Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Creameries in Florida
 Dairy farming principles
 Dairy arithmetic
 Value of dairy products
 Milk and its uses in the home
 Average composition of milk of...
 What has feed to do with butter...
 Composition of milk, milk of different...
 Vitamines and the stock feeder
 Dairy ration
 The protein bugaboo
 Cleaning milking machines
 Why cream tests vary
 Florida dairying
 Ice cream requirements
 Need of dairy industry in...
 Feeding dairy cows for profit in...
 Remedy for keeping fire flies off...
 Milk condensing plants
 Cost of creamery
 High record cows in Florida

Group Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Volume 34. No. 2.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00010
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. Volume 34. No. 2.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture, State for Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: January 1926
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Creameries in Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Dairy farming principles
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Dairy arithmetic
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Value of dairy products
        Page 27
    Milk and its uses in the home
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Average composition of milk of various kinds
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    What has feed to do with butter fat?
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Composition of milk, milk of different breeds, and feeding dairy cattle
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Vitamines and the stock feeder
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Dairy ration
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The protein bugaboo
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Cleaning milking machines
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Why cream tests vary
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Florida dairying
        Page 64
    Ice cream requirements
        Page 65
    Need of dairy industry in South
        Page 65
    Feeding dairy cows for profit in Florida
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Remedy for keeping fire flies off animals
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Milk condensing plants
        Page 73
    Cost of creamery
        Page 74
    High record cows in Florida
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
Full Text

Volume 34 Number 2

Supplement and (Reprint)



Florida Quarterly Bulletin
of the
Department of Agriculture

Commissioner of Agriculture


Volume 34 Number 2

Supplement and (Reprint)



Florida Quarterly Bulletin
of the
Department of Agriculture

Commissioner of Agriculture




1. Creamneries in Florida ........ ........... ... 5
1. Leon County .................... 5
2. Marion County ................... 6
:. Iillsborough County Dairies S
4. Orange County .................. 10
5. Dade County ..................... 12
6. Palm Beach County ............... 13
7. Hernando County ................. 15
8. Polk County. ...................... 16
2. Dairy Farming Principles ................. 17
:. Dairy Arithmetic ................ ....... 24
4. Value of Dairy Products ..27
.. Milk and Its Uses in the Home ................ 27
6. Average Composition of Milk of Various Kinds 34


1. What Has Feed to Do With Butter Fat?. ....... 37
2. Composition of Milk ... 39
:. Milk of Different Breeds ...................... 39
4. Feeding Dairy Cattle ................. 39
5. Vitamines and the Stock Feeder ............... 46
6. Dairy Ration ............ ......... 48
7. Protein Bugaboo 53
8. Cleaning Milk Machines .................... 58
9. Why Cream Tests Vary .................. 61
10. Florida Dairying ..................... .. 64
11. lee Cream Requirements ................. ... .65
12. Need of Dairy Industry in South .65
1:. Feeding Dairy Cows for Profit in Florida 66
14. Remedy for Keeping Flies Off Animals 71
15. Milk Condensing Plants ...................... 73
16. Cost of Creamery . .......... 74
17. High Record Cows in Florida .................. 75



County Agent
E ON COUNTY ias always taken first rank as the
leading dairy county of Florida. A recent survey
showed over 3,700 dairy cattle in the county, includ-
ing many fine registered herds of Jerseys, Ayrshires, Hol-
steins and (Guernseys. Leon County had the honor of hav-
ing the highest testing cow for butter fat in the State for
1923, and we also had several in the monthly fifty-pound
class. The cow testing association has several in the Ad-
vance Registry of Merit and the Roll of Honor class.
A campaign for permanent pastures has shown gratify-
ing results, and many acres are being planted to Dallas,
lIespedeza. Black Medic, Carpet grass and sweet clovers
These pastures furnIish grazing twelve months in the
year, and they can he supplemented with winter crops of
rye, oats, rape, rutabagas, angel beets, etc.
On several farms the grain ration for the dairy cow is
being produced at a cost less than $30 per ton. It con-
sists of corn cob and shock meal. velvet bean meal. soy
beau meal and ground oats.
Then we have peanut Imnal and cotton seed meal, all
produced at home-or at least it should be produced by
every dairyman in the county. The failure of the dairy
farmer in this county to produce these essentials has r(-
tarded the growth of the dairy industry more than any
other one factor.. The Leon County Milk Company pays
the Chicago "standard'" for butter fat and accredited
herds receive three dollars per hundred for whole milk, so
the dairy farmer has a ready market for his output andi
receives payment on the first and fifteenth of each month.
The demand for good dairy stock is constantly 'increasing
and we have buyers from the southern portion of the
State coming here constantly for good cows. This past
fall they bought and shipped from Tallahassee three ear-
loads of springers and fresh cows.

Owing to the mildness of the climate, expensive barns
are not needed, a shed roof is all that is required.
The ideal combination for conditions in this county is
the COW, the sow and the hen. The intelligent adoption
of this plan will make every farmer in the county prosper-
ous and we have hundreds of gpod farms available for men
who will agree to adopt this system.
The farmers of this county are fortunate in having a
perfect system of cold storage for meats, vegetables and
eggs. Storage space in a modern concrete building is
rented at a nominal cost per month, thus insuring a con-
stant supply of these articles for home consumption and
the local market.
When you have prepared permanent pastures do not
take it for granted that the same fields can be pastured
year after year indefinitely. You may need to cultivate a
field after two years of pasturing on account of the intes-
tinal worms introduced by the snail which carries a para-
site. The snail will crawl up on the grass and be eaten by
the cow and the parasite finds a habitat in the intestines,
causing the death of the animal.
Clovers should be grown wherever the soil is adapted,
but unless it is adapted to clovers the other crops herein
mentioned are much to be preferred.

The Southland Creamery Company, the second concern
to establish a central creamery in Ocala and to provide
an outlet for the dairy products of Marion County, is now
receiving milk from the farmers and dairymen and made
its first shipment of whole milk during the past summer.
The new creamery, established here by W. L. Trimble and
C. Jensen, who came here from Regina, Saskatchewan,
Canada, is manufacturing ice cream. The creamery will
handle whole milk and cream and manufacture ice cream,
Bulgarian buttermilk, and butter. It is prepared to handle
a thousand gallons of milk a day. The Company will en-
gage in both wholesale and retail business. All of the milk
and cream handled by the creamery will be pasteurized.
The plant is located in the Ocala House block in the cen-
ter of Ocala's retail district. When all of the machinery

and equipment has been installed the plant will be one
of the most complete in the State. In connection with
the creamery, will be a retail sales department. The re-
tail department will be attractive. The fixtures will be
of the very latest design, including a modern soda foun-
tain. Confectionery will be handled in addition to the
products of the creamery.
In addition to the machinery for handling the whole
milk and cream and for the manufacture of ice cream
and butter, the plant is equipped with cold storage space
for the other products. A ten ton ice machine will be
The new creamery is at present paying seven cents a
point for butter fat.
Messrs. Trimble and Jensen state that the farmers and
dairymen have shown considerable interest, and quite a
number of the farmers are planning to increase the num-
ber of their dairy cows.
Both Mr. Trimble and Mr. Jensen are expert creamery
men, both of them having engaged in the creamery busi-
ness for about 20 years, serving in various capacities in
some of the largest creameries in Canada. At the time
of their coming to Ocala they were connected with the
Saskatchewan Creamery Company of Moose Jaw, Canada.
Mr. Trimble was superintendent of the main factory and
eleven branches of the Saskatchewan Creamery Company.
IHe also was at one time sales manager and is an expert
ice cream maker. Mr. Jensen was superintendent of .the
butter makers of the twelve factories of the Saskatchewan
Creamery Company. He holds about 40 medals and cups
for butter making. At the last meeting of the Dairymen's
Association of the Province of Saskatchewan, the Saskat-
chewan Creamery Company won forty-three out of forty-
seven prizes for the best kept plants and best butter.
Mr. Trimble and Mr. Jensen have located their creamery
in Ocala after visiting various sections of Florida and
after a thorough investigation of Marion County.

Hoard of Trade, Tampa

Possessing a marvelous climate and other natural ad-
vantages, it is no small wonder that the dairying business
in Hillsborough County is each year taking on larger pro-'
Diversified farming seems most favored in that section
and no farm is complete without its quota of livestock.
However, the importance and profitableness of specializ-
ing in dairying is being rapidly recognized and Hills-
borough County is the home of a number of large dairies.
Probably the best way to bring out Hillsborongh's
especial advantages is through classification.


This section is endowed with a climate unsurpassed for
any phase of farming activity. Mild and equable the
year 'round, it enables dairymen to grow forage crops
practically every month in the year, which alone has
played no unimportant part in the growth of this impor-
tant industry; and with fertile soil and enough rainfall
to make irrigation unnecessary and keep the pastures
green, provides plenty of feed for the cattle. Because of
this mild climate only slight shelter is necessary for the
cattle, since one does not have cold weather and winter
storms to combat. Many of the dairies have silos, where
the pastnrage is insufficient to provide feed all the year.


With excellent paved and hard surfaced roads extend-
ing to almost every point in the county, IIillsborough is
an ideal location for the dairyman. It is only a few miles
distance to the busy county seat, Tampa. where there is
an "all-the-year" demand and the farmer may daily make
the trip to town and dispose of his products in a ready
and ever increasing market.
Through an active City Health Department, the dairies
of the county. marketing their milk in the city, have been
educated to a high standard of sanitation, which has been
accepted by the State as being as good as any in Florida

and a higher standard than that of most cities, which
means that the people of Tampa are being served with
truthworthy milk and better by far than the average com-
munity throughout the United States.


A State Cattle Association is exceedingly active and is
doing much good work for the industry. In addition, and
meaning much to the farmers of Hillsborough County, is
also available the advice and assistance of a county agri-
cultural agent, who apparently is indefatigable and is
always "on the job," ready to advise, whether it is con-
cerning the proper building of a silo, the care of the cattle
or some other pertinent problem.
Ample provision has been made for the physical well
being of the stock, both through the State Experiment
Station at Gainesville, through its Animal Husbandry
Department and the County Agricultural Advisor. If
you want advice at any time it is free for the asking and
there is no need for leaving any part of the operation of
your farm to chance alone.


Hillsborough County farmers raise some of the best
stock in the state and there is opportunity along this line
through the ideal conditions existing in that section-
unexcelled climate, ready markets, good roads, productive
soil, agricultural advice.
Dairymen in Hillsborough County have not yet been
able to meet the demands of Tampa, its county seat, and
the immediate suburbs, and each winter the demand is
greatly increased through the coming of thousands of
visitors. That also brings to mind that whenever the time
does come that Tampa's milk supply is greater than its
sales, then there will be a great opportunity for the opera-
tion of a creamery to take care of the surplus product
brought into the city. However, that time has not yet
arrived, and there are now thousands of acres of fertile
land and pasturage awaiting cultivation and the applica-
tion to modern farming methods; waiting to be turned
from a non-producing, idle area to up-to-date successful


There has been considerable change in this line since
your April 1st, 1922, Quarterly Bulletin of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Dairy laws are being rigidly en-
forced. Each dairyman supplying milk for Orlando and
Winter Park must have a cement floor in his dairy barn.
Every dairy must have a separate building properly con-
structed for handling milk and utensils and must have a
properly constructed and efficient sterilizer and must
sterilize all bottles and utensils each time they are used.
These laws are a great credit to Orlando and" have greatly
improved the milk supply for Orlando and Winter Park.
However, because of the rigid laws, the number of dairy-
men is smaller, but there are more dairy cattle being used
in supplying the milk.
Here, as in many other communities, there were a num-
ber of two, three and four cow dairies which did not con-
sider they were in the dairy industry. The number of
cows in this class was well over two hundred. This
meant no small amount of competition to the legitimate
dairymen who attempted to comply with all the rules of
operating a modern and sanitary dairy. This unfair com-
petition has been eliminated and no person is allowed to
sell milk who does not comply with all, the laws governing
I believe that I am safe in saying that there is not a
dairyman who has not increased his herd in the last year
from 25 to 75 per cent. This goes without saying that
dairymen where the industry is properly protected will
co-operate with a food inspector and will install modern
Our dairymen are realizing the importance of bringing
in pure-bred animals. Many have lately been added to
their herds.
We boast of two ice-cream factories which take a pride
in the quality of their product. They are a great factor in
using milk and cream during the summer when the tour-
ists and many of the home folks are away.
Since the "Back Yard" cow has been outlawed, and
people are visiting many of our dairies and familiarize
themselves with the methods used and the sanitary precan-

tions taken, milk is steadily gaining in popularity. Doc-
tors are recommending it to their patients and the under-
weight child at school has his daily glass or quart as the
case may be. The dairyman is being respected as a most
worthy and necessary citizen, instead of (as times of old)
a necessary nuisance.
The public here is being so thoroughly educated to the
value of milk in the diet that it is one of the most cheerful
bills met at the end of the month or week. This is no
small item within itself. A dairyman can work better, put
out a better product and render a better service when he
is made to realize that his efforts are appreciated. If
there is a class or profession which is more worthy and to
which more credit is (iue for the mission they perform in
the world, I have yet to meet them.
Yours very truly,
Pure Food Inspector.
P. S.
Since the enclosed was written, there has arrived one
solid carload of steam boilers ranging from two to eight
horse power, manufactured by the Lookout Boiler and
Manufacturing Compnany of Chattanooga, Tenn., for the
purpose of steam sterilization.
By securing the large shipment at one time and mailing
a deposit of 25%/ of first cost with order and having the
boilers shipped to the individual dairyman care the freight
agent here with B/L attached to sight draft I was able to
secure them at list price less 40% less 5%1/ cash and save
the difference in $1.47 and $.67 in freight by securing
the carload freight rates.
I give you this information for the sake of other food
inspectors whom it may benefit.

Secretary Chamber of Commerce
The dairying industry in Dade County is advancing
with rapid strides. In 1921 there were 40 dairies. During
the summer of 1923, 64 dairies were established and oper-
ating. In addition there were five or six plants for dis-
tribution or sale of milk in Miami, making a total of about
70 dairying institutions in Dade County.
Most of the dairies are located on reclaimed Everglades
lands where drainage has made cultivation possible. There
is year-round pasturage of a great variety of grasses and
forage crops. Ensilage consists of napier grass, Nassau
corn, Japanese cane, and the pioneers in this industry are
developing other grains and feeds through experimenta-
tion. A large number of the dairymen have huge silos
and find this an advantage. Others cultivate certain
grasses which they cut and mow, but all depend princi-
pally upon the rank grass which is available twelve months
in the year.
There are-more than 100 different varieties of grasses
growing in Dade County. A new native grass has just
been isolated, a number of specimens being found in the
Everglades and gathered together, and it has been termed
the Seminole grass. Being a native, it is very hearty and
grows well during the drier periods.
A variety of Guatemalan grass has been successfully
cultivated and tests show that it will run above 50 tons to
the acre during the 12 months. One grower has been get-
ting about 60 to 70 tons per acre during the year from the
elephant grass. Other pasture and hay varieties are para,
Bermuda, Rhodes, elephant, natal, Sudan, St. Lucie, na-
pier, broom sage, the Billion Dollar Grass, Gorduma, Chi-
nese grass, Japanese Kudzu and many others. Some of
these are especially rich in protein and are speedy fat-
teners. Nassau corn grows especially well in the muck
Several of the dairies in Dade County are very large,
and among the best equipped in the entire South. This
industry represents an investment of $2,000,000, with an
annual payroll of $360,000. The acreage given to dairy-
ing is 7,500, with 3,400 head. In 1922 there was an esti-
mated production of 2,171,750 gallons of milk, which
brought an average price of 80c. per gallon, or a total of

$1,987,100. It is estimated that approximately 50,000 lbs.
of butter were churned.
Constant inspection of the herds is made and no climatic
diseases are found in Dade County, and all conditions con-
spire for good herd health and a high quality of milk.
Many prize-winning cows and bulls, both State and na-
tional, are found in Dade County. Miami, being a prom-
inent winter tourist resort, consumes an extra large volume
of milk during the winter months.
One problem the dairyman has to face is to find an out-
let for his milk during the summer, and, in consequence,
two creamery projects are under way, which involve using
the milk in by-products and also shipping large quantities
to Cuba, where there is an especially fine market.
It is asserted by dairymen in Dade County who have
had years of experience in New York, Pennsylvania and
Wisconsin, that an acre of reclaimed Everglade soil will
produce pasturage for three times the number of cattle per
acre than in any prominent Northern dairy States.
The first certified dairy in the State of Florida is estab-
lished in Dade County and has been in operation for more
than a year.
Dade County dairymen claim that this county has the
smallest percentage of scrub bulls in the United States,
there being only three bulls that are not registered.

Superintendent Loxahatchee Farm, West Palm Beach, Florida
One can hardly conceive of the wonderful strides that
have been made in the dairy industry in Palm Beach
County during the last ten years. It is doubtful that more
than a dozen milk cows could have been found in the
county in 1913, and most of these were owned by the East
Coast Hotel Company (for the use of their guests) during
the winter season. Mr. Henry S. Pennock, of Jupiter, Fla.,
is conceded to be the real pioneer dairyman of Palm Beach
County. He established his small herd of Jerseys among
the ticks with most wonderful abandon and it might be
said ignorance. This is said with all respect to Mr. Pen-
nock, for had he known what an awful handicap he was
initiating his dairy venture under, it is rather doubtful

that he would have been fighting ticks on his own farm so
many years ago.
Today, Mr. Pennock, the real father of the dairy indus-
try in Palm Beach County, is still fighting the tick as he
is one of the members of the newly appointed Live Stock
Sanitary Board. He has without question one of the best
herds of pure bred Jerseys in the South and tick-free con-
dition has made this possible.
The absence of the tick is the real reason for the wonder-
ful growth of the dairy industry in Palm Beach County.
In 1917 the number of dairy cattle in the county was 287,
and in 1923 the county boasts a dairy cow population of
1,668, according to Dr. H. A. Taggart.
It is true that the demand for high grade milk in and
the immediate vicinity of West Palm Beach has been a
great stimulus to the industry. In 1918 the Loxahatchee
farms demonstrated that high bred cattle could be brought
to Florida and, with reasonable care, do fully as well if not
better than in their Northern homes. This herd has grad-
ually been developed and young stock raised to such an
extent that in March, 1923, the first exclusive Guernsey
cattle sale was held when 68 head of cattle were sold at
auction, at a very satisfactory figure.
One of the very best dairy sections of the county is in
what is known as the Boynton section. They have grown
from 10 to 15 cows in 1919 to 314 head today, and are still
growing. To Mr. Henry Bensen is due the credit of really
starting this phenomenal growth in this section. Through
his pioneering efforts Mr. Ward B. Miller established two
herds and today Mr. Miller has one of the largest and best
arranged dairy farms in the State.
In 1922 the Palm Beach Creamery Company was organ-
ized and in co-operation with Mr. Miller's Shore Acres
dairy has been the means of stabilizing the industry to a
great extent.
It might be said that Palm Beach County has one of
the most discriminating milk consuming public to be found
anywhere. In a recent certified milk survey it was
brought out that the smallest city where certified milk was
sold had a population of 35,000, and that the consumption
was one quart per 1,000 inhabitants. West Palm Beach has
a population of 15,000 in the summer, and Loxahatchec
farms sells every day 350 to 400 quarts of its certified milk
in West Palm Beach. Add to this 250 quarts of milk sold
by Mr. Pennock at the same price of 30 ceiits per quart.

and we have a consumption of over 18 quarts per thousand
of certified milk or its equivalent. Silos are quite preva-
lent in the county. Corn, Sorghum, Japanese cane and
Napier grass are used in them. Para and Bermuda are
the principal pasture grasses used. The phenomenal for-
age obtained on the muck lands in the Boynton section
makes this section pre-eminently the real dairy center of
the county. As the Everglades are deevloped, no doubt it
will become the source of the milk supply of the cities
along the coast. Transportation into the glades is coming
fast and when completed we will witness an even more
phenoen nal growth of the dairy industry of Palm Beach

Dairying in Ilernancdo countyy is one of the greatest op-
portunities in Florida. Why Because the beautiful roll-
ing hills and dales of Hernando County, high and health-
ful, covered with fertile soils of sandy loam, underlaid with
clay, supplied with good water from either wells (lug in
the clay or drilled through the rock beneath, produce na-
tive pasture grasses and abundant crops the whole year
with which to fill granaries,- silos, haymows and supply
silage and grazing almost every month.
Because in Hernando County you will find a successful,
prosperous group of dairy farmers, producing for an es-
tablished and successful creamery and milk shipping plant
at Brooksville, who began about four years ago as a co-
operative association, and whose business has grown and
developed since so as to necessitate the building of a new
and modern plant last year, containing the best in refrig-
erating, butter and milk handling equipment, with a daily
capacity of 500 gallons pasteurized milk, 800 pounds of
butter, 100 gallons ice cream and a ton of ice for dairy
patrons. Cream routes radiating from Brooksville into
outlying farming districts will supply the foundation for
good creamery butter, for which the demand is unlimited.
Nearby patrons can apply themselves to producing strictly
high-grade sanitary milk for shipping, if desired. Com-
mon stock in the Hernando County Dairy, Inc., par value
$50 per share, can be bought by producers, two to ten
shares each, and will entitle them to a prorata in the net
profits, based on their shipments to the plant for six


Lakeland, Fla., March 9, 1924.
The possibilities of the Dairy Industry in Polk County
The possibilities of the Dairy Industry in this county
are excellent for several reasons.
First-Milk can be produced here almost as cheaply as
anywhere else. There is plenty of land suitable for rais-
ing green feed, which can be raised almost the year round.
There is plenty of good water, either lake or well, and due
to the even, mild climate it is not necessary to have expen-
sive dairy barns. While it is not claimed that grasses for
grazing thrive as well here as in some parts of the country
there is plenty of land in Polk County that with a little
care will make excellent pasture.
The market for dairy products in this county is all that
anyone could ask for. There is a ready demand for all the
milk produced as fresh milk and at a price that is 50 to
75 per cent above prices prevailing in the large cities of
the North and East. This county is directly connected by
rail to most the tourist centers of South Florida and these
places furnish an excellent market for large quantities of
milk and cream during their season. The Polk County
Creamery, located in Lakeland, is a thriving ice cream
factory using large quantities of dairy products and can
absorb the surplus of several dairies, their demand being
greatest in the summer at the time the tourist hotels are
It is claimed by some good authorities that the dairy
business is most successful when operated in connection
with some other line, and that the most suitable line for
this is some form of truck gardening. Polk County is well
suited to truck gardening, as evidenced by the immense
amount of strawberries, cabbage, beans and other vege-
tables shipped from here to the Northern markets an-
nually. This fact makes this county an ideal place for the
combination truck and dairy farmer.
Taking it all into consideration the outlook for the dairy
industry in this county is splendid.
Manager Polk County Creamery.


Tallahassee, Fla.

The general principles which govern dairy farming are
the same in Florida as in all other sections of the world.
The ease with which these principles are applied is what
gives one section an advantage over any other section. The
chief essentials to success are the man, the land, the herd
and the market. To get the right combination of these is
the hard problem.


More depends upon the man behind the cows than upon
any other factor. For this reason a man should examine
himself as to his own fitness before he spends even one dol-
lar upon a cow. He must have a natural love for stock and
the dairy cow in particular. He must be energetic and
willing to work, for the true dairyman is a worker and not
simply a boss. He must have that ability to see and plan
ahead so as to get the most out of his business. He must
be able to choose the best and cheapest feed and then feed
it to the best advantage. He must keep records so that he
can find out the cows that are making a profit from those
that are boarders. He should strive all the time to increase
the production and to lower the expense of the farm. If
he does not know what he gives his cows and what his cows
give him, why should he keep cows?
Any well drained land that will grow well the regular
farm crops will be good for dairy farming. While some
low land may be well adapted to the making of a good pas-
ture, such land would not do for the location of the barns
and other buildings.
While the poor management of a good herd can keep it
from making a profit, it is very hard with the very best of
management to get a profit from a poor herd. The rules
should be to get a herd in which eaoh cow will return a
good profit. It will be found that it is much better to have

a few good cows rather than a large herd in which many,
maybe all, are making no profit but are being kept at a loss.
No matter how good the man, the land or the herd, there
can be no profit if there is not a market for the products of
the herd. To sell whole milk, sweet cream, sour cream or
butter will have to be decided. The manager must study
the several methods, and use the one that suits his condi-
tions best. The selling of whole milk, either retail or
wholesale, is always risky, and unless a very high price is
obtained, is not as good as some think. The chief advan-
tage is that a larger cash income is obtained. The disad-
vantages are as follows:
The milk must be delivered at certain hours and must
be produced under certain regulations. There is much time
lost when whole milk is delivered each day. The drayage
of any large herd is quite an item. No fiilk is to be had for
the growing of calves, poultry or hogs. The selling of
cream, either sweet or sour, requires very much less labor,
allows the farmer to stay at home more, cream being de-
livered not more than twice a week; furnishes milk for
poultry, calves and hogs and thus allows the farmer to
become interested in other branches of farming. The sell-
ing of butter can be carried on to only a limited extent.
While some farmers make a very high grade quality of but-
ter and get a good sale for their product, the majority
produce a very poor grade of butter and as a result get a
very poor price. Here is where the creamery comes as an
aid to the farmer. Send the cream to the creamery and
there it can be made into a uniform grade and of a much
better quality than could be made under average farm
conditions. The farmer never knows just how much butter
he will have each week but when he ships to the creamery
the problem need never worry him for the creamery can
use any amount of cream. Another great advantage of
selling to the creamery is that the trouble of churning and
selling the butter is done away with. .While whole milk
can be shipped only a short distance to the market, cream
can be shipped a much longer distance and thus the farmer
who ships cream to the creamery may be located quite a
distance away. The creamery offers a steady market and
this is very much to be desired in the selling of any


There are two general systems of keeping dairy cattle.
The one where the herd is the chief work and the other
where the herd is kept as a side line. The principles which
govern the business are in both cases the same. It is also
true that in both systems success will depend upon the
growing of the greater part of the feed upon the farm.
The smaller the sum paid to the feed dealer the greater the
profit on the herd.


The profit in keeping dairy cattle comes from the follow-
ing sources: The increased value of the land from the use
of the manure. (2) The increased value of the herd if a
good bull is used and the heifer calves raised. (3) Sell-
ing to the dairy cow all the farm produce that she will eat.
(4) The sale of milk, cream or butter.


No one questions the value of animal manure in build-
ing up the fertility of the soil. The value of such manure
depends upon the feed fed and the care given the manure.
The dairy cow being fed a ration rich in mineral matter
will produce manure rich in those elements most needed in
building up the fertility of the soil. The cow returns to
the soil at least 75 per cent of the food eaten. But this is
the least important part of the value of animal manure,
the chief value being the power to absorb moisture and
carry into the soil millions of bacteria which help to con-
vert the other elements in the soil into plant food. The
soil that is full of well rotted animal manure will stand a
drought better and will produce more than where the fer-
tility is obtained by the use of chemical fertilizers only. It
is also a fact that where the soil contains the most manure,
the largest amount of chemicals fertilizer can be used to
advantage. Florida Imports Animal Manure by the Train
Load. Why Not Keep Dairy Cows and Save This Enor-
mous Amount of Money? This then is one of the chief
reasons why the dairy cow should be kept in Florida.


If only good pure bred bulls of known value are used the
calves raised should produce more than their dams. Also
at the end of each year the poor cows should be sold and
replaced by the heifers which show the greatest promise.
Regular culling and good heifers to replace the culls sold
will soon increase the production of any herd. Many herds
of very high production have been started with only a few
cows. No cows have ever been purchased. But always
trying each time to get a bull of a higher production than
the one last with the herd. When cows are purchased the
buyer always has to take the risk of getting poor ones.
When the herd is bred by the owner the risk of getting
poor cows is nothing like as great.
The farmer does not often see the chance to use the cow
as a market for all the hay and grain he could produce.
Many are today asking for a market when there are hungry
cows in the herd. Why not grow Peavine Hay, Corn, Vel-
vet beans, Napier grass, Kudzu, Rye, Oats, Turnips, and
sell them for cash to the cow? She is the only animal
which pays twice a day for what is sold to her. Sell to the
cow, get three-fourths of it back on the soil as manure, and
save the time and trouble of having to haul to the market
all such bulky produce. Butter fat contains only a very
small per cent. of soil fertility.
The returns from the sale of the dairy products is too
often looked upon as the only source of income from the
herd. It should be considered the least of the incomes.
While there is a profit from the selling of these products,
the real profit has been made before these sales are made
and these should be considered as so much extra profit. Is
there any other animal that will produce a profit in so
many ways ? What would be the result if every farmer in
Florida had a small herd of good dairy cows? The only
answer is to go to those sections of other States where such
a condition exists and see how the dairy cow has increased
the prosperity of that section. What is being done in other
sections can be done better in Florida, for the conditions
are better.


The farmer who expects to get.the most profit from keep-
ing dairy cattle should go into the business to stay for he
cannot expect to get very much profit at first. Breeding
cattle is not a "get rich quick" game, but requires time
and hard work.


The first question to decide is the breed to keep. Either
of the four dairy breeds: Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein or
Jersey are good and there are many herds of each making
money for their owners. Personal feelings should guide
somewhat in the matter but as a rule it is best to purchase
of the breed which is best represented in the section in
which you are located. The more herds of the same breed
in any community, the better the sale of surplus stock, for
many herds of the same breed near together attract the
buyers. Bull associations can be formed and many other
advantages come from having many herds of the same
breed near together. It is not the breed that brings suc-
cess but the management of the individuals of the breed.
Being a well bred does not mean that the animal is a good
one. It is the record of the individual that counts. But
never cross breed with the hope of getting a better cow.
Several hundred years are required to really form a new
breed and so much cannot be done by any one man. The
selection of the individual is then the all important ques-


In no breed are found all good animals, but inferior ones
are found in all breeds. A pure bred that is not good is
worse than a scrub for its pure blood gives it the power to
transmit its poor qualities. Study the breed selected and
find out just what is its true type. Then see that each indi-
vidual purchased comes as near that ideal as possible. This
is what is called the "Standard of Excellence" and it
should be the idea of each breeder to set a very high stand-
ard for his herd.


A pedigree is a list of the animals' ancestors usually
written out for five generations. The value of a pedigree
depends upon the honesty of the breeder who gives it and
the animals that compose it. To the great credit of the
breeders of pure bred animals, it can be said that very few
fraudulent pedigrees are given. A pedigree having under
each name the record of that individual is called a "Pedi-
gree of Performance" and such a pedigree should always
be called for. Good blood without good records is not good
and should never be purchased. Use the pedigree to keep
the blood lines as desired, but never purchase just because
the animal has certain blood lines. Get that individual that
has the greatest number of high producers nearest to it,
for high production four or five generations away is not


But always look and see that the animal purchased is in
good health, is large enough for its age and is such an indi-
vidual that you will be proud to add it to your herd.
The above are in general the essentials in selecting the
foundation for a pure bred herd. If grade cows are used
then all the more care should be used in selecting the bull
to head the herd for while the bull is considered half the
herd, with a grade herd lie is really more than half if he
is a pure bred of good breeding.


While it is possible, under certain conditions, to pur-
chase all feed and show a profit yet this can only be done
when a very high price is gotten for whole milk. As has
been stated, one of the chief profits in keeping dairy cattle
is to furnish a market for feed grown on the farm. So it
is essential that each farm grow as much as possible the
feed needed by the herd.
The Florida farmer has a chance to grow an unusual
variety of feed. For the silo there is the choice of Corn,
Sorghum, Napier grass; for hay, Cow peas, Kudzu, Crab-
grass, Beggar weed and many others. Roots such as Ruta-
bagas. Turnips. Beets, Sweet Potatoes furnish a good form

of succulence for the man without a silo and serve at any
time as a good stimulant to the milk flow. To furnisi
grain what better line can be asked for than Corn, Oats.
Velvet beans, Soy beans, Cow peas and Cotton seed meal?
The yield of such feed on the farm will of course vary with
the farm, but if any care is taken very good crops of all
named above can be obtained.
No farm is complete without some pasture. The better
the pasture the cheaper the milk. Here again the Florida
farmer has a great advantage over many in other States.
Pasture comes early and stays late. Rye and Oats, Carpet
grass, Dallas grass, Bermuda, many of the clovers and a
great variety of native grass give good pasture most of
the year.
The purpose of food is to rebuild broken down tissue and
to furnish heat and energy. The dairy cow that gives two
gallons of milk per day is working harder than the mules
that plow all day, for she breaks down more tissue of the
body. That the cow is a hard worker is not realized by
many, bit when it is ail( she is fed a;eordliig 10 the work
she is doing then more profit is obtained. A good rule is
to give all the hay and silage that she will clean up and
then give one pound of grain for every three pounds of
milk given. A better rule is to study the individual cow
and feed each one so as to get the most milk at the least
cost. Study the feed that can be obtained and make up a
ration that contains the proper amount of the nutrients
needed. If the cow is on a good pasture very little grain is
needed. But always remember that it does not pay to either
under or over feed. Keep a record of the feed fed and the
milk given and so know what the cows are doing. The cow
is a machine to convert feed into milk. Then see to it that
she gets good, clean material to work with. Stay away
front the prepared or ready mixed feeds. These are good
but much higher in price than equally as good feed which
can be mixed up at home. As a rule grinding and cooking
feed does not pay. In a few cases cooking makes a food
more palatable. As far as possible let the cow get her own
feed. This cuts down the labor bill. This is why good
pasture is the cheapest source of feed. But to be worth
while a pasture must contain so much feed that the cow
will not have to work to get her food, but can soon get her
fill and lie down and digest what has been eaten.

There is a common opinion that the dairy cow should not
be fat. It is true that it is hard to keep a good dairy cow
fat but the farmer should do his best to keep her as fat as
possible. It is almost impossible for the cow that is giving
a large flow of milk to eat enough to keep up the body and
also give the milk, this is why the real good cow gets thin
during the milking period. If she is the right kind of a
cow, there need be no fear of getting her too fat.
If food is to furnish heat then it is important that the
cow be protected from cold rains and winds. In this cli-
mate expensive barns are not needed, but it is time that a
good shelter is badly needed and the man who forces his
cows to sleep out of doors with no protection from the cold
rain and wind loses much more in the flow of milk than
such a shelter would cost.
Select good cows, given them enough of good feed and a
good comfortable place to live, and the result in most cases
is that the cow will give in return a good flow of milk which
will give a good living to her owner. But give good cows
poor feed and poor care and the result will be a small milk
flow, a small check and a badly disappointed farmer. Pure
bred cows require pure bred attention, but will pay for that
kind of attention. Better never begin than to try to make
money with scrub cows and scrub attention.



Average milk is composed of the following:
W ater ............................... 87.1%
F at .................. ............. 3.9%
C asein .................. .......... 2.9%
Sugar ............................... 4.9%
A lubum en ........................... .7%
A sh ................................. .5%

Because the fat is the most valuable element, milk is
bought and sold upon it as a basis. It is important then to
understand how to calculate the amount of fat in a given
amount of milk and how much fat is used to make a given
amount of cream or butter. While average milk contains

only 3.9%/ fat, the percentage will vary very much with
the breed, the individual length of time the cow has,been
milking since calving. The feed has very little influence
upon the per cent. of fat, but does influence the quantity
and quality of the milk.
The first milk drawn is very much lower in fat than the
last, and for this reason the cow should be milked dry, and
not do, as some, leave the last milk for the calf.
A few problems will illustrate the values of several
grades of milk.
(1) Question: What is the value of 100 pounds of 3, 4
and 5% milk if fat is worth 40e per pound?
Answer: 100X.03=3 lbs. of fat X 40c=$1.20
100X.04=4 lbs. of fat X 40c= 1.60
100X.05=5 lbs. of fat X 40c= 2.00
(2) Question: How much does a gallon of milk weigh?
Answer: 8.6 pounds is the weight of a gallon of milk.
(3) Question: If fat is worth 40c per pound, how much
per gallon is milk testing 4.5% worth ?
Answer: 8.6 weight of 1 gallon X 4.5%=.39 lbs. of fat.
.39 X 40c=15.6c per gallon. To this must be added the
value of the skim milk if the cream alone is sold.
(4) Question: What is the value of skim milk as a feed
for hogs?
Answer: The best feeders say that it is worth per 100
lbs. half what corn is worth per bushel. If corn is worth
80c per bushel skim milk is worth 40c per 100 lbs.
(5) Question: How much cream will 100 pounds of 4%
milk make?
Answer: That will depend upon the richness or per cent.
of fat in the cream. The following will illustrate: To find
the pounds of cream that can be made divide the pounds
of fat by the per cent. of fat in the cream.
100 pounds of 4% milk will make 4 pounds of fat.
4 pounds of fat (30% fat in cream) 13.3 pounds of
4 pounds fat (40%1 fat in cream) -10 pounils of cream.
(6) Question: What is butter?
Answer: Butter is a mixture of fat, water, salt and some
(7) Question: How much butter can be made from 100
pounds of milk ?
Answer: This will depend upon the richness of the milk.
: -Dalirying,

(8) Question: Make calculation, using 100 pounds of
4% milk.
Answer: 100X.04=4 pounds of fat. A good butter
maker will get 20% more butter than there is fat in tih
cream. Therefore 4 pounds of fatX.20=.8 extra, or what
is called overrun. This added to the 4 pounds of fat will
make 4.8 pounds of butter from 100 pounds of 4% milk.
()) Question: How much butter will a gallon of milk
make ?
Answer: Multiply the pounds of milk by the percent of
fat in the milk and add 20% of the fat.
Example: 8.6X.04=.344 pounds of fat.
.344X.20=.00688 pounds of overrun.
.344X.007=.351 pounds of butter.
Question: If butter fat is worth 40c per pound, what is
whole milk testing 4.5% fat worth per gallon ?
Answer: (100 pounds of milk to be used as a basis) :
100X4.5 lbs. fat X 40c=$1.80.
100-8.6=11.5 gallons.
1.80 11.3=15.2c per gallon.
But in selling fat the farmer has skim milk to be fed to
calves, poultry and pigs.
(10) Question: How much more will a farmer get by
selling milk for 20c. per gallon than by selling fat at 38c.
per pound?
Answer: 100 pounds 8.6=11.5 gallonsX20=$2.30 re-
ceived for milk.
100X4.5 pounds of fat X 38c=$1.71.
4.5-40c=11 pounds of cream.
100-11=89 pounds of skim milk.
89 pounds @ 40c. per 100=35.6e.
2.30 value of whole milk.
2.07 value of fat and skim milk.
23c. value of milk more than selling fat.
But from this should be taken the increased cost of de-
livery of whole milk.


I'. S. Department Agriculture Year Book, 1922

Dairy Products ......... ....... ......... $24,000,000
C orn ............ ....... .. ....... 12,600,000
H ay ......................... ......... 10,500,000
1W heat ...................... .......... 7,500,000
Cotton ................................... 6,800,000
Potatoes ................................. 3,900,000
Oats .................................... 2,600.000

Prepared by the Office of Home Economics. States Relation Service, with
the co-operation of the Dairy Division. Bureau of Animal Industry.
(First serve n pages only of Bulletin.)

Milk and cream together, either by themselves or in com-
bination with other foodstuffs, make up about one-sixth
by weight of all the food eaten by the average American
family. Milk supplies in particularly convenient and
usable form materials that children need if they are to de-
velop strong, normal bodies; and it is a valuable food for
adults, especially when it is combined with such foods as
cereals and green vegetables.
Almost all the milk and dairy products in this country,
and in most other civilized countries where the climate is
favorable, come from the cow. Cow's milk is no better
than that of some other animals, but people are used to its
taste, and cows make a good return for the feed and care
which they receive. In parts of the world where cows do
not thrive, other milk animals have proved satisfactory.
Goat's milk, for example, is common in the rough, hilly
districts of Europe, in Central America, and even in some
parts of the United States. Buffalo is much used in India,
and llama's milk in South America. Camel's milk is well
liked in desert countries, and mare's milk on the steppes
of Russia and in Central Asia. Sheep's milk is used in
Europe and elsewhere for making certain kinds of cheese,
while the milk of the reindeer serves as food in the Arctic


I'. S. Department Agriculture Year Book, 1922

Dairy Products ......... ....... ......... $24,000,000
C orn ............ ....... .. ....... 12,600,000
H ay ......................... ......... 10,500,000
1W heat ...................... .......... 7,500,000
Cotton ................................... 6,800,000
Potatoes ................................. 3,900,000
Oats .................................... 2,600.000

Prepared by the Office of Home Economics. States Relation Service, with
the co-operation of the Dairy Division. Bureau of Animal Industry.
(First serve n pages only of Bulletin.)

Milk and cream together, either by themselves or in com-
bination with other foodstuffs, make up about one-sixth
by weight of all the food eaten by the average American
family. Milk supplies in particularly convenient and
usable form materials that children need if they are to de-
velop strong, normal bodies; and it is a valuable food for
adults, especially when it is combined with such foods as
cereals and green vegetables.
Almost all the milk and dairy products in this country,
and in most other civilized countries where the climate is
favorable, come from the cow. Cow's milk is no better
than that of some other animals, but people are used to its
taste, and cows make a good return for the feed and care
which they receive. In parts of the world where cows do
not thrive, other milk animals have proved satisfactory.
Goat's milk, for example, is common in the rough, hilly
districts of Europe, in Central America, and even in some
parts of the United States. Buffalo is much used in India,
and llama's milk in South America. Camel's milk is well
liked in desert countries, and mare's milk on the steppes
of Russia and in Central Asia. Sheep's milk is used in
Europe and elsewhere for making certain kinds of cheese,
while the milk of the reindeer serves as food in the Arctic


The milk ordinarily sold for household uses varies in
composition, principally because of difference between the
breeds of cows and individuals of the same breed. On the
average, however, milk contains 87 per cent. water and 13
per cent. solids, consisting of proteins, fat, sugar, and a
variety of mineral substances. Because of the natural
variation, most creameries now test all the milk they buy
and pay for it on the basis of fat content. For the same
reason dairymen who supply the retail trade usually find
it best to mix the milk from a herd of cows immediately
after it is drawn. In this way the content of the milk is
kept more uniform from day to day, which is a decided
advantage to the consumer.
Unprincipled producers or dealers sometimes adulterate
their milk, greatly changing its composition. Legislation
and Federal, State and municipal inspection, however, are
making it more and more difficult to defraud the consumer
in this way. The chief methods of adulteration are the
addition of water, the removal of part of the fat, and the
use of chemical preservatives, the first two of these methods
often being used together. These practices not only are
fraudulent as regards money value, but they also diminish
the food value.
Milk is slightly heavier than water, its specific gravity
varying with the proportion of water, fat, and other sub-
stances. The specific gravity of milk is sometimes used as
a test of its purity, but since removing part of the fat raises
and adding water lowers the specific gravity, one form of
adulteration may cover up the other and thus render this
test alone unreliable.
As a rule milk freezes at about 29 to 31" F. The freez-
ing point, however, varies with the composition, falling as
the amount of solids becomes greater and rising as water
is added. The freezing-point method is one of the most
reliable for detecting the addition of water to milk.
The commission on milk standards of the New York milk
committee, appointed to study and recommend uniform
requirements among the different States and cities of the
United States, has recommended the general adoption of
the standard calling for not less than 3.25 per cent. of
milk fat and not less than 8.5 per cent. of milk solids not
fat. If all milk sold could be tested by such a standard,

and the price regulated by the way in which the milk con-
forms to the standard, both producer and consumer would
be better satisfied, the producer because he would get credit
for rich milk, and the consumer because he would know
what he was really buying. Such graded milk is sold in
some European cities, and to a less extent in this country.
The principle has been more commonly applied to cream,
of which different grades are sold at prices varying with
the proportion of fat. In addition to standards of chem-
ical composition, many communities have adopted sanitary
or bacteriological standards, and the milk is graded accord-
ing to its purity.
Just what each of the nutrients as well as the vitamins
contribute to the high food value of milk is discussed below
in detail. Briefly stated, milk is an extremely valuable
food because it contains, first, materials that children need
for growth; second, materials that young and old alike need
for the repair of their body machinery; and third, mate-
rials that all need for fuel, to provide them with heat and
with the energy necessary for work. This does not mean,
however, that milk has these ingredients in such propor-
tions that it can serve satisfactorily as the only food of a
grown person or even of a child. Since it contains such
a high percentage of water, 5 or 6 quarts each day would
be required to meet the needs of an adult if milk were his
only food, and in this case unnecessary quantities of pro-
tein would be consumed. Also, grown persons and children
past the normal nursing period need iron in greater abun-
dance than is found in milk. The iron stored in the body
of a new-born child is enough to enable it to live for a few
months on that in milk, but older children and adults need
more generous supplies, such as can be obtained from egg
yolk, meat, whole cereals, and some fruits and vegetables.
Furthermore, the digestive organs of healthy persons past
babyhood do their best when at least part of the food con-
tains cellulose, or roughage, such as is found in vegetable
foods. When combined with other foods, therefore, milk is
used to best advantage, and in the diet of the growing child
it is exceptionally important. Child specialists declare that
each child should take at least a pint of milk each day, and
most such authorities recommend a quart a day.


Protein compounds are necessary for the formation of
body tissues and fluids and may also serve as body fuel.
Protein in food takes different forms. For example, the
protein of the white of egg consists largely of albumin, lean
meat contains a protein compound known as myosin, and
peas and beans contain one called legumin. The principal
protein compound in milk is casein. Another important
one is called lact-albumin, but this is present in much
smaller quantities. All forms of protein contain nitrogen
and all are made up of substances known as amino acids.
The combination of amino acids found in the proteins of
milk, eggs, meat, and other flesh foods is very like some of
those in the human body. These are therefore of special
value for tissue building, and are called adequate, or com-
plete, proteins, and milk and the other materials that fur-
nish them are sometimes grouped together as efficient-pro-
tein foods.


Fats are the most concentrated fuel foods in the diet,
and from the commercial standpoint fat is the most impor-
tant substance in milk, since it is the source of butter and
is an important constituent of many kinds of cheese. The
fat of milk, known also as butter fat. is in the form of
small globules varying in size in the different kinds of milk,
and, being lighter than water, these globules tend to rise
to the top of the milk as it stands, thus forming cream.
Cream is not pure milk fat, but contains also some of the
other substances in milk.


Milk sugar, or lactose, belongs to the group of nutrients
called carbohydrates. Like cane sugar, it supplies energy
to the body, but dissolves less readily and is much less
sweet. Most of the milk sugar remains in the whey when
the curd (casein) is removed in cheese making, and may be
easily separated from it. Milk sugar is usually marketed
as a fine white powder that looks like confectioner's sugar,
and is used in modifying milk for babies, in the prepara-
tion of drugs, and in many other ways.


Mineral constituents of milk that are especially impor-
tant to the body are phosphorus, iron, and lime. Phospho-
rus is fairly abundant in milk. Although not much iron
is present in milk, what little there is can be easily used by
the body. Milk is much richer in lime, the chief constitu-
ents of bones and teeth, than are most other foods, and
this is one of the reasons why it is an excellent food for


Vitamins are among the comparatively recent discoveries
of science. Little is known about them or the part they
play in the diet save that there are several kinds that are
necessary for normal health and growth and that when they
are left out of the diet for a long time so-called ''deficiency
diseases" develop. At least three kinds of vitamins are
now recognized, which, until more satisfactory names are
agreed upon, may be known as A. B. and ('. All three of
these vitamins may be present in milk.
Vitamin A is found only in certain foods, and in few so
abundantly as in milk, especially from cows on pasture.
This vitamin seems to be largely associated with the fat of
the milk; therefore whole milk, cream, and butter are richer
in this respect than are skim milk, buttermilk, and other
milk products containing little fat. Other important
sources of vitamin A are green-leaf vegetables, egg yolk,
and the liver and other glandular organs of animals.
Vitamin B is found in many fresh foods, but not in
highly refined ones such as white flour, cornstarch, polished
rice, white sugar, and table oils. It is present in milk but
not so abundantly as is vitamin A.
Vitamin C is less widely distributed and seems to lose its
special value more easily than A and B. It is furnished by
certain fruits and vegetables-for example, oranges and
tomatoes-and to some extent by milk. Its value in milk,
however, seems to be easily destroyed so that absolutely
fresh, uncooked milk from pasture-fed cows is the only
milk that should be relied on to supply it. The effect of
heat on vitamin C is discussed on next page.


How easily and completely milk is digested depends upon
the proportions of nutrients that the average normal per-
son can assimilate. Since milk contains some of all classes
of nutrients, the way in which it is digested can be better
understood by following the changes in each nutrient sep-
Milk is commonly classed as a liquid food, and so it is
until it reaches the stomach. There the running of the
gastric juice converts the casein into a curd in much the
same way that milk is separated into curds and whey in
cheese making. The acid and the pepsin of the gastric
juice, together working on the curd, make a small part of
it more soluble, but most of the casein is digested in the
small intestine. Lime water or barley water is sometimes
added to milk for infants and invalids to prevent the for-
mation of a tough curd, which may make digestion more
The fat of milk is also digested in the intestines and in
the case of normal adults more easily than most other fats.
This is partly because milk has a low melting point, a fact
that is believed to have important bearing on digestion of
fats, and partly because it can be readily emulsified, or
divided into particles that pass without difficulty through
the walls of the intestines. For these reasons milk fat is
considered especially suitable for invalids and children.
but like any other fat may cause digestive disturbance if
taken in too large quantities.
It is commonly supposed that the lactic acid of sour milk
is changed to simpler bodies in the digestive tract. Its
presence may be beneficial in checking the growth of bac-
teria that causes some kinds of intestinal disorders.
On the whole, milk is as well or even more thoroughly
digested than other animal foods. When milk is the only
food eaten by a healthy adult, decidedly less of its nutri-
ents are digested than is the case when it forms a part of a
mixed diet. Taking other foods with the milk hinders the
formation of lumps, or curd, of casein in the stomach and
so makes the milk easier to digest. Of course, very young
children digest mothers' milk alone better than any other
food because such milk is thoroughly adapted to their use.
If other milk is substituted for mothers' milk, for best re-
sults it must usually be modified. For many adults in poor

health, milk is an important food, and many persons whose
digestive organs are not in good condition receive more
benefit from it than from any other single food.


Cooking affects the digestibility and food value of milk
in some respects, changing the appearance and flavor
slightly, and also destroys bacteria (p. 7).
The curd of boiled milk is finer and more easily acted
on by the digestive organs t tha that of either raw or pas-
teurized milk, though it is commonly said to be more con-
stipating. The fat globules also are somewhat altered,
and cooked milk fat may be slightly less easily emulsified
than the raw. The food value of the sugar in milk is not
changed by ordinary cooking.
Vitamin C. is very easily affected by cooking, in fact,
even by the ordinary aging of milk. When boiled or pas-
teurized milk or milk powder is used to feed infants, it is
safer to give with it orange or tomato juice, and some phy-
sicians hold that this is a wise precaution even with raw
milk. Vitamins A and B seem to be less easily affected by
The film, or "skin" composed of protein and fat, that
forms on milk, especially when cooked in an open vessel, is
the most noticeable change in appearance, unless the heat
is intense enough to caramelize some of the sugar. In this
case the milk becomes brownish in color. The peculiar odor
and flavor of freshly boiled milk seem to be partly due to
changes in the protein.


That the best food for an infant is milk from a strong,
healthy woman is admitted by everyone. When this is not
obtainable, the more nearly the substitute resembles it the
better. Cow's milk is the most common substitute and
when necessary may be artificially modified. Goat's milk,
too, is in some cases recommended for infants. The com-
position of different kinds of milk is compared in the fol-
lowing table:


Protein. ;-

Kind of MLilk. g .E -

--, 4 Woman . 88. . .... 1.2 3.3 7.0 0.3 285
Cow .... 87.0 2.8 0.5 3.3 4.0 5.0 .7 315
Goat . . . . . 85.7 3. 1.0 4.5 4.7 4.4 .8 355
Sheep .. 81.9 . 5.3 7.3 4.7 .9 480
Buffalo (Indian) 82.21 4.3 .5 4.81 7.5 4.8 .8 480
Camel ......... 87.11 3.5 .4 3. 2.9 5.4 .7 285
Llama ....... 6.6 3.0 .9.9 .9 3.2 1 5- .8 305
Reindeer ...... 67.21 8.4 1.5 9 17.1 2.8 1.5 930
Mare .. 90.6 1.3 .8 2.1! 1.1 5.9 .4 190
AssI 90.11 .8 1.1 1. 1.4 6.21 .I 205
Cow's milk contains more protein, less sugar, and
slightly more fat than woman's milk, and the fat globules
are larger. Also it is said to form a tougher curd.
Fortunately, most healthy babies thrive on good cow's
milk or on cow's milk simply modified. It is the sickly
who require special preparations, and their needs vary so
greatly that only the physician familiar with the case, and
not always he, can say what change is necessary. There
are laboratories in many large cities and towns where mod-
ified milk of all sorts can be procured on prescription.
The milk for babies should be the purest obtainable, and
should be cared for scrupulously after it is delivered. In
fact, it is usually more important that the milk for babies
should be pure than that it should be especially rich, for
the fat in very creamy milk may cause difficulty in diges-
tion. Since raw milk may contain harmful bacteria, pas-
teurized milk is described on next page.
As a result of the demand for milk of unquestioned
purity for children, certified milk may now be obtained in
many towns and cities. This milk is produced and bottled
under sanitary conditions, certified by a medical milk com-
mission, and labeled with a certificate that can be used only
by establishments producing milk of a fixed standard of
purity. Such milk justly commands a higher price than
that of which the quality is not guaranteed. Certified
milk, which is discussed in greater detail in another bulle-
tin of this department, should not be confused with so-
called "sanitary"' or "special" milk. These are terms ap-
plied somewhat loosely to milk produced and handled
under conditions considered necessary to assure a pure,
wholesome product, but they are sometimes applied by

dealers. for purposes of advertising, to milk produced un-
der decidedly insanitary conditions.
Besides the chemical compounds, milk contains minute
forms of life called bacteria, which enter it from many
sources during milking and handling.
The most common types of bacteria in milk are those
that cause it to sour by converting the milk sugar into lactic
acid, and are of special importance in the making of butter
and cheese. Others, as they develop, change the color of
milk or make it slimy or ropy. Still others, though they
seem to have no effect on the milk itself, may spread dis-
case. The milk from tuberculous cows. for instance, is
unsafe, because it may contain the bacteria causing tuber-
culosis. Typhoid fever and diphtheria may be transmitted
through milk infected by bacteria-laden flies, by unclean
utensils, or by persons who carry such bacteria in their
bodies or on their clothing. Epidemics have sometimes
been traced to the milk from a single farm. Practical
measures for protecting milk from such contamination are
discussed in another bulletin of this series.
Milk is an ideal food for bacteria, and they multiply
rapidly when the temperature is favorable. Most bacteria,
however, are very sensitive to heat and cold, a fact of great
practical importance in handling and marketing milk. Cool-
ing milk to 50" F., immediately after it is drawn from the
cows, is an effective way to check the growth of bacteria,
and pasteurization is the most satisfactory way of de-
stroying them by heat, without producing undesirable
changes in the milk itself. Though disease-producing bac-
teria in milk are destroyed by this process, some other kinds
survive; therefore pasteurized as well as raw milk should
be kept cold until used in order to check any further de-
Though slight warmth is favorable to the growth of bac-
teria, long-continued and intense heat is fatal to them.
Unfortunately, heat sufficient to destroy all varieties of
bacteria also causes changes in the chemical composition
and flavor of milk, as in boiled milk; otherwise cooking
would be a simple and satisfactory way of preserving milk.
Pasteurization is a common method of applying heat so as

to destroy as many bacteria as possible without producing
undesirable changes in the milk. Many cities now require
that all except certified milk be pasteurized before sale.
In pasteurizing, milk is generally heated to 145" F., held
at this temperature for 30 minutes, and then rapidly cooled.
This treatment does not make the milk entirely free from
bacteria, though when done by the best commercial method
it destroys a large proportion of the bacteria present and
delays souring. While efficient pasteurization destroys
disease germs, such as those of tuberculosis, diphtheria,
and typhoid fever, it is not an insurance against future
contamination, and as great care should be taken of pas-
teurized as unpasteurized milk.


Milk and cream for ordinary use or milk for feeding in-
fants may be successfully pasteurized at home. The pro-
cess is not difficult and requires only simple equipment.
A pail somewhat deeper than the bottles containing the
milk and with a perforated false bottom is perhaps the
most convenient utensil in which to heat the milk. An in-
verted pie tin with a few holes punched in it serves very
well as the false bottom, its purpose being to raise the
bottles from the bottom of the pail, allowing free circula-
tion of water and preventing the bottles from bumping. A
good thermometer with the scale etched on the glass is
needed. The ordinary floating dairy thermometer is likely
to be inaccurate.
For general use, milk is most conveniently pasteurized
in the bottles in which it has been delivered. Pour out a
little of the milk, replace the covers, punch a hole through
the cap of one of the bottles, and insert the thermometer.
Set the bottles of milk in a pail, fill with cold water nearly
to the level of the milk, and heat the contents until the
thermometer in the milk registers 145" F. Remove the pail
from the heat and allow the bottles to remain in the water
for 30 minutes, reheating it if necessary to keep the tem-
perature at 145 F. After the 30-minute period, replace
the hot water gradually with cold until the temperature
of the milk is down to 50" F. If necessary, use ice in the
water to bring the milk to this temperature. After cooling,
put the bottles in the refrigerator and keep them at 50
F. or less.



In The Larro Dealer
F a census of opinion were taken as to the effecl of
various feeds on the butter fat content of milk. lhe
cow owners of the country, we believe, would be fairly
evenly divided on the affirmative and negative sides of
this question. We form this conclusion, at least, from the
reading of the many letters that come to us from dairy-
men and dealers asserting that some dairy rations increase
the normal butter fat content of milk, while with other
feeds it decreases.
As a matter of fact, however, neither the kind or quan-
tity of feed materially affects the percentage of butter fat.
More fat may be obtained by feeding to produce more
milk, but there is no known method of making a per-
manent increase in any cow's normal, natural overage per-
centage of fat.
Nature really controls the butter fat percentage of each
cow's milk. Every cow. running true to her natural breed
characteristics, puts into her milk just the percentage of
fat determined by Nature. There may be a slight varia-
tion from day to day, or even from milking to milking, but
by Nature she is either a natural 3%, 41'( or 5%/ butter
fat cow and over her entire lactation period will average
a certain butter fat percentage. For instance, it is gen-
erally recognized that the average Jersey produces a
higher percentage of fat than the average Iolstein; that
Guernseys are next to Jerseys with Ayrshires closely fol-
lowing. On the other hand it is generally conceded that
in quantity of milk production the line up is just reversed,
with Holsteins leading the list and Ayrshires, Guernseys
and Jerseys following in the order named.
There are a number of outside conditions that will tem-
porarily affect butter fat production, such as sudden
changes of feed. unequal periods between milking, change

of milkers, extreme fright or illness. The writer has in
mind one particular cow that always gave milk with a
much higher fat percentage at the milking following a
severe thunder storm. It has also been found by experi-
ments that the first drawing of the milk is lower in butter
fat percentage than the strippings. In an experiment con-
ducted by Professor Babcock, on one trial the first milk
drawn contained but 1.32% fat and the strippings 9.63%.
On another trial the first milking contained but 1.07%'
fat and the stripping 10.35'/,. Naturally il a cow is al-
ways milked clean, her fat percentage will be higher than
if she is not carefully stripped. A slight general increase
in butter fat is also noted as the cow goes along in her
lactation period, but taking her butter fat production as a
whole during her entire milking period, it is found that
it will not go beyond her natural average.
To get back to our original statement that feed can in-
crease the total butter fat for the entire lactation period
we supply the following data. By the use of the highest
quality result-getting feeds, the total production of the
cow can be increased and naturally, with an increase in
the milk total, there will be a corresponding increase in
the total fat whether the period taken into consideration
is a few days, a few months or a year. One hundred
pounds of 4%', milk gives 4 pounds of fat. Increase this
milk production to 135 pounds with the same proportion
of fat and your total fat will increase to 5.4 pounds. If
by better feeding the dairyman can increase the milk pro-
duction 500 pounds per cow, lie would automatically make
an increase of 20 pounds of fat for the year, assuming of
course that the cow in question has a normal average fat
of 4% .
Tlie butter fat percentage may also be increased during
the first few weeks after freshening by prior special fit-
ting. Liberal graining during the two or three months
while the cow is dry. with light feeding for a time after
freshening, will generally increase the fat percentage for
the first few weeks of the lactation period. But at the end
of, say, the sixth, eighth or tenth week the cow will be
hack to her normal, fixed fat percentage and she cannot,
from that period on. by anv legitimate means of feeding
be made to raise the percentage during her lactation period.
Hundreds of experiments made under varying condi-
lions have all proven beyond question of doubt that it is


only the total fat production that can be increased by feed-
ing and this accomplished by using quality feeds that will
increase the total milk yield.

According to Doctor S. M. BabCock, famous American
authority on milk and its products, the milk of the cow
is composed as follows:
Water .............. ........................ 87%
F at .......... ...................... ......... 3.69%
Casein ..................................... 3.02%
A lbum in .............................. .. ... .53%
Sugar ....................... .............. 4.88%
A sh . .. .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . . . . . . .7 1



A comparison of the total solids and fats between dif-
ferent breeds of dairy cows has been determined to be as
Solids. Fat.
Jersey ........................... 14.70% 5.35%
Guernsey ........................ 14.71% 5.16%
Devon .......................... 14.50% 4.60%
Shorthorn ...................... 13.38% 4.05%
Ayrshire ....................... 12.61% 3.66%
HIolstein-Friesian .............. 11.85% 3.42%

Bureau of Animal Industry. Department of Agriculture
The dairy cow usually reaches her highest production in
late spring or early suminer when she is on good pasture.
She is then both comfortable and well fed. Feeders should
imitate these ideal conditions as closely as possible through-
out the year.
Pasture is the natural feed for dairy cows. Good pasture
is succulent and palatable and rich in protein, minerals
and vitamins.

If the dairy cow falls off in her flow of milk for lack of
proper feed, water, or care, it is difficult or impossible to
bring her back to a full flow until she freshens again.
Succulent feeds are of even more importance in feeding
dairy cows than for other farm animals. They are highly
palatable and have a beneficial laxative action.
Succulent feeds must be used to supplement short or
parched pastures in summer, and to take the place of pas-
ture in winter, or the cows will fall off in production of
Heavy-producing cows should receive grain even when
the pasture is the best. They cannot eat and digest pas-
ture grass enough to reach maximum production.
Pasture should not be used too early in the spring. This
harms the pasture for the rest of the season, and the watery
grass causes the cows to fall off in production.
A cow giving a full flow of milk needs fully as much
feed as a horse at hard work. She cannot get sufficient
nourishment to maintain her own body and produce milk
at the same time from roughage alone.


A degree of bulkiness in the grain mixture aids diges-
tion. \When heavy feeds (like corn meal) are used, some
bulky ones (like bran) should be included to lighten the
The mixture should be palatable, eagerly eaten by the
cow and neither too constipating nor too laxative. Cotton
seed meal is constipating, and should not form more than
one-third of the mixture. Linseed meal is laxative, and
should not be fed in greater quantities than 1/, pounds
a day.
Make up the kind of mixture to fil the roughage avail-
able. With roughage entirely of the low-protein class the
grain should contain from about 18 to 22 per cent. protein,
while with the exclusively high-protein roughage the grain
ration need contain only 13 to 16 per cent.
Select grains that will furnish the various constituents.
especially protein, at, the least cost, using home-grown
grains if possible.


In supplementing pasture with grain it is not necessary
for the percentage of protein in the grain mixture to be as
high as for winter feeding, because good pasture is an ap-
proximately balanced ration. The grain ration to be fed
with grass should, therefore, have about the same propor-
tion of protein to other nutrients as the grass has.


Mixture No. 1. Pounds.
Ground Oats ..................... ........ 100
W heat B ran .............................. 100
Corn Meal .......... ...................... 50
Mixture No. 2. Pounds.
Wheat Bran ............................... 100
Corn Meal ................................ 100
Cotton Seed Meal .......................... 25


The following mixtures should be taken as suggestions,
rather than as rations to be followed exactly. Using these
mixtures as guides, the feeder of dairy cattle should work
out a mixture that will be most economical under his con-

Mixtures to be fed with low-protein roughages, such as
corn, silage, corn stover, timothy, prairie( or millet hay.
cotton seed hulls, etc.:
Mixture No. 3. Pounds.
Corn Meal ............................... 100
Cotton Seed Meal .......................... 100
Linseed Meal (old process) ................... 100
W heat Bran ............................... 200
Mixture No. 4. Pounds.
Corn M eal ............................... 200
Cotton Seed Meal .......................... 150
Gluten Feed ............................... 100
Wheat Bran .............................. 100


Mixtures to be fed with high-protein roughages, such as
legume hays:

Mixture No. 5. Pounds.
Corn Meal ................................ 400
Cotton Seed Meal .......................... 100
Gluten Feed .............................. 100
W heat Bran ............... ................ 100
Mixture No. 6. Pounds.
B arley ............ ........ ......... 300
Cotton Seed Meal ............. .......... 100
Alfalfa Meal ............................... 100
Wheat Bran .............................. 100

Mixtures to be fed with combination of low and high
protein roughages:

Mixture No. 7. Pounds.
Corn-and-Cob Meal ......................... 200
Cotton Seed Meal .......................... 100
Mixture No. 8. Pounds.
Corn Meal ................................ 100
Cotton Seed M eal ........................ 100
Ground Oats .............................. 100
W heat Bran ............................... 100


Dairy cows should be given all the roughage that they
will clean up, many feeders feeding as much as 3 pounds
of silage and 1 pound of dry roughage for every 100 pounds
live weight.


The quantity of grain mixture, grain, or other concrete
that should be given the dairy cow depends on three things.
as follows:
The quality and quantity of the roughages fed.
The capacity of the cow for producing milk.
The relative prices of roughages and concentrates.
All cows should not be fed alike, because they have dif-
ferent capacities for converting feed into milk. By in-
creasing the feed of the highest-producing cows and care-
fully consulting the milk sheets on which each cow's daily

production is recorded, the skillful feeder will soon find
that some cows in the herd will respond to the increased
allowance and return a profit on the additional feed given.
On the other hand, there are cows that have a limited
capacity for milk production and are very likely to be over-
fed. When corn and other concentrates are cheap as com-
pared with hay and other roughages, they should be fed in
larger quantities than when unusually high in price.
The following rules furnish a good guide for feeding
grain or other concentrates (usually in the form of a grain
mixture) to dairy cows. under most circumstances:
Feed a grain mixture in the proportion of 1 pound to
each 3 to 4 pints or pound of milk produced daily by the
cow; or 1 pound of grain mixture for every pound of lbt-
ter fat that the cow produces during the week.
Feed all the cow will respond to in milk production.
When she begins to put on flesh above normal weight, cut
down the grain.


One hundred pounds of average milk contain about 87
pounds of water. The dairy cow's water supply, therefore,
demands the dairyman's most careful attention. Cows giv-
ing milk drink about four times as much water as dry cows.
Iigh-producing cows sometimes drink from 200 to 300
pounds of water a day. The production of many good
dairy cows is lessened because they do not get plenty of
fresh, pure water. During winter dairy cows should be
watered two or three times daily, unless water is kept be-
fore them at all times. The water should be at least 15 or
20 degrees above freezing and should be supplied at the
same temperature each day. A cow will not drink enough
stale oil impure water for maximum milk production.


A dairy cow requires an ounce or more of salt a day, and
should have all she needs, but she should not be forced to
take more than she wants. It is best, therefore, to give
only a small quantity in the feed, and to place rock salt in
boxes in the yard or pasture where she can lick it at will.
Recent experiments seem to show that the demand for
calcium and phosphorus by dairy cows in full flow of milk
is so large that these minerals should be supplied in addi-

tion to the regular ration when the ration does not contain
an abundance of green forage in summer and plenty of
well-cured legume hay in winter.
Both calcium and phosphorus will be supplied in suf-
ficient quantity by adding from 2 to 4 pounds of steamed
bone meal or ground rock phosphate to each 100 pounds of
grain mixture.


Many cows fed a liberal ration for four to six weeks be-
fore calving will easily pay for the additional feed through
the increased flow of milk in the subsequent lactation
period. Dairymen usually find it most profitable to give
the cow a rest by drying her off for that length of time,
even though she would continue to give milk up to the
time of calving.


The dairy bull in full service should receive about the
same ration as the cow in milk. His ration should contain
an ample amount of protein. When idle or in partial
service less concentrates will be needed.


The following rules furnish a good guide for the feed-
ing of dairy calves and young dairy stock:
The calf's first few meals should be the colostrum-its
mother's first milk-to start and regulate the movement
of the bowels.
Everything about the calf should be scrupulously clean.
Calves should be fed sweet milk of a uniform tempera-
ture (about 90' F.), and they should always receive a little
less than they desire.
Milk from infected cows or from a creamery should be
pasteurized before it is fed.
All calves should be fed regularly, with equal intervals
between feeds; very young calves should be fed three times
a day.
First and scciod wecks.--For the first four days, whole
milk from the dam should be fed. A 50-pound calf should
receive about 8 pounds of milk a day; a 100-pound calf. 12
pounds a day.

After this time whole milk from any cow in the herd
(preferably milk containing not more than 4 per cent.
butter-fat) may be fed.
Third week.-At the beginning of the third week skim
milk may be substituted at the rate of 1 pound a day. The
total quantity of the daily ration may be increased by 2 to
4 pounds, but this should be done very gradually.
Fourth week.-During the fourth week the change to
skim milk should be continued until by the end of the week
only skim milk is fed. With especially vigorous calves the
change to separated milk may be made about a week earlier.
Fifth week and thercafter.-The quantity of separated
milk can be gradually increased until 18 to 20 pounds a
day are given, taking care to cut down the quantity at once
if the calf leaves some in the pail.
When the calf is 2 months old, sour milk, whether whole,
skim, or buttermilk, may be fed without harmful results,
provided the change from sweet milk is made gradually.
Feed other than milk.-When from 2 to 3 weeks old the
calf will begin eating a little bright hay or grain. When
it learns to eat them as much hay and grain as it will clean
up twice daily should be given. A good grain mixture is
3 parts (by weight) cracked corn and 1 part wheat bran.
Pasture, if available, should be provided when the calf
is from 3 to 4 months old.
A little silage of choice quality may be given after the
calf is 2 months old. When 6 months old, not to exceed S
to 10 pounds may be fed daily, with some dry roughage
and grain.
The use of milk is usually discontinued at the age of 5
to 6 months.
Milk substitutes lack much of being as satisfactory as
either whole or skim milk. Recipes for calf meals are given
in Farmers' Bulletin 1336, Feeding and Management of
Dairy Calves and Young Dairy Stock.
Scours always hinders the growth and development of
the calf. Reduce the feed immediately at least half and
look for the cause. It is commonly caused by irregular
feeding, overfeeding, sudden change of feed, fermented
feeds, feeding dirty or sour milk or milk from diseased
cows, the use of dirty pails or feed boxes, or by damp and
dirty quarters-condi ions that the feeder should remedy.


E. B. HART, Wisconsin College of Agriculture in
Hoard's Dairyman

Stock feeders should be interested in all the factors that
are required for the proper nutrition of their animals.
The recent discovery that there are substances in both
plant and animal materials which are absolutely necessary
for growth and proper physiological functioning has raised
new interests and new questions. These substances are
called vitamins.
There are three classes now known and possibly others
yet to be discovered. The first class is called the water
soluble vitamin, the second class the fat soluble vitamin,
and the third class the anticorbutic vitamin, or tile one
that prevents scurvy.


The effect of the absence of the water soluble vitamin
was first shown in the Orient where people used highly
polished rice and fish. The polishing of the rice removes
the outer coat and the embryo and thereby the source of
this iitamine in the seed. So far as farm stock is con-
corned there is probably no danger whatever from the ab-
sence of water soluble vitamin. All of our grains are
abundantly supplied with this material. The same state-
ment is true of the normal roughages of the farm, such
as our common legume and grass hays and even roots con-
tain some of this material, although there is considerable
variation in its content in these materials. Even the by-
products we buy back to the farm, such as bran and mid-
dlings. contain a supply of this vitamin. Further, it is
not easily destroyed by the ordinary operation of handling
crops, sucll as drying and exposure to light, etc.


The fat soluble vitamin was the first discovered in milk
and later it was shown that it was contained in butter fat.
The absence of this vitamin from the diet prevents nor-
mal growth and with rats and certain other -species its ab-
sence exhibits itself by allowing an infection of the eyes.
The fact that it was first shown to be in milk and par-
ticularly butter laid special emphasis on these products as

a source of this material. -We now know that it, like the
water soluble vitamin, is fairly widely distributed in na-
ture, although in various amounts. It is found in the
leafy portions of plants and recent observations made by
Professor Steenbock of this station would indicate that it
follows in distribution the yellow pigments. Not only is
it abundant in the leafy portion of plants, such as alfalfa
or clover, or even in timothy hay, but certain yellow roots
and seeds contain it in generous proportions. Sweet pota-
toes are much richer in it than white potatoes, yellow car-
rots are much richer than white carrots or parsnips, and
an exceedingly interesting fact has been disclosed by Pro-
fessor Steenbock that the yellow corns, such as Golden
Glow, are very much more generously supplied with it
than the white corns, such as Silver King. It is a question in
practical feeding of farm animals whether it is not always
generously supplied. Certainly it is sufficiently supplied
to all animals that require roughage in the ration, such as
sheepl horses, and cows. It is probable that only when the
roughages in feeding our farm stock. In the matter of
straws or old bleached hays, that there would not be a sup-
ply sufficient to meet all needs of these classes of animals.
The fact that it probably is not so abundant in straws and
old roughages emphasizes the need and use of the better
roughages in feeding our farm stock. In the matter of
swine and poultry feeding it may. under certain condi-
tions, have a good deal of importance. If white corn should
form the center of the ration and the supplements should
be of such types as not to contain this vitamin in abun-
dance, then no doubt retarded growth would follow. Ex-
periments in this direction of Professors Steenbock and
Morrison are under way, but no final data are yet at hand.


This third vitamin prevents scurvy in infants and has
particular relation to their feeding. It seems a far cry
from the corn field to the human baby, yet after all the
distance is not so far and dairymen especially sustain im-
portant relations to this problem. This vitamin is dis-
tributed abundantly in green materials, but is very easily
destroyed by heat and drying and therefore has been large-
ly lost from the dry grains and hays on the farm. These
dry roughages have enough in themselves for farm ani-
mals, so far as we know. although the matter needs fur-

other study. The milk, however, produced by dry rough-
ages is very low in the antiscorbutic vitamnine as compared
with milk produced by green pasture. Even poorly made
silage, that is, silage made from fodder allowed to dry in
the field, does not add to the antiscorbutic properties of
milk. The influence of feeding roots to the dairy cow
upon the content of antiscorbutic in the milk is under
It is safe to say that in the present state of our knowl-
edge this type of vitamin is not known to be in sufficient
quantities in the rations commonly fed our farm stock.
However, we must know a good deal more about the sta-
bility and occurrence of this entire group of vitamins
in farm feeds because it is possible that there may be
situations in animal feeding where these substances make
for failure or success; but in the present state of our
knowledge the generalizations made above are about as
far as we can go.
There is a note of warning that should be 'soutided.
The term vitamins is new and new things always attract.
Manufacturers and dealers in foods and feeds are hear-
ing the new term. Sooner or later they will advertise
that this or that particular feed is especially rich in vita-
mines, therefore buy vitamins. No farmer in Wisconsin
or any other state, so far as I can see, needs to buy a
single product as animal feed for its vitamin content
alone. It will probably be a rare condition when he can-
not produce all of these substances needed upon his own
farm. In fact, the plants he grows are undoubtedly the
ma-in and original sources of these substances.

Prepared by Division of Dairy Husbandlry
Purdue University, Department of Agriculture Extension: G. I. Christie,
Director, Lafayette. Indliana : Co-operative Agricultural
Extension Work. September, 1923
Grain should form part of the ration for winter milk
production. The feed which a milk cow received may be
utilized for three purposes, first for the production of
heat and energy and the replacing of worn out material
caused by the general wear and tear of the body; second,
for the development of the unborn fetus; and lastly, for
the production of milk. The feed required to supply the
first need depends on the size of the animal, the amount

of exercise taken, the season of tile year. etc. The pro-
duction of heat and energy forms the greater part of the
first need, the natural wear and tear resulting from the
loss *of hair, horn, hoof, etc., being comparatively small.
The pregnant dam must provide for the unborn. These
needs are greatest during the last three months of preg-
nancy and must not be overlooked. Because of the large
proportion of bone and muscle present in tile new born
calf, mineral matter and protein should be liberally pro-
vided during the latter part of the lactation and during
the dry period. The feed requirements for the production
of milk depends on the dairy production and the richness
of the milk. One hundred pounds of milk contains about
eighty-seven pounds of water and thirteen pounds of
solids. The fat content varies with the breed of cow,
stage of lactation, etc. Solids, not fat, are milk sugar and
casein, a nitrogenous product commonly known as curd.
and mineral matter. The milk sugar and casein are iusu-
ally in excess of the fat.
The cow must ever depend on the feed which slie re-
ceives to supply the three needs mentioned above. The
growth of hoof, horn and muscle in the dam and fetus
and the casein in the milk make a liberal supply of pro-
tein in the ration indispensable. The carbonaceous part
of the ration, namely, starches and sugars, is used for
the production of heat and energy of the body and but-
ter fat in the milk. Fat serves the same purpose as starch
or sugar and is about two and one-quarter times as valu-
able pound for pound. Unfortunately most of our home
grown feeds are relatively low in protein and high in
starch and fat. This is especially true of the non-legume
The composition of milk can be influenced to a very
small degree if at all by the feed consumed. For this
reason it is necessary to provide a ration containing about
the same proportion of protein and carbohydrates as exists
in milk for the most economical production. Such a ration
is said to be balanced. A cow may receive ground corn,
corn silage and timothy hay in liberal amounts and yet
produce little milk. Lack of protein is the limiting fac-
tor in many Indiana herds. This is shown by an associa-
tion herd of eight cows that received only corn silage and
corn on the cob during the month of January. Tie feed

costs amounted to $35.96, leaving an income over feed cost
of $71.96. The following month a mixture of ground
corn, bran and cotton seed meal (4-2-1) was fed accord-
ing to the amount of milk produced. The total feed cost
was $36.27, income over cost of feed was $105.92. The
balanced ration cost only 31 cents more for the entire
herd for one month, the income over feed cost or what the
owner received for his labor was $33.46 more than he
would have received had he continued to feed the ration
of corn silage and corn and cob meal. This increase was
one hundred times the extra feed cost resulting from the
change in the ration.
A balanced grain ration also pays when the herd is on
pasture. The cows in one association that received a suit-
able grain mixture during July produced 776 pounds of
milk and 29.2 pounds of fat while those not fed grain
had an average production of 557 pounds of milk and 20.8
pounds of fat. The average selling price of milk was
$2.25 per cwt. The grain fed cows brought in a revenue
of $4.93 per cow more for the month than the cows that
(lid not receive any grain.
The grain ration should come from at least three dif-
ferent plants. Variety is essential but it should be sup-
plied in the form of a continued use of the same combina-
tion of concentrates. A sudden change from one grain
mixture to another is very liable to induce indigestion
and throw the herd off feed. When it is known that a
change must be made, the new feed should be introduced
at least a week or ten days before the accustomed mix-
ture has been exhausted. By gradually decreasing the
grains previously used and substituting the new one, the
animals take to the new combination quite readily. Not
more than one new feed should be introduced into the
ration at one time. At least one of the grains used should
be bulky in nature. This promotes digestion of the con-
centrated juices to penetrate the contents of the stomach
more readily. Ground oats or bran are very valuable for
this purpose and should form about one-third of the grain
mixture feed.
Whole grain should never be fed to dairy cows. Con-
siderable loss will result due to some of the grain passing
through the digestive tract undigested and furthermore
it requires more effort on the part of the cow which is
one of the hardest worked animals on the farm, to digest

whole grain. Provided there is some bulky grain to pre-
vent compaction in the stomach, the finer grain is ground
the better. This allows a more complete and rapid diges-
tion, thus enabling the cow to consume more feed in a
given time.
The grain mixture which is being used most generally
by Indiana dairymen and which is giving the most eco-
nomical production is a mixture of 400 pounds of ground
corn with 200 pounds of bran or ground oats to provide
bulk and 100 pounds of a protein-rich feed such as oil
meal or cotton seed or soy bean meal. When a legume
roughage and silage are fed along with the above, a bal-
anced ration is supplied.
Economical production is the all-important question at
present and every dairyman should strive to produce
milk and butter fat as cheaply as possible. Bran is ex-
pensive when compared with oats. Wheat is cheaper
than corn in some sections. Many farmers claim oil meal
and cotton seed are too expensive to feed. Corn, oats and
wheat contain a higoh percentage of carbohydrates but are
comparatively low in protein. When comparing such
feeds the total digestible nutrients are taken as the basis
of comparison. Protein-rich feeds such as oil meal, cotton
seed meal and soy bean meal are purchased for the pro-
tein content. Comparison of these feeds is made on the
basis of their protein content. In order to compare the
relative economy of the different feeds, thus allowing each
member of the association to decide what grains he should

ss& .=

(Ground Corn ....... | *7. *87.5 t$30.00 1.7c 20.0c
35.00 2.0c 23.3c
40.00 2.3c 26.8c
Ground Oats . . . 9.7 70.4 25.00 1.8c 12.9e
30.00 2.1c 15.5e
35.00 2.5c 18.0c
Ground What 9.2 80.1 30.00 1.9c 16.3e
32.00 2.0c 17.4c
35.00 2.2c 19.9c
Bran 12.5 60.9 25.00 2.0c 10.0c
30.00 2.5c 12.Oc
| 35.00 2.9c 14.0c
Oil Meal (old process) 30.2 77.9 50.00 3.2c 8.3e
60.00 3.8c 19.9c
70.00 4.5ec 11.0c
Cotton Seed Meal 37.0 78.2 55.00 3.5c 7.49
(37 per cent) 65.00 4.1c 8.8c
70.00 4.5c 9.1c
(Iluten Men[ .. 30.2 84.0 46.00OO 2.7c 7.6c
50.00 3.0c 8.3c
54.00 3.2e 9.Or
Soy ean Meal. ... 38.0 76.4 0.00 3.9ci S.0c
65.00 4.3c 8.6c

*Analysis of feeding stuffs given by Henry & Morrison.
tAverage prices prevailing in various associations-Oct. 1, 1923.

From the above table ground corn at $30.00 per ton
is the cheapest carbonaceous feed. Corn at $35.00 per
ton is equal to wheat at $32.00 or oats at about $29.00.
Comparing bran and ground oats on the basis of total
digestible nutrients, ground oats as $35.00 per ton is
about equal to bran at $30.00. where as compared for
their protein value, oats at $31.00 per ton is equal to
bran at $40.00. Ground corn is worth about $2.00 to
$3.00 per ton more than ground wheat.
Comparing the price per pound of protein in the pro-
tein-rice feeds, cotton eeed meal. provided it contains
37% digestible protein, is the cheapest at $55.00 per ton.
Gluten meal is second at $46.00 and soy beans third at
$60.00. Oil meal, owing to the beneficial effects resulting
from the unextracted oil, always commands a somewhat
higher price. As a general rule protein can be secured
more economically through the use of cotton seed meal
than by purchasing oil meal. So long as the cost of the
cotton seed meal is not more than $5.00 per ton more.


'The ILaIrro DairyliniiaI

Proteins are always a target -for feed discussions. Drop
in any day on a feed argument and you discover a wide
range of ideas on proteins and tile place they take in the
dairy feeding plan.
Some farmers favor feeds low in protein, while others
swear by high protein mixtures. Some of these feeders
advance apparently logical reasons for their opinions.
Others, however, talk protein at random. All in all, the
protein feature of dairy feeds is a badly misused subject.


On one thing all agree: Cows must have protein in their
ration. This is true because protein makes blood, lean
flesh, grows hair, hide, hoofs, and muscular tissue of the
calf. It also builds up the broken down tissues of the cow
herself. The cow must also have protein if she is to give
milk. because casein, which is an important part of milk. is
a pure form of protein.
The feeder should have a general understanding, at least,
of the nature of proteins. This is perhaps difficult to fur-
nish in every-day language and terms that are easily under-
stood. Proteins are nitrogenous compounds, that is to say.
combinations of nitrogen with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
and sulphur. In such compounds the nitrogen is about
16% of the total, consequently, in order to ascertain the
amount of protein in feedstuffs, chemists first determine
the amount of nitrogen contained in them and then multi-
ply the nitrogen by the figure 6.25.
In the earlier days it was not well understood that
proteins are exceedingly diversified, but now we know that
they vary a great deal in their properties; that there is
about as much difference between one form of protein and
another as there is between sugar and coal. which are both
compounds of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen. In an
article of this nature it is impossible to go into a discussion


of these various kinds of proteins. Suffice it to say that
white of egg, casein in milk, lean meat and wheat gluten
are among some of the best known proteins.
An analysis furnishes the information that nitrogen is a
constituent of every living thing, plant or animal, and con-
sequently every form of animal or vegetable substance con-
tains protein, unless it has been abstracted by man or de-
composed by the elements.
When these proteins are submitted to the action of acids,
alkalies and certain ferments, they break up into simpler
compounds which are commonly called "cleavage prod-
ucts." In chemical terms these "cleavage products" bear
some formidable names such as alanine, valine, aspartic
acid, tryptophane, arginine, lucine and other jaw-breaking


The particular point of interest to feeders in this con-
nection, however, is that these "cleavage products" are not
found in the protein of all feeds, and when they do exist,
they are not found in the same proportions. For instance,
lucine is found in large proportions in corn and cotton
seed proteins; valine predominates in linseed protein,
while arginine is a constituent of wheat protein. Trypto-
phane, on the other hand, is entirely absent from the pro-
tein of corn and yet is a constituent very necessary for ani-
mals. This undoubtedly accounts in part for the poor re-
sults of heavy corn feeding. In fact, an animal fed on a
strictly corn diet would probably not live a great length of
time. Chemical and feed authorities are quite agreed that
proteins are not alike, that they vary greatly and that cer-
tain mixtures of these proteins are especially suitable for
certain animals.
The cow owner, we are sure, is not sufficiently interested
in the constituent parts or chemical action of protein to
warrant a lengthy technical discussion. Naturally he is
more vitally interested in the results produced by proteins
and the effect they have on the cost of his dairy ration.


We meet two classes of feeders-first, those who believe
in low protein feeds and, second, those who strongly favor
feeds of high protein percentage. If these farmers base

Slleir estimate of tile feeding value of a ration purely and
solely on its protein content without regard to the sources
from which it is derived and regardless of its relation to
the feed mixture as a whole, neither of them are correct in
their protein opinions.
Whether high or low in protein, the feed that produces
best results is the mixture in which the protein comes from
the right sources and is of the right combination with other
chemical elements in tile feed, such as carbohydrates and
ash. The analysis tag on a bag of feed is really no guide
by which to judge its true feeding value. There is consid-
erable protein in the feathers of a hen, but we know the
cow would not respond to such a ration. Thle ration must
be balanced for good results. By this we mean that the
quantity and quality of protein carbohydrates and ash
must be so proportioned that the cow can use the feed mix-
ture to produce a maximum of milk day in and day out
without waste.


Science has not progressed far enough for us to be able
to determine the exact proportions of the different vege-
table products which should be combined for best results,
but enough has been learned to know that mixtures from
a variety of sources have proved more satisfactory than
simpler rations of the same chemical analysis. But the cow
is her own chemist and when given enough of the needed
food elements she applies them as Nature intended, and
if the cow could talk, she would tell us that with protein
just the right amount of tile right kinds is plenty and any
additional quantity is extravagant as well as dangerous.
Like the carburetor of an automobile which produces best
results when given .the right mixture of air and gasoline,
the cow does her best when given just the right mixture of
proteins with carbohydrates. Either too thin or too rich
a mixture in the caburetor raises hob with the power and
life of the motor and the economy of its operation. Just
so, either too little or too much protein raises hob with the
cow's milk production and her health and condition.
Another good homely illustration of this protein truth
is found in the essentials of a good cement mixture. Every
farmer who has mixed concrete knows that there is a cer-
tain ratio of cement to the gravel, sand and water that
gives the greatest strength and durability. Whon this cor-

rect amount of cement has been used the mixture is not
improved by an additional supply. In fact, the use of too
rich a cement mixture tends to decrease rather than in-
crease the strength and durability of the concrete.


Although the cow cannot be expected to do her best un-
less given enough protein from the right sources and in the
right combination with other feed elements, there is possi-
bly more danger encountered in feeding too high a pro-
tein mixture than one lacking in protein content. Recently
an experienced feeder in discussing the subject of proteins
pointed to the fact that while gluten feed, which is quite
high in protein content, is a standard ration in many dairy
sections, he has observed that in the localities where gluten
feed is used extensively, more cows are to be found with
bad udders than in localities where less gluten feed is used.
Many a consistent feeder of cotton seed meal. which is high
in protein content, not familiar with the facts, wonders
why he has so many cases of caked udders and ruined teats
among his cows. Many a time when a cow in good milk
production suddenly decreases in milk flow or goes dry far
from the end of her lactation period, high protein feeds are
the guilty parties. Where real exhaustive tests have been
made, it has been found in practically every instance that,
for the highest possible milk production over the cow's en-
tire lactation period and the maintenance of the cow in
good condition and without udder trouble that a ration
with approximately 20% protein was the best that could
be found and that using feed of a higher protein percent-
age was accompanied by dangerous consequences.


The relation of protein and feed prices is )perhal)s til
hardest conundrum the average feeder attempts to solve.
judging from the many emphatic statements of cow owners
to the effect that they cannot understand why the ready
feed mixture analyzing 20%0 protein should cost more than
a 24% protein combination. However, considerable light,
we believe, has been thrown on this subject by pointing out
the many different sources from which proteins are avail-
able and that the real feeding value of any ration depends
upon the right combination of protein and carbohydrates.

Some illustrations, however, may serve a purpose in throw-
ing light on the price problem.
It is a singular trait of the human mind to lay stress on
a certain feature at one time and overlook it at other times.
The same dairyman who will measure the value of a mixed
feed by its percentage of protein utterly ignores it in pur-
chasing ordinary feeding stuffs. At this time of writing,
linseed oil meal containing 33% protein is selling at the
same price on most markets as 43% cotton seed meal;
hominy feed with 10% protein is commanding a higher
price than wheat bran containing 16% protein, and dried
beet pulp with 8% protein is being eagerly sought at sev-
eral dollars per ton over the price of 23% gluten feed. It
is apparent, therefore, that a mixture of linseed oil meal,
hominy and dried beet pulp will cost more money and con-
tain less protein than a mixture of cotton seed meal, gluten
feed and wheat bran. Yet, while a dairyman will pay the
higher prices for the individual feeds, nevertheless, when
the feeds are mixed together, he nearly always judges feed-
ing value and price solely by protein content. Who, when
buying bran, stops to think that it only contains 16% pro-
tein and costs $2.00 per unit of protein in a ton, whereas
cotton seed meal only costs $1.40 per unit of protein in
a ton ?
Many will argue that when protein is necessary, those
grains or feeds should be purchased which give a pound of
protein at the least cost, but the men who feed cows year
after year for profit have found from the depth of their
experience that there is a reason for each ingredient in a
good mixed feed, regardless of its price per unit of protein.
A feed should be judged solely by its performance, rather
than by any other standard.

Assistant Market Milk Specialist, Dairy Division
The use of mechanical milkers is becoming more common
in the production of market milk, and the extension of their
use brings up the problem of keeping the machines clean.
Unsterile dairy utensils are one of the chief means by
which fresh milk is contaminated by bacteria. For this
reason each additional piece of apparatus with which milk
comes in contact may be an additional source of contami-
nation. If the milking machines are washed and sterilized
properly, all well and good; but often they are not properly
cared for and are the direct cause of large numbers of
bacteria in milk.
The ability of well-informed and careful dairymen to
produce clean milk with milking machines is shown by the
fact that certified milk is being produced with them. The
same is true of market milk of good grade drawn with ma-
chines, under ordinary farm conditions. There is no short
cut, however, to cleanliness; clean milk cannot be obtained
by using neglected machines. To attain this objective, ma-
chines must be thoroughly and regularly washed and ster-
The Department of Agriculture is conducting investiga-
tions in the cleaning of milking machines, and from the
experience gained so far it advocates a method of cleaning
which is simple and effective in producing milk uniformly
low in numbers of bacteria.
Owing to the construction of milking machines, persist-
ent care must be exercised in cleaning them. Each of the
following points requires careful attention:
Rubber tubing, including glass unions.
Teat cups and inflations.
Moisture traps.
Vacuum lines.
Definite cleaning instructions should be followed by each
milking-machine user.


The heat method of sterilizing milking machines, which
is presented in this bulletin, was tried on a number of farms
and proved successful. Its effectiveness is shown by the
following results obtained on samples of machine-drawn
milk at farms where this method was used.
Samples taken at 13 farms using various methods other
than heat for the purpose of sterilizing the machines had
an average bacterial count of 257,900 per cubic centimeter
for 74 samples.* Samples taken at the same farms when
the heat method of sterilizing the machines was used had
an average bacterial count of 19.300 per cubic centimeter
for 261 samples.
Samples of machine-drawn milk taken at a total of 20
farms using this method for sterilizing the machines hld(
an average bacterial count of 13,750 per cubic centimeter
for 622 samples, and 376 of the samples had a count of
10,000 per cubic centimeter or less.
The effectiveness of heat sterilization for cleaning milk-
ing machines on some representative ind(ivi(hdil I'rms is
shown in the following table:


1 1... 5 !881 2 y urs .. 12,700
2 31 2 months 23,100
2 45 3 weeks'. 17,400
4 79 4 months 11.500
45 2 months 5.100
S74 5 months 5,600

Hlacterial counts obtained on comparative tests made with
machines sterilized by this method, and others sterilized in
a chlorinated-lime solution, were in favor of the heat mnieth-
od for sterilizing.
All bacterial counts are of samples taken tinder actual
farm conditions direct from the machine pail. All ma-
*Tihe term "hateorinlI count" t'means the nuniber of batetria found in a
specified quantity of milk. usually a cubie cnti meter. A cubie centi
mcter eqP(ills about 10 drops.

chines were handled entirely by the owner or his employees
according to a set of directions left with them. The aver-
age age of samples when count was made was about 12
hours. Standard methods were used in making the bac-
teriological analyses.


The effect of heat on the rubber parts has not yet been
fully determined by this department. So far, however, the
temperatures used (160" to 170 F.) have been but slightly
if any more detrimental to the life of the rubber than other
methods of sterilization.
Some users have obtained as long as 17 weeks' wear out
of the teat-cup liners when using this method, while others
have obtained only 6 weeks' service. This variation can be
attributed to four things:
1. The grade of rubber used in making the liners.
2. The number of cows milked with a set of rubbers.
3. The condition of rubbers when discarded.
4. Care and cleanliness of rubbers.
1. The life of the rubber liners and mouthpieces varies
considerably under exactly the same care and use, due un-
doubtedly to the difference in grade of rubber.
2. The number of cows milked with the machine and the
number of milkings each day also affect the life of the rub-
ber. The oftener the teat-cup rubbers are used. the sooner
they wear out.
3. There is a great difference in the degree of wear at
which the rubbers are discarded by various operators.
Some operators replace rubber parts that are still in good
enough conditions to last several weeks. These operators
are usually those who have large numbers of cows to milk.
They say that the time saved in milking by replacing rub-
bers frequently more than pays them for the additional ex-
pense of new rubbers. In no case, however, should old,
cracked, or split rubbers be used.
4. It is necessary that the rubbers be thoroughly cleaned
before sterilizing, as butter fat has a deleterious effect on
them at temperatures used for sterilizing and shortens their
life materially.
The temperatures recommended have no apparent effect
on the length of life of the short or the long rubber tubing.

Capper's Farmer
Nothing connected with the cream station causes more
dissatisfaction than the variations in the farmer's cream
test. Naturally the farmer watches his cream tests close-
ly; slight variations materially change the size of his cream
check. Many feel that when the cream comes from the
same cows, cows that are fed the same feeds, milked by
the same man, and the milk skimmed by the same sepa-
rator, there should be no difference in the cream. It's
true mistakes are made in the cream station, sometimes in
the taking of the cream sample, sometimes in reading the
test. However, most of the big variations in cream tests
constantly occurring are from conditions over which the
cream buyer has no control.
Several factors may cause cream tests to vary. In fact,
if the tests are always uniform, the farmer has more real
cause for being suspicious than where variations occur.
Chief among the factors likely to cause variation are these
eight causes:
Variation in speed of the separator.
Temperature of the milk to be skimmed.
Rate of inflow.
Amount of water or skimmilk used in flushing the bowl.
Levelness of the machine.
Difference in richness of milk separated.
Cleanliness of separator.
Position of the cream screw.
The most common cause of variation in the percentage
of fabin the cream is the change in separator speed. Under
ordinary conditions, variation in speed may cause a dif-
ference of 5 to 20 per cent of fat in cream separated. The
greater the speed of the separator, the smaller the amount
of cream, and the higher the percentage of fat. When
run at low speed, a larger quantity of cream is obtained
and it always tests lower. In other words, at a lower speed,
more skimmilk goes into the cream.

This is clearly understood when it is remembered that
the speed of the revolving bowl produces the centrifugal
power which forces the skimmilk out of the bowl. The

greater the speed, the greater this force, and the more
rapidly the skimmilk forced through the skimmilk outlet
means less milk for the cream and consequently richer
cream. The proper speed of the separator is indicated on
the crank of the machine.
If cream of uniform richness is to be obtained, the ma-
chine must be given the same speed at every skimming.
This is possible only if the operator times himself fre-
quently, counting the revolutions of the crank with watch
in hand, or by the use of a patent speed indicator. The
use of motor or engine will tend to give a more uniform
cream than a machine operated by hand.


Temperature of milk separated on the farm varies from
day to day. Variations in temperature are not so im-
portant as variations in speed, but cause of difference of
3 to 4 per cent in richness of cream. The higher the tem-
perature, the thinner the cream.
Milk of a high temperature runs more rapidly into the
bowl. The capacity of the skimmilk outlet is fixed; con-
sequently, the increased inflow of the milk is discharged
through the cream outlet, producing a thinner cream. As
the temperature is lowered, an increasing amount of fat is
lost in the skimmilk. Most dairymen are agreed that the
temperature of the milk when first drawn from the cow
-90 to 95 degrees-is the best temperature at which to
separate milk.


Regulation of the inflow is a factor that causes varia-
tion in the test. Crowding a separator will give thinner
cream, with a large loss of fat in the skimmilk. Ordi-
narily the rate of flow is regulated by the float, and does
not vary greatly. It should be borne in mind, however,
that the float, although a simple device, is an important
factor in keeping the test uniform, and it should not be
When the skimming is finished, considerable quantities
of cream remain in the bowl and cream discharging pan. It
is necessary to flush the bowl with water or skimmilk
to save this cream. If just enough flushing is used to rinse

out the bowl thoroughly, no material change is made in
the richness of the cream. However, the more water or
skimmilk used, the thinner the cream, and an excess may
cause a considerable decrease in richness. It is a good
plan to pour the flush water or milk into the supply tank,
as it will then run gradually into the machine and most
of it will pass through the skimmilk outlet, making little
change in the richness of the cream.


A machine that is not leveled properly cannot do effi-
cient work. Resulting vibration of the bowl will cause
variation of test and loss of fat and will wear out the
machine rapidly.
Percentage of butter fat from individual cows varies
from time to time. Some of the causes of such variations
are known, and others no one has been able to explain.
Many conditions may cause changes in the richness of the
milk. In early summer the milk is usually lower in but-
ter-fat, principally because of the practice of having a
large number of cows freshen in the spring. The fat con-
tent in general is highest in the autumn and early win-
ter. As the cow advances in the period of lactation, the
richness of the milk increases. Even milk of an entire
herd may vary in butter-fat from one day to another, for
which no cause is definitely known. It has been found,
however, that the character of the feed given a cow has
no effect on the richness of the milk she gives. It is no
more possible to change the richness of milk by feeding
than it is to change the color of a cow's hair by feeding.

Cleaning separator after every separation is important.
Gummy parts will cause the test to vary and result in loss
of cream in the skimmilk.
Possibly there are but few who run separators who do
not understand the regulation of the cream screw and its
effect on the cream test. The cream screw, however, is
not changed very frequently and it is not the common
cause of the variations in the test which so often occur.
Those who sell cream should deliver it smooth and free
from lumps. It is almost impossible to get accurate sam-
ples for testing purposes from lumpy cream.

Practically all our states now have laws making it illegal
to misread cream tests.
To those who prefer to do their own checking, attention
may be called to the fact that small cream testing outfits
may be had for a few dollars. The directions for making
the test are simple and can readily be mastered.

Florida Grower
The average Florida dairy cow gives less than one gal-
lon of milk in a day, the year around, if careful estimates
are creditable. Then, the natural surmise is that Florida
is a long ways from being the great dairy State many say
she is destined to be.
"Not necessarily," says Professor J. M. Scott, of the
Florida Experiment Station. "The average milk yields
of a State that has never made the production of milk a
business, cannot be taken as an index as to what that State
can or cannot do."
There are about three things essential to successful dairy-
ing, according to authorities. Those things are: Climate;
an abundance of good, nutritious, easily digested, palat-
able, succulent feed; and a good cow.
We have the climate, a climate unexcelled. No one can
dispute that claim.
There is no reason why Florida cannot produce an abun-
dance of all the feed necessary to maintain enough cows
to produce four times the milk consumed within the State.
The best of pasture grasses will grow the year 'round.
Then we can grow for soiling crops, Napier, Sudan, Mer-
ker, Johnson, Para grasses, and sorghum, and cowpeas and
many other crops. For silage we have corn, sorghum, Jap-
anese cane, sweet potatoes.
All we need, then, are the cows. And we are getting
them. Less than a year ago Florida sale of purebred
dairy calves was held. One man in Leon County has pur-
chased more than $10,000 worth of purebred Jerseys
within the last twelve months, one of the females of that
lot costing over a thousand dollars. A number of for-
ward-looking men are making the breeding and raising
of purebred dairy cattle a business. We'll have the cows,
all right. And that is the third essential.

(Act of 1923.)
Milk should contain not less than 8.50 solids not fat and
3.25 milk fat.
Cream should contain not less than 18 per cent. milk fat
and not more than (0.2) two-tenths of acid reacting sub-
stances calculated as lactic acid.
Ice cream not less than 14 per cent. of milk fat.
Fruit ice cream not less than 12 per cent. milk fat.
Nut ice cream not less than 12 per cent. milk fat.

From Literature of the Kansas City Southern Railway
Texarkana and Fort Smith Railway
In Western Arkansas, Eastern Oklahoma, Western Lou-
isiana and Eastern Texas, nearly every town and village
has a local dairy which produces just enough milk and
cream to supply local needs. In the larger cities several
ice cream factories furnish a market for cream. The cattle
used are of many breeds and pure bred milk cattle are few
and far between. Few if any of the dairies are so equipped
that they could be classed with the commercial dairies and
creameries of the North.
The principal reasons for this condition are that the
country is not so densely settled as are the older States,
that the right kind of dairy cattle are too few in numbers,
should be supplemented with leguminous forages for milk
cattle and that a larger knowledge of the details pertain-
ing to dairy management is essential. Very few people in
the localities mentioned have any accurate knowledge of
practical commercial dairying or the value of an estab-
lished dairy industry to the individual and to the com-
munity as a whole.
Systematic forage production, the utilization of the same,
and conservation in silo and otherwise, to assure a con-
stant and reliable supply of dairy feed, and a knowledge
of the relative value of cattle feeds, have not yet reached
the commercial status, and these conditions are essential to
success. Beyond this is the proper selection of dairy cattle,
the knowledge of proper feeding and care and the equip-
ment needful for a successful commercial dairy business.
All this information is now available at the great dairy

(Act of 1923.)
Milk should contain not less than 8.50 solids not fat and
3.25 milk fat.
Cream should contain not less than 18 per cent. milk fat
and not more than (0.2) two-tenths of acid reacting sub-
stances calculated as lactic acid.
Ice cream not less than 14 per cent. of milk fat.
Fruit ice cream not less than 12 per cent. milk fat.
Nut ice cream not less than 12 per cent. milk fat.

From Literature of the Kansas City Southern Railway
Texarkana and Fort Smith Railway
In Western Arkansas, Eastern Oklahoma, Western Lou-
isiana and Eastern Texas, nearly every town and village
has a local dairy which produces just enough milk and
cream to supply local needs. In the larger cities several
ice cream factories furnish a market for cream. The cattle
used are of many breeds and pure bred milk cattle are few
and far between. Few if any of the dairies are so equipped
that they could be classed with the commercial dairies and
creameries of the North.
The principal reasons for this condition are that the
country is not so densely settled as are the older States,
that the right kind of dairy cattle are too few in numbers,
should be supplemented with leguminous forages for milk
cattle and that a larger knowledge of the details pertain-
ing to dairy management is essential. Very few people in
the localities mentioned have any accurate knowledge of
practical commercial dairying or the value of an estab-
lished dairy industry to the individual and to the com-
munity as a whole.
Systematic forage production, the utilization of the same,
and conservation in silo and otherwise, to assure a con-
stant and reliable supply of dairy feed, and a knowledge
of the relative value of cattle feeds, have not yet reached
the commercial status, and these conditions are essential to
success. Beyond this is the proper selection of dairy cattle,
the knowledge of proper feeding and care and the equip-
ment needful for a successful commercial dairy business.
All this information is now available at the great dairy

centers, where the industry can be observed in successful
operation, and in the publications issued by the U. S. Agri-
cultural Department and the various State Agricultural
Nearly all the older, well settled States have gone
through the experience of depleting their soils by continu-
ous cropping without replenishing fertility, only to dis-
cover that complete exhaustion of the soil was inevitable,
unless some method of replacing the plant food extracted
by the growing crops could be found. The search for a
remedy invariably led to the dairy cow.
The people of Wisconsin had practically reduced the fer-
tility of their soils to the minimum by continuous grain.
In 1920 Wisconsin had 90,375 silos, putting up 9,037,500
tons of silage, worth at $5 per ton, $45.287,500. Missouri
had 14,871 silos, 1,487,000 tons of silage worth $7,435,500;
Kansas 14,059 silos, 1,405,059 tons of silage valued at
$7,025,245. Good corn will average 9 tons of silage per
acre and it requires from 9 to 11 acres to fill a 100-ton silo.
Wisconsin worked out her salvation through the dairy
cow against decreasing grain crops, and now produces these
and other valuable crops like corn, forage, alfalfa, tobacco,
potatoes, peas, the vines of which go into the silo, in greatly
increased quantity per acre. The productivity of the land
in any State is what the farmer makes it, and it is entirely
practicable to do in the South what is being done in Wis-
consin, but it requires time, good judgment, endurance and
patience to accomplish the end sought.

C. F. LEACH. Monticello, Florida
In Hoard's )Dairyman
"For non-conformity the world whips you with its dis-
pleasure.' '-Emerson.
Hoard's Dairyman has asked me to describe the condi-
tions under which our cattle on Cherokee Farms are kept,
the rations which they are fed, and the results which are
being secured in the way of production. The editor has
also been kind enough to suggest that many readers of the
greatest dairy paper in the world "will be interested in
knowing the system which we have used so successfully."
Our cows are good grades and, as we have one of the best
bred Holstein bulls, we have got some mighty fine heifers

coming along. I cah keep them and grow them; then after
they freshen I will sell the poor ones. Some of our grade
cows give us 45 and 50 lbs. of milk when they are fresh
but our average yearly production per cow is about 4,000
lbs. a year. As it costs us $42 per year per cow, our milk
costs us $1.05 per hundred pounds. Don't think there is
any catch in these figures for they include every item of
overhead; interest on investment, taxes, upkeep of fences,
depreciation, and a liberal charge for my own time. All
the labor is hired; no work is done by my family. The only
work I do about the dairy is to feed the calves. We have
never lost a calf or had one sick with the scours. I wash
and scald the calf pails myself twice a day.
All mill feeds and concentrates, except cotton seed meal
and oil meal, can be bought in Minneapolis cheaper than
any place in this country. If I had our bunch of cows in
Minnesota and fed them one pound of grain to 31/, lbs. of
milk, I have no doubt these cows would average close to
7,000 lbs. of milk and it would cost me considerable over
$2 per cwt.
We get 50c a gallon for milk, which is about $5.80 a 100
lbs., and that milk costs us $1.05 per hundred. But that is
not all of the story. I do not want all you dairymen to sell
your farms, crops and tools and come down here with all
your high producing cows thinking you can make r'lk for
$1.05 a hundred and sell it for $5.80. What I have told is
absolutely true, but it is only part of the truth. We only
have a market for our milk five months in the year and the
other seven months we can't sell it at all but must feed it
to our calves and pigs. It makes some mighty fine calves
and husky pigs, but milk at $1.05 per hundred is a rather
high priced feed for pigs that, when grown, will not bring
over 5c. a pound. However, the balance of the feed that
our pigs get is produced so cheaply that a 200-lb. hog costs
only $6.00, or 3c. a pound.
And this is how we produce milk at $1.05 per hundred
and pigs for 3c. a pound. First, our cows are on pasture
nine months in the year. For seven months they have noth-
ing but Kudzu pastures which easily carry over two head
of cows per acre. The milk cows get no other feed and need
none for they keep fat and sleek and pretty on Kudzu
alone. The dry cows get a full feed of well-balanced
grain ration for about 40 days. This is to insure good
calves and a full flow of milk when they freshen. The

cows go onto Kudzu pasture April 1. The Kudzu is then
nearly two feet high. With only two head of stock per acre
the Kudzu never gets less than two feet high. It grows
all summer and drought has no effect on it. The cows eat
the young growth off the top.
In October we turn the cows and the hogs into the fields
where we grow corn, velvet beans, peanuts and beggarweed
in combination. We could keep them on the Kudzu two
weeks to two months longer but if we did the bean vines
would have shed their leaves, the peanut vines would have
dried up, and the beggarweed withered away to bare stalks.
Therefore we take the cows off the Kudzu and let it grow.
Then we cut a good crop of hay before frost where the
cows have pastured all summer.
So we turn all the stock, the dairy cows, the Angus beef
cattle, and the hogs, into the fields where we have planted
corn and peanuts in alternate rows and velvet beans two
feet apart in the corn rows. The beggarweed volunteers
after the last cultivation. Before turning in the cattle, we
husk out half the corn. I don't know how closely this
combination of corn, velvet beans, peanuts and beggarweed
approximates a perfect balanced ration but I do know that
the cattle and hogs get fat and sassy and have that jaunty
and satisfied air of the perfectly thrifty animal. The cows
pick up on their milk, the beef stock are soon ready for the
butcher, and the hogs make fine, hard pork with a flavor
that nothing in all the world can produce but peanuts.
We have found that the hogs keep their appetite and
thrive better if we plant about two acres in every 40 to
sweet potatoes and the cattle are also fond of the vines as
a sort of relish. The corn, velvet beans, peanuts and beg-
garweed combination cost us $18.65 per acre if we give five
cultivations and hoe the peanuts once. The sweet potatoes
cost a little more, so that the average cost on a forty-acre
field is less than $20.00 per acre. When we let the stock
harvest the crops we get 5,000 lbs. or 21/2 tons of feed per
acre, which will average close to 20 per cent. protein, at a
cost of $20.00 or four-tenths of a cent a pound.
Now do you begin to see how we are able to produce milk
at $1.05 per hundred and hogs at 3c. per pound? The
fact is that our shoats go onto these fields weighing an
average of 100 lbs. and at the end of sixty days will average
225 lbs., making a gain of two pounds a day at a cost of two
cents a pound.

After the stock are through with the corn, beans, pea-
nuts, sweet potatoes and beggarweed, the big hogs, the
steers and the old fat cows are sold, and the rest of the
stock goes into winter quarters. Beef cattle, dairy cattle,
brood sows and pigs all go into one enclosure, large enough
for exercise and with slope enough to give perfect drain-
age. No matter how often or how hard it rains, there is
never any mud in our feed lot.
In the middle of this big lot, with its hard, sand-clay
floor, there stands a big shed. It is just a good tight roof
supported on cypress posts and covered up at the bottom
four feet high. Bedding two feet deep is placed in this
corral and added to from time to time until the stock are
turned out again on Kudzu pasture in April. In this
roofed corral the cattle and hogs are confined at night and
there the cattle are fed twice a day while the hogs find
theirs in self-feeders.
The dry cows are fed a well balanced ration in a section
by themselves until about two weeks before calving, when
they are transferred to a separate lot at some distance and
fed Kudzu hay and a little oil meal. We had much trouble
with retained afterbirth until we adopted this plan, but a
cow never has milk fever in this country and I have only
seen one case of garget. Most of our milk cows, however,
freshen in the fall as it is the winter milk that gives us
our profit.
The milk cows each get 5 lbs. of velvet beans in the pod
in the morning and 5 lbs. of corn at night. All the cattle
get 20 lbs. of Kudzu hay at night. That sounds like a lot
of hay but it is the only roughage they get except the
winter pastures.
The hogs have a creep hole and get out early but the
cattle are kept in this shed until 10 o'clock, then they are
turned out on the winter pastures until noon, when they
are again returned to the big enclosure surrounding the
covered corral.
These winter pastures are fields of winter oats and rye
and crimson, burr, white and alsike clovers, all of which
grow here in the winter time. This winter we will plant
considerable Hubam which also grows here and makes
splendid pastures in the winter. It is probable that when
we can get lime at a reasonable price we will plant only
Hubam for winter pastures.
The object of these winter pastures is to provide succu-
lence only. as our cheapest and most nutritious roughage is

Kudzu hay. Our winter pastures are not at all expensive,
as they cost only about $12 per acre and carry 5 to 6 head
of stock for 2 hours only each (lay. We have a silo but it
has never been filled and never will be for it is more eco-
nomical and far better for the land to let the cattle eat the
cornstalks in tie field and provide them with succulence on
winter pastures. I think this silo has been our mistake, but
fortunately we discovered the advantages of winter pas-
tures and Kudzu hay before we invested in a silage cutter
and a big gasoline engine to run it. There is no need of a
silo anywhere south of Montgomery and as far north as
Richmond it is possible to have green pastures all winter.
We make enough manure in our big covered corral to
give a fair coating to every acre every two years. We
never count manure as profit although it is of the greatest
value. Nothing gives life to land as does manure. We
would keep cattle if we did not make a cent on them, just
for the manure. But we do not figure it in the profits; we
consider it as velvet. A farmer is just as much entitled to
a little velvet as any other business man.
The main idea about our system of farming, dairying
and stock feeding, that differs from the methods practiced
by most farmers and almost universally recommended by
experts and writers for the agricultural press, lies in our
larger use of leguminous forage and smaller use of pur-
chased grains and concentrates. Knowing that eighty per
cent. of the feed consumed by cattle consists of forage even
when the heavy standard grain ration is fed and that hogs
will get fully one-half of their feed on good leguminous
pastures, we make our great effort to secure the highest
possible yields of both hay and pasture. When you can
secure five or six tons of hay per acre from a perennial
forage plant that never has to be replanted and needs no
lime or fertilizer, and after the first year no cultivation.
you have got pasture and hay so cheap that it seems in-
credible. When velvet beans will make from one to two
thousand pounds of grain, containing 18 per cent. protein,
right in your corn without diminishing the yield of corn.
it is folly not to plant them.
Beggarweed costs nothing at all for it will soon fill the
soil so full of seed that it will volunteer every time you stir
up the earth and so makes a crop of the finest forage in
sixty days after you lay by your corn or other tilled crops.
Beggarweed is being planted and grown now as far north
as Northern Virginia and T have seen a variety of it grow-

ing wild in northwestern Illinois, western New York, north-
western Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio. I see no
reason why it will not grow anywhere that dent corn will
mature and as a forage it is as mucli superior to Hubam
as Hubam is to the old biennial sweet clover. Beggarweed
will grow on very poor sandy soil that will not produce
fifteen bushels of corn per acre. It requires no lime and
no fertilizer, and being a legume. with a large and deeply
penetrating tap root, it adds as much nitrogen and humus
to the soil as any of the sweet clovers and yet two-thirds of
the farmers in the cotton belt have never seen beggarweed
and very little has been done to extend the area of its cul-
ture. The seed which is produced in such riotous profusion
is scarce and hard to obtain because no effort is made to
save it. Every acre of our farm is well seeded down to
this splendid forage plant and furnishes our stock with a.
world of feed that costs absolutely nothing and at the same
time enriches the soil while we produce milk and meat at a
price that will seem impossible to the live stock raisers of
the North.
During fifty years of farming T have discovered that to
make a profit I cannot follow all the methods my father
found profitable in his day nor can I use the antiquated
system still practiced in the South. On the other hand, I
find that much of the advice given by the professors and
other swivel chaii farmers does not prove valuable on the
plot of ground which has been given to me to till.
"There comes a time in every man's education when he
arrives at the conviction that no kernel of nourishing corn
can come to him but through his toil bestowed on the plot
of ground which he is given to till."
The Concord philosopher expresses my convictions in the
quotation, but I make it shorter. My motto is: "Don't
make excuses! Make good."
It may not be that our system of tillage will fill the bill
on everybody's plot of ground, but I am inclined to think
that there are but three ways out for the dairy farmer:
Make more milk, make it cheaper, or bust.

It may be impossible for the man who has droves of cat-
tle on the ranges to apply a remedy to keep the flies from
drawing their blood and vitality, hiut that is not impossible

for the man with a few cattle on the farm, especially
dairy cattle.
Many fly-control preparations are on the market, some
of which are good and some of which are worthless. In
order to be safe any one of the. three following for-
mulas which are recommended by Professor J. R. Watson,
entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station:
No. 1-Laundry soap ..................... 1 pound
W ater ............................ 4 gallons
Crude petroleum .................. 1 gallon
No. 2- Fish oil ........................... 100 parts
Powdered napthaline .............. 4 ounces
Oil of tar ......................... 50 parts
Crude carbolic acid ................ 1 part
No. 3- Laurel oil ......................... 1 part
Linseed oil ........................ 10 parts
One may buy the ingredients and prepare the solution
himself and save considerable money thereby. All must
be thoroughly emulsified by running through a spray
pump after which they are ready to be sprayed onto the
animals. Any of them, if properly prepared and applied,
should keep a cow or horse free of flies for at least a day.
There are many fly repellants which could be made, but
it is very difficult to get a satisfactory mixture that will
keep flies off of cattle for more than two or three days at
a time, according to A. L. Shealy, professor of veterinary
science of the Florida College of Agriculture. There are
many commercial repellants on the market, but they are
often no more satisfactory than some of the cheaper home
From among the mixtures which seem to give satisfac-
tory results, Dr. Shealy suggests the following:
Powdered resin ............... 2 pounds
Laundry soap ................2 pounds
Fish oil .....................2 pints
Oil of tar ................... 2 pints and
Kerosene .....................3 pints
Boil the resin in half a gallon of water to which have
been added the soap and fish oil. Then add a gallon of
water, and then the kerosene and oil of tar. Boil for 15
minutes. Thoroughly stir the mixture and apply as

Hie also suggests:
Water ........... ............. 3 gallons
Laundry soap ................. 1 pound
Powdered naphthalin ............ 5 ounces
Kerosene .......................1 gallon
Chip the soap and dissolve in the water. Add the pow-
dered naphthalin, then the kerosene, and mix thoroughly.
Apply as needed.

(Cost of Equipment)
C. E. ROGERS, Detroit
16-inch diameter pan. ......................... $ 750.00
36-inch diameter pan. ........................ 2,050.00
42-inch diameter pan. ........................ 2,550.00

50-inch diameter pan. ....................... 3,600.00
60-inch diameter pa. ......................... 4,950.00
72-inch diameter pan ....................... 6.300.00
24-inch x 26-inch Hotwell ................... $ 150.00
42-inch x 42-inch Hotwell ..................... 325.00
48-inch x 48-inch Hotwell. .................. .. 425.00
60-inch60-inch 0-inch flotwell ................... 525.00
41/sx5x7 Vaenitln Ipump ....................... $ 130.50
7x10xlO Vaciuuml pump l)....................... 310.50
8x12xlO Vacuum Ipump ......... ............ 360.00
10x12x20 Vacuum pump. ....................... 715.50
10x16x20 Vacuum pump ...................... 868.50
12x18x20 Vacuum pump....................... 990.00
The vacuum pan is rapidly becoming an essential part
of the plant equiupmeilt of plractically every branch of the
dairy industry.
Its uses are many imlnd varied. Many milk plants utilize
its services as a means of disposing of surplus milk in one
or more of the many kinds of condensed milk.
Some ice cream manulfa(tuirers use it for producing ice
cream mix. Some 'for producing plain concentrated or
superheated condensed milk. otherss conserve their spring
surplus for summer use hY produneing sweetened milk and
storing it.

Many butter manufacturers use the vacuum pan for
condensing buttermilk. This is now an important branch
of the butter business. The vacuum pan is used for the
production of milk sugar. Most of the spray milk powder
is first condensed in a vacuum pan.

The complete equipment for a creamery without me-
chanical refrigeration will cost $2,500 or $3,000. But with
mechanical refrigeration it will cost $6.000 or more. This
does not include the building.
It will require the handling ol' at least 100,000 pounds
of butterfat for a creamery to meet expenses and pay mar-
ket prices for the butterfat. Cows as kept by dairymen
will run from 135 to 200 pounds each.

vers Creamery Supply Co., St. Louis, Mo.
D. H. Bugull, Little Falls, New York.
Blake Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, Mo.
Creamery Package Mannulact during Co., Chicago.
A. 11. Barber Supply Co., Chieago.


President Florida Ice Cream Association--W. J. Barrett. Tam'pa.

Bradenton ....Velvet Ice Cream Factory.
Daytona .......... ....Tri-Cities Ice Cream Company.
Fort Pierce ...... ...... Peerless Ice Cream C(ompany.
Jacksonvile ...... ....crrier lee Cream Company. 516 Ward St.
Jacksonvill- ... .. ..h.apin-Sacks company 1018 Myrtle St.
Lakeland................P.Polk countyy Dairy Company.
Miami... ...... .Miami Ice Cream Company.
Miami.. .... ..Southern Utilities Company.
Orlando .. .....A.......mbrosia Ice Cream Company.
Pensacola ..... .. ......Polar Ice Cream Company.
St. Petersburg.... ..Florida Milk Company.
St. Petersburg ....Pilillas Dairy Company, Box 888.
Tallahassee .............. Leon County Milk Company.
Tampa.. ..................Frozenrite Ice Cream Company, Box 2142.
Tampa.. ........ Poinsettia Ice Cream Company, Cass and
Marion Sts.
West Palm Beach ...... Gibson Baking and Ice Cream Company.
(Complete List Could Not Be Secured.)


College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
To March 20, 1924

Name, Number ald Owne(r.

Jujube of Panola 386182,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Husky Maid 361558,
Pennock Plantation, Jupiter, Fla.
Gamboge Knight's Island Star 433054
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla..
Mourier Souvenir 351200,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
Coomassie's Princess Girl 281956,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla..
Queen Tullia 299706,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Gamboge's Sunshine Dolly 457518,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla.
Jolly Mildred 300266,
Meadowouaks Farmis, Barlow, Fla
Coomassie of Meadowoaks 2nd,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Double Torono's Gipsy 387419,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Flhi
Pogis Coonmassie Girl 464021.
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla.
Torono's Coomassie Eurota 404624,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Torono's Pansy Maid 464022.
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla.
Fairy's Myrtle 351224,
Magnolia Farms, Muscoger, Fla.
Noble's Belle of Covington 300205,
M. A. Milam, Miami, Fl. ..
Torono's Golden Fancy 2nd 464623,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Royal Blue Belle of Biltmore 328301,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla.
Torono's Eurota Coomassie 504651,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Sophie's Golden Glow 450528.
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Fox's Romping Lass 242809,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Magnolia's Lass 331310,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
Gamboge Knight's Queen T. 457517.
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Monrier's Pretty Souvenir 351297,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
Oxford Maid's Dairy Queen 432517.
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla.
King's Mona of Valrico 349457,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
Noble's Handsome Lassie 276815,
Magnolia Farms. Musefogee. Fla

- .- i-
: a |a 3s

-0 305 10,984 (.0S (167.9
-8 361 11,140 5.631627.0

7 305 12,113 4.94 598.4
-9 273 9,31(0 (1.31 592.2
-1 365 10,523 5..52 580.8
-3 35 10,837 5.31 575.4
-II 305 11,117 5.11 5168.6(
-2 30.65 11,309 25.01 56(0.4

-S 365 10,150 5.58i 564.h
4 i305 11,699 4.77,5.8.2
-141 365 8,931 6.131547.4

01 3115 8,938 60.o 5540.9
- 305 0,267 5. !'5(37.0
3 3(15 10,364 5.14 532.3
7 1 305 10,214 5.19 52.i0.
4 i35 9,326 5.(;G:528.3
S ; 305 9,463 5.2 52 3.0
-3 365 8,410 6.17 519.0
-S 315 10,4160 4.906 51I.6
-7 305 9,7609 5.21 507.;

-1 365 9,473[ 5.34 50O6.0
-111 305 9,161| 5.52 505.6
3 I 365 7,8231 (1.341496.1
5 365 8,301! 5.971495.2
l 365 10,211 4.841494.2
-3 1 365 8,4851 5.781490.8


Name, Nuumber and Owwuer.

27 Magnolia's Glory 391239,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
28 Fancy Lad's Molly C. 429139,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
29 Creole's Lassie Sue 306835,
Fla. Exp. Station, Gainesvllle, Fla
:30 Jovial's Princess 391230,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
31 Bonnie Mary Emma 2nd 246175,
Suwannee Farms, Live Oak, Fla
32 Sophie's Tormentor's Eola 3rd 563600,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
33 Gamboge Knight's Mona's Rose 539680,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow. Fla
34 Tweedledum's Bluebell of H.S.F. 291405.
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla
35 Gamboge's Chucky Belle 523538.
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla.
36 Gamboge Knight's Grey Lass 435671,
Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow. Fla
:37 Madeleine's Silver Queen 321604.
SMeadowoaks Farms, Bartow. Fit
38 Oxford Lad's Jewel 271481,
1 Fla. Exp. Station, Gainesville, Flai
:39Lady Eminent Oxford 373378,
M. A. Miller, Miami. Fla
40 Pogis 82nd's Belle 281095,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
41 Jersey Nugget 351229,
SMagnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
42 Ragtime Revival 351208,
*Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
431 Austin's Viola 352496,
SlM. A. Milam, Miami. Flat
44 Ione's Princess 370657,
SDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City. Fla
45 Raleigh's Little Primrose 483705.
SDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City. Fin
46 Raleigh's Eminent Brookhill 483707,
Dr. .. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fli
47 Victoria Fox 315530.
SDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City. Fla
48 You'll Do's Pretty Polly 498838,
: Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla..
49ISophie's Nellie's Poet 2nd 569359,
; Meadowoaks Farms, Bartow, Fla
50i Majesty's Tycoon Ann 414105.
M. A. Milam, Miami, Fla
511Rochette's Golden Cowslip 256047,
SMagnolia Farms. Muscogee, Fla
52 Sultana's Oxford Maid 309566,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
5i3 Gamboge's Noble Fontaine 333130,
i M. A. Milam, Miami. Flin .
541 Noble Duke's Violet 357142,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
551Tormentor's Lady Beatrice 429289,
I Magnolia Farms, Muscogeo, Fla
'56Gamboge's Ruth 321683,
M. A. Milam, Miami. Fla

a . -
ir4 lo
a ' 0 5'e 0a

- 05 :15 ,.*i7 5.61l 482.R
4 365; 7.871 6.13 482.3
SI 3:11- 9i.579 4.92 .171.7
S 365' 7.9711 5.88 468.7

7 365: 9.22s 5.91 !46:..
-7 36. 8.3741 5.5i2 462.2
3 3650 8.218A 5.14 i47.
9 {3651 8.425' 5.38 453.3
4 365 8,6911 5.181450.2
7 365 8.8671 5.08145r0.1
-101 36151 9,0821 4.91 446.3
1 3651 !9.005 4.8Si43 !.7

4 I 365 9.0i56 4.83 437.3
2 365i 7.186 6.03 433.2

1 .:i36. 8.721 4.901427.4
-10 3651 8.968 4.72 423.4
5 3651 8,420' 5.031423.3

4 3651 8,441 4.93 416.2
2 365ii 8.811 4.70 413.:
6 365i 7.824 5.2314100.-,
0 304' 7.8641 5.21 409.4
8 ; 3i;5 7,049i 5.78 47.6,
7 3:6i 7.1117 5.-171393.S

0 :01.) 6.8)i6 1
:i 337: 6.866

10 354: i1,368
4; 36,5 6.6487:

7 3 19 t.725,
2 36li li.l31
11 311 ,S.015I

5.74 390 3
5.63 386.6
6.01 382.5
5.615 377.7
5.fi1 377.0
61.13 376.0
4.613 371 4


a Z
a'- s
J. R C

.7 Majesty's Wonder Maid 414106, i
M. A. Milam, Miami, Fla.....
., Eminent Bermuda Girl 475971,
Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee
5:I Magnolia's Pretty Cowslip 429288.
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fin
Ulo Tormentor's Pretty Bess 429287,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
6;1 Raleigh's Shy Virginia 483700,
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Flai
62 Hill Crest Peggy 496603,
Water Oak Plantation, Tallahasisee
(i1 Portia's Gay Nancy 331308,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
64 Savannah May 3rd 328309,
M. A. Milam, Miami, Fla..... .
i65 Lou's Nymph 461149,
Suwannee Farms, Live Oak, Fla
*i;6 You'll Do's Laurel 498840,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Flat
;7 Napoleon's Viola 429281,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
68 Violet's Nobel Ruth 436010,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
6!) Tormentor's Pretty Rose 450067,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
70 Magnolia's Jolly Pet 391238,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla.
71 You'll Do's Glory 500468,
Magnolia Farms, Museogee, Fla.
72 Raleigh's Pink Carnation 500467,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla.
73 Gamboge's Van Tassel 337751,
M. A. Milam, Miami, Fla .......
74 Tormentor's Golden Iris 401657,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Fla
75 Lassie's Happy Sultane 391232,
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee, Flai
76 Magnolia's June 395098,
Magnolia Farms, Museogee, Fla
77 Torono's Pogie Nell 466695,
Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee


3 2


3 2
2- -1

2 ---8



3165 7.2101 ,.Iun 3l67.5

I i
(4 6,.15 1 45.46 33(4.2
:3651 5,6i3 6.311 362.3
:i61 53,741 6.12' 35 1.
31i1 fi,6!44 5.2313.ol.51

1"65l 7,076t 4.91 347.1
i 3. U778 .5.11 l346t.7

365 6.2371 5.45 339.8
3605 7.42 4.57 330.6

3i: 11.170 5.461337.1
31. 5 5,6i;3 5.9i 3316.9
3.3[ 6,.4111 5.2, 336.4
t36115. r,202 63.24 324.6
365, 5,8101 5.511319.9
S3651 5.S77) 5.38315.9

365 5,981 .5.151308.5
360 6,225 4.811300.6
343 4,927 6.02 296.7
36t5 5.482 5.23 286.9
365 5,4.2 5.23! 286.8
365 5,060 5.64285.6

Namn e. NinlH r and Owill IIr.



Name, Number and Owner. -. .-

1 Gem of Columbia 2038, I i
Dr. J. G. DuPuls, Lemon City, Fla. ll- 6 : 17.27 3.67 634.
2 Ferndell 1961,
Dr. J. G. DuPuls, Lemon City, Fla. .| 7-7 363 13.478 3.71 501.1
3 Alpha of the Dell 2293, |
Dr. J. G. DuPuls, Lemon City, Fla 6 -7 365 9,018 4.46 412.0
4 Gem of Florida's Glory 2520,
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla. 5 -0 365110,309 3.96 408.0
5 Rancho Queen's Fancy 2460, I
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla 4 10 363510,191 3.85 392.7
61Farye Perfection 2185, I
Dr. J. G. DuPuls, Lemon City, Fla 5 101 2931 9,558 3.89 372.5
7 Elena of Florida 2737.
IDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla 3 2 3451 9,492 3.78 359.5
8 White Belt Honey 2719, i I
SDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla 11 3465 10.296 3.53 364.1
9 Dolah 2681,
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla. 4 :16i ,4il 3.82 360.7
10 Gem of Florida's Fancy 2753, |
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla :3- -5i 1h 35 9.083 3.17 360.4
11 Promise of the Dell 2755, ]
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla I :34 7.597 4.58 248.5
12 Gem of Florida 2296, ]
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla. (; -4 3:49 9,460 3.(66 346.2
131 Lily of the Dell 245.). I
IDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla 4 5 3651 0.147 3.71340.0
141Rancho Queen's Beauty 2651, I ] I
SDr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla.. : 3 302 7,5.0i 4.141311.5
15 White Belt Girl 2720, i
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lemon City, Fla.. ... 3511 9,1161 3.40 309.7
16 Doris of Lemon 2521,
Dr. J. G. DuPuis, Lomon City, Fla 3 8 365 7.53.i :.!91 295.


l.Jose de Lorraine 558,71,
Loxahatchee Farms, W. Palim Bech.1 4 7 :I 1.01 .. 11.5
2 Glenwood of Fairfax 48994,
Loxahatchee Farms. W. Palm Beach. 5 2 65 11.1171 5.21 582.5
3 Marion of Clearview 58147.
V. C. Johnson & Bros., Dinsmore, Fnl. 5 7 i)65113.117 4.2' i;559.L
41Glenwood's Pride of Rock Farm 45671,
SLoxahatchee Farms, W. Palm Beach.| 10 365 11,0)818 5.00 552.4
5 Dean's Adrana 36545i. | 1
Loxahatchee Farms, W. almn Beach. 10 365 12,202 4.48547.1
GiSequel's Triumph de Lorraine 64432, 1
Loxahatchee Farms, W. I'niI Beach. :3 3..15 10,312 5.16 7531.2
7 Sunnybrook Arhutus S5i539,
V. C. Johnson & Bros., Dinsmore, Fla. 1 :i,-! 9.211 5.6552.4
s:Nabob's Rosebud of Whitehall 71611.
I Loxahatchee Farms. W. Palm Beach. 8 -10 365110,717 4.7 513.4
91Incombustible's Dairy Maid 87709, 2 1
I oxahatchee Farms. W. Palm Reach. 2 i 3i.- .02!, .1. .(610.7
10 Jour de Grace 66496, I
Loxahatchee Farms, W. Palmi Beach. 2 -i1 3il 02S 5.66fil51.7
lWillowmere Hazel 78374,
I Loxahatchee Farms, W. Palm Beach. 2-1 Til 8,0.10


Narnl,. Niinier and Ow)inr.

1IHowie's Belle of Hamilton 56382,
SHighland Oaks Farm, Pierce, Fla.
2iTopsy P. 58977,
Highland Oaks Farm, Pierce, Fla .
:t1Star Sebastian 44233,
i Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee 7-0
4'Patsie Ketcham of Avon 40290,
[ Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee 5-7
5.Beaucham's Lady Grace 31313,
SHighland Oaks Farm, Pierce. Fla .
6lMartha Dale 38746,
[ Highland Oaks Farm, Pierce. Fla. 9-3
7[Willowmoor Eudora 49102,
I Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee. 4-1
SlAndrossan Primrose 49242,
i Water Oak Plantation, Tallahlassee 4-1
9!Kirsty Star 58065,
Water Oak Plantation, Tallahassee 2-9


305 12,488 4.19 511.5
305 12,326 3.66 451.6
365 10,697 4.211450.3
365 12,193 3.511427.8
365 9,938 4.12 396.9
365 11,330 3.39 383.7
365 9,034 4.08 369.0
266 9,343 3.84 358.4
300 8,350 4.17 348.3


SPrincess Korndyk Parthena 260950, .29
J. C. Debevoise, Jacksonvlllc. Fla I1 7-1 242 10,575 3.29 347.7

Cows Kept for Stock Cattle
Milk Only, on Native Breeds, all
Hand July 1, Ages, on Hand
1924 July 1, 1924
I Value I Value
COUNTY Number I Dollars Number I Dlllars

T otal ... . . .. ..
Alachua .. . ..
Baker ...
Bay .....
Brevard . ..
Calhoun ...
*Charlotte ... .
*Collier. .
Dade .. .
DeSoto ..
Dixie .. .
Duval ...
Eseambina .
*Glades ....
Hamilton .
Hardee ..
Hendry ...
*Hernando .
Holmes ... ..
Jackson ... ..
Jefferson ......
Lake .. .. .
Lee .. ..
Leon ...
*Levy ...... .
Manatee .. ...
M arion . . .. .. .
*Monroe . ..
. Nassau ...
Okaloosa .
Okeechobee ........
Orange .
Osceola ....
Palm Beach
Pasco . ......
Pinellas ....
Polk .. ..
Putnam . . .
St. Johns . ....
St. Lucie .. .. ...
Santa Rosa . .. ...
*Seminole .. ... .....
Sumter . .
Suwannee .. . ..
Taylor .....
Union ...
Volusia ....
W akulla .. .. . .. .
W alton .. . . . ....
W ashington ...... ....... . .

* Not reported.

42,545!2.485,2931 577,37215,896,226
1,304 128,1171 44,941 449,958
63 1.476 5,950 55,195
432 14,731 2,349 19,907
1414 8.450 4619 38,253
:2' 3:.3201 5,578 84,076

478 18,310:1 7.024 l;'i.Rl'

1 8i 11,i138 )5,616 41i,593
87 4.440 11,8651 113.705

S6i2 23.-53! 18,530! 173,153
3.4991 :"15 .5i"0 5,023 170,450
735. 48,318| 21,1221 198,650
34 1.li5)| 5,80;5 39,873
3.781; 322,94.1 8,60!l. 90,758
1.4073 83.-57 8.2041 121.371

95 8.185 148 1,7041
1.442 32,7101 2,897 28,827
'00 211.1 0 ,07 32,845
i.4s 44,4!) 20,8n 171.538
138 4i.552 28,i628 224.127

1.200' 30"5.: 5 21,643 249,198
330 3.824, 9,249 i68,28
1.4647! 28,085. 12,656i 122,130
446 27,117 7,364 88,540
211 8,56110 2,344 1i,511
56l0 28,000 2,000 20,000
154 4,505 4,086 61,220
3.4121 110.420 6,085 59'.160
. .. .. i .. ...... ..

7311 14,2901 11,153 106,550
:122 28.!80 11,948 73,583
6173 67.300 30,925 247.400

487 4".2 )00 13,"071 144,03)
717 16t.000 3,3991 24,024
124 5.840 19,4251 188,088
1.475 7.5,300 6,687 71,100
5481 34,035i 48,481 39!0,784
134 11i.810 1,709 245,990
561 8 .155 8,8801 142,852
504 28,490 427 1 4,905
2.2!18 18 5,25)0 33,2271 412,230
4821 9,375 3,4261 34,260
671 4,475 1,384 9,940
324 18.705 6,4321 54,591
434 24,045> 6,005 70,335
1.508 310.719 12,106 89.606

287 12,822 5,938 44,703
1.053i 12,124 4,009 36,041
6 409 5,946 20,024
81] 7,215 10,028 64,178
297 218,400 27,800 378,000
1521 4,450 4,892 49,125
35' 3,500 12,978 133,745
1.2351 26.125 8.875 90,951

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