ground, cut my grain and haul it to
market, grind feed for the stock, and meal for my family, pump
water, and saw wood for fuel with it. And when it doesn't work
it doesn't eat.
Arkansas County, Ark. H. S. C.

By C.C. CONGER, Penn Laird, Va.
Southern Ruralist
IVING in a section of the country where the hum of the active
tractor and the clink, clink, clink of the mechanics' hammer
on the inactive tractor can be heard from morning until
night, I feel that I know something, be it ever so little, about the
modern tractor-who should purchase it, what to expect of it,
and what not to expect of it. Furthermore, I know something
from experience about repair work on tractors, why they break,
how it could be prevented, and the kind of man who usually
breaks them.
The modern tractor will never have the praise and credit due
it till the people who buy it realize it is a machine out of the
ordinary and must have treatment different from a grindstone or
hay tedder if it is to give a good account of itself. I know men,
scores of them, who would not think of lubricating their cream
separators with anything else than a specially prepared separator
oil, yet they will turn right around and deliberately ruin a tractor
costing ten times as much by pouring any kind of rotten oil in it.
Now, the question is, should such a man own a tractor? For his
sake I always claimed he should not. For the factory's sake I
have always claimed he should, so there you are. Does anyone
really give his tractor the care and attention it deserves? Yes,
some few people do it, but they are awfully scarce.
I recently examined the bearings in a tractor that has given
its owner nearly two years' service without a single adjustment.
This tractor, belonging to a near neighbor, has been under my
observation since purchased and I am thoroughly familiar with
the care and treatment its owner has given it. From the very start
this man purchased oil recommended by the manufacturers and
used not a drop of other oil during the two years he has had his
machine. At the end of four days' work this tractor has had the
oil drawn off regularly, crank-case flushed out with kerosene
and refilled with new oil. Furthermore, in an effort to prevent
destructive carbon formations, which an investigation revealed
effective, this machine, during work days, has had weekly applica-
tions of kerosene in small quantities administered through spark-
plug holes when the motor was hot.
To demonstrate the general pride of the owner in his ma-
chine and his ever-watchful eye for its safety, I will briefly relate
a little conversation I heard between this man and a dealer in


lubricating oils, anti-freezing solutions, etc., last fall. The dealer
was trying to sell this man an anti-freezing solution for his
tractor radiator, and to his argument for buying it this man re-
plied: "To hell with your anti-freezing solution. I drain my
tractor every night, take it to bed with me, and put a hot-water
bottle to its feet."
In the two years this man has owned his tractor he has never
lost an hour's work by a break or machine refusing to work. In
short, his machine, after two years' work, is practically as good
as new. This man is a tractor booster, and he should be, for his
tractor is making him money.
Not more than one-half mile from this man, and joining
farms, is another fellow who owns a tractor, or a piece of one.
Tractor No. 2, while a different make, was purchased new six
months later than tractor No. I. Today it is simply a pile of
concentrated junk. To my personal knowledge it has burned
about everything in the line of lubricating oils from kerosene
down to axle grease and had similar abuse in every other respect.
The owner of this tractor is. a man who leaves his gates open,
doesn't believe in painting his buildings, leaves his farming ma-
chinery out in the weather and frequently forgets to tie his shoes.
What have these things to do with a man and his tractor?
you might ask. You watch such a fellow when he buys a tractor
and you will find out. He is dead sure to treat his tractor just
like he treats his gates, his unpainted buildings, his farming ma-
chinery and his shoes and the blamed "critter" simply won't
stand for it and no one can blame her who has ever examined
her sensitive and complicated "innards." When farmers once
become educated to the fact that the modern tractor is a machine
requiring brains, knowledge and care to operate profitably, we
will have less tractor knockers, more tractor boosters and tractor
sales mounting skyward.
My experience is that most farmers expect too much from
their tractors, not in work, but in abuse. Abuse is either directly
or indirectly behind practically every tractor complaint. Some
tractor manufacturers advise farmers to use their tractors as
many days per year as possible, whether they have use for it or
not. Such arguments are out of place away from a lunatic
asylum. If you are a careful man, one who keeps his gates closed,
buildings painted, farming machinery under shelter and shoes
tied, buy a tractor if you have work for it. It will do, and that
satisfactorily, all the many things the manufacturers claim for it,
but you have got to do something as sure as you are born. If you
don't-well, you are going to deliberately waste a lot of money,
valuable time and no end of cuss words.

Southern Ruralist
HE tractor will be a success on your farm if you have the
right sort of a farm, secure the right sort of a tractor, and
take the right sort of care of it. We ought to admit, right
at the start, that, contrary to many tractor salesmen, all farms
are not adapted to tractor farming. Some farms are too small
for a tractor-one mule can do all of the work required, and a
tractor would be a white elephant on the place. Some farms are
too stony, too rough, or too hilly to make tractor work prac-
ticable. Some farms are too badly cut up into small, irregular
fields to make the use of a tractor economical-although, of
course, this can usually be remedied by a re-alignment of fields
and fences. And finally, some farms do not have enough work
on them to keep a tractor busy. A tractor which is only used to
plow and seed in spring, and is allowed to remain idle all the
rest of the year, is a losing investment. It must have sufficient
belt work to keep it busy most of the time.
When you are sure that your farm is large enough to support
a tractor, is adapted to tractor work, and has enough belt work to
keep it reasonably busy, see that the tractor you buy is fitted for
your fields. For example, a high and heavy tractor is absolutely
unsuited for orchard work on hilly land. It will tip over with all
the ease of a freight engine on a spread rail-and there will be no
wrecker handy to set it up again. And a high-wheeled tractor
will not work in deep sand-if the wheels are wide enough to
keep it from sinking, it will be too big and heavy to run. A
deep-sand soil almost demands a tractor with a caterpillar tread.
There are so many types and makes of tractors to choose from
that by looking around a little and asking a few questions you
can readily find one adapted to your needs.
Finally, when you get a tractor, take care of it. It is the
most expensive implement on the place. Let your son take a
course at his State A. and M. College and drive it for you. As
the next best thing, select your best hired man and give him a
course. An untrained man on a tractor will soon wreck it, but a
trained man on a good tractor makes a combination that is hard
to beat. Break your tractor in slowly and carefully until it gets
to running smoothly, and never overload it. Use good oil-only
good oil-and use it frequently. More tractors are ruined by the
use of inferior oil than from almost any other cause. Watch it
carefully, and keep it in repair, ordering needed repairs early to


avoid delay. And last, but not least, keep it under cover when
not in use.
The tractor will never completely take the place of the horse
upon the farm, but it forms a valuable-a very valuable-sup-
plement to horse-power. It can run all day for days at a time,
without showing any signs of wear and tear. When the rush sea-
son is on, it can be equipped with headlights, like its cousin, the
automobile, and run at night as well as in the day time. Many
farmers, delayed in plowing or reaping, have saved the day by
putting a headlight on their tractor and keeping on the job until
it was finished. It can be used in dragging stones and stumps
from the field in clearing, and, if necessary, in hauling heavy
loads to town. Though slow, the tractor is sure, and can handle
enough trailers to make up in quantity what it lacks in speed.
It can be used-indeed, it should be used-to run the thrasher,
the silage cutter, the wood-saw, and other power-driven machines
about the place. Every farmer who purchases a tractor should
instal a driving shaft in his workshop. Tractors are built to
supply belt power as well as pulling power, and the man who
fails to take advantage of this is only getting about half the work
out of his machine that he might.
A tractor, if properly taken care of, should last for years,
and save more time and labor for its owner than any other farm
implement. When a tractor depreciates rapidly, it is much more
likely to be the fault of the owner than of the machine. Unlike
the horse or mule, the tractor costs absolutely nothing when not
at work. It can be stored away and forgotten until needed. And
it is never sick-that is, it is never sick if its owner uses due care
to overhaul it once or twice each year, clean off the carbon, and
replace worn parts before they wear out in the middle of the
harvest season and make trouble. With a tractor, as with no
other implement on the farm, an ounce of prevention is worth
many pounds of cure.

In Progressive Farmer, December 8, 1923.
W ILL it pay me to buy a tractor?" is the puzzling question
that faces quite a number of Southern farmers today.
Many have been approached by different tractor dealers
and have heard glowing accounts of the advantages to be derived
from the ownership and use of a tractor. It is the duty of every
farmer to investigate the situation and view the factors that
will determine whether or not a tractor will be a financial success
on his farm.
Size of Farm
No definite acreage has been fixed upon as to minimum size,
and will never be fixed to a certainty. I have seen several farm-
ers who only had 20 acres who said they could not farm without
a tractor; on the other hand, we find some who have as much as
500 acres and can't make a tractor pay. It is certain that where
general farming is practiced there should be at least one two-
horse team. If the acreage can be increased by the buying of a
tractor, it might be a paying proposition for a two-horse farmer
to own one.
A better guide than total size of farm in determining whether
a tractor could be used profitably would be the crops raised and
the acreage in each. These two factors rather than the size of the
farm will govern the amount of work to be done. The organiza-
tion and cropping system of a farm may be such that in spite of
the addition of a tractor the number of mules cannot be reduced.
Such a farm might be one where cultivation of the crop requires
as great a number of horses as any other operation.
On some farms where the acreage in fall grain is large it may
be advisable to prepare the land, seed and harvest the grain with
a tractor, thus cutting down the number of work animals. Due
to the fact that the preparation of the land can be carried on
much faster with a tractor, it may be possible in quite a number
of cases, to make the machine a profitable investment by using it
to handle the grain crop altogether. Then to sow peas following
the grain. The time of sowing grain is very important. Experi-
ments conducted on the Georgia State College of Agriculture
plats show that over a period of eight years the increase in yield
of oats of October 15 sowing over November 15 is 27.6 bushels
per acre. These figures show that early sowing is very important.



Z'.~fd. -

The value or work done with the tractor and the time saved
may make the tractor a paying investment even on a small farm.
Where general farming is the practice, we would say that 80
acres would be the least amount where a tractor would make a
profit. However, there are exceptions to this.
Type of Soil
With ordinary soil conditions such as are found in the South,
tractors will perform efficiently. In the sandy soils there will be
some slippage and the efficiency will not be quite as high as on the
soils where the traction is better. Farmers who farm in the sandy
soils should buy tractors that have all gears and working parts
enclosed. It is necessary to have the field free of stumps and
trees. Then some places are underlaid with rock that may cause
breakdowns when using tractor plows on this kind of soil.
Size of Fields
The first tractors were large and built for big fields. How-
ever, no difficulty need be experienced now in using a tractor in
the ordinary size fields, as the smaller tractors now available are
capable of being handled very easily in fields of various sizes and
shapes. Where the land is any way near level a tractor can be
used in fields of five acres up. One should not expect, however,
to be able to plow the garden with the ordinary farm tractor.
There are quite a number of garden tractors manufactured
which will go in close corners and up to the fences.
The lay of the land may be a great drawback to the use of a
tractor for draw-bar purposes. In those sections of the South
which are hilly, some difficulty may be experienced in operating
a tractor successfully, but experience with a machine will enable
one to operate it on land that is rather hilly by following con-
tours and turning where the grade is not so great. It is often
impossible to plow the steep lands, but a tractor with a harrow
can be run on any land that should be in field crops. If the slope
is so great that this can't be done, then the land should be seeded
in timber or grass.

Kind of Work and the Time Tractor Can Be Used
Every farmer, in deciding whether to buy a tractor, will be
interested in determining beforehand what work a tractor will
do on his farm, and before buying should know what belt jobs
and what draw-bar jobs the machine is capable of doing.




Some of the draw-bar operations which may be done with the
tractor are: plowing, disking for grain, seeding grain, harvesting
grain, plowing for peas, disking for peas, seeding peas, cutting
hay, loading hay, harvesting corn, cultivating (when one owns a
cultivating type of tractor), hauling heavy loads on wagons, pull-
ing manure spreader, dragging roads, clearing land, and rolling
The tractor is used for belt work such as sawing wood,
cutting silage, grinding feed, thrashing grain, thrashing peanuts,
shredding corn, pumping water, cutting stover and baling hay.
To the farmer who is trying to decide whether to purchase a
tractor, it may be said that ingenious tractor owners use their
machines for many other miscellaneous jobs.
It may be possible to perform custom work for the neigh-
bors. It must be understood, however, that if custom work is
done it should be done at a profit. If the number of tractors in
the neighborhood is small, there will perhaps be all the work one
would want to handle.
Do I Need a Tractor?
After considering the size of farm, type of soil, size of fields,
topography of your farm, kind and amount of work that can be
done with a tractor, then ask yourself the following questions:
I. Can I reduce the number of work animals by buying a
2. Can I reduce the amount of hired help?
3. Can I increase the acreage of my farm?
4. Can I increase the amount of crop production?
If you can do one or more of these and have some knowledge
of internal combustion engines or have some one to operate the
machine that has this knowledge, then you can make the tractor


A STUDY of the reports of 684 tractor owners in Alabama,
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennes-
see, by the United States Department of Agriculture,
shows that in general these men are satisfied with their machines
and expect to continue using them. The reports were made in
March, 1921, and at that time 86 per cent of the number report-
ing believed that their machines would turn out to be profitable
investments, and 90 per cent stated that they intended to use
them during the ensuing year.
It must be remembered, however, that most of the owners
of these tractors were operating farms considerably larger than
the average. Of the 684 farms, the average size was 290 acres,
while according to the 1920 census of agriculture the average
size of all farms in these States was only about 75 acres. Over
90 per cent of the farms reporting are more than 75 acres in size.
On the average, the portion of the acreage devoted to cotton and
corn on these farms is slightly less than on other farms in the
same States, but there is no great difference between the crops
raised on the farms where tractors are owned and on those where
tractors are not owned.
The two-plow tractor is evidently the size best suited to the
needs of most of these farms. Seventy-six per cent of the 684
machines are of this size, and about 66 per cent of the men re-
porting now believe that this size is the best for their conditions.
About 20 per cent own three-plow machines, and 30 per cent
now prefer this size. Thirteen of the 684 men own one-plow
machines and 12 own the four-plow size. No other sizes were
All of the men whose reports were used in this study pur-
chased their tractors between March, 1918, and September,
192o. The average first cost of the machines was $1,050, and
the average of the owners' estimates of their useful life was 7.6
years. On this basis, the annual depreciation charge is $138 per
Each owner was asked the number of total days' work done
per year with his tractor, and the average of the replies was 53
days. The two-plow tractors were used an average of 52 days
per year, and the three-plow tractors, 56 days.
About one-half of the men did some custom work with their
machines, but over 90 per cent of the total work done by these


tractors was on the home farm. They were used more for plow-
ing than for any other one operation.
About 80 per cent of these men used disk plows with their
tractors. The average acres covered per day with the two- and
three-bottom disk and mold-board plows drawn by these tractors
is as follows: Two-plow disk, 4.7 acres; two-plow moldboard,
5.3 acres; three-plow disk, 6.5 acres; three-plow moldboard, 7.3
Over 90 per cent of these men stated that the quality of the
plowing done with their tractors was better than that which they
formerly did with horses and mules. The tractors drawing disk
plows used on an average about 3/2 gallons of fuel per acre for
plowing, and those drawing moldboard plows about 3 gallons
per acre. This difference between the fuel required when using
disk and moldboard plows is due largely to the fact that the disk
plows are narrower than the moldboard plows, and the acreage
covered per day is correspondingly less. The two-plow tractors
used about 17 gallons of fuel per day for plowing, and the three-
plow tractors about 21 gallons per day.
The average cost (including charges for depreciation, in-
terest, repairs, fuel and oil) per acre of using the two-plow
tractors for plowing in 1920 was $2.07 when using gasoline and
$1.73 when using kerosene. For the three-plow tractor, it was
$1.90 when using gasoline and $1.59 when using kerosene. These
costs are based on 3 -cent gasoline, 20-cent kerosene, and 85-cent
lubricating oil, the average prices which these farmers paid
during 1920. The repair costs were computed on the basis of an
annual repair charge of 4 per cent of the first cost of the ma-
chines, and interest was charged at 8 per cent on the average
investment. On account of the smaller acreage covered per day,
and the greater amount of fuel used per acre, the cost of plowing
with the disk plow was somewhat greater than was the cost when
using moldboard plows.
Each farmer was asked how many days of man labor his
tractor saved annually, and the average of the replies was 66
days. The average of the replies of the owners of the two-plow
tractors was 63 days, and of the three-plow machines, 78 days.
Each farmer was asked for the number of days of belt work
per year now done with his tractor which was formerly done
with a hired engine. The average of the replies to this question
was 13 days. Between 20 and 25 per cent, however, stated that
they did no belt work with their tractors which was formerly
done with hired engines.
Nearly 50 per cent of the men reporting have increased the
size of their farms since purchasing their tractors by an average

of about 50 acres-from about 210 to 260 acres. At the same
time they have decreased their work stock from an average of 6.7
head to 5.1 head. They kept an average of one head of work
stock for each 31 acres before they purchased their tractors, and
were keeping one head for every 50 acres at the time they made
their reports.
The men who did not increase the size of their farms reduced
their work stock from an average of 8.8 head to 7.4 head after
the purchase of their tractors. Nearly half of the men, however,
who were still farming the same acreage had no reduction in
their work stock.
A comparison of the reports of the men who were satisfied
with their tractors with those who were dissatisfied, showed that
in some cases the failure to take advantage of the opportunity
offered by the tractors to increase the acreage and reduce the
work stock was probably responsible for the dissatisfaction; in
other cases the poor service rendered by the tractors was responsi-
ble, and experience has shown nearly one-half of the dissatisfied
owners that their present tractors are not the proper size for their
Over 50 per cent of the men who believed their tractors
would be profitable, and less than 10 per cent of those who did
not believe their tractors would be profitable, had increased their
acreage. The satisfied owners had decreased their work stock on
an average of 1.8 head and the dissatisfied owners by an average
of only 0.5 head.
Each class had owned their machines about I/2 years, but
the repair costs of the satisfied owners had been only $33, while
those of the dissatisfied owners had been $150. The tractors
which were proving satisfactory had been out of commission
when needed an average of two days during the year preceding
the time of reporting, while those which were proving unsatis-
factory had been out of commission 14 days.
A recently published bulletin that will be welcome to many
Progressive Farmer readers is Farmers' Bulletin 1245, copies of
which may be had upon request to Bureau of Publications, Wash-
ington, D. C. This bulletin is a rather complete treatise on or-
ganizing, financing, and managing farmers' telephone companies,
and is written in simple language for the guidance of the aver-
age person. For any one thinking of organizing a telephone com-
pany this bulletin will be of great help. A postal card will bring
a copy.

By W. H. ELLIOTT, Clarksburg, Miss.
Southern Ruralist
M Y EXPERIENCE with the tractor goes back eight years, and
during these eight years I have owned three different
kinds. The first one I bought was a large, cumbersome
affair, weighing 17,000 pounds with 15-30 H.P. It had a one-
cylinder motor with large fly-wheel, and used kerosene, starting
on gasoline. This tractor had a very reliable motor which was
excellent for stationary power, but the great weight made it im-
practical for field work as it packed the ground too badly unless
is was very dry.
I learned several things while I owned this tractor. The
main thing was that the average farmer had no use for such a
heavy machine. The next tractor I bought was a four-cylinder,
16-36 H.P., weighing 9,000 pounds. It ran nicely at first, but
before I had owned it a year I concluded that I was not yet
qualified to pick a winner in the tractor field. Nearly everything
about this tractor that needed daily inspection and adjusting,
such as the carburetor, magneto, etc., was in such an inaccessible
place that it was impossible to get to, and it took half a day's
work tearing away to get to the valves to grind them, and that
long to reassemble the machine after valves were ground.
The result was that the machine was in bad condition most
of the time. This machine proved to be more of a "white ele-
phant" than the first one. It went like the first one, to a man
that wanted to buy a cheap machine.
I had concluded by this time that I did not need any more
tractors-that there was something wrong with all of them. But
a few months' work with a team, plowing and working the soil,
made me wish for a "sure nuf" tractor, one that wouldn't have
sore shoulders, fight flies, get overcome by the heat, and last but
not least, one that would not balk.
While in this frame of mind, one of our county officials told
me that the county had bought an 18-36 H.P. Nilson Senior trac-
tor about one year before to work the public roads, and that it
had proven a failure. They offered this machine so cheap that I
bought it. It had a five-cylinder motor, and was driven by two
roller chains. These chains were enclosed and ran in a bath of
oil. All of the main bearings except the motor bearings were
high-duty roller bearings.


This tractor I have used the past year, plowing, disking, etc.
It weighs about 6,2oo pounds. The drive wheels have about 46
inches of bearing surface on the ground and don't pack the soil.
It uses gasoline.
For years I have dreamed of a tractor that would plow and
disk all day long without something continually going wrong. I
am glad to say that my dreams have come true. This tractor does
all that anyone could expect it to do, and it is as easy and pleasant
to operate as an automobile.
Now in summing up my experience with tractors, I have
learned many things. Too much weight is a very serious draw-
back, unless in a very dry country, and it is of no advantage even
then. A tractor with roller- or ball-bearings has many advantages
over one without. They require just a small per cent of the at-
tention that the old-fashioned plain bearing does. I oil them once
a week, while the plain bearings required oiling once an hour,
which consumed lots of time. The roller bearing is also much
more easily replaced when worn. In fact, I can think of no ad-
vantage that the plain bearing has over the roller or ball type of
bearing. A tractor, to be practical, must be designed so that all
of the important parts, such as the magneto, carburetor, etc., can
be easily inspected and adjusted. However, any one buying a
tractor today has many advantages over the buyer six or eight
years ago. There are a very few really bad tractors on the market
today, where six or eight years ago it was just the reverse-there
were very few good ones.


By P. W. CALHOUN, Madison, Florida.
Southern Ruralist
Is THE tractor a success? This question is being discussed now
in a good many localities, mine included. .There are about
sixteen tractors in my county, mostly Fordsons. Some of the
first tractors bought failed miserably because the wheels were
too small. One was a complete failure because it was too ridicu-
lously large for the work to be done. The late model machines,
however, seem to do satisfactory work, though many owners I
have talked with complain of the expense. That, after all, is the
test which will decide the tractor's standing as a farm asset. And
the pity of it is, a good deal of the expense of which they com-
plain is unnecessary.
Our own tractor, while it hasn't been run a great deal, hasn't
cost a cent for repairs, nor is there a knock or click in the motor.
Many other tractors were well on the downward road before
they were run as long as ours.
Where does the difference lie? In the care of the machine.
Being auto mechanics before we bought ours, we knew that to
run so large an engine much over its rated speed would soon
spell ruination to the bearings and wrist pins. Many owners seem
to overlook this item entirely, and never bother to check up the
speed at which the driver operates the machine. This is, perhaps,
the source of most of the undue depreciation tractors have suf-
fered here. Also we knew that when the engine suddenly begins
to knock and fail to pull, it was time to stop and examine the oil
level. Sometimes weeds or sticks knock the gauges open, and a
thoughtless driver will do the machine considerable damage right
then. This happens often enough to warrant cautioning the
driver very carefully about it. Again, it will not do to use in-
ferior oil in any machine, most especially a kerosene burner. This,
however, seems to be understood and appreciated by all. The
motor car has taught that lesson, in many instances, most dearly.
What most of the owners don't seem to realize, however, is
that it is not necessary to run to town after a garage mechanic
every time some little thing goes wrong. The simple instruction
book furnished with the machine covers about anything that is
likely to happen. There is no more reason in paying a man four
or five dollars to come out and clean a little trash out of the

kerosene pipe than to pay a blacksmith every time you wanted a
bolt tightened on a plow. A dirty spark plug will cause all kinds
of trouble on a kerosene engine, but many users send for a me-
chanic instead of cleaning the plugs. The mechanic often throws
the old plugs away and puts in new ones, whether they are needed
or not. It means a few extra cents for the company. It wouldn't
be so bad if spark plugs were the most expensive things that go
by this route, but often carburetors, vapor tubs, and other per-
fectly good parts are discarded because they need cleaning.
This leads to a few comments on the dealer's part in making
the tractor a success. He is supposed to learn tractors and teach
the users how to get service from them, but often he does not.
When the least thing goes wrong, he makes a mountain out of a
mole hill in order to get a big bill. Incompetent mechanics turn
in their time at more than a dollar an hour, and often leave the
machine in worse shape than it was before. This is the worst
handicap the tractor has to contend with, and it is up to the own-
ers to guard against it. Be on hand, if possible, when the work
is being done. Usually you will get a better job done and you can
soon find out who is the right man to do the work.
This may look like a pretty blue letter, but I look for the
tractor ultimately to come into its own. I see no reason why
they shouldn't sell much cheaper in the future, and if the dealers
don't give good service, somebody else will. Owners are already
beginning to realize that they are as capable of learning how to
properly look after a machine as anybody else, and a whole lot
more liable to. These three changes will put a tractor on nearly
every good-sized farm in the next five or six years.

VERY farmer who owns a tractor naturally is interested in
the cost of operating his machine and in reducing that cost
wherever possible. Cost of use, according to investigations
made on Corn Belt farms by the United States Department of
Agriculture, depends chiefly on depreciation, fuel, repairs and up-
keep, interest, and lubricating oil. The relative importance of
these elements of cost may vary in different sections and on dif-
ferent farms in the same locality, but they make up the greater
part of the cost of using the tractor, and the possibilities of re-
ducing the cost of use lie almost entirely in cutting down the size
of these items.
While the cost per year and per day of operating three-plow
machines is considerably greater than for two-plow machines,
the greater amount of work done by the larger outfits, at least on
draw-bar operations, makes the cost per unit of work approxi-
mately the same for both sizes.
Depreciation is wholly dependent upon the length of life and
the first cost of the machine. The depreciation costs as deter-
mined by the department's investigations are based on a first cost
of $500 and a life of 6.4 years for two-plow machines and of
$900 and 7 years for three-plow machines. The depreciation cost
for the two-plow outfit per year is given as $78; for one day,
$2.41; for the three-plow outfit per year, $129; and per day,
Fuel and oil costs are dependent on the amount of work done,
and while this cost may be large for the season it will not be out
of proportion to the work done. From the same investigations
fuel and oil costs for the two-plow outfit was given as $99 per
year and $3.06 per day; for the three-plow outfits $o18 per year
and $3.79 per day. Interest on the small machines amounts to
$17 per year and on the larger ones $31. Repairs and upkeep
costs are influenced by the care and attention given to the tractor
and the ability of the operator to do his own repairing. In these
investigations there have been found to be $35 for the small
machines per year and $33 for the larger ones. Other costs on
the average will amount to not far from 5 per cent of the total
cost of operating the tractor.
The annual depreciation, repair, and interest charges do not
increase in proportion to the amount of work done per year;
consequently the daily costs of these items will be least for ma-
chines which do the greatest amount of work.



ESTIMATES upon the probable length of life of the tractor on
Corn Belt farms have been obtained from 278 tractor
owners by investigators in the United States Department
of Agriculture, studying the cost of using tractors. The estimates
range from 3 to io years, 81 owners estimating a life of 5 years.
The average of all of the estimates received is 6.6 years. Some of
these estimates may seem low, yet there are instances of operators
who have considered their machine profitable after wearing them
out in as brief a time as two years, under adverse soil conditions.
Every low-priced tractor doing a large amount of work each
year may be expected to give at least 5 years of service if the
machine is given intelligent care and kept in repair. Under ad-
verse conditions these figures may be lower while under favor-
able conditions it may be higher. Information obtained in 1920
from 1,219 tractor owners showed that about half of the men
who had bought their tractors in 1916 and I917, one-third of
those who purchased in 1914 and 1915, and one-fourth of those
who purchased in 1913 or earlier are still using them for field
work. These men had owned their tractors on an average of
4Y2 years, and they estimated that the machine would last 5
years more.
From the replies received from these 1,219 farmers who had
used their tractors 4 or more years, it was found that 469 had
disposed of their first machines, 35 per cent of them for cash and
65 per cent in trade, usually for new tractors. The men who
had sold their machines had kept them for an average period of
a little more than 3 years and sold or traded them for approxi-
mately half the first cost.




IN DRIVING to the country right after a heavy rain, you have
noticed how the richest and best soil from the hillsides and
rolling lands washes down with each hard shower. How at
first little gullies appear, then good-sized washes, finally ravines
deeper than a man's head.
Lots of folks do not yet appreciate the full extent of soil
washing. They do not realize that if this waste is allowed to
continue for any length of time it soon destroys the crop-produc-
ing value of the land and often whole fields are abandoned and
lost to the farmer.
What an opportunity for county agents to get in some good,
effective work! Field Terracing is the only solution for this
criminal waste. In this connection I am reminded of an article
that appeared in the Texas Farm and Ranch some time ago:
"If the county farm demonstrator should do nothing else but
persuade us into terracing and run the lines for us he would be
the best investment we ever had.
"I notice that the farmers in this county did not commence
terracing until the demonstrator bought an instrument and paid
paid for it out of his salary and began begging them to let him
run their levels. Now, to hear some of them talk, you would
think the idea originated with them."
The truth is that America is just beginning to wake up to the
fact that millions of acres of land in our country have already
been ruined by washing. The destruction is going on at a tre-
mendous rate every year. It will have to be stopped. Nothing
in the world will stop it but field terracing. Europe found that
fact out long ago.
Remember that the loss from washing of hillsides and sloping
fields is an absolute loss. The rich top soil, full of vegetable mat-
ter and the plant-food elements in manure and commercial ferti-
lizer go first. After each hard rain these priceless elements in the
soil go into the creeks and ditches. And bear in mind that ter-
racing will stop all this, that it often costs less than plowing, that
it is easy to do and that the field that is once terraced, and if the
terraces are kept up, is saved.


Federal Land Banks Require Farmers to Terrace
As further proof of the recognized merit of terracing as a
guarantee against soil washing and an effective means for in-
creasing the value of hillside land, some of the Federal Land
Banks in various parts of the country are now requiring the
farmers to terrace such land before granting loans.
It is also a perfect tool for open and tile ditches, road grading,
dyke building, back-filling after laying tile, irrigation work of all
kinds and any other dirt-moving job on the farm. As a road-
making machine, nothing can equal it. Read carefully the litera-
ture inclosed. We also suggest that you write to the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for Farmers Bulletin
No. 997.

T. F. Davis, President Fifth District
Wm. C. Dufour, Vice-President Alabama
C. C. Gaspard, Secretary Mississippi
J. V. DeGruy, Treasurer Louisiana
J. T. Savage, Director
W. S. Reese, Registrar

Owensboro Ditcher & Grader Co.,
Owensboro, Kentucky. April 30, 1923.
Gentlemen: Your letter of April 14th, addressed to the Fed-
eral Land Bank of New Orleans, has been referred to me for
This bank has adopted a rule not, under any circumstances,
to make a loan on uplands where terraces are needed until the
terraces are built according to the rules and regulations of the
Farm Extension Department of the United States Department
of Agriculture.
We require our appraisers to state in their reports whether
or not the land needs terracing, and when an appraiser so re-
ports we approve the loan on the condition that the farmer will
terrace his land, and before the loan is closed we require him to
file an affidavit setting forth that the land has been properly ter-
raced, and also to file with this affidavit a certificate from the
County Farm Demonstration Agent, or the County Surveyor, or
some other competent authority, showing that he has personally
inspected the terraces on this farm, and that they have been
built according to the rules and regulations of the Federal Farm
Extension Department.


We consider upland as practically valueless for loan purposes
until it is properly terraced. I would be unable to give you the
approximate increased value per acre that terracing would add,
for the reason that we do not consider it at all until it is properly
Permit me to say further that I have owned a Martin
Ditcher and Grader, and used it on my own farm in Mississippi
since 1914, and I regard it as an indispensable tool on almost any
kind of farm, and have many times recommended it to the farm-
ers when I was at work in the field as an Appraiser for the
Federal Land Bank.
I think you are doing a real service to the country by placing
the Martin Ditcher and Grader on the farms in this territory,
and for this reason I am glad to furnish you with the above in-
formation. With best wishes I am,
Yours very truly,
T. W. SCOTT, Chief Appraiser.

HE Southern farmer has heretofore spent his money for
nitrogen (which fertilizer men list on their sacks as "am-
monia" because the figures look larger) when he could get
all the nitrogen he needs by the growing of peas and clover and
using them either as plant food direct, or else by feeding them
to livestock and making a profit and returning the larger part of
the manurial value of the crop to the land in the manure made,
and as fast as it is made.
i. A Rich Lands Farmer-The good farmer of the future
will have learned all these things, and will know that the chief
thing he has to buy is some carrier of phosphorus, and the money
the planter now spends for nitrogen and potash will enable him
to use more liberally the phosphates which the soil especially
lacks in his mode of farming. He will have learned the vital
importance of maintaining and increasing the humus content
in his soil, not only as a source of fertility but for its mellowing
and moisture-retaining character, and hence he will be a legume
farmer, growing and using the legumes best suited to his section,
his soil, and his climate.
2. A Diversifying, Rotating, "Cash Farmer."-The good
farmer will understand that by good rotative farming and the
maintenance of the fertility of his soil he can make one-third of
his farm produce more cotton than the all-cotton man makes on
three times the area, and he will have corn to sell, and wheat and
oats to sell, and fat cattle and hogs. All of these he will make
tend to the increase per acre of his money crop, and he will be a
"cash man" and independent of the fertilizer man and the mer-
chant. He will have a twelve-months-in-the-year garden, and
will grow orchards of all the fruits of his section. He will keep
his family supplied with the healthful products of his orchards,
strawberry beds, blackberries, and grape vines, and they will not
have to be running around hunting wild berries.
3. More Horse Power and Machinery.-He will understand
that human labor is the most costly thing on the farm, and will
not put two men each with a horse to cultivate hoed crops where
one man with two horses could do the work more rapidly and
better. Hence he will in every way possible make the labor of
mules and horses save the labor of men by using the best imple-
4. Something to Turn Under Before Each Crop.-He must
learn that no land should be put into a hoed crop unless a good

sod or growth of vegetation is turned under for it, and that the
sooner he gets a legume crop or grass back on the land the better.
5. Deep Plowing andLevel Cultivation.-The farmer of the
future must learn that deep plowing is essential in the making of
a deep bed of loose soil for the rains to settle into-instead of
running down hill and carrying the soil with them. He must
learn that level cultivation is essential on the hills and that bank-
ing up the soil to rows only makes valleys between them to gather
a head of water to break over and start gullies.
6. Must Be a "Legume Farmer."-He will lose no oppor-
tunity to get a legume crop on his land between sale crops. He
will sow peas or soy beans or both in his corn at last working, and
will use them to increase the grain crop following, for he will
understand that it is not the mere growing of a legume crop that
improves the land, but that it must be used either as manure
direct or for feeding to stock, later returning the manure to the
land that grew the legumes.
7. No Gulleys or Badly Shaped Patches.-He will have
abandoned "patchwork" farming, but will cultivate his land in
clear fields from which the bush patches and gullies have been
removed and longer rows made feasible.
8. No Fodder Pulling.-The farmer of the future will not
strip the leaves from his corn but will understand that this will
reduce the crop of grain to the full value of the fodder saved, and
the labor will be lost. Hence his corn fields will never be seen
with the leaves stripped off and the corn drying up before it has
matured, but there will be long rows of cut-down corn set as
far apart in shocks as convenient so that the open space can at
once be prepared for the winter crop of small grain.
9. A Coiperative Farmer.-The good farmer of the future
will understand the great value of organization, not only in the
distribution and selling of his crops but in the buying in whole-
sale quantities for cash, and will understand that organization
and cooperation will aid the farmer in financing his work and
getting on a cash basis. Hence he will be a leader in getting his
fellow farmers into compact organizations so that the competi-
tion of farmers will not be destructive, but a safeguard and con-
structive help. He will be a cooperating farmer, doing his best
to combine the farmers of his county and neighborhood into an
association for mutual improvement in farming and for whole-
sale buying and selling. He will realize that a federation of
farmers' cooperative associations all over the Cotton Belt can be
made a controlling force in the planting of the staple crop, and
could to a great extent, through accurate study of market condi-

tions in the world, control the area and prevent disastrous over-
io. A Painted House.-And as a result of his intelligent
work the farmer will have a real home and not.a bare, unpainted
house standing in a field. He will have a well-kept lawn, with
trees and shrubbery well planted. His dwelling will be kept well
painted not only as a preservative to the wood but as a means
for beautifying his home.
rz. A Reading Farmer.-And inside the house he will have
books and farm papers and bulletins to study, for the farmer of
the future will be a student, and will understand that his profes-
sion is the most learned of all, and that he can learn a great deal
from the written experiences of other intelligent men.
12. Conveniences for the Farm Woman.-And while he
will have his farm well supplied with all the labor-saving imple-
ments and machinery, he will also understand that the labor of
the house and kitchen need similar attention. Hence he will
provide modern conveniences for saving the labor of the mistress
of the house and her daughters, and making their labor more
easy and effective.
13. Careful Seed Selection and Breeding.-These will al-
ways be among the good farmer's main interests, seeing that as
much can be done in this way as by improving the soil itself. He
will understand that corn especially is always more productive
when bred where it is to be planted than it is when brought from
a distance either north or south of him.
14. Freedom from Superstitions.-The good farmer of the
future will know that the chief things for him to consider are the
proper preparation of the soil, and the sowing or planting at the
proper time and in the best manner, and the conservation of the
moisture in his soil; and he will pay no attention to the phase of
the moon or the signs of the zodiac. He will know that when he
sows clean oats or wheat in clean soil he will get clean oats and
clean wheat, and never cheat, and will know enough about plant
life to understand the utter impossibility of the seed of one
species of plants producing plants of another species. In fact, he
will have gotten rid of all the old superstition, for he will be a
student, reading the books of value in his profession, and will
keep posted on the work of the experiment stations as published
in their bulletins.
15. Cooperation With the County Agent.-He will co6per-
ate in every reasonable way with the county demonstrator, and
aid him in his work, knowing that the wisest of farmers has a
great deal yet to learn and that farming is a progressive art,

always developing new facts of value to the farmer who is a
16. Educating His Children.-He will place a high value on
the education of the son who is to succeed him on the farm, and
will give the boys the best advantages in his power to learn all
that has been proved of value to the farmer. But he will not
conclude that every boy raised on the farm must be a farmer.
He will study the natural bent of each boy's mind and tastes, and
will give each the best education in his power to make him a
success in the line of human endeavor he chooses, knowing well
that the boy who is to be a farmer must be the one who loves the
farm and has enthusiasm for the work.
17. A Community Leader.-He will be a leader in every
line of work for the improvement not only of his home and farm
but of his whole section, and will do all in his power to help his
poorer and less successful neighbors into more successful methods
in the improvement of their homes and farms, for this farmer of
the future will have a love for his home and neighborhood.
18. Pretty Home Grounds and a Good Pasture.- He
will have a beautiful lawn and trees and shrubbery and flowers,
and will never use the lawn as a horse pasture, but will have a
real pasture of a permanent character with real grass, a pasture
clean of weeds and kept good by annual topdressings and clean-
ing of weeds, and not the old Southern pasture where no grass
grew. He will understand that a pasture will not take care
of itself but must be treated and maintained as much as any other
part of the farm.
I9. Pride in His Profession.-Finally, the good farmer will
feel that his profession is the noblest and most important and
most learned of any, being the foundation and support of all
other professions and business, and hence he will have on his
table the best of farm papers and will help in the support of those
that help him in his business, and will contribute of his experi-
ence to help others in the exchange of ideas.
20. A Sense of Responsibility to the Almighty.-The farmer
of the future will feel his responsibility to the Almighty for the
use he makes of the soil, and the influence he exerts in the ad-
vancement of humanity. For he will understand that "the earth
is the Lord's and the fullness thereof," and will not hide his
talents in a furrow of lean soil, but will endeavor to return to
God the fullness thereof and finally be prepared to give a good
account of his stewardship.

* -


O RANGE TOWNSHIP, Blackhawk County, Iowa, has been
talked about by "rural uplift experts" as much as any
other farm community in the country. How does the
neighborhood in which you live measure up to this one? Here
are the talking points:
142 farm homes in the township.
142 with newspapers and magazines..
132 with telephones.
125 with libraries-average volumes in owners' homes, 160;
in tenant homes, ninety-five.
80 with pianos.
79 with automobiles.
76 with vacuum carpet sweepers.
76 with gas or oil-stoves.
72 with furnace heat.
68 with power washers.
63 with gas or electric lights.
57 with running water piped in.
55 with refrigerators.
47 with bathrooms.
45 with open-air sleeping porches.
36 with gas or electric irons.
34 with indoor toilets.

The Country Gentleman
HE time is coming, brethren, when a radio receiving out-
fit will be as much a part of the farm equipment as a plow
or a silo. Well why not ? Not so many years ago the auto-
mobile was a fad, then it was a luxury, today it is a necessity.
Radio seems to be going through the same process of evolu-
Already it has passed the fad stage.
Whether it is even now any more of a luxury than the ubiqui-
tous talking machine or the tireless fireless cooker, both of which
contribute to the peace and well-being and comfort of the farm
home, is open to question.
With 250,000 receiving sets on American farms today the
day may not be so far distant when they will be as commonplace
as the kitchen sink.
Particularly, when you consider the universal appeal of radio,
the remarkable progress made during the past two or three
years, the refinements and improvements that are bound to come,
the lowered costs that are inevitable.
And more particularly when you remember that radio holds
more for the farmer than any other class of citizen.
For the farmer isthe radio's favorite child.
He is the radio's greatest beneficiary. Radio has penetrated
his traditional isolation as no other force has even approximated.
The diversions of the cities are carried into the heart of his home.
But he gets more than the entertainment features which are
the chief attraction of radio. He perhaps more than anyone else
can use radio in his business.
Weather, crop and market reports, specialized farm imforma-
tion, agricultural programs, are all for the farmer's benefit.
The Department of Agriculture at Washington, the agri-
cultural colleges and numerous other agencies are constantly
striving to help and amuse the farmer through the medium of the
A great station has been erected at Chicago with the farm
audience as its sole aim.
One Western college has ambitious plans for conducting ex-
tension courses by radio-lectures and quizzes transmitted to the
farmer through the ether, answers written and sent to the college
for grading and credit.

Yes, he is the radio's favorite child.
There are countless stories of farmers who have gone to town
with something to sell, to be offered considerably less than the
day's market price. But the farmer who listened in on the mar-
ket reports before he cranked up his truck steps into the limelight
like the hero in the good old-fashioned melodrama and says: "Ha,
villain, you shall trick me no more! Me trusty radio tells me
Radio not only permits farmers to check up on dealers but
it enables them to cut and fit their shipments to meet market con-
ditions. i
A Chicago daily published primarily in the interests of live-
stock shippers broadcasts market reports five times a day. There
is testimony to the effect that these reports have brought farmers
fifty to a hundred dollars a car more for their hogs.

Hourly Quotations on Grain
In the grain territory boards of trade are now broadcasting
almost hourly quotations. This radio service is enabling farmer
shippers, farmers' elevators and farmer grain companies to keep
in closer touch with the markets than ever before. They are doing
it at less expense, too, since the usual wire tolls are materially
Through the influence of the Government these boards of
trade are confining their broadcasts to reports that can be veri-
fied by documentary evidence. They are leaving unsaid gossip
and conjectured information.
Not long ago I listened to the broadcasting of market reports
on dairy and poultry products from the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics in Washington.
The men who collected these figures came off the "street"
round 3 o'clock. The information was in the hands of the De-
partment of Agriculture an hour later.
At 4:25 o'clock a government man stepped into an ordinary
telephone booth and talked over an ordinary telephone wire con-
nected with the naval radiophone station-NAA-at Arlington.
His reading was transmitted directly to the broadcasting ap-
paratus there, being thrown out into the ether as he spoke.

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