• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 Florida's crop acreage and...
 Real wealth of Florida
 Percapita state debts
 Shipments of fruits and vegeta...
 Livestock values
 Timber
 Standard containers
 U. S. Grades for potatoes
 Northwest division
 Northeast division
 Central division
 Southern division
 As to healthfulness
 How to have flowers all the year...
 Trees and shrubs for the south
 Soil-building rotation & Organization...
 Who eats meats
 Rotation of crops for hog pasture...
 Substitutes for manures
 Green manures, and different...
 Subjects for debate, and Torrens...
 Whitewash, and funds for good...
 Winter crops
 Farm implements
 Inoculating for legumes
 Legume seed
 Grass mixtures for pastures
 Inspection at shipping point now...
 A coming industry--grapes
 Car-lot shipments of strawberries...
 Citrus fruit crop and watermelon...
 Model milk plant to supply...
 Home germination tests
 Values of plow lands
 Principal methods of shipment
 Government of Florida analyzed
 Table of Contents






Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077080/00005
 Material Information
Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture Volume 32. Number 4.
Series Title: Florida quarterly bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.
Uniform Title: Report of the Chemical Division
Physical Description: 9 v. : ill. (some folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer: T. J. Appleyard, printer
Publication Date: October 1, 1922
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Each no. has also a distinctive title.
General Note: Many issue number 1's are the Report of the Chemical Division
General Note: Issues occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077080
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28473180

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
    Florida's crop acreage and values
        Page 4
    Real wealth of Florida
        Page 5
    Percapita state debts
        Page 6
    Shipments of fruits and vegetables
        Page 7
    Livestock values
        Page 8
    Timber
        Page 9
    Standard containers
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    U. S. Grades for potatoes
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Northwest division
        Page 19
    Northeast division
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Central division
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Southern division
        Page 25
        Page 26
    As to healthfulness
        Page 27
        Page 28
    How to have flowers all the year round
        Page 29
    Trees and shrubs for the south
        Page 30
    Soil-building rotation & Organization in other countries
        Page 31
    Who eats meats
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Rotation of crops for hog pasture & Cranking up for canning
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Substitutes for manures
        Page 41
    Green manures, and different rotations
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Subjects for debate, and Torrens system explained
        Page 44
    Whitewash, and funds for good roads
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Winter crops
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Farm implements
        Page 49
    Inoculating for legumes
        Page 50
    Legume seed
        Page 51
    Grass mixtures for pastures
        Page 52
    Inspection at shipping point now authorized
        Page 53
        Page 54
    A coming industry--grapes
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Car-lot shipments of strawberries and celery
        Page 58
    Citrus fruit crop and watermelon crop for 1922
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Model milk plant to supply Miami
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Home germination tests
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Values of plow lands
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Principal methods of shipment
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Government of Florida analyzed
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Table of Contents
        Page 88
Full Text


VOLUME 22 NUMBER 4


General Information


Concerning-


Florida's Resources


and


Government



FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OCTOBER, 1922.


W. A. McRAE
Commissioner of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida
Experiment Station.

Entered January 31, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."

e E T. J. APPLEYARD. PRINTER, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


VOLUME 32


NUMBER 4
























PREFACE

This issue of our Quarterly is a departure from the policy
of devoting an entire number to one subject. The issue we
had projected for October required an outlay securing data
and cuts and for printing that our funds would not meet.
We hope that the material herewith presented will prove
worth while to our many readers and an acceptable addi-
tion to their agricultural libraries.
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.











FLORIDA CROP ACREAGE AND CROP VALUES

EXCLUSIVE OF CROPS REPORTED WITHOUT ACREAGE, FRUIT
AND NUTS FROM U. S. CENSUS 1920


) o o b-
CROPS

0 Cotton..... 110,56 8.64 19,538 Bales 88 Lbs. $ 4,018,449 $ 36.30 7.45 .86
n 8............ B. s Lint Lint & Seed
Corn... ............ 790,487 61.57 8,831,112 Bu. 11.2 Bu. 14,129,774 17.85 26.15 .42
Oats. ...... ........... 17,207 1.85 222,226 Bu. 12.9 Bu. 266,674 15.18 .50 .37
Peanuts ........................ 77,416 6.05 1,365,063 Bu. 17.6 Bu. 3,344,404 43.20 6.24 1.03
Sweet Potatoes................... 26,436 2.06 2,460,872 Bu. 93 Bu. 3,445,221 180.10 6.32 3.06
Hay and Forage................. 139,516 10.90 99,432 Tons 1,424 Lbs. 2,510,772 18.00 4.67 0.43
Other Crops................... .. 11,701 9.43 ...............25,999,562 ...... 48.67 .....
Totals................. ......I 1,278,6381 100.001........... ...... 53,714,8561...... 100.001 .....
*Annual Legumes Cut for Hay.... 25,654 2.00 15,485 Tons 1,204 Lbs. 487,778 19.00 .91 .45
tVegetables Prod. for Sale........ 60,938 4.76 13,695,255 224.00 24.45 5.14
tPotatoes........................ 17,525 1.87 1,767,19 Bu. 100 Bu. 5,301,588 302.00 9.88 7.22
tSugar Cane......... .....[ 20,413 1.60 179,573 Tons 8.8 Tons 4,134,458 202.001 7.69 4.80
* *Included with Hay and Forage.
tIncluded with Other Crops.












The average value of all crops per acre improved as
shown by the U. S. Census of 1920 in the counties named:
Manatee, Pinellas, Brevard, and Seminole counties stand
above the line of $115 per acre.
St. Johns, Dade, Putnam, Palm Beach, and Lee, from
$95 to $115 per acre.
Polk, Broward, St. Lucie, Osceola, and Monroe, $80 to
$95 per acre.
Franklin, Lafayette, Levy, Seminole and Dade, each show
an average of more than 140 bushels of sweet potatoes per
acre.

HERE'S REAL WEALTH OF FLORIDA

While oranges and grapefruit make up the great bulk of
wealth produced from fruits in Florida, peaches and grapes
are making rapid strides in" converting idle lands into profit-
able developments.
The State Plant Board has compiled some data from its
office records as follows:



Florida Produced Value F. 0. B.
Has Season of Shipping
Bearing 1920-21 Point

2,219,108 Orange Trees, boxes.... 8,100,000 $24,300,000.00
1,215,270 Grapefruit Trees, boxes. 5,100,000 15,300,000.00
211,433 Lime Trees, boxes ...... 30,000 150,000.00
40,570 Fig Trees, lbs.......... 441,591 44,000.00
323,068 Peach Trees, bu........ 148,006 150,000.00
45,300 Plum Trees, bu......... 20,316 40,000.00
86,773 Pear Trees, bu......... 43,232 50,000.00
87,607 Grape Vines, lbs........ 1,220,623 125,000.00
2,524,254 Pineapple Plants, crates 26,016 50,000.00
The provisions for development of the fruit industry is
shown in the following statistics of what Florida has:
1,156 certified nurseries
2,756 acres in nurseries
17,803,238 citrus nursery trends
32,995 avocado nursery trees
13,840,201 other nursery trees












NET PERCAPITA STATE DEBT JUNE 7, 1922

FROM "FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF STATES"

(Issued by the Federal Department of Commerce)

The following States have a percapita of State debt below
one dollar:

Arkansas Nebraska
Florida New Jersey
Illinois North Dakota
Indiana Pennsylvania
Iowa Washington
Kansas Wisconsin

In some states a greater part of the levying and dis-
bursement of taxes to support various branches of govern-
ment are assumed by the state government than in others.
This is notably true in the collection and expenditure of
money for educational purposes. There are states that
have thrown the greater part of the responsibility of sup-
porting public education on the counties and districts, and
in such instances we usually find a greater percent of the
public indebtedness carried by the counties and districts.
This is one reason why we do not always find the millage
tax paid by the people lower in states without a state
debt-the debts are carried locally and vary very materially
in different sections of the State.










SHIPMENT OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SHOWING TEN-YEAR
INCREASE
Compiled by L. M. RHODES, State Market Commissioner

NAME Carloads Carloads
1_911-12 1921-22
Oranges .......................... 13,248 22,777
Grapefruit ......................... 3,913 15,018
Watermelons ...... ............... 6,895 11,056
Tomatoes ......................... 3,771 11,123
Irish Potatoes ................... ... 1,964 5,684
Lettuce ................... .......... 1,562 2,585
Celery .................. ........... 1,201 4,573
Cabbage ................................ 968 3,011
Peppers .............................. 629 1,038
Cucumbers ......................... 908 2,052
Strawberries ....................... 35 720
Beans ............................ 1,9201 1,293
Cantaloupes ........................ 1 801 162
Miscellaneous fruit and vegetables not
otherwise classified ............... 2,811 3,401

40,626 84,493
FIELD CROPS

NAME 11912 1922
Sweet Potatoes, bu............... 2,952,258 3,200,000
Corn, bu...... .. ............ 5,453,936 11,100,000
Oats, bu ........................ 287,708 560,000
Peanuts, bu .................. .. .1,534,736 2,088,000
Cowpeas, bu. ................... 76,885 125,000
Velvet Beans, bu................ 320,930 1,045,500
Soy Beans, bu.................. .......... 30,000
Rice, bu .................... ... 14,737 113,200
Hay, tons ...................... 60,953 212,000
Sugar Cane Syrup, bbls .......... 67,650 135,000
Tobacco, lbs.................... 1,144,626 3,131,000
Pecans, lbs ...................... 844,650 3,785,000
Upland Cotton, bales ............ 42,013 22,000
Sea Island Cotton, bales......... 28,071 5,500
Decline in cotton due to boll weevil.










VALUE OF LIVE STOCK


1912.......... $23,510,479


1922..........$56,717,321


VALUE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS


1912..........$ 2,178,059


1922..........$ 7,150,000


CONSTRUCTION REVIEW-BUILDING RECORD IN LEADING
FLORIDA CITIES


Jacksonville .........
St. Petersburg ......
M iami ..............
Orlando .......... ..
Tampa .............
West Palm Beach....
Sanford ............
Pensacola ...........
Tallahassee .........
Lakeland ...........
Eustis ..............
Miami Beach ........
Gainesville ..........
St. Augustine .......


July


$ 505,553
354,550
367,300
112,730
214,786
202,675
55,550
20,689
No Report
No Report
No Report
237,000
No Report
No Report


Previously TotalJan. 1
Reported to July 31


$ 2,804,132
2,116,490
1,803,044
1,779,612
1,516,558
1,441,470
282,250
237,569
1,000,000
543,175
536,225
No Report
207,355
142,265


$ 2,070,833 $14,410,145


$ 3,309,685
2,471,040
2,170,344
1,892,342
1,731,344
1,644,145
337,800
258,258
1,000,000
543,175
536,225
237,000
207,355
142,265

$16,480,978


INCREASE IN POSTAL RECEIPTS AT JACKSONVILLE

Jacksonville's postal receipts increased from $51,852.71
in June, 1921, to $58,831.66 in June, 1922, a percentage
gain of 13.45. Other reports show Atlanta 12.40; New
Orleans, 2.01; Louisville, 17.12; Richmond, 11.88.











TIMBER

1921 CUT BELOw 1919 FIGURES

The Department of Commerce announces that the lum-
ber cut of 710 large sawmills, according to census reports,
showed a decrease of 578,102,000 feet or 4.2 per cent. for
1921 as compared with the cut of these same mills in 1919.
The statement, which was prepared in co-operation with
the Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, covers most
of the large mills reporting a total cut of 5,000,000 feet or
more in either 1921 or 1919. The cut of these mills in 1919
represented 40 per cent. of the total cut in the United
States. These mills are located in thirty-three states, con-
sequently the comparison reflects conditions as they were
in practically all important lumber regions in the United
States.
It is of particular interest to note that mills in the prin-
cipal southern pine producing states show increases while
those in the north and west generally show decreases, but
since the cut of these large mills, considered as a whole,
decreased but slightly from 1919 to 1921 it appears rea-
sonable to forecase that the lumber cut for 1921 will not
differ greatly from that reported for 1919.
The comparative statement follows:












Number
of mills
reporting
Alabama ........ 34
Arkansas ........ 37
California ....... 34
Florida ......... 25
Georgia ......... 16
Idaho ........... 23
Kentucky ........ 9
Louisiana ........ 110
Maine ........... 6
Michigan ........ 28
Minnesota ....... 13
Mississippi ....... 52
Missouri ......... 4
New York ....... 6
North Carolina... 20
Oregon ......... 53
South Carolina... 23
Tennessee ........ 14
Texas ........... 32
Virginia ......... 10
Washington ...... 114
West Virginia .... 26
All other states*.. 21

Total.......... 710


Lumber cut-Feet B. M.
1919 1921
496,845,000 571,778,000
603,495,000 613,434,000
1,001,837,000 971,210,000
398,275,000 420,399,000
152,308,000 195,790,000
512,983,000 411,032,000
93,132,000 79,824,000
2,035,118,000 2,259,126,000
54,704,000 62,561,000
368,323,000 266,422,000
472,704,000 334,192,000
933,891,000 1,069,848,000
48,994,000 43,698,000
72,808,000 52,896,000
209,030,000 223,371,000
1,411,969,000 1,216,563,000
205,138,000 291,356f00
131,506,000 123,591,000
514,031,000 647,216,000
133,107,000 106,224,000
3,380,797,000 2,912,441,000
318,037,000 216,042,000
380,665,000 262,581,000

13,929,697,000 13,351,595,000


*Includes Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania,
South Dakota and Wisconsin.



STANDARD CONTAINER BILL PASSES

Washington, July 6.-The Standard Hamper and Basket
Bill, which was introduced in Congress in 1920, by Albert
H. Vestal, chairman of the Coinage, Weights & Measures
Committee, of the House, at the request of the Joint Coun-
cil, passed the House on June 8, and is now with the Senate
Committee on Manufactures. This bill was re-introduced
by Congressman Vestal, in the 67th Congress, in 1921, and










after further hearings, the Committee on Coinage, Weights
& Measures of the House unanimously reported the bill
favorably a year ago.
The bill embodies the ideas of the U. S. Bureau of Mar-
Kets and Crop Estimates and the U. S. Bureau of Stand-
ards, and has the endorsement of all trade bodies. When
it passed the House this month, there were certain amend-
ments which were acceptable to those who proposed the
bill. It is hoped that it will be reached in the Senate be-
fore adjournment. The bill provides the following stand-
ard hampers and baskets for fruits and vegetables:
Hampers-One peck, one-half bushel, five-eighths bushel,
one bushel and one and one-half bushel.
Round Stave Baskets-One-half, five-eights, one, one and
one-half and two bushel baskets.
Splint Baskets-Four,. eight, twelve, sixteen and twenty-
four quart baskets.
The dry quart of 67.2-cubic inches is the basic standard
measure.
The bill makes it unlawful to manufacture, sell, or offer
for sale, ship, or import, baskets and hampers that do not
comply with the Act. Banana hampers, Climax baskets
and baskets of less than four quart capacity are not
affected. The object of the standardization is to eliminate
unnecessary and short measure containers and to retain
such packages as are essential to the proper transaction of
business. It is the belief of the officers of the various trade
organizations that the sizes, as enumerated in this bill, will
accomplish the purpose, and that its enactment will save
much confusion and misunderstanding.

We are receiving many inquiries regarding the standard
contained for various commodities. A grower will ask, for
instance, if the 6-Basket Crate can be used for any article
except tomatoes. The following are the standard contain-
ers for articles itemized with each:











CRATES
Dimensions Caps
Standard Container Articles That Can Be Shipped in Container (Inside Meas.) (Cu.
Cabbage Crate (Bbl. Crate).............. Cabbage, Beets, Squash, Eggplant, Cauliflower..... 12x18xS3 71
*Lettuce Crate, also Cleated........... Lettuce ......................................7%x8x22 2
Pineapple Crate .................... ..Pineapples .................... ............... 10 x12x33 4]
*Bushel Crate ........................ Cukes, Onions, Potatoes..... ............. 12x12x15 21
6-Basket Crate ...................... Avocado Pears, Guavas, Tomatoes, Okra, Peppers,
Persimmons, Peaches ....................... 10x11x22 24
Citrus Fruit Crate .................... Oranges, Grapefruit, Kumquats, Tangerines, Limes
Lemons .................................... 12x12x24 3'
Celery Crate ........................ Celery ...................................... 10x20x22 4
Cantaloupe Crate ...................... Cantaloupes, Muskmelons ...................... 12x12x22 3;
Pepper Crate .......................... Peppers, Eggplants ................... ....... 1 x14x22 Si
BARRELS

Between Heads, 26 in.; Diameter of Heads, 17 in.; Height Bbl., 28% in.; Diam. Middle, 20% in.
Stave Barrel, U. S. Standard ............Potatoes, Cukes, Cabbage, Pears and fruits and vegetables that
are not otherwise provided for ............................
Open Stave Barrel.................... Potatoes, Pears, Cabbage, Apples, Cukes, Etc., (same dimensions
Iz "as U. S. stave bbl.) ........................... . ..
Basket Barrel ......................... Kale, Spinach and vegetables not weighting more than 100 lbs.
(same dimensions as U. S. stave bbl.).....................


Average
city No. Pkgs.
In.) Per Car
28 200
70 350-400
158 300
L60 350-400
Qts 400
456 300-360
400 350-400
168 360
388 850-420


165 lbs. 163-200
163-200
175-225


*HAMPERS

Bushel Hampers, Capacity 32 qts .......Sweet Potatoes, Beans, Beets and Onions (with tops), Radishes, Okra, Peas,
Peppers, Romaine, Lettuce, Kale, Spinach and similar articles. Also
Cukes if staves not less than 1/6 in. thick..........................
1 bu. Hamper, Capacity 48 qts........ Lettuce, Romaine, Kale, Spinach, Cauliflower, Cabbage, (Wakefleld variety),
and similar light weight commodities....................... ... ....
Bushel Basket Addition.................Fresh fruits and vegetables local lots, car lots or less (Diameter top, 17 in.
Depth not less than 10% in.) ......................................


350-500
350-400
350-500


1 Lettuce shipped mostly in 1%1 bushel hampers.
2 If sweets are shipped in Bushel Crate slats must be 3 in. wide top, sides and bottom.
3 The Express Company rules the following articles will not be accepted for shipment in Hampers via express:
Apples, Beets, Cabbnge, Carrots, Cukes, Eggplant, Onions, Peas, Potatoes, Squash and Turnips.










SPECIFICATIONS FOR BERRY BOXES AND TILL
BASKETS

RECOMMENDED BY THE NATIONAL BASKET AND FRUIT
PACKAGE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

American Quart Berry Boxes:
Round Corner-Inside top band to be 19%sxl/x1l/30;
bottom 4%x4%; depth inside 2 5/16; thickness of veneer
1/22.
Scored Band-Inside top band to be 20xl2xl/30; bottom
4%x4%; depth inside 3; thickness of veneer 1/22.
American Pint Berry Boxes:
Round Corners-Inside top band to be 155xl/16x1/30;
bottom 3/2x3/2; depth inside 2 5/16; thickness of veneer
1/22.
Square Corners-Inside top band to be 16x7/16x1/30;
bottom 33/x33/; depth inside 2 9/16; thickness of veneer
1/22.
Slanting-Inside top band to be 18x7/16x1/30; bottom
31/2x3/2; depth inside 21/; thickness of veneer 1/22.
Oblong Pint:
Inside top band to be 16%/2x7/16x1/30; bottom 23/x4%;
depth inside 21/4; thickness of veneer 1/22.
Hallock Shallow Quart:
Top 5x5; depth inside 2 13/16; depth outside 31/2; thick-
ness of veneer 1/20.
Hallock Deep Quart:
Top 43/x43/4; depth inside 3 1-/16; depth outside 334;
thickness of veneer 1/20.
Hallock Shallow Pint:
Top 5x5; depth inside 1 7/16; depth outside 17%; thick-
ness of veneer 1/20.
Hallock Shallow Pint:
Top 43/4x43/; depth inside 19/16; depth outside 2;
thickness of veneer 1/20.
Hallock Deep Pint:
Top 43/x4%; depth inside 113/16; depth outside 21/2;
thickness of veneer 1/20.
Hallock Deep Pint:
Top 4x4; depth inside 23/8; depth outside 23; thickness
of veneer 1/20.









Leslie Quart:
Inside top band to be 191/2 without lap; bottom 3%sx7 %;
depth inside 3; depth outside 33/4.
Leslie Pint:
Inside top band to be 18 without lap; bottom 3x6%;
depth inside 13/; depth outside 2%.
California Deep Pint:
Top band tin; top 3%x33% inches; bottom 27/8x271
inches; depth inside 3%.
California Shallow Pint:
Top band tin; top 4x4 inches; bottom 3%x3/2 inches;
depth inside 23/8.
Till Baskets:
One Pint-Inside top band 16;' top at corner 34x5
inches; top at center 3Yx5%/ inches; bottom 4x23%
inches; depth 21/4 inches; gauge of wire, 22; thickness of
veneer 25.
One Quart-Inside top band 22; top at corners 4x7; top
at center 4/2x7%; bottom 35/x62; depth 2%; gauge of
wire 22; thickness of veneer 20.
Two Quarts-Inside top band 26; top at corners
41/2x834; top at center 538x98; bottom 4x81/2; depth
31; gauge of wire 22; thickness of veneer 20.
Two Quarts-Inside top band 28%; top at corner
5x91/; top at center 51/4x101/4; bottom 41x87/s; depth
2 15/16; gauge of wire 22; thickness of veneer 20.
Two Quarts-Inside top band 27; top at corner 4%x85/g;
top at center 5x93/%; bottom 41/4x814; depth 31/; gauge
of wire 22; thickness of veneer 20.
Three Quarts-Inside top band 30; top at corner 51x9;
top at center 6%x10; bottom 5x8; depth 4; gauge of
wire 22; thickness of veneer 20.
Four Quarts-Inside top band 33; top at corner 6x101/4;
top at center 71/4x11; bottom 5x9/2; depth 4 ends;
4 9/16 sides; gauge of wire 22; thickness of veneer 16.

SPECIFICATIONS EMBODIED IN STATE LAWS
Texas-Specifications for Till Baskets effective December
1, 1921.
Three Quart Tills:
The dimensions shall be five (5) inches wide by eight (8)
inches long, at the bottom, and four (4) inches deep and
the top band approximately twenty-nine and three-fourths











(293/4) inches long, inside measurements, and contain two
hundred one and six-tenths (201.6) cubic inches.

Four Quart Tills:
(1) The dimensions shall be five (5) and one-fourth
(%1) inches wide by nine and one-half (9/2) inches long,
at the bottom, and four ande one-half (4/2) inches deep,
and the top band approximately thirty-one and one-half
(311/2) inches long, inside measurements, and contain two
hundred sixty-eight and eight-tenths (268.8) cubic inches.
(2) The dimensions shall be five (5) and one-half (/%)
inches wide by nine and one-half (9) inches long, at the
bottom, and four and one-fourth (414) inches deep, and the
top band approximately thirty-one and one-half (31%)
inches long, inside measurements, and contain two hundred
sixty-eight and eight-tenths (268.8) cubic inches.

Ohio-Quart Berry Box.
The dimensions of the one-quart box in the sale of berries
or other small fruits shall be as follows: Five and one-
tenth inches' square on top, four and three-tenths inches
square on the bottom and three inches in depth.

California-Apricot, Plum and Grape Baskets (3 quart
tin top).
Approximately 8 inches squart on top, 61/ inches on bot-
tom and 4 inches deep inside measurements. (Note: A
basket made exactly according to these dimensions would
deliver somewhat more than the required capacity. In
actual manufacturing practice this basket measures
77/8x77/% inches inside at the top. The blanks are cut
141/ inches long, scored 3/8 inches from the end.)

Florida--4-Quart Till.
Inside top band 321/; bottom 5x92 inside; depth inside
4/2.











UNITED STATES GRADES FOR POTATOES

RECOMMENDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE

(Effective July 1, 1922)

Standard grades for potatoes were recommended by the
United States Department of Agriculture and the United
States Food Administration on September 10, 1917. These
grades were made mandatory by the Food Administration
for its licensees from January 31, 1918, to December 10,
1918. The results obtained were so astisfactory that the
use of the grades, to a large extent, was continued yolun-
tarily, and they are now used almost universally by the
trade. Many States have established them as their official
standards.
The widespread use of the standards has developed the
need for certain modifications to make them more practi-
cable. A few changes were recommended on February 10,
1919, and it now appears advisable to make further slight
revisions in the grades.
These last revisions provide for the elimination of pota-
toes affected by hollow-heart from the U. S. Fancy No. 1
and U. S. No. 1 grades and the elimination of badly mis-
'shapen potatoes from U. S. No. 1. There is also added a
grade known as U. S. No. 1 Small.
It is not expected that any one crop of potatoes will be
sorted into four grades nor would such a practice be desir-
able. A large percentage of the commercial crop in most
of the potato-producing sections of the country normally
meets the requirements of U. S. No. 1, and this grade will
provide for most of the trade demands. Potatoes of better
than average quality can be carefully graded and sold as
U. S. Fancy No. 1, while stock of No. 1 quality but ranging
from 11/2 to 17/8 inches in diameter may be classified as
U. S. No. 1 Small.
Observations made in the producing sections show that
there is a tendency to regard sizing as the only essential to
proper grading. It should be emphasized that, in addition
to proper sizing by hand or machine, the defective Atock,
when present, must be removed in order to meet the grade
requirements.











U. S. No. 1.

U. S. No. 1 shall consist of potatoes of similar varietal
characteristics which are not badly misshapen, which are
free.from freezing injury and soft rot, and from damage
caused by dirt or other foreign matter, sunburn, second
growth, growth cracks, holow-heart, cuts, scab, blight, dry
rot, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means.
The diameter of potatoes of round varieties shall be not
less than 17/8 inches and of potatoes of long varieties 13/4
inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-
ing and handling, not more than 5 per cent. by weight, of
any lot may be below the prescribed size, and, in addition,
not more than 6 per cent. by weight, may be below the
remaining requirements of this grade, but -not to exceed
one-third of this 6 per cent. tolerance shall be allowed for
potatoes affected by soft rot.

U. S. No. 1 SMALL

U. S. No. 1 Small shall consist of potatoes ranging in size
from 11/ inches to 17/s inches in diameter but meeting all
the other requirements of U. S. No. 1.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-
ing and handling not more than 25 per cent. by weight, of
any lot may vary from the prescribed size, but not to
exceed one-fifth of this tolerance shall be allowed for pota-
toes under 11/2 inches in diameter. In addition not more
than 6 per cent. by weight, may be below the remaining
requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-third of
this 6 per cent. tolerance shall be allowed for potatoes
affected by soft rot.

U. S. No. 2

U. S. No. 2 shall consist of potatoes of similar varietal
characteristics which are free from freezing injury and soft
rot and from serious damage caused by sunburn, cuts, scab,
blight, dry rot, disease, insects, or mechanical or other
means.
The diameter of potatoes of this grade shall be not less
than 11/ inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-











ing and handling, not more than 5 per cent. by weight, of
any lot may be below the prescribed size, and, in addition,
not more than 6 per cent. by weight, may be below the
remaining requirements of this grade, but not to exceed
one-third of this 6 per cent. tolerance shall be allowed for
potatoes affected by soft rot.

U. S. FANCY No. 1

U. S. Fancy No. 1 shall consist of potatoes of one variety
which are mature, bright, well shaped, free from freezing
injury, soft rot, dirt or other foreign matter, sunburn,
second growth, growth cracks, holow-heart, cuts, scab,
blight, dry rot, disease, insect or mechanical injury, and
other defects. The range in size shall be stated in terms of
minimum and maximum diameters or weight following the
grade name, but in no case shall the diameter be less than
2 inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grad-
ing and handling, not more than 5 per cent. by weight, of
any lot may vary from the range and size stated and, in
addition, not more than 6 per cent. by weight, of any lot
may be below the remaining requirements of this grade, but
not to exceed one-third of this 6 per cent. tolerance shall
be allowed for potatoes affected by soft rot.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

*As used in these grades:
"Mature" means that the outer skin (epidermis) does
not loosen or "feather" readily during the ordinary
methods of handling.
"Bright" means free from dirt or other foreign matter,
damage or discoloration from any cause, so that the outer
skin (epidermis) has the attractive color normal for the
variety.
"Well shaped" means the normal, typical shape for the
variety in the district where grown, and free from pointed,
dumb-bell shaped, excessively elongated, and other ill-
formed potatoes.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles
to the longitudinal axis.
"Free* * from damage" means that the appearance
shall not be injured to an extent readily apparent upon









casual examination of the lot, and that any damage from
the causes mentioned can be removed in the ordinary pro-
cess of preparation for use without appreciable waste in
addition to that which would occur if the potato were per-
fect. Loss of outer skin (epidermis) shall not be con-
sidered as an injury to the appearance.
"Badly misshapen" means of such shape as to cause
appreciable waste in the ordinary process of preparation
for use in addition to that which would occur if the potato
were perfect.
"Free from serious damage" means that any damage
from the causes mentioned can be removed by the ordinary
process of preparation for use without a waste of 10 per
cent. or more, by weight, in addition to that which would
occur if the potato were perfect.



NORTHWEST DIVISION

Northwest Florida is bounded on the east by the far
famed Suwannee river, and on the west by Perdido's limpid
stream; on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the
south by the Gulf.
This part of Florida comprises 20 counties, with a super-
ficial area of 9,658,440 acres, which is 27 per cent. of the
area of the State. There are one and a half million acres
more than the area of Holland, with 6,000,000 people, who
export $1,000,000,000 worth of products annually. Switzer-
land has an area of 10,224,640 acres and contains 3,831,000
population. Florida has 1, 000,000 people.
This part of Florida has splendid forests and Switzer-
land has practically none. This part of Florida has far
greater possibilities agriculturally than Switzerland. This
section of Florida has immense deposits of Fuller's earth,
largest in the western hemisphere-Switzerland has none.
This part of Florida produces a variety of farm products
that Switzerland can not produce, and has better facil-
ities to develop commerce with the whole world.
The northern boundary of this section is south of the
northern boundary of Mexico, south of the sunny skies of
Italy, in the same altitude as the Holy Land.
This section raises 40 per cent. of the corn crop of the
State; 88 per cent. of the cotton; 97 per cent. of the









tobacco; amounting to more than $2,000,000. Gadsden
county produces 80 per cent. of the Sumatra variety of
shade tobacco grown in the United States. This same
county produces three-fourths of the Fuller's .earth pro-
duced in America. The northwest section produces 25 per
cent. of the pecan nuts of the State. It has the largest
grove of Chinese oil nut trees in the United States with the
exception of California-in Leon county. Leon also leads
in dairying, and has the largest'co-operative creamery in
the State.
This section has the large Tumion Taxifolium or
"Gopher Wood" trees in America, in Liberty county. It
has the largest government forest reserve south of the Ap-
palachian range, in Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Walton
counties. It has two state parks-Natural Bridge in Leon,
and St. Joe in Calhoun county. In Leon county are situ-
ated the Capitol, Supreme Court, Florida State College for
Women, and the A. & M. College (colored.) The asylum
for the insane is at Chattahoochee in Gadsden county. The
Industrial School for Boys is located at Marianna, Jack-
son county.
This section produces 33 per cent. of the naval stores of
the State, and 80 per cent. of the oysters-the majority of
which come from Franklin county.
At Pensacola, Escambia county, is found the finest har-
bor south of Newport News.


NORTHEAST DIVISION

The Northeast division includes eleven counties with an
area of 4,667,820 acres. It occupies much of the St. John's
River Valley. It has some of the best lands of Florida and
produces more Irish potatoes to the acre than any other
part of the United States that markets as early in large
quantities.
Jacksonville in this division is the largest city of the
State and occupies a most advantageous position-so much
so that it is called "The Gate Way to Florida." It is a
railroad center and shipping port for river and ocean
traffic.









LEADING PRODUCTS OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST FLORIDA

The following is a list of leading crops and live stock
raised commercially in Northwest Florida:
Cotton, corn, oats, wheat, sugar cane, sorghum cane,
Japanese cane, tobacco, rice, field peas, soy beans, velvet
bean hay, stock pea hay, natal grass hay, kudzu hay, native
grass hay, millet, rye, velvet beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes,
Irish potatoes, cabbage, watermelons, tomatoes, string
beans, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, lima beans, egg plants,
canteloupes, English peas, beets, squashes, peppers, straw-
berries, pecans, peaches, figs, pears, Japanese persimmons,
grapes, plums, oranges, grapefruit, bananas, in limited
quantity, poultry and eggs, dairy products, honey, wool,
sheep, hogs, goats, cattle, horses, mules. This section has
elevators for grain and packing houses for the beef and
pork industries.



WHAT AND WHEN TO PLANT

NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA

Asparagus-January, February.
Brussels Sprouts-January, February, September, Octo-
ber, November.
Beans-March, April, May, August.
Beets-February, March, August, September, October,
November.
Corn-February, March, April.
Cotton-March, April.
Cabbage-January, February.
Cauliflower-January, September, October.
Collards-January, February, March, November.
Cantaloupes-March, April.
Cucumbers-March, April.
Eggplants-February, March, April, May, June, July,
August.
English Peas-February, March, April, September-
October (McNeil pea).
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
tember.
Kale-March, September, October, November.










Kohlrabi-March, April, August.
Leeks-January, February, March, September, October.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, September,
October, November, December.
Onions-January, February, August, September, Octo-
ber, November, December.
Okra-March, April, May, August.
Parsley-February, March, April, July.
Parsnips-February, March, April, October, November.
Radishes-January, February, March, April, September,
October, November, December.
Rutabagas-February, March, April, August, Septem-
ber, October.
Sugar Cane-March.
Strawberries-January, November, December.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Salsify-February, March, September.
Spinach--February, August, September, October.
Squash-March, April, May, August.
Turnips-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October.
Tomato Plants-March, April, May, June, July, August.
Tobacco Plants-April.
Watermelons-April.

FORAGE CROPS

Burr Clover-January, February, March, April, May,
November, December.
Japan Clover-May, June, July, August, September,
October.
Crimson Clover-February, March, April.
Bermuda Grass-March, April, May, June, July, August,
September, October.
Carpet Grass-March, April.
Velvet Beans-April, May.
Peanuts-April, May, June, July.
Rye and Rape-January, February, March, December.
Vetch-February, March, April.
Soy Beans-April, October, November.
Cow Peas-June, July.
Beggar Weed-April, May.
Kudzu-November, December.











CROPS THAT CAN BE RAISED ON SAME LAND SAME YEAR

Oats, bunch velvet beans, rape.
Oats, cow peas, rape.
Irish potatoes, corn.
Irish potatoes, and cow peas or velvet beans.

GOOD SILAGE CROPS

Corn, Napier grass, sorghum, Japanese cane.


CENTRAL DIVISION

The Central Division comprises sixteen counties with
an area of 9,471,560 acres. This division produces the
bulk of the citrus fruit and the garden truck products of
the State. Its shores are layed on the east by the Atlantic
and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico, the high land ridge
occupies the center.
It contain the splendid City of Tampa, which vies with
Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston as a Gulf shipping
port. This section produces three-fourths of the phos-
phate mined in the United States. It has more natural
resources than the whole states of Rhode Island and
Nevada.
WHAT AND WHEN TO PLANT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA

Asparagus-January (seed), February.
Brussels Sprouts-January, February, March, Septem-
ber, October, November.
Beans-February, March, April, May.
Beets-January, February, March, September, October,
November.
Cabbage-January, February, June (seed); July,
August, September, October, November (seed); December.
Cantaloupes-February, March.
Cauliflower-January (seed); March, June (seed); July,
August, September, October.
Cucumbers-February, March.
Collards-January, February, March, April, May,
August, September, November, December.
Celery-June (seed) ; July (seed); September, October.











Cotton-February, March, April.
Corn-January (early) ; February, March, April.
Dasheens-April.
Eggplants-March, April, May, June, July, August.
English Peas-February, March, April-October (Mc-
Neil pea).
Irish Potatoes-February, March, April, August, Sep-
tember.
Kohlrabi-March, April, August.
Kale-February, March, August, September, October,
November, December.
Leeks-January, February, March, September, October,
December.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, September,
October, November, December.
Mustard-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October, November.
Onion Sets-January, February, March,'April, August,
September, October, November.
Oats-January, November, December.
Parsley-February, March, April, June, July.
Parsnips-February, March, April, September, October,
November.
Pumpkins-June, July.
Peppers-February (seed); March, April, May, June,
July.
Radishes-January, February, March, April.
Rutabagas-February, March, April, June, July, Octo-
ber.
Rape-January, February, March, August, September,
October, November, December.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Squash-March, April, May, June, July, August, Sep-
tember.
Strawberries-October, November, December.
Spinach-February, August, September, October, No-
vember.
Spanish Onions-January, February, March.
Tomatoes-January (seed); February, March, April,
May, June, July, August.
Turnips-January, February, March, April, August,
September, November, December.
Watermelons-May, June, July.
Winsor Beans-August.










FORAGE CROPS

The Forage Crops of Central Florida are practically the
same as those of North and West Florida.

CROPS THAT CAN BE RAISED ON SAME LAND SAME YEAR

Central sections can raise the same crops per year on
same land that can be grown in this manner in North and
West sections with some few added. The shorter the length
of time required for a crop to mature the greater number
can be grown on same land.

Silage crops same as North and West part of State.


SOUTHERN DIVISION

South Florida presents the truly semi-tropical part of
the United States. It comprises fourteen counties with
an area of 11,376,781 acres. It has one of the largest
inland fresh water lakes in the world. Miami, "The City
Wonderful" is on the east coast, Ft. Myers on the west
and Key West at the southern extremity of the United
States, in touch with the trade of the southern hemisphere.
Citrus fruit growing, trucking and live stock raising
are the principal industries. More than five million acres
of this division was originally under shallow water-the
Everglades. Since drainage and reclamation have proved
it to be of wonderful agricultural possibilities it is being
turned into ranches, field crops and trucking farms.

WHEN AND WHAT TO PLANT IN SOUTH FLORIDA

(Tampa, Orlando, Titusville and Southward)

Beans-January, February, March, April, May, June
(butter); August (snap).
Beets-January, February, March, September, October,
November.
Brussels Sprouts-January, February, March, Septem-
ber, October, November.
Cucumbers-February, March, April, August, Septem-
ber.










Cabbage-January (seed); February, March, June
(seed); July, August, September, October, November,
December.
Corn-February (early); March, April, May.
Carrots-January, February, August, September, Octo-
ber, November.
Cauliflower-January (seed); February, March, August
(seed); September.
Collards-January, February, August, September, Octo-
ber, November, December.
Canteloupes-February, March, July, August.
Dasheens-April.
Eggplants-January, February, March, April, May,
June, July, August.
English Peas-January, February, August, September,
October.
Irish Potatoes-January, February, March, August, Sep-
tember.
Kale-January, February, March, August, September,
October, November.
Kohlrabi-January, April, August.
Lettuce-January, February, March, April, August,
September, October, November, December.
Mustard-January, March, August, September, October,
November, December.
Okra-February, March, September.
Onions--January (seed); February, March, April, Au-
gust, September, October, November, December.
Pepper-February (seed); March, April, May, June,
July, August.
Pumpkins-March, April, May, June, July.
Radishes-January, February, March, September, Octo-
ber, November, December.
Rape-January, February, August, September, October,
November, December.
Rutabagas-August, September, October, November.
Squash-February, March, April, May, June, July, Au-
gust, September.
Spinach-January, February, August, September, Octo-
ber, November.
Sweet Potatoes-April, May, June, July.
Sugar Cane-January, February.
Strawberries-October, November, December.












Tomatoes-January (seed); March, April, May, June,
July, August.
Turnips-January, August, October, November.
Velvet Beans-March, April.
Winsor Beans-August.
Watermelons-Pebruary, March, April, May.

FORAGE CROPS

Para grass, natal grass, Rhodes grass, Napier grass, Ber-
muda grass, carpet grass, Augustine grass, cow peas, soy
beans, velvet beans, millet, rye. To the above list may be
added a number of native wild grasses such as maiden cane,
that has very high food values.

CROPS THAT CAN BE RAISED ON SAME LAND SAME YEAR

South Florida grows crops AL THE TIME so that the
number of things that can be grown in a year on the same
land depends on the length of time it takes to mature the
crops that are planted.

Silage crops are the same as those of other parts of the
State.



AS TO HEALTHFULNESS

(Sugar Land News)

Many persons who have not consulted official records be-
lieve that the Southern states are generally an unhealthful
region, "abounding in fevers and other dread diseases."
This idea may have been caused by some writers of fiction,
who have ignorantly "dwelt upon the dark, dank, mias-
matic swamps," that may have existed in some states, both
of the North and South.
Florida abounds in clear lakes of pure, fresh water, bqt
the stagnant, muddy, miasmatic mosquito-breeding swamp
is not characteristic of the State.
The true test of the healthfulness of a state, and the
one applied by government experts, physicians and boards
of health, is the average death rate per 1,000. It may,












therefore, be a surprise to some who have not examined the
records to learn that the death per 1,000 is less in Florida
than in any other state in the union. In verification of this
we have selected from the government report four states
in the East, four in the West, and four in the South which
rank as the healthiest of that region, for the purpose of
comparison as follows:

DEATH RATE PER ONE THOUSAND

Massachusetts ................. 18.50
New York ..................... 17.38
New Jersey ................... 16.33
Rhode Island .................. 17.01
Indiana ....................... 15.78
Illinois ........................ 14.63
Colorado ...................... 13.11
California ..................... 13.33
Alabama ...................... 14.27
Georgia ....................... 13.70
Mississippi ................... 12.82
FLORIDA .................... 11.99

While Colorado and California are advertised as health
resorts, Florida shows a smaller death rate than any other
state in the Union.

CONSUMPTION

The climate of Florida may not be a panacea for this
dread disease, but it doubtless has cured many who were
not too far gone. The soft, pure, balmy, air, freighted with
the odor of pines and salt water, has doubtless brought re-
lief to thousands who have come in time to be benefitted by
a life out of doors, with nature's best doctors-pure food,
good fresh eggs, milk and meat, with plenty of sunshine
and pure air.
Again we quote from the U. S. report:
.Table of deaths from consumption in 1,000 deaths from
all causes:
M aine ............... .... .... 258
New Hampshire ................. 222
Vermont ...................... 202
Rhode Island .................. 201












Massachusetts ................... 199
Delaware ....................... 190
Connecticut ..................... 179
O hio ........................... 177
W est Virginia ................... 174
M ichigan ....................... 169
Kentucky ....................... 174
Maryland ....................... 172
New Jersey ..................... 171
M ichigan ....................... 169
New York ...................... 168
Tennessee ....................... 166
Indiana ........................ 164
Pennsylvania ................... 142
Virginia ........................ 138
Iowa ........................... 137
M innesota ...................... 133
Illinois ......................... 108
M issouri ....................... 97
K ansas ......................... 90
Florida ........................ 58



HOW TO HAVE FLOWERS ALL THE YEAR ROUND

In planting in groups keep in mind the different seasons
of bloom of the various shrubs. The following list gives
satisfactory blooms the season through:
List No. 1-Forsythit (May), Spiraea Van Houttei
(June), Weigela (late June), Spiraea Anthony Waterer
(July), Hydrangea paniculataa) (August, September),
Althea (September).
There are many other combinations that can be used,
considering height, color, blooming date, etc.; for instance:
List No. 2-Snowball (tall), Spiraea Vani Houttei (me-
dium), Weigela Rosea (medium), Snowberry (low), Jap-
anese Raspberry (low).
List No. 3-Mock Orange (tall), Althea (tall), Hydran-
gea paniculataa) (medium), Rosa Rugosa (medium), Hy-
drangea (Arborescens sterillis), (low), White Kerria
(low).
List No. 4-Budded Lilac (tall), Spiraea Billardi (me-











dium), Bush Honeysuckle (medium), Spiraea Anthony
Waterer (low), Snowberry (low).
In planting vines and climbing roses for your porch, use
several different kinds, as they will blend well and will
bloom at different periods. The following combinations are
good:
List No. 1-Dorothy Perkins rose, Japanese Clematis
(Clematis paniculata), and American Ivy (Ampelopsis
quinquefolia).
List No. 2-Wisteria Sinensis, Dorothy Perkins.rose and
Climbing American Beauty.
List No. 3-American Ivy, Baltimore Belle rose, Hall
Japan Honeysuckle (Lonicera Halleana).-J. M. Field.



TREES AND SHRUBS FOR THE SOUTH

The Progressive Farmer believes in making the South
"the Land of the Crape Myr.tle," and we should like to
see this beautiful tree-shrub with its long-lived glory of
blossom in the yards of every home. Other trees and
shrubs are recommended by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture for general use on private grounds,
streets, private parks and school yards in the Southern
states as follows:
Deciduous Trees-Tulip, sycamore, pin oak, white oak,
black oak, willow-leafed oak, water oak, red oak, white ash,
bald cypress, Norway maple, silver maple, red elm, Amer-
ican white elm, Kentucky coffee, American linden, catalpa,
liquidambar (sweet gum), Carolina poplar, hackberry,
sour gum.
Evergreen Trees-White pine, long-leaf pine, magnolia,
live oak, cedar.
Shrubs-Golden bell, hydrangea, lilac, Elaeagnus long-
ipes, (silver berry)', loniceras (honeysuckle), hibiscus
(althea), hardy roses, Japan quince, calycanthus, smoke
tree. (Privet should be added.)
South of Charleston, S. C.-Camellia Japonica.
Southern Florida and Texas-Oleander, privet.











A SOIL-BUILDING ROTATION

In the well-known three-year rotation for small grains,
cotton and corn there is a good opportunity for illustra-
tion of the proper use of winter cover crops. For instance,
the fields are all covered with some crop during the winter
as follows:

1ST YEAR 2D YEAR 3D YEAR

FIELD No. 1 FIELD No. 1 FIELD No. 1
Oats Cotton Corn
Peas Peas

Rye Crimson Clover Oats

FIELD No. 2 FIELD No. 2 FIELD No. 2
Cotton Corn Oats
Peas Peas

Crimson Clover Oats Rye

FIELD No. 3 FIELD No. 3 FIELD No. 3
Corn Oats
Peas Peas Cotton
......................................... .......................................................................................
Oats Rye I Crimson Clover

A crop rotation that gives a summer sale crop, a legume
crop, and a winter cover crop for all the land each year.



ORGANIZATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES

STATE MARKET BUREAU

In three-quarters of a century British Organizations
through co-operative effort have developed 'until their an-
nual business amounts to $1,000,000,000, paying in divi-
dends and rebates, to the members $100,000,000. There are
ten countries in Europe that have 133,000 co-operative so-
cieties with 61,000,000 payed up members doing an annual
co-operative business amounting to $12,000,000,000, bene-








32

fitting, counting the families of the members, 300,000,000
people.
Agricultural organizations in the United States did a
volume of co-operative business in 1919 amounting to
$1,500,000,000 and the farmers are organizing now as
never before. The right to organize always has and al-
ways will depend on whether the purpose of the organiza-
tion is constructive or destructive.



WHO EATS MEAT?

The differences in nations as to annual per capital meat
consumption is shown in the following table, prepared
from data furnished by the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture in 1916:
Pounds
Australia ....................... 262
New Zealand .................... 213
United States ................... 171
Argentina ...................... 140
Canada ........................ 137
Cuba .......................... 124
United Kingdom ................ 120
Germany ....................... 116
France ......................... 79
Denmark ...................... 76
Switzerland .................... 75
Belgium ........................ 70
Netherlands .................... 70
G reece ......................... 68
Austria ........................ 64
Norway ........................ 62
Sweden ........................ 62
Poland ......................... 62
Russia ......................... 50
Spain .......................... 49
Italy ........................... 47
Portugal ....................... 44

It will be noticed that the English speaking countries are
by far the biggest consumers of meat, while there are no
Asiatic races given in the table. This is because the











Asiatics are very frugal consumers of meat indeed, Japan
being the only nation that shows any signs of increasing
in this particular.
Meat consumption per capital in the United States
declined from 181.5 pounds in 1900 to 156.1 pounds in
1921. The decrease, 25.4 pounds, or about one-half pound
per week, is equivalent to 2,720,000,000 pounds of meat
annually. It is equal to approximately one-sixth of our
total meat consumption in 1921.
We believe that Armour and Company's figures on dis-
tribution from the various sections in which their plants
are located are sufficiently representative of the economic
facts of distribution to be applicable to all national pack-
ing companies, and that they will give a typical measure of
the contributions of each of the producing districts toward
feeding this third of our population located in industrial
regions. The following table is self-explanatory:

Pork and Pork Product
Beef Shipped Shipped
Plant ______.___________
East : Elsewhere East Elsewhere
Chicago ..... 6 61 % 39% 98% 2%
St. Paul ..... 25 75 20 80
Spokane ..... 2 98 1 99
Denver ...... 14 86 0 100
Ft. Worth ... 27 73 0 100
Kansas City 63 37 40 60
St. Joseph ... 78 22 60 40
Omaha ...... 66 34 50 50
Sioux City ... 62 38 70 30
Indianapolis .. 11 89 0 100
St. Louis ..... 61 39 20 80
Jacksonville .. 0 100 0 100
Tifton ....... 0 100 0 100
Hamilton, Ont.j 5 95 0 100


2-Bul.











ROTATION OF CROPS FOR HOG PASTURE

Prof. R. S. Curtis gives the following list of grazing
crops for hogs, with the dates of seeding and times of graz-
ing. By having four lots and shifting the hogs from one
to the other as the different crops are eaten off it is quite
possible to have some grazing for the hogs every month
in the year:

CROP DATE OF SEEDING PERIOD OF GRAZING

Rye and Crimson Clover....... Aug. 1 to Oct. 1INov. 15 to Apr. 25
Oats........................ !Sept. 10 to Nov. 15 Nov. 1 to July 15
Wheat........................ ISept. 15 to Dec. 1 Nov. 20 to July 15
Oats and Vetch................ Aug. 10 to Oct. Nov. 15 to Apr. 20
Cowpeas--New Era............May 15 to July 15 July 10 to Oct. 15
Soy Beans...................May 15 to July 15 July 15 to Oct. 15
Canada Peas and Oats......... Feb. 15 to Mar. lApr. 15 to June 15
Alfalfa.................. .Sept. 1 to Oct. 15 May 20 to Sept. 20
Bermuda Grass................ Mar. 15 to May 15 June 1 to Aug. 15
Spanish Peanuts ............... May 15 to July 15 Sept. 1 to Dec. 15
Sweet Potatoes................May 1 to July 1 Sept. 15 to Dec. 1
Mangels ..................... Apr. 20 to May 15 Oct. 15 to Jan. 1
Chufas....................... Apr. 1 to May 10 Sept. 15 to Jan. 1
Artichokes.................... Nov. 1 to Feb. 20 Nov. 1 to Mar. 1
Bur Clover............ ....ISept. 1 to Oct. 1 Dec. 1 to Mar. 1
Red Clover.......... ..... Sept. 10 to Oct. 15 Apr. 1 to June 15
Japan Clover.......... ........ pr. 1 to May 15 June 1 to Sept. 15
White Clover........... ... Sept. 1 to Oct. 1 Dec. 15 to June 1
Rape ...... .. . .. A. . ug. 15 to May 1 October to July




CRANKING UP FOR CANNING

By JOSEPHINE WYLIE

(The Country Gentleman, July 8, 1922)

The average farm garden yields more than a family can
eat in season, and a variety of ready-to-serve vegetables in
cans is a health-insurance policy as well as a cause for
thankfulness when company makes a surprise visit.
Canning methods have been improved so much in the
last few years that there is not a thing in the garden that
isn't canable, even to the tops of some of the vegetables
which make excellent greens and contain vitamins so
essential to growth. The steam-pressure cooker has made
it possible to can quickly and effectively vegetables that
before had defied the most skillful canner's efforts. Corn,











string beans, peas, sweet potatoes, pumpkin and squash are
more safely canned in this way than any other.
The pressure cooker encourages small-quantity canning.
Perhaps there are just enough string beans to fill a couple
of pint cans. Cut them in two-inch lengths and go ahead.
Very small, tender beans may be canned whole. Add boil-
ing water to cover and put in a piece of salt pork about the
size of a walnut. The pork makes a savory pot liquor.
Bacon is also a pleasing addition. Ten pounds' pressure
for forty minutes in the cooker, and your beans are ready
to seal and store away.
Sometimes there isn't enough of any one vegetable to
can. In that case try a vegetable soup. This is a fine way
to use the garden left-overs. A good combination consists
of one quart of tomato pulp, one pint of corn or tiny green
Lima beans, one pint of okra, one small onion chopped,
half a cupful of chopped sweet green or red pepper, one
and a half teaspoonfuls of salt and three teaspoonfuls of
sugar. Cook the tomatoes, pepper and onion and put
through a sieve to remove the seeds. Then cook down to
the consistency of catchup. Measure, add the corn or beans
and okra, which have been properly blanched and pre-
pared as for canning. Add the seasoning and cook all
together for fifteen minutes.
Pack at once into hot jars and process under ten pounds'
pressure for forty minutes. Remove the Jars from the
canner and seal at once. Tin cans should be plunged at
once into cold water and cooled as quickly as possible.
When cool, store in a dark, cool place.
Tomato puree is a good way to use the small or broken
tomatoes and large tomatoes unsuitable for canning. Cut
the tomatoes into medium-sized pieces; add one large onion
chopped and one cupful of chopped sweet red pepper to
each gallon of tomatoes. Cook until tender, put through
a sieve, an dadd one and a half teaspoonfuls of salt and
three teaspoonfuls of sugar to each gallon of pulp. Cook
until the consistency of catchup, stirring constantly.
Pack while boiling hot into jars and process under ten
pounds' pressure for ten minutes or in water bath or water
seal for twenty-five minutes. Remove the jars from the
canner and seal at once.
A weak brine made by adding a quarter cupful of salt
to one gallon of water is recommended in the packing of









36

all vegetables except okra and eggplant, which salt turns
black.
In canning asparagus the large, tough ends may be used
for soup, Cook the pieces in as little water as possible
until they are soft enough to press through a sieve. Turn
the pulp into freshly sterilized jars, and to each pint jar
add one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of grated
onion. Cook for forty minutes under ten pounds' pressure.
The acid method of canning vegetables is heralded as
the "always successful" way by a few. The addition of a
small quantity of vinegar or lemon juice seems to increase
the proportion of success in canning corn, peas, string
beans, asparagus and greens. The acid flavor with most of
these vegetables is scarcely noticeable and to most people
is not objectionable. For each pint jar of vegetables one
one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of vinegar or
lemon juice are used and the jars are boiled in the hot-
water bath for one and a half hours."
It










CANNING CHART FOR VEGETABLES

TIME TO
STERILIZE
Water Pressure
Bath Cooker
Product Glass Jar Tin Can Blanch or Cook Packing at 212 Minutes at 5
Hours 10 and 15
Pounds'
Pressure

-4in. Lbs.
Should be packed immediately
Asparagus Pint No. 2 Tie in bundles; blanch with the tips up; cover with
3 to 4 minutes, brine-% cupful of salt to 1 3 30 to 40 10
gallon water.
String, cut in de-
sired length and May be packed log-cabin style
Beans, String Pint or No blanch 3 to 5 minutes in square ars, in even lengths
Quart in soda bath-1 tea- upstanding or haphazard; cover % to 2 30 to 40 10
spoonful of soda to 1 with weak brine or use salt
gallon water, pork.

Beans, Lima Pint Yes Shell and wash; Cover with weak brine or use 1 to 2 30 to 40 10
_blanch 3 to 10 minutes salt pork.
Brussels Sprouts Pint or No Blanch 5 minutes. Pack carefully in jars; add 2 60 5
Quart weak brine to cover.

Carrots, Parsnips Pint or No. 2 Wash scrape and Pack and cover with weak 11 60 5
Quart blanch A to 5 minutes. brine.

Use small ears of Pack whole ears, fittings as
No. 2 young corn before it closely as possible; add 1% tea- 3 90 5
Corn, on Cob Pint or or has reached the dough spoonfuls sugar and salt mix- 80 15
Quart No. 3 stage. Remove husks ture-1 part salt, 2,parts sugar.
_ and blanch 5 minutes. Cover with clear water.













CANNING CHART FOR VEGETABLES.-Continued.

TIME TO
STBRILIZn
Pressure
Water Cooker
Product Glass Jar Tin Can Blanch or Cook Packing at 212Mnut at 15
Hours Pounds
Pressure

Min. Lbs.
Cut off small quantity of corn
Corn, Cut Off Pint No. 2 Blanch 5 minutes on a a time with a sharp knife, 2% 80 5
ear, and pack while hot to within 70 1
an inch of top. Fill with boil-
ing water.
Pack into jars in hai -nch
Pint or No. 2 Blanch 3 minutes; slices. Do not add salt; salt
Eggplants Quart Enamel- remove skin. turns it black. Fill with boil- 1 40 5
lined, ing water.

Greens:
Spinach, Swiss Chard Quart No. 3 Wash carefully and Pack as hot as possible and
Dandelions, Kale, En- blanch 4 minutes, add seasoning to taste. Fill 3 50 10
dive, Beet Tops. with boiling water.
Pint No. 2 Blanch 6 to 8 min- Pack in jars and cover with 2 30 5
Okra utes. boiling water. Do not add
salt; salt turns it black.

Shell and cook 3 to Pack to within half an inch
Peas Pint No. 2 20 minutes, or until of top. Add 1% level teaspoon- 2% 40 to 50 10
well done, depending fuls salt-and-sugar mixture. Fill
on size and youngness with boiling water.
of peas.

Peppers, Spanish or No. 1 Bake 6 to 8 minutes Flatten and pack in horizontal 30
Pimento Pint or in a very hot oven. layers. No liquid is needed. minutes
__ No. 2 This loosens the skins. I










No. 1
or
No. 2


Drop into hot oil to
loosen skins. Remove
almost instantly.


Remove seeds and stem; pack
as nearly whole as possible.
Cover with a very weak brine-2
tablespoonfuls of salt to 1 gallon
water.


Boil or steam till Pack into jars quickly after
Sweet Potatoes half cooked-about 10 peeling to prevent discoloration.
No. 3 to 15 minutes in the Pack the jars tightly and as full
pressure cooker at 10 as possible.
______ pounds' pressure.


No. 2
or
No. 3


No. 2


Blanch one minute
in boiling water;
plunge immediately
Into cold water to
make firm.


Cook till tender;
put through colander.


Pack whole or in large pieces,
depending on use to be made of
them. Add 2 teaspoonfuls of
salt-and-sugar mixture.


Season to taste and pack while
hot.


Peppers, Chile


Pint


Tomatoes


Tomato Soup


Pint


30
minutes


25 to 30
minutes


25 to 301
minutes


70

-1


15



15


I I


- -I


I










FIG AND NUT CONFECTIONS

Remove plump fig preserves from the syrup and drain.
Place them in an oven which registered about 120' F. (an
angel food oven). Dry slowly until outside'of figs have lost
their syrupy appearance. Dip in a syrup dense enough to
thread. Stick half a nut on the side of each fig. Dip in
granulated sugar.
To cream fondant add chopped figs as above, and broken
nuts, form into nut bars. Roll in granulated sugar or use
as candy centers.

PRESERVED FIGS

Select 8 pounds of fruit that is just mature, or nearly
mature. Sprinkle 1 cupful soda over the figs and cover
with six quarts of boiling water. Allow to stand 15 min-
utes; drain off this soda solution, and rinse the figs well
through two baths of clear cool water and let drain.
Add the fruit gradually to a syrup made by boiling
together 6 pounds of sugar and 4 quarts of water. Cook
rapidly until the figs are bright and transparent, and the
syrup is sufficiently heavy. Then remove to the rear of
the stove and put immediately into sterilized jars and seal.
FIG CONSERVE

Material: 1 quart figs (plain canned), or 2 pounds fresh
figs; 11/4 pounds sugar, 2/3 cupful pecan meats, 1/2 pound
of raisins. Cut all except nuts into small pieces and cook
until thick and transparent (about an hour will be long
enough to cook). Add nuts five minutes before removing
from the stove.
FIG SWEET PICKLE

Prepare figs as for preserving. Drop into boiling spiced
vinegar, prepare as follows:
For 1 quart of figs--secure /2 pint vinegar sideer, 3/
pound sugar, few pieces mace, 1/2 tablespoonful whole
cloves, /2 tablespoonful whole all-spice 1 stick cinnamon, 2
pieces ginger root. Stick the cloves in the fruit. Tie the
cinnamon and allspice in a bag. Boil for three minutes.
To the foregoing preparation add the figs and boil 10
to 15 minutes. Remove the spice bag, pack and seal.











SUBSTITUTES FOR STABLE MANURES

INVOLVING THREE ESSENTIAL MEASURES

The coming of the automobile and the truck has greatly
intensified the soil fertility problems of those farmers prac-
ticing very intensive farming, such as the vegetable gard-
ner, who has generally depended heavily on stable manure
from the city as a means of keeping up his crop yields.
The supply of stable manure has fallen off so heavily that
many vegetable growers find it impossible to get it in quan-
tities, and, therefore, must seek other means of keeping up
fertility. This involves two important questions:

Two FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

First, there must be supplied plant nutrients. Theoreti-
cally, these should be easily provided by the use of certain
fertilizers. Second, vegetable matter must be provided.
Here the recourse is green manure, together with the best
possible conservation of the residues of the crops. The
vegetable grower has use for such alrge quantities of stable
manure running up to 20 and 30 tons that it is clear at
once that it will be a difficult proposition to make up this
deficit by the use of green manure crops grown on the same
land.

EFFORTS AT PRACTICAL SOLUTION

Around the larger centers of population, this problem of
supplying manure has become so acute that it has been
brought to the attention of the Rhode Island Agricultural
Experiment Station at Kingston, which has carried out a
six-year investigation comparing 32 tons of manure and 16
tons of manure supplemented with chemicals and peat sup-
plemented by a rotation of crops and green manures in-
cluding legumes. With the green manure crops, four rota-
tions were employed. The system of cropping and green
manures is shown in the accompanying table:













SYSTEM OF CROPPING AND GREEN MANURES

Rotations of Cash Crops and *Green Manures
Year
W X Y Z

First (1st). Cabbage-Beets Cabbage-*Vetc Cabbage-Rye Cabb.-Wheat
and Rye
Second (2d) Tomato-Spinach Tomato-Rape Tomato-Sw. CIo. Tomato-R. Cle.
Third (3d). Lettuce-Celery Oats-Celery Celery Celery

*Italic indicates green-manure crop.

GREN MANURES AND CHEMICALS INSUFFICIENT

The six-year average yields from manure alone and from
the different green manure rotations using the normal
amount of chemicals are shown in the following table:

AVERAGE YIELDS OF VEGETABLES FROM
DIFFERENT ROTATIONS

Rotations W X Y Z

32 tons
Treatments Imanure Green manures with com-
without mercial fertilizers
legumes
Yields: Cabbages & Tomatoes
(lbs.) ............ 471 278 816 364
Celery (doz. bunches) 841 691 680 682

It is evident from these figures that the chemicals and
green manuring have not been adequate to keep the yield
up to that produced by 32 tons of stable manure alone.
Where half of this application of manure was substituted
by chemical manures, the yield was even larger. Mani-
festly, crop residues and one green manure crop a year will
not carry as much organic matter as 32 tons of stable
manure. In fact the manure would carry from two to
three times as much organic matter as the green manures.
On the other hand, it is evident that not so much organic
matter is'that in 32 tons of manure is required if the chem-
ical nutrients are supplied in fertilizers.











GREEN MANURING VS. FEEDING

There is one aspect of this problem that has not been
stressed, and that is the practice of growing a crop on one
piece of land and hauling it on to another area to be
cropped instead of letting it be consumed by an animal
and return only the manure. This has been very little
practiced but is entirely legitimate and practical. When
fed, the animal itself will normally burn up two-thirds of
the organic matter in its food, and decay and. loss in the
process of handling manure will account for another 25 to
50 per cent. loss, so that only 15 to 25 per cent. of the
organic matter in the original crop will get back to the
land 'through the stable manure route.

THrEE EssENTIAL IN SUBSTITUTE MEASURES

Lime comes into this question of maintaining yields as
a means of producing green manure crops and to correct
the acidity which the elements of manure also in a measure
'help to correct. In other words, the substitution for
manure involves three processes: (a) chemical fertilization,
(b) providing of vegetable matter, (c) supplying of basic
materials to correct acidity. The substitutes for manure
are not complete until they supply all of these and in as
large amounts as are carried by manure.
The year 1850 marks the division between machine and
hand methods. In two years following the introduction
of the reaper, the exportation of wheat products increased
approximately 500% over the average yearly exports of
the preceding forty years.-6,361,502 farms are worked by
machinery in the United States each year.-311,293,382
acres are seeded and harvested each year by the aid of farm
machinery, requiring more power than all other combined
industries. The annual depreciation of farm machinery
amounts to over twelve and a half million dollars. This
loss could be reduced one half by proper housing and
care.










DEBATE SUBJECTS

TOPICS SUITABLE BOTH FOR FARMERS' CLUBS AND RURAL
SCHOOLS

1. All land, improved and unimproved, should be taxed
alike, at its natural or unimproved value.
2. Food and livestock farmers accumulate wealth faster
than cotton and tobacco farmers.
3. The crop lien should be abolished by law.
4. Race segregation in land ownership is desirable.
5. It is better business to rent than to own a farm.
6. Land monopoly is the worst of all monopolies.
7. The poll tax ought to be abolished.
8. This state ought to have a graduated land tax.
9. Farm tenancy is the greatest obstacle to agricultural
development in the South.
10. Most of the money spent in road building in this
state has been wasted.
11. Road repair with free labor is a failure.
12. Bond issues for public roads are advisable.
13. Newspapers ought not to accept patent medicine ad-
vertisements.
14. A whole-time health officer is need for this county.
15. Diet is more important than drugs.


THE TORRENS SYSTEM EXPLAINED

Under our present antiquated system every time a piece
of real estate changes hands, some lawyer must examine
into the legality of the title. Old records, running back
sometimes for hundreds of years, must be searched at great
labor and expense; and each time the property is sold, and
the next and the next, the same identical work must be
done over again and other big lawyers' fees paid-a system
as foolish and unecoonmical as paying a man to carry a
brick from one side of the street to the other and back
again and again interminably.
Now the Torrens System proposes that instead of this
perennial investigation of the same thing, this unending,
Sisyphus-like job of rolling the stone up-hill and then let-
ting it roll straightway down again, and all to no purpose










save the paying of unnecessary fees to lawyers who might
better serve their fellows in some other way-instead of all
this, we say, the Torrens System proposes that the state
shall examine the title once for all, guarantee it, and regis-
ter it, so that forever afterward it may be tarnsferred
almost as easily, quickly and cheaply as a Government
bond or a share of stock in an incorporated company. The
original cost of a Torens deed, even including the title tax
for the guarantee fund, would be little more than the pres-
ent cost of one or two title investigations; and ever after
the farmer would be abel to transfer his property, or se-
cure loans upon it, at from one-fourth to one-twentieth the
present cost.



A GOOD FARM WHITEWASH

One of the most satisfactory whitewash is made from the
following formula:
One-half bushel stone lime slaked with boiling water.
Keep lime covered while slaking and strain carefully.
1 peck salt dissolved in warm water;
3 pounds finely ground rice cooked to a thin paste;
One-half pound whiting;
1 pound clear glue dissolved in hot water.
The mixture. should be set away for several days before
using.
Heat boiling hot and apply as hot as surface to be cov-
ered and your working conditions will permit.



FUNDS AVAILABLE TO BUILD 46,000 MILES OF
GOOD ROADS

The $350,000,000 appropriated by Congress as Federal
aid in conjunction with State funds will result in the con-
struction of about 46,000 miles of road, says the Bureau
of Public Roads of the United States Department of Agri-
culture. This mileage would parallel the railroad from
New York to San Francisco nearly 15 times, or, if divided
equally among the States, would give nearly 1,000 miles to
each State.









The status of road building on April 30 was as follows:
In projects entirely complete, a total of 16,375 miles; under
construction, 13,950 miles in projects, averaging 62 per
cent. complete. A considerable part of the latter mileage
is actually complete and in service. In addition, funds
have been aloltted to 7,511 miles, much of which will come
under construction during the present season. Besides this
there is still available for new projects $60,148,000, which
on the same basis as previous Federal-aid construction will.
result in the construction of 8,200 miles of highway. In
March the fund available for new projects was taken up
at the rate of $12,000,000 a month and at the rate of
$5,700,000 in April.
The United States spent $600,000,000 for roads in 1921,
according to estimates of the Bureau of Public Roads,
United States Department of Agriculture. This sum was
derived from the following sources: Local road bonds, 33
per cent; county, township, and district taxes, assessments,
and appropriations, 14 per cent; States taxes and appro-
priations, 12 per cent; State road bonds, 7 per cent; motor
vehicle license revenues, 19 per cent; Federal aid, 14 per
cent; and miscellaneous sources, 1 per cent.


GOOD ROADS

The last available report shows the following improved
road mileage in Florida:
634 miles asphalt.
483 miles brick.
35 miles concrete.
1,268 miles oil treated.
538 miles shell.
1,944 miles sand clay.
5,124 graded but not surfaced.


WHAT BAD ROADS COST

To carry a ton one mile by sea costs one-tenth of a cent;
by railroad, one cent. To haul a ton over good roads costs
seven cents a mile; over ordinary country roads 25 cents
a mile. Mud tax and hill-climbing tolls, therefore, amount
to 18 cents a mile.











GET READY FOR WINTER CROPS

(Southern Ruralist)

The fall planting season is very rapidly approaching and
seed for all fall crops hsould be ordered without delay.
On account of bad weather over most of the Southern
States at harvest time, seed' oats of first quality and of
those varieties most productive will be somewhat scarce.
It is best to lay in your supply immediately. For fall
planting the rust proof strains are generally recommended.
Among these are Texas Red Rust Proof, Fulgham, Appler,
Bancroft, Cook, and Lawson. At the same time it is ad-
visable to get lands in shape as early as weather conditions
will permit. Much land has been planted to legumes,
peas and soy beans. This land can be very profitably fol-
lowed with a crop of small grain.
With reference to winter legumes, hairy vetch has more
successes to its credit here in the South than any other so
far as our present information goes, and is a winter nitro-
gen gatherer of first importance. It neighbors well with
oats, and with 11/2 to 2 bushels of oats 20 to 25 pounds of
hairy vetch to the acre should give a good stand. Those
who have not grown vetch may find it disappointing in the
early season because it grows slowly. It has a lazy sort of
disposition early in the year but it stands up well under
hard conditions gets away to rapid growth early in the
spring and matures along with the oats, adding quality to
the hay and much nitrogen to the soil.
Rye is the hardiest of all winter grains. Too much can
hardly be'said for it.
Bur, crimson, and other clover seed should be ordered
along with small grain. September is the month for seed-
ing alfalfa, white clover, red clover, and crimson clover.
It is also, the season for planting dwarf essex rape. One
of the best rules for seeding clovers is to get the land ready
early. No better preparation can be made than growing a
crop of peas or soy beans beforehand and plant imme-
diately the soil is dry enough after the first good rain in
September. There have been a great many failures with
crimson clover, due in most cases to planting in a hot, dry,
loose seed-bed, and in others to poor seed.. Successes, how-
ever, are on the increase. Some section are making crim-
son clover a leading money crop through the production











and sale of seed, others find it the best of all for soil build-
ing. A good crop adds about as much nitrogen -per acre
as would the use of half a ton of cottonseed meal. Every
farmer in the heavier soil belt of the South should grow
at least a small patch of alfalfa. This plant is gaining
favor, too, and successes are more frequent. No plant
offers such splendid hog grazing as alfalfa does when once
well set. Of course it is good for all live stock and espe-
cially so for poultry.
On rich land dwarf essex rape as a winter forage has few
superiors, and combinations of this plant and oats have
been found very satisfactory. It should be much more
widely grown than it has been.
In going over recent reports from experiment stations
in the Southern States there is a growing conviction that
most of our soils need lime. This conviction is based upon
very exact experimental data. In the finely pulverized
state, as a rule, it is found cheapest and therefore most
profitable. Legumes especially respond to lime, and if lime
is to be used, and in nearly every case it should be, there is
no better time to put it on than during the winter season.
In addition to lime-two tons per acre to begin with-a
small application of nitrogen together with something like
a couple of hundred pounds of acid phosphate to the acre
should be applied in the case of small grains. For legumes
the lime and acid phosphate will be all that is necessary.
The seeding of these crops should be at about the follow-
ing rates: Wheat, 11/ bushels; oats, 2 to 3 bushels; rye,
11/ bushels to 3 pecks;, bur clover, clean seed, 10 to 12
pounds, in the hull, 50 to 60 pounds; crimson clover, 20
pounds; red clover, 12 to 15 pounds; alfalfa, 25 pounds;
and dwarf essex rape, 6 to 8 pounds.







WHAT MAY BE EXPECTED OF FARM
IMPLEMENTS
SUMMARY, COMPILED BY UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SHOWING AVERAGE SERVICE
RENDERED BY 18 KINDS OF1 FARM IMPLEMENTS IN WESTERN NEW YORK, AND AVERAGE MACHINERY COST PER
ACRE.


m Life of
Implemen

Implement
0M ='W


224
119
73
43
54
75
76
10
9
58
70
43
46
37
21
29
53
40


W walking Plow .............
Sulky Plow ...............
Spring-tooth Harrow .......
Spike-tooth Harrow ........
Disk Harrow ..............
Land Roller ...............
Grain Drill ................
Corn Planter, 1-row.........
Corn Planter, 2-row.........
Cultivator, 1-row ..........
Cultivator, 2-row ..........
Cabbage Transplanter ......
M ower ................... .
Hay Rake .................
Hay Tedder ...............
Bean Harvester ............
Grain Binder ..............
Corn Binder ...............


Acres
t Covered Cost Per Acre Covered




11.71 32.9 384.9 $0.026 $0.010 $0.062 $0.098
8.1 30.9 250.3 .170 .046 .069 .285
11.0 71.1 782.1 .023 .007 .011 .041
14.0 48.3 676.2 .016 .007 .007 .030
13.0 35.2 457.6 .059 .025 .014 .098
16.0 65.9 1,054.4 .023 .011 .007 .041
16.4 46.3 759.3 .095 .049 .027 .171
11.7 4.1 48.0 .250 .111 .170 .531
11.0 8.2 91.3 .440 .158 .200 .798
14.0 16.9 236.6 .027 .012 .021 .060
12.5 39.3 491.3 .065 .027 .025 .117
12.8 12.5 160.0 .280 .114 .091 .485
14.8 28.0 414.4 .099 .047 .065 .211
14.5 43.0 623.5 .038 .019 .008 .065
14.0 21.6 302.4 .112 .051 .019 .182
12.9 16.9 218.0 .115 .048 .060 .223
15.4 35.21 542.1 .231 .113 .0581 .4021
10.8 21.11 227.9 .550 .194 .096 .840


00


$10.00
42.50
17.50
10.50
27.00
24.00
72.00
12.00
40.00
6.50
32.00
45.00
41.00
24.00
34.00
25.00
125.00
125.00









50

THE DRAFT OF PLOWS

Numerous tests show the following table a good basis for
figuring the draft of plows:

DRAFT PER SQUARE INCH OF CROSS SECTION OF PLOW

Pounds
In sandy soil ..................... 2 to 3
In corn stubble ................... 3
In wheat stubble .................. 4
In blue grass sod ................. 6
In June grass sod ................. 6
In clover sod ..................... 7
In clay soil ....................... 8
In prairie sod .................... 15
In virgin sod ..................... 15
In gumbo ........................ 20

Example-Suppose a plow rig has two 14-inch bottoms,
and the depth tp be plowed is 6 inches. A cross section of
each plow is therefore 14x6 inches, or 84 square inches.
Twice this for two bottoms is 168 square inches. Since, in
sandy soil, the pressure per square inch is three pounds.
Then 168x3 lbs. equals 504 lbs.-draft in sandy soil.-
Tractor Farming.



INOCULATING FOR LEGUMES

In the grouping below any one legume in a group will,
if it has nodules on its roots, inoculate for any other
legume in the same group, but so far as we know for no
legume in any other group:
Group 1-Red clover,
Crimson clover,
Alsike clover,
White clover,
Hop clover.
Group 2-Alfalfa,
Bur clover,
Sweet clover or Melilotus.








51

Group 3-Vetches, Canadian field peas, garden peas.
Group 4-Cowpea.
Group 5-Soy bean.
Group 6-Velvet bean.
Group 7-Lespedeza or Japan clover.
Group 8-Beggarweed.



WEIGHT OF SEEDS OF LEGUMES TO MAKE A
BUSHEL
Pounds
A lfalfa ...................................... 60
Bur clover (in burs) ...........................10 or 11
Canada field peas............................. 60
Cow peas ..................................... 60
Crimson clover ............................... 60
Lespedeza, Japan clover (unhulled) ............. 25
Melilotus, sweet clover (hulled) ................. 60
Peanuts ..................................... 22 to 28
Red clover .................................. 60
Soy beans ................................... 60
W hite clover ................................. 60
V etches ..................................... 60



DATES FOR SEEDING LEGUMES

Alfalfa (fall) ........................Sept. to Oct. 15
Alfalfa (spring) ....................Mar. to Apr. 15
Alsike clover ....................... Sept. to Oct. 15
Bur colver .........................Aug. to Oct. 15
Canada field peas......................Feb. to Mar. 15
Cowpeas ............................May to July 15
Crimson clover .......................Sept. to Oct. 15
Lespedeza (Japan clover) ..............March and April
Melilotus ..........................Mar. to Apr. 15
Peanuts ............................ May to July 1
Red clover .........................Sept. to Oct. 15
Soy beans ...........................May to July 10
White clover ..........................Sept. and Oct.
Velvet beans ...........................April to June
Vetches ............................ Sept. to Oct. 15










GRASS MIXTURES FOR PASTURES
For temporary pastures the number of plants is so
numerous that it is largely a matter of selection. If the
temporary pasture is for one or two year in a rotation,
the following plants and combinations of plants may be
used:
FOR DAMP LANDS
Pounds
R ed top .......................... '8
Meadow fescue .................... 10
Alsike clover ................. ..... 5
W hite clover ...................... 3
FOR UPLANDS
R ed top .......................... 8
Orchard grass ..................... 14
W hite clover ...................... 3
Lespedeza ........................ 25

THE HOUSEWIFE'S MONEY LOSS-IN
PERCENTAGES
What the Housewife loses in money-told in percent-
ages-per pound-per 1,000 calories (food value power)
and per protein pound (muscle and strength building qual-
ities), when she buys certain foods by the package and not
by the pound, is shown below.
The figures (fractions omitted) are based on the analysis
(found on page 16) of Mariner & Hoskins, the distin-
guished Chicago Chemists and Engineers; they do not, of
course, involve the cost of cooking the raw foods; in some
instances it costs nothing, in others very little.


o i..1,


Canned peaches cost in money percent- I
ages over dried peaches as follows...1 6% 206% 972%
Canned beans over dried beans....... 0% 87% 75%
Shredded wheat overd cracked wheat.. 375% 331% 208%
Corn flakes over corn meal........... 288% 262% 293%
Rolled oats over patmeal............. 140% 122% 56%
Puffed rice over rice................ 1171% 127% 140%










INSPECTIONS AT SHIPPING POINTS NOW
AUTHORIZED

FEDERAL EXAMINATION OF PERISHABLE FARM PRODUCTS
EXTENDED BY CONGRESS TO MEET. WIDE DEMAND

A recent act of Congress broadens the authority for the
inspection of perishable farm products by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture by providing for Federal certification
as to quality, grade, and condition of these commodities at
shipping points.
The extension of the service has met with the spontan-
eous expression of approval from producers, shippers, and
receivers of fruits and vegetables throughout the country,
as well as from State marketing officials, and many believe
that through this act one of the most far-reaching develop-
ments in the history of the industry has been inaugurated.

SERVICE STARTED IN 1917

The market inspection service was started in 1917, at
which time the Secretary of Agriculture was authorized
by Congress to investigate and certify to shippers as to the
condition of certain perishable farm products when re-
ceived in important central markets. The presence of com-
petent neutral inspectors in the leading markets has been
welcomed by members of the trade, who realize that their
influence can not be fully measured by the number of cars
which are actually inspected. The very fact that such a
service is available has deterred unscrupulous dealers and
shippers from attempting sharp practices.
There has been an increasing demand during the past
few years for a similar service at shipping points. Pro-
ducers were desirous of knowing before their product was
shipped whether or not they had fulfilled the terms of
their contracts, since in many, perhaps in most, cases they
disposed of their produce to local buyers. Shippers were
interested in the service as a basis for f. o. b. selling and it
was also realized that official certificates showing the qual-
ity and condition at both ends of the line would be invalu-
able in fixing the responsibility for deterioration in transit.
In response to lQcal demands, a number of State depart-
ments of agriculture inaugurated such a service at points
of origin, the work being carried on under a variety of










regulations. In Colorado, Wisconsin, and Nebraska in-
spections were required by law. In California, Washing-
ton, and Idaho the service was rendered only on request.
In some states, as in Colorado, practically all products were
inspected, while in others the work was limited to one or
more commodities, as in Nebraska, where potatoes only
were inspected, and in Washington, where potatoes and
apples only were inspected. During the 1921-22 shipping
season departments of the above-named states inspected a
total of more than 80,000 car lots of fruits and vegetables.
At the very outset there was an obvious need for an
agency which would assist in harmonizing the varying poli-
cies of the states and in bringing about a mutual under-
standing between shipping point and terminal services.
The Federal department, therefore, in practically all cases
co-operated closely with the State departments and in a
few cases furnished supervisors to act in an advisory
capacity.
With the .changed and broadened authority and in spite
of the fact that it was accompanied by no increase in the
appropriation of funds the situation has improved. Co-
operative agreements have already been drawn up with the
State departments of New Jersey, Wisconsin, Missouri,
Colorado, California, Washington, and Montana to provide
for a joint State and Federal service.
Under the provisions of these agreements the Federal
department may participate in the supervision of the work,
but without duplicating or supplanting existing State ma-
chinery. It is intended in so far as possible to make the
original inspection for grade final, and reinspections for
grade will be made only under conditions which will per-
mit a thorough examination of the product. Joint certifi-
cates will be received in all Federal courts as prima facie
evidence as to the truth of the statements contained therein
and in most of the co-operating States they will also be re-
ceived on he same basis in State courts.

HAS EDUCATIONAL VALUE

In addition to providing a highly desirable basis for
trading, the inspection of farm products at shipping points
is extremely important in an educational way and exerts a
potent influence in securing the adoption of proper methods
of grading, handling, and loading for shipment.











Already many requests are being filed with the U. S.
Department of Agriculture by shippers in territories where
no local machinery is available. It is possible that the
Federal department may offer its service at a few of these
points where there is a concentrated tonnage and where the
work would be fully self-supporting. The limiting factor
is the lack of funds as the fees collected by the department
may not be re-expended by the department to extend the
service, but must under the provisions of the law, be turned
into the Treasury of the United States.



A COMING INDUSTRY

Kline O. Varn, of Ft. Meade, Florida, writing under date
of July 17, 1922, among other things said:
You may not be familiar with all the inside information,
so I am telling you that grape growing is going to be a big
industry in Florida in a few years. I have been quietly
investigating and experimenting for several years and I
am now ready to tell the world it is a big and potential
thing. The Munson hybrids such as Carmen, R. W. Mun-
son, Armalaga and several others will grow, thrive and
bear in great profusion. The beauty about them is that
they ripen ahead of any other points in the U. S. even beat-
ing the Imperial Valley of California 2 to 4 weeks, which
is the earliest competitor we will have. These grapes will
come in at a time when there are no others in market, when
fruits of all kinds are scarce and will command a fancy
price. Then the growers will have no fear of freezes as
with the vegetables and orange.
I made the first commercial shipments this year ever
made out of Florida. They went forward in strawberry
refrigerators and one shipment at the Erie Piers in New
York was sold at auction and attended by over 50 buyers
who spoke very favorably of the quality. One of the
largest handlers of Colifornia grapes wired me that I had
certainly picked a winner if I could put these grapes on
that market in June in car lots. I am preparing to plant
50 acres this winter and will increase to 100 acres as soon
as I can. I am putting in a large nursery and will have
2,000,000 vines to help meet the enormous demand that is
bound to come. I expect to see thousands of acres planted











in the next five years. California shipped 35,000 car loads
last year; will have 45,000 cars this year. They planted
57,000 acres of new vineyards last year. They come in at
same time the whole U. S. comes in and make big money
growing them. Here we will be through by time California
starts and will have the cream of the whole deal.



PREDICTED EAST COAST WILL LEAD COUNTRY
IN PRODUCTS OF THE VINE

That the grape is destined to do as much for Florida as
any other horticultural product is being shown by interest
rapidly developing in many parts of the State in the plant-
ing and culture of vineyards varying from a few vines to
many acres.
While it has been determined that grapes do exception-
ally well in many parts of Florida, where the clusters of
fruit rival vine products to be found in any grape grow-
ing center of the United States, it now is being demon-
strated that practically all of the lands lying in the Lake
Worth drainage district are well suited to grape produc-
tion. From experiments conducted on muck lands in this
district it has been shown that rapid growth is sure and
that these thrifty vines will bear wonderful yields annually.
Predictions that this section eventually will be known as
the grape area of Florida as it now is known as the pine-
apple center, are based on grape experiments of the past
several years. News now comes from Jacksonville of in-
auguration of a determined effort on the part of landown-
ers of this section to make the middle East Coast the
Florida grape region and to capture supremacy in the
grape production field from California. Introduction of
this new industry in this immediate locality now is being
accomplished by the Lake Osborne Syndicate, headed by
T. J. McCarthy of Jacksonville, which will devote many
of its acres adjoining Lake Worth and Lantana on the west
to vineyards. Other members of the Lake Osborne Syndi-
cate are A. L. Kreiss, Robert Jones and W. R. Lether, all
of Jacksonville. A substantial interest in the syndicate,
however, also is held by residents of the north and west.
The company is maintaining offices at Jacksonville where
it has fruit specimens of this section on display at all times.











The Lake Osborne Syndicate recently began development
of hundreds of acres just to the west of Lake Worth,
where is purposes to cause a large settlement.

CALIFORNIANS INTERESTED

A considerable work was accomplished by the syndicate
within the past year with the result that several California
vineyard owners have visited this district, and the further
result that they have returned to the west to dispose of
their interests there with the purpose of entering into grape
growing on a large scale in he Lake Worth vicinity. They
found the soil here well adapted to grape cultivation. They
also found climatic conditions make it possible to place the
Florida grape crop in the market fully two months ahead
of the California crop.
Florida has become very alive to the great possibilities
offered in grapeculture, and more enthusiasm was noted at
the Florida Grape Growers' association held at Tampa
early last May than ever before. At that time the practical
grape growers of the State adopted the following resolution
unanimously:
Resolved, That it is the sense of the grape growers of
Florida that the growing of bunch grapes of many differ-
ent varieties and of delicious quality, on what is known as
adapted and disease-resistant stock, is not only practicable,
but already has become a relatively large and successful
industry; and that we come to this convention strength-
ened by our years of experience and demonstration, with
renewed assurance of the great possibilities of the develop-
ment of the grape industry in Florida, and with becoming
enthusiasm based on our individual experience, and in the
fullest faith in the possibilities of the industry as a perma-
nent source of increasing wealth of the State of Florida.








58

CAR-LOT SHIPMENTS OF STRAWBERRIES

To June 15, 1922


STATE
Tennessee .....................
Arkansas .....................
M issouri ......................
Louisiana .....................
V irginia ......................
M aryland .....................
North Carolina ................
Delaware .....................
Kentucky .....................
Florida .......................
Other States ..................


CARS
3,700
2,000
1,500
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,100
900
800
500
2,000


CAR-LOT SHIPMENTS CELERY FROM FLORIDA,
CALIFORNIA AND NEW YORK, 1921-1922


Florida California New York

Month 1921 1922 1921 1922 1921 1922
January .......... 388 303 956 873 328 261
February ......... 1,126 1,289 606 80 13 5
March ............ 1,494 1,662 260 98 ..... .....
April ............ 851 1,114 15 21..... .....
M ay ............. 252 385 3 . ... ....
June ............. 61 37 .. .. ............
Total, Jan. to June. 4,172 4,790 1,840 1,072 341 266
Season's shipments
to January ......... .... 1,494 1,564 2,451 2,769
Season's total ..... 4,1721 4,790 3,3341 2,6361 2,792 3,035











FLORIDA'S CITRUS FRUITS TO FILL 15,000,000
BOXES



DEPARTMENT'S ESTIMATE INDICATES THAT THE 1922-23
CROP WILL BE LARGER THAN THE 1921-22 PRODUCTION

Production of citrus fruits in Florida for the season of
1922-23 is estimated by the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture at 15,000,000 boexs. Of this total about 8,400,000
boxes will be oranegs and tangerines and about 6,600,000
boxes grapefruit. (An early forecast of the California
orange crop, made Aug. 1, is 13,750,000 boxes.)
Last season the commercial citrus crop of Florida was
approximately 13,300,000 boxes, of which 7,300,000 boxes
were oranges and 6,000,000 boxes grapefruit. Last year's
crop, however, would have been nearer 14,000,000 boxes
if the storm of October, 1921, had not destroyed a large
percentage of the fruit on the west coast.



FLORIDA WATERMELONS IN HEAVY SUPPLY
THIS YEAR



SHIPMENTS EXCEED 1921 MOVEMENT-GEORGIA AND TEXAS
CROPS SHORT-REVIEW OF EARLY SEASON

Features of the early watermelon season were the large
increase in shipments from Florida," the crop shortage in
Georgia and Texas, and the lower prices which prevailed
both in city markets and at shipping points.
The area planted to watermelons in Florida was about
35,000 acres, compared with 19,000 acres last year. The
shipping season opened early in May and until the middle
of June Florida had very little competition. Shipments
from that State averaged more than 2,000 cars a week
during the first half of June, compared with a weekly
movement of less than 1,000 cars in June, 1921.











PEAK OCCURS EARLY

The peak of the Florida movement occurred two weeks
earlier than last year, thus helping growers to clean up
their crop before shipments from competing sections be-
came heavy. This naturally helped to maintain prices of
Florida melons at fairly high levels, the June average be-
ing $200-$500 per carload in leading eastern markets. How-
ever, the fact that Florida shipped twice as many melons
as last year tended to make price levels about $300 below
those of 1921. At shipping points in the Ocala section,
f.o.b. prices during June ranged $100-$300 per car, com-
pared with $150-$600 the year before.
In Georgia, the leading watermelon State, the acreage
this year was estimated at 65,000 acres, an increase of 60%
over 1921, but total car-lot movement will not equal last
season's high mark of 16,000 cars because of adverse
weather conditions. The Georgia shipping season began in
the early part of June, and until July 1 shipments from
South Georgia were much in excess of the 1921 movement.
However, the eeffcts of excessively wet weather during the
growing period became apparent late in June. The yield
then rapidly declined. Movement from central Georgia
did not become heavy until about the middle of July. Many
melons in that section failed to mature properly, causing
July shipments of Georgia watermelons to be about 2,500
ears less than the movement in July, 1921.
Wholesale prices in eastern consuming centers ranged
generally $150-$450 per car, or about $50 below the average
for Florida melons. In 1921 Georgia stock sold about $100
higher than this season, notwithstanding the more abun-
dant supply. Poorer quality depressed the market this
year, and Georgia growers bad to sacrifice their Tom Wat-
son watermelons at f. o. b. prices ranging from $30 to $200
per carload of 1,000 melons. Irish Greys sold in the Macon
section the latter part of July at $100-$200.











MODEL MILK PLANT TO SUPPLY MIAMI WITH
ALL CLASSES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS


By A. W. ZIEBOLD, Miami City Milk Inspector,
in Florida Real Estate Journal and Industrial Record.

By the formation of the Dade Dairies Association, In-
corporated, a long needed institution for the sale and dis-
tribution of milk and its by-products has been perfected.
For years past it has been the practice of the dairymen
to distribute their own product at retail as well as whole-
sale. This antiquated metohd of distribution has been
proved inefficient in all parts of this country and else-
where, and for Miami to have continued this method would
have meant that the dairy industry could not prosper as it
should. Failing to prosper, even higher prices would have
resulted. The greatest benefit, generally speaking, will be
seen in the ultimate price adjustment of this necessary food
product when handled in greater volume of the Dade
Dairies Association, Incorporated.
The back country of this region is better suited for dairy-
ing than any other phase of agricultural pursuit. Because
of certain peculiar conditions, southeastern Florida will
eventually boast of dairying as its leading industry. Here
the South African grasses are very prolific and offer the
best roughage for cattle to be found anywhere in the
United States. They grow the year around and once
planted are spontaneous in their further propagation. Be-
cause of climatic conditions cattle are permitted to range
during the winter as well as in the summer. Dairy build-
ings need not be so extensive because of the fact that it is
not necessary to house them during the winter season. All
of these facts have finally shown that this industry can
and will thrive if properly directed and assisted by the
various interests charged with the control and furthering
of the industry.
The Dade Dairies Association, Incorporated, is a co-
operative corporation, formed by twenty local milk pro-
ducers, and has for its intent and purpose:
First, the collective marketing of milk.
Second, the manufacture of dairy by-products.
Third, the elimination of duplicated effort and the bet-
terment of their product.











Such intention, when practicable, must result in greater
efficiency and will benefit both producer and consumer.
The company is incorporated under the Florida laws with
$30,000 of capitalization, and has a governing body con-
sisting of a board of directors of seven members and a gen-
eral manager.
The producer contracts to sell his milk at 40 cents per
gallon delivered to the plant, where it is to be tested, graded
and packed and delivered. The operating cost is.to be
deducted from from the income, and the profits derived
from operating the plant is to be prorated on a gAllonage
basis to the producer. This plant began operation with a
demand for 150 gallons of milk daily. The demand was
increased in volume in a month to 500 gallons handled
daily, and at the present time, were it possible to obtain,
could handle 200 gallons more daily. It is hoped that
within one year this plant will be handling upward of 2,000
gallons daily, producing a good quality of whole milk,
cream, butter, cheese, buttermilk and all other by-products
of milk.
Heretofore, no attempt has been made to process milk,
with the result that certain milk by-products were not
obtainable on the Miami market or were excessively priced
when obtainable. It is expected by the effort to be directed
along the lines of by-product manufacture, that this con-
dition will be corrected and that by-products will be ob-
tainable at reasonable prices at all times.
It is the intention of the management to sell several
grades of milk which are to include certified, and inspected,
and market milk, which will be graded both as to price and
quality.
Every manner of modern equipment used in the sanitary
handling of milk is being added to the plant. Automatic
bottling and capping equipment, pasteurization and steri-
lizing equipment, complete facilities for the proper refrige-
ration of the product have been and are being added to
insure a wholesome product. Employees are being trained
for their special duties. Medical examination of all per-
sons engaged in handling the product is demanded and
many other precautionary measures are being taken.
Briefly, it is hoped to make the Dairies Association In-
corporated the model milk plant of the South,
Out of 35 cows in the Register of Merit, Dade county
has 13 and Palm Beach county has 7 entries,. giving a ma-










jority of the cows so entered to Dade and Palm Beach coun-
ties. Dade was the first tick-free county in Florida, and
Dade was the first county to put a cow in the Register of
Merit, and has more pure-bred cattle in proportion than
any other county in Florida.



HAVE YOU?
Running Water
Bath Tub
Sleeping Porch
Indoor Toilet
Vacuum Cleaner
Power Washer
Refrigerator
Refrigerator
.Oil Cook Stove
Electric or Gas Iron
Telephone
Piano
Automobile


HOME GERMINATION TESTS.
(Collins Publicity Service)

Two kinds of seed-bed are commonly used for home germ-
ination tests: (1) Canton flannel of medium weight, cut
in strips 8 by 12 inches and folded twice lengthwise, should
be used for peas, beas, beans, corn, lupines, cotton, cow-
peas, and other seeds of similar size; (2) blue blotting
paper, free from injurious chemicals or dye that will dis-
solve in water, cut in strips 6 by 19 inches and folded twice
lengthwise, should be used for small seeds. The Bell Jar,
an inverted glass dome used for maintaining moisture con-
ditions, is used with a few of the smallest seeds. Blotting
paper should be used only once.

B-Between blotting paper.
2B-On top of blotting paper.
BJ-Bell Jar (these seeds may also be germinated in
daylight germinator).
C-Between folds of cloth.











FIELD CROPS

Day for Making
Germination Report
Kind of Seed Seed Tempera-
Bed ture
Fahr. Prelim- Final
inary

Barley ............. B 68 3d 5th
Beans ............... c 68-86 3d 6th
Beets ............... B 68-86 5th 10th
Buckwheat .......... B 68-86 3d 5th
Corn ................ c 68-86 3d 5th
Cotton .............. 68-86 4th 7th
Flax ............... TB 68-86 2d 5th
Hemp ............... B 68-86 3d 5th
Oats ................ B 68 3d 5th
Peas ............... c 68-86 4th 8th
Rice ................ B 68-86 3d 6th
Rye ................ B 68 3d 5th
Tobacco ............. TB 68-86 7th 14th
Turnips ............. B 68 3d 5th
Wheat .............. B 68 3d 5th

In the case of cereals and timothy grown under such con-
ditions that they are frosted or exposed to cold weather
before harvest, the germination tests should be made at
lower temperatures, 270 to 360 F., and continued for longer
periods than for normal seed.









65

VEGETABLES

I, Day for Making
Tempera- Germination Report
Kind of Seed Seed ture
*Bed Fahr.
Prelim- Final
__inary

Asparagus ........... c 68-86 6th 14th
Beans ............... c 68-86 3d 6th
Beets ............... B 68-86 4th 10th
Cabbages .............. B 68 3d 5th
Carrots ............. B 68-86 6th 14th
Cauliflower .......... B 68 3d 5th
Celery .............. TB 68-86 10th 21st
Cucumbers .......... B 68-86 3d 5th
Eggplant ............ B 68-86 8th 14th
Kale ................ Bs 68 3d 5th
Lettuce ............. B 68 2d 4th
Muskmelons .........I B 68-86 3d 5th
Okra ................ c 68-86 4th 14th
Onions .............. B 68-86 4th 7th
Parsley ............. B 68-86 14th 28th
Parsnips ............ B 68-86 6th 21st
Peas ................ c 68-86 3d 6th
Peppers ............. B 68-86 4th 10th
Pumpkins ........... c 68-86 3d 6th
Radishes ............ B 68 3d 5th
Salsify .............. c 68-86 5th 10th
Spinach ............. B 68 5th 10th
Squashes ............ c 68-86 3d 6th
Sweet Corn .......... c 68-86 3d 5th
Tomatoes ........... B 68-86 4th 10th
Turnips ............. B 68 3d 5th
Watermelon ......... B 68-86 4th 6th

Note.-It is recommended that the germination of beet
seed be confined to determining the percentage of balls
which gives sprouts. Soak six hours in water at medium
temperature before testing for germination.


3-Bul.











GRASSES, CLOVERS, FORAGE PLANTS

SDay for Making
Tempera- I Germination Report
Kind of Seed Seed ture
Bed. Fahr. r
Prelim- Final
inary__

Alfalfa ............... B 68 3d .5th
Bermuda grass ....... BJ 68-86 10th 21st
Blue grass ........... BJ 68-86 14th 28th
Brome grass .......... B 68-86 5th 10th
Clover, Alsike........ 9B 68 3d 5th
Clover, crimson ...... B 68 2d 4th
Clover, mammoth red. B 68 3d 5th
Clover, common red.. B 68 3d 5th
Clover, white ........ TB 68 3d 5th
Cow peas ............ c 68-86 4th 10th
Crested dogstail ...... B 68-86 10th 18th
Meadow fescue ....... B 68-86 5th 10th
Other fescues
(Ovina group) :.... B 68-86 10th 21st
Meadow foxtail ........ B 68-86 6th 10th
Millet ............... B 68-86 3d 5th
Johnson grass ........ B 68-95 6th 10th
Orchard grass ........ B 68-86 6th 14th
Pasplum .. ............ B 68-95 6th 14th
Rape ............... B 68 3d 5th
Redtop .............. TB 68-86 5th 10th
Rescue grass ......... BJ 68-95 10th .21st
Rhodes grass ......... .B 68-86 6th 10th
Rye grass ........... B 68-86 6th 10th
Sorghum ...:........ B 68-86 3d 5th
Sudan grass ........ B 68-86 3d 5th.
Soy beans ........... c 68-86 4th 8th
Sweet vernal grass.... B 68-86 6th 14th
Tall meadow oat grass. B 68-86 6th 10th
Teosinte ............. B 86 4th 8th
Timothy ............. TB 68-86 5th 8th
Turnips ............. B 68 3d 5th
Velvet grass........... B 68-86 6th 10th'
Vetch ............... c 68-86 4th 14th










87

In the case of alfalfa, clover, and some other leguminous
seeds, the test will indicate that a certain nuniber'have
undergone no change. These are called hard seeds, and
though under field conditions some would probably'develop
they are of doubtful value and should be discounted in
making the test.



ABILITY TO GERMINATE

-.8 S
Kind of Seed Kind of Seed


Barley ...........- 3 IOat ........ ........ 3
Bean .............. 3 Onion ............. 2
Beet ............. 6 Orchard grass ,..! 2
Buckwheat ....... 2 Parsnip .......... 2
Cabbage ......... 5 Peanut ............ 1
Carrot ........... 4 Peas ............. 3
Celery ........... 8 .Pumpkin ......... 5
Clover ........... 3 |Radish ........... 5
Corn ............ 2 Rape ............ 5
Cucumber, common 6 Rye ............. 2
Eggplant ........ 6 Salsify ........... 2
Flax ............. 2 Soy bean ......... 2
Hop ............. 2 Squash .......... 6
Lettuce, common.. 5 Timothy ......... 2
M illet ........... 2 Turnip .......... 5
Muskmelon ....... 5 Watermelon ...... 6
Mustard ......... 3 Wheat ........... 2

Generally speaking, most seeds retain their viability to
such extent that they may be used after a longer period of
proper storage than most persons Irealize. But they can
never be safely used even after one year, except after their
condition is proven by test.

STANDARDS OF GERMINATION

It is evident that what would be considered a favorable
test for one kind of seed might be decidedly unfavorable









68

for another kind. It will, therefore, be of value to make
certain comparisons with the standard percentage of germ-
inations given below to ascertain the relative value of the
seed under consideration.

90-95%-Barley, Beans, Buckwheat, Cabbage, Collard,
Field Corn, Mustard, Oats, Peas, Radish, Rape,
Rye, Turnip, Wheat.
85-90%-Alfalfa, Crimson Clover, Red Clover, Sweet
Corn, Meadow Fescue, Lettuce, Kaffir Corn,
Melon, Millets, Pumpkins, Sorghums, 'Spurry,
Squash, Timothy, Tomato.
80-85%-Asparagus, Carrot, Cauliflower, Okra, Spinach.
75-80%-Brome Grass, Alsike, White Clover, Eggplant,
Redtop, Salsify, Tobacco.
70-75%-Parsley, Parsnips.
60-65%-Celery.
45-50%-Canadian Blue. Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass,
Sweet Clover.








ESTIMATED VALUE OF PLOW LANDS
(Collins Publicity Service, Philadelphia)

Average of Poor Average of Good
PPlow Lands low Lands Average of all Plow Lands
State
1920 1919 1918 1920 1919 1918 1920 1919 1918 1917
__ _________________________________________


Miaine .......
New Hampshire
Vermont .....
Massachusetts
Rhode Island..
Connecticut ..
New York ....
New Je'sey ...
Pennsylvania
Delaware .....
Maryland ....
Virginia....
West Virginia.
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia ......


d U.UU
24.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
35.00
39.00
50.00
40.00
44.00
46.00
34.00
32.00
42.00
41.00
30.00


St4.UU
23.00
30.00
41.00
47.00
37.00
38.00
50.00
38.00
36.00
39.00
31.00
29.00
31.00
27.00
24.50


i 24.UU
21.00
28.00
41.00
46.00
37.00
33.00
58.00
37.00
35.00
33.00
29.00
28.00
29.00
23.00
20.00


56Ob.0
64.00
69.00
103.00
105.00
100.00
84.00
104.00
86.00
86.00
82.00
73.00
75.00
87.00
82.00
63.00


$ 5u.uU $ 48.UU
54.001 52.00
64.001 64.00
92.00] 92.00
92.00 90.00
80.0bj 75.00
80.001 75.00
103.001 108.00
79.00 79.00
70.001 68.00
66.00! 61.00
62.001 61.00
64.001 64.00
67.00 58.00
56,001 45.00
49.301 40.00


$ 42.00o
42.00
48.00
72.00
85.00
60.001
64.00
80.00
66.00
66.00
60.00
53.00
51.00
63.00
61.00
46.001


$ 37.00
39.00
44.00
68.00
73.00
55.00
60.00
76.00
60.00
55.00
53.00
47.00o
44.00
50.00
45.001
37.501


$ 35.00
39.00
44.00
68.00
70.00
52.00
58.00
78.00
58.00
59.00
47.00
43.00
43.00
42.00
36.00
28.00


$ 34.00
37.00
42.00
64.00 S
62.00
53.00
55.00
69.00
57.00
55.00
48.00
36.50
38.50
35.00
33.00
27.50









ESTIMATED VALUE OF PLOW LANDS, (Continued.)
(Collins Publicity Service, Philadelphia)


Average of Poor Average of Good
Plow Lands Plow Lands
State -
1920 | 1919 1918 1920 1919 I 1918
________ I I II


Florida ......
Ohio .... .....
Indiana ...
Illinois ......
Michigan ..:..
Wisconsin ....
Minnesota ....
Iowa .........
Missouri .....
North Dakota..
South Dakota..
Nebraska .....
Kansas .......
Kentucky....
Tennessee ....
Alabama .....
Mississippi ...


23.001 21.00
69.00 63.00
80.00 68.00
115.00 100.00
41.00 40.00
66.00 60.00
73.00 59.00
157.001 129.00
60.00 51.00
31.00 27.50
67.001 50.00
85.001 67.00
50.001 44.00
42.00 37.00
40.Q0 31.00
20.00 17.00
23.00 16.00


21.00
61.00
67.00
94.00
38.00
56.00
54.00
119.00
47.00
26.00
41.00
60.00
42.00
31.00
30.00
15.00
15.00


53.001 48.00 42.00
132.001 113.001 107.00
150.001 126.001 120.00
213.00 170.001 160.00
80.00 76.001 75.00
125.00 110.001 100.00
120.00 88.001 85.00
257.00 196.001 180.00
110.00 91.00 83.00
49.00 43.001 41.00
108.00 77.00 63.00
150.00 115.00 110.00
90.00 77.00 74.00
95.00 80.001 65.00
90.00 75.001 67.00
43.00 33.00 30.00
49.00 33.50 31.00


Average of all Plow Lands
.-- I .
1920 1919 1918 1917

36.00 33.00 32.001 27.50
105.00 91.00 86.001 80.00
119.00 100.00 96.50 87.00
170.00 144.00 132.00 120.00
64.001 61.00 60.00 55.00
100.00 89.00 82.00 80.00
100.00 78.00 75.00 68,00
219.001 169.001 154.00 140.00
87.00 72.00 66.00 60.00
43.00 37.00 35.00 33.00
90.00 67.00 56.00 54.00
125.00 95.00 80.00 74.00
70.00 61.00 58.00 53.00
70.00 61.00 50.00 41.00
60.00 53.00 48.00 41.00
30.00 24.00 21.00 17.00
35.00 25.50 23.00 20.00









Le
Ti
0
A
M
W
C
N
A
U
N
I(

0
C


ouisiana.... 34.00 25.001
exas ........ 36.00 27.001
klahoma .... 30.00 24.00'
rkansas ..... 26.00 22.00
ontana ..... 21.00 21.00
ryoming ..... 34.00 26.00
olorado ... 40.001 36.00
ew Mexico... 30.00 30.00
rizona ...... 90.00 60.00
tah ......... 60.00 55.00
evada ....... 46.001 50.00
laho ......... 60.001 50.00
rashington .. 68.00 60.00
region ....... 60.00 53.00
alifornia .. 70.00 69.00

United States $ 60.76 $ 51.26


26.00
30.00
23.00
20.00
22.00
25.00
35.00
25.00
52.00
48.00
42.00
43.00.
56.00
53.00
66.00

$ 47.86


65.00
72.00
63.00
65.00
48.00
70.00
88.00
60.00
180.00
135.00
110.00
135.00
150.00
130.00
175.00

$113.34


44.00 45.00 50.00 33.00
58.001 57.00 56.001 46.00
51.001 48.001 47.001 38.00
50.001 45.00 45.001 38.00
45.001 45.00 36.001 34.00
53.001 49.00 53.00 43.00
80.001 74.00 66.00 60.001
60.001 60.00 45.00 45.00
125.001 116.00 130.0.0 100.00
125.001 113.00 103.00 95.00
110.001 110.00 80.00 85.00
98.00 89.00 105.00 76.00
121.001 122.00 115.00 95.00
108.00 111.001 100.00 81.00
165.00 168.00 130.00 121.00

$ 91.83 $ 85.48 $ 90.01 $ 74.31


33.00
45.00
35.00
31.00
35.00
41.00
55.00
42.00
98.00
86.00
80.00
70.00
94.00
84.00
120.00

$ 68.38


25.00
38.00
30.00
27.00
31.50
30.00
55.00
36.00
85.00
70.00
60.00
58.00
80.00 -a
70.00
110.00

$ 62.17


1











PRINCIPAL METHODS OF SHIPMENT AND SALE

(Collins Publicity Service)

In shipping to market either by farmer, buyer or co-
operative association terms of shipping have often come to
be used loosely. A remedy for this condition is to bear
in mind what each of the terms should signify and for this
purpose this condensed table of essential facts is furnished:
(1) On consignment; (2) f.o.b.; (3) on track; (4) deliv-
ered; (5) to arrive; (6) sold by contract; 7) by auction;
(8) f.a.s.
On Consignment-Usually unsatisfactory except in cer-
tain standardized trades. Commission merchant finds pur-
chaser and renmits, minus commission and expenses.
Obvious disadvantages are suspicion and risk of loss to
shipper in accident or handling.
F. 0. B.-(fre on board-often used loosely, meaning on
track, delivered or to arrive): Buyer stands expense of
transportation, which he deducts from selling price (the
difference usually approximating price at shipping point).
Price that applies is either that at shipping point current
on day of sale or that at shipping point on day of arrival
at destination, as may be agreed.
On Track-Desirable but not common. Same as f. o. b.
with price at shipping point fixed on date of sale. Used
for goods of superior quality, known brands or for short
shipments.
Delivered-Considered more desirable than f. o. b. com-
mission method without price guarantee but not as attrac-
tive as "track" sale. Shipper takes transit risks, however.
Sale implies that the shipper pays the freight and other
charges and deilvers at market of the buyer. Buyer re-
ports gross price but deducts the various charges. Prices
apply at destination on day of arrival at market.
To Arrive-Not very common, though frequent in grain
trade. Like delivered sale except that price applies to
day of sale. It is sometimes an advantage to know exact
price to be received. Buyer waits until car arrives to check
before settling.
Sale by Contract-Means what the name implies-agree-
ment to deliver in the future at stipulated price. Some-
times it is merely an assurance that all or part of a product
will be marketed by one who agrees to get the best possi-










73

ble price. Growers in consideration of advance of money
agree to grow certain crops. Examples of this method are
the creameries, wheat elevators, canning and best sugar
factories. Its worst feature is temptation not to live up to
agreement on the part of grower.
Auction-Private sales or auction sales are conducted
at some country points but more commonly in wholesale
markets. Buyers inspect product in central warehouses.
Growers pay warehouse fe.e This method is followed with
tobacco, pure bred stock and certain fruit in wholesale
markets.
F. A. S. (free alongside steamer or "On Dock")-Prin-
cipally used in exporting, otherwise same as f. o. b. ship-
ment.
Methods of payment usually vary with the needs of the
grower and his method of selling. Cash may be had with
sale or after short wait. Drafts are often drawn on com-
mission man by premission at time of shipment. Funds are
raised from individual farmers and from the local banks,
with the goods themselves as security.












SGovernment of Florida

In Outline

BY T. J. BROOKS

Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture

A. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT:

(a) SENATE: Composed of thirty-two members elected
for four years-one-half alternating with the
other half, by even and odd numbered districts,
biennially.

(b) HOUSE: Composed of eighty-four members elected
biennially by counties, representation based on
population of last census preceding the legisla-
tive reapportionment. There has been no re-
apportionment since 1887.

B. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT:

(a) SUPREME COURT: Consisting of not less than three,
and not more than six members. The Legisla-
ture of 1911 placed the number at five.

(a') Method of Selection: Elective, six year term
for each and elected at alternating elections.

(b ) Jurisdiction:

(a") Original, may issue
1-Writs of mandamus,
2-Writs of certiorari,
3-Writs of prohibition,
4-Writs of quo warrant,
5-Writs of habeas corpus,
6-All' writs necessary or proper to
the complete exercise of its juris-
diction.










7-Any member has power to issue
writs of habeas corpus upon peti-
tion or on behalf of any person
held in actual custody and may
make such writs returnable before
him or the full bench, or any
Justice thereof, or before any Cir-
cuit Judge.

(b") Appellate in

1-All cases of law and equity origi.
nating in Circuit Courts;
2-Appeals from Circuit Courts in
cases arising before Judges of the
County Courts in matters pertain-
ing to their probate jurisdiction;
the management of estates of in-
fants;
3-Cases of conviction of felony in
the Criminal Courts;
4-All criminal cases originating in
the Circuit Courts.

(b) CIRCUIT COURTS: CIRCUIT JUDGES-

(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by the
Governor and confirmed by the Senate for a
period of six years. By custom they run in
primaries.

(b') Jurisdiction:

(a") Original and exclusive in

1-All cases in equity;
2-All cases of law not cognizable by
inferior courts;
3-All cases involving the legality of
tax assessment or toll;'
4-Action of ejectment;
5-All actions involving the titles or
boundaries of real estate;











6-All criminal cases not cognizable
by the inferior courts;
7-Actions of forcible entry and un-
lawful detainer-and such other as
the Legislature may provide;
8-Issuing writs of mandamus, in-
junction, quo warrant, certiorari,
prohibition, habeas corpus, and all
writs, etc.

(b") Appellate in

1-All civil and criminal cases arising
in the county courts or before the
County Judge in counties not hav-
ing county courts;
2-All misdemeanors tried in criminal
courts;
3-Judgments and sentences of
Mayor's court;
4-All cases arising before Justices of
the Peace in counties where there
are no county courts;
5-Matters arising before County
Judges pertaining to their probate
jurisdiction, or to the estates and
interests of minors;
6-Such other matters as the Legis-
lature may prescribe.

(c) CRIMINAL COURTS: JUDGES

(a') Method of Selection: Appointed by Gov-
ernor for four years. These courts are
created by the Legislature. County Judges'
Courts in such counties have no jurisdiction
and no prosecuting attorney.

(b') Jurisdiction: In all criminal cases, not cap-
ital, which shall arise in said counties re-
spectively.











(d) CIVIL COURTS OF RECORD: JUDGES

(a') Method of Selection: Appointed' by the
Governor and confirmed by the Senate--term
four years.

(b') Jurisdiction: Original and exclusive in

(a") All cases at law including writs of at-
tachment and garnishment in value
under $1,500.

(b") Proceedings relating to forcible entry
or unlawful detention of lands and
tenements. (Has not jurisdiction in
cases of equity, or cases involving the
legality of a tax, assessment, a toll, or
of action of ejectment, or of action
involving the title or boundaries of
real estate or in eases involving less
than $100.)

(e) COUNTY COURTS:

(a') Method of Organization: By legislative
enactment.

(b') Jurisdiction:

(a") Original in

1-All cases at law in which the de-
mand or value shall not exceed
$500.
2-Proceedings relating to forcible
entry;
3-Unlawful detention of lands and
tenements;
4-Misdemeanors.
(b") Appellate in
1-Cases arising in the courts of
Justices of the Peace











(f) COUNTY JUDGE:

(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four
years. Also Judge 'of County Court where
established.

(b') Jurisdiction:

{a") Original in
1-All cases in which the value of
property involved shall not exceed
$100.
2-'Proceedings relating to forcible
entry or unlawful detention of
lands and tenements;
3-Such criminal cases as the Legis-
lature may prescribe;
4-Settlement of estates of decedents
and minors;
5-Pr6bate wills;
6-Grant letters testamentary and of
administration and guardianship;
7-The power of committing magis-
trate;
S--ssue all licenses required by law
to be issued in the county.

(g) JUSTICES OF THE PEACE:

(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four
S.years.

(b') Jurisdiction:

(a") Original only:

1-Cases in which the value of prop-
erty involved does not exceed
$100;
.2-Criminal cases, excepting felonies,
as may be prescribed by law;
3--Issue process for the arrest of all
persons charged with felonies and
misdemeanors not within his juris-








79

.diction to try, and make the same
returnable before himself, or the
County Judge for examination,
commitment, or bail of the accused.

C. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT:

(a) THE GOVERNOR-CHIEF MAGISTRATE:

(a') How Chosen:. By election every four years,
not eligible for two terms in succession.

(b') Powers and Duties:

1-Commander-in-Chief of the military
forces of the State except when they are
called into the Federal service;
2-Executes the laws of the State and recom-
mends measures to the .Legislature;
3-May demand of the-Supreme Court in-
Sterpretation of provisions of the State
Constitution upon any question affecting
his executive powers;
4-Signs all grants and commissions;
5-Has power to suspend officers who are
.not liable to impeachment;
6-Has veto power of bills passed by the
Legislature ,or to disapprove any items
in bills making appropriations. Veto
,may be over-ruled by a two-thirds vote of
members present in each house.

MEMBER OF THE FOLLOWING BOARDS AND
COMMISSIONS :

1-Board of Commissioners, of State Institu-
tions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Internal Improvement;
4-Board, of Commissioners of Everglades
Drainage District;
5-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
6-State. Pension Board;
7-Board of Pardons;










8-Tax Equalization Board;
9-Board of Managers of the Florida Farm
Colony for the Feeble-minded;
10-Sinking Fund Commission;
11-Budget Commission;
12-Text Book Commission.

(b) THE OFFICE OF SECRETARY OF STATE:

(a') Method of Selection: By election every four
years.

(b') Functions: Is a member of the following
Boards and Commissions:

1--State Canvassing Board;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Insti-
tutions;
3-Pardoning Board;
4-State Board of Education;
5-State Live Stock Sanitary Board.

(c') Divisions of his Office: Has charge of cap-
itol and grounds:

1-Division of Letters Patent;
2-Division of Commissions;
3-Division of Recording and Filing.

(c) THE OFFICE OF ATTORNEY GENERAL:

(a') Method of Selection: Elected every four
years.

(b') Functions: Is a member of the following
Boards and Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-State Board of Pardons;
4--Board of Tax Equalizers;
5-Foreign Investment Board;
6-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
7-Board of Railroad Property Assessors;










8-Board of Commissioners of Everglades
Drainage District;
9-Board of Trustees of Internal Improve-
ment Fund;
10-State Canvassing Board;
11-State Live Stock Sanitary Board.

(c') Legal Advisor of

1-The Governor;
2-The Cabinet Officers;
3-State Board of Health;
4-State Road Department;
5-State Hotel Commission;
6-State Shell Fish Commission;
7-State Plant Board;
8-State Board of Control;
9-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
10-Board of Tax Equalization;
11-Is the State Supreme Court Reporter.

(d) THE OFFICE OF COMPTROLLER:
(a') Method of Selection: By election every four
years.

(b') Functions: Member of the following Boards
and Commissions:
1-Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-State Canvassing Board;
4-Board of Finance;
5-Pension Board;
6-Railroad Assessment Board;
7-Board of Commissioners of Everglades
Drainage District;
8-Board of Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund;
9-Budget Commission;
10-Board of Appraisers of Securities;
11-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
12-State Text Book Commission;
13-Foreign Investment Company Board.
4-Bunl.










(c') Divisions of his Office:


1-Division
2-Division
3-Division
4-Division
5-Division
6-Division
7-Division
8-Division
9-Division
10-Division


Accounts;
Supervisor of State Banks;
Motor Vehicle Registration;
Auditing-State and County;
Tax Redemption;
Pensions;
Railroad Assessment;
County Depositories;
the "Blue Sky" Law;
Bank Receivership.


(e) THE OFFICE OF TREASURER:

(a') Method of Selection: By election every four
years.

(b') Functions: Is a member of the following
Boards and Commissions:

1-Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions;
2-State Board of Education;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades
Drainage District;
4-Board of Trustees of Internal Improve-
ment Fund;
5-Board of Pensions;
6-Board of Tax Equalization;
7-State Text Book Commission;
8-Ex-Officio Insurance Commissioner.

(c') Divisions of his Office:

1-Division of Accounts;
2-Division of Insurance.

(f) THE OFFICE OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
INSTRUCTION:

(a') Method of Selection: By election every four
years.












(b') Functions: Is a member of the following
Boards and Commissions:

1-State Board of Education;
2-Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions;
3-State Vocational Education Board;
4-State Text Book Commission;
5-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
6-Board of Managers of Florida Farm
Colony.
(c') Divisions of his Office:
1-Division of State High School Inspector;
2-Division of Rural School Inspectors;
3-Division of State Board of Examiners;
4-Division of State Director of Vocational
Education;
(a") Division of State Supervisor of
Agriculture;
(b") Division of State Supervisor of
Trades and Industries;
(c") Division of State Shpervisor of
Home Economics;
5-Division of State Agent for Negro Schools

(g) THE OFFICE OF (COMMISSIONER OF AGRICLTITTTRE:

(a') Method of Selection: By election every four
years.

(b') Functions: Is a member of the following
Boards and Commissions:

1-Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions;
2-Board of Pardons;
3-Board of Commissioners of Everglades
Drainage District;
4-Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund;
5-State Live Stock Sanitary Board;
6-State Text Book Commission.











(c') Divisions of his Office:

1-Division of Agriculture and Immigration;
also conducts Census Bureau and Enu-
meration of State Resources;
2-Division of Pure Food and Drugs, Stock
Feed, Fertilizers and Citrus Fruits;
3-Division of Land;
4-Division of Field Notes;
5-Division of Prison;
6-Division of Shell Fish Commission;
7-Division of Chemistry;
8-Division of Oil Inspection;
9-Division of State Market Bureau.

(h) BOARDS:

1-Board of Commissioners of State Ihstitutions:
This Board is provided for in the Constitu-
tion and is composed of the Governor and the
cabinet. It has charge of the eleemosynary
institutions of the State-the Industrial
School for Boys, Industrial School for Girls,
State Asylum, State Farm-lets contracts for
State printing and makes text book contracts,
supervises State buildings and lets contracts
for improvements.
2-State Board of Education: This Board is
also established by the Constitution. It is
composed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Treasurer, Secretary of State, and State
Superintendent of Public Instruction. It has
charge of the State school fund, and colabera-
tive supervision over State Colleges and the
University with the Board of Commissioners
of State Institutions. It has the power of
veto over acts of the Board of Commissioners
of State Institutions in the appointment of
teachers and the setting of salaries. It may
remove subordinate school officers.
3-State Board of Pardons: This is another
Board created by the Constitution. It is com-
posed of the Governor, Attorney General,
Comptroller, Commissioner of Agriculture












and Secretary of State. It passes on all ques-
tions of pardons.
4-State Board of Control: This statutory
Board was created when the Legislature un-
dertook to consolidate the institutions of
higher education. It supervises the expendi-
tures for the Institutions of Higher Learn-
ing and makes recommendations to the Legis-
lature concerning them. The personnel is
appointed by the Governor-five in number
selected from different sections of the State.
5-Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund:*
They administer the disposition of State lands
and the proceeds thereof. They are the
Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller,
Treasurer, and Commissioner of Agriculture.
6-State Pension Board: Passes on all applica-
tions for pensions. Composed of the Gov-
ernor, Comptroller and Treasurer.
7-State Board of Health: Composed of five
members appointed by the Governor. Its
duty is to administer laws on sanitation and
health.
8-State Live Stock Sanitary Board: Composed
of the Governor and the Cabinet. Its func-
tion is to direct the work of eradication of
the cattle tick, tuberculosis and hog cholera.
9-State Plant Board: The personnel is the
same as that of the State Board of Control.
Its duty is to administer the law on plant dis-
eases and the shipping of plants.
10-State Finance Board: Composed of the Gov-
ernor, Comptroller and Treasurer. It deals
with financial questions in which the State is
a party and with general financial questions.
11-Foreign Investment Board: Composed of the
Attorney General and the Comptroller. Ad-
ministers laws on foreign corporations doing
business in the State.
12-State Canvassing Board: Composed of Sec-
retary of State, Attorney General and Treas-
urer. Canvasses and reports on all election
returns.











(i) COMMISSIONS:
13-State Railroad Commission: Composed of
three members elected every four years. It is
the duty of the Board to look after public
interests in telephone, telegraph, railroads and
common carriers.
14-Board of Managers of Florida Colony for the
Feeble Minded: Composed of the Governor,
Superintendent of Public Instruction and
three non-official members.
15-Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drain-
. age District: Composed of the Governor,
Attorney General, Comptroller and Commis-
sioner of Agriculture. Tt is a governing
Board which has charge of the drainage
projects and the general work of reclaiming
the Everglades.
16-Sinking Fund commission : Composed of the
Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney Gen-
eral, Treasurer and Superintendent of'Public
Instruction. Administers moneys received by
the State from banks as interest on money on
deposit, for retiring the State debt.
17-State Road Department: Composed of five
commissionerss who are appointed by the Gov-
ernor, one from each Congressional District
and one from the State-at-large. It directs
the construction of State highways.
18-Budget Commission: Composed of the Gov-
ernor, Comptroller and Treasurer. Proposes
budget to the Legislature for various State
expenditures.
(i) OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS:
1-State Geologist: Appointed by the Governor
for four years. Makes geological surveys of
the State. Gathers specimens and collects
data on geological subjects and publishes in
reports.
2--State Labor Inspector: Appointed by the
Governor for two years. It is his duty to see
that the laws on child labor in factories are
enforced, to see that safe and sanitary places
are furnished by employers.










3-Hotel Commissioner: Appointed by the Gov-
ernor for four years. His duty is to inspect
hotels, boarding houses, restaurants and cafes
as to safety and sanitation Refusal to com-
ply with his specifications renders the offender
subject to fine for each day after receiving
orders. Injunction proceedings may be had.
4-State Equalizer of Taxes: Appointed by the
Governor for two years. His findings are re-
viewed by the State Board of Equalizers com-
posed of Governor, Attorney General and
Treasurer.
5-Adjutant-General: Appointed by the Gov-
ernor and holds at his pleasure by provision
of the Constitution; by Statute of 1921 the
appointment is by advice and consent of the
Senate. It has been customary to place names
of aspirants for the position on the primary
ticket.
While the Governor is Commander-in-Chief of
the State troops, except when in the service of
the National Government, the Adjutant-Gen-
eral is the active head and chief of staff. He
attends to the details and is the medium of
written communications to troops and to indi-
viduals in the military service. The State-
Troops are known as the National Guard as
they are aided and partly trained by Federal
officers.










CONTENTS
P
Preface ................................. ............
Florida's Crop Acreage and Values.........................
Real Wealth of Florida ..................................
Percapita State Debts ..................................
Shipments of Fruits and Vegetables....................
Live Stock Values.....................................
Timber ................................... ........
Standard Containers ....................................
U. S. Grades for Potatoes................................
Northwest Division ..................................... .. 1
N northeast D division ........................................ 2
Central Division .................... .. ................ 2.
Southern Division ........................................ 2!
As to Healthfulness ............................... ....... 2.
How to Have Flowers All the Year Round ................... 2S
Trees and Shrubs for the South......................... 30
Soil-Building Rotation ................................... 31
Organizations in Other Countries.......................... 31
Who Eats Meats ............................ .... ......... 32
Rotation of Crops for Hogs.............................. 34
"Cranking up for Canning".............................. 34
Substitutes for Manures.................................. 41
Green Manures ..................................... ..... 42
Different Rotations .................... ................ 42
Subjects for Debate .................... ................. 44
Torrens Land Registration. .............. ........... 44
W hitewash ............................................ 45
Funds for Good Roads................................... 45
W inter Crops ............................................ 47
Farm Implements ......... ............................. 49
Ifioculating for Legumes .................................. 50
Legum e Seed .......................... .................. 51
Grass Mixtures for Pastures .............................. 52
Buying by Package V. S. Buyingby Pound .................. 52
Inspection at Shipping Point Now Authorized .............. 53
A Coming Industry-Grapes.............................. 55
Car-Lot Shipments of Strawberries ...................... .58
Car-Lot Shipments of Celery............................. 58
Citrus Fruit Crop for 1922 ............................... 59
Watermelon Crop for 1922................................ 59
Model Milk Plant to Supply Miami ......................... 61
Home Germination Tests.... ............................. 63
Values of Plow Lands..................................... 6)
Principal Methods of Shipment .......................... 72
Government of Florida Analyzed .......................... 73




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