VOLUME 32 NUMBER 3
Plant Diseases and Pests
FLORIDA QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Part I-Organic Kingdoms: Life Kingdoms Outlined; Classes of
Parasites; Methods of Transmission of Plant Diseases; Forms
of Bacteria; Pathogenic Bacteria; The Struggle Between the
Higher and Lower Orders of Life.
Part II-Sprays and Their Uses: Classes of Insects; Insecti-
cides; Standard Spray Solutions; Fungicides; The Grower's
Soliloquy; Spraying Schedule for Citrus; Spraying Schedule
for Fruits and Vegetables.
W. A. McRAE
Commissioner of Agriculture
Entered January 81, 1903, at Tallahassee, Florida, as second-class matter
under Act of Congress of June, 1900. "Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917,
authorized September 11, 1918."
IT. 4. APPLEYARD, PRINTER, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
The New Capitol of Florida, and the Old (insert).
The increased demand for our Quarterly Bulletin since
adopting the policy of confining each issue to one theme
indicates that this method is approved by the public.
It is our purpose to make each number a manual on the
subject matter treated, which may be put in the library
and used as a valuable reference for years to qpme. No
interest which comes under the head of this department
should be neglected, and when industries call for special
literature we issue it in the form of Supplements to the
Quarterly. It is always our intention to neglect no section
of the State, and we invite the co-operation of all parties
interested to communicate with us and offer suggestions
concerning the developments in their respective sections.
There is scarcely a farmer or horticulturist in Florida
that is not concerned in the subjects treated in this issue,
and we hope that it will prove of service to all who con-
sult it. A larger number could be served if our appropri-
ation for printing were sufficient to meet the demands.
W. A. McRAE,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
NOT--We are indebted to The Florida Grower for our illustrations.
BY T. J. BROOKS
Chief Clerk, Department of Agriculture
The two great life kingdoms are the vegetable and the
animal.. There is a point where the two orders so nearly
blend that the line of demarkation eludes the scientist.
*DrIvsoNs or THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
Zoology being that branch of biology that treats of ani-
mal life has various schemes of classification adopted by
naturalists. The following classification is standard and
will help us to locate our subject in the general scheme of
1. Mammalogy treats of mammals, a class of vertebrates
whose females have milk-secreting mamte to nourish
their young, embracing all warm-blooded quadrupeds,-
also bats, seals, cetaceans and sirenians.
2. Ornithology, of birds;
3. Herpetology, -of reptiles;
4. Ichthyology, of fishes and lower aquatic vertebrates;
5. Ascidiology, of the tunicata--a division of metazoans;
6. Echinology, of the echinodermata-a division variously
7. Conchology, of the molusca;
8. ENTOMOLOGY, of the INSECTA;
9. ARACHNOLOGY, of the ARACHNIDA -spiders,
10. Crustaceology, of the crustacea-lobsters, crawfish,
shrimp, prawns, barnacles, sow bugs, etc.;
11. HELMINTHOLOGY, of the vermes or worms;
12. Zoophytology, of the coelentera-invertebrates as coral,
or. hydroid, the sea anemones, jelly fish, etc.
*Those organism that destroy, and subjects relating thereto, are capi-
talized in the following outline. We are concerned about those that are
useful but for the present discussion we are more concerned about the
destructive creatures of the living world.
There are disorders of plants and animals caused by numerous things
other than parasites. Among the diseases of plants which are not caused
by organisms may be mentioned those caused by injurious sprays, poisonous
gases, malnutrition, dicback due to lack of drainage or too much ammonia,
etc. Injuries received from frost, heat, flood, drouth, depredations by
insects and higher animals are not really diseases.
DIVISIONS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM
Botany being the science of plants is somewhat older
than zoology, but its nomenclature was long the subject of
controversy. The International Botanical Congress of
1905 (which met in Vienna) adopted certain rules which
has done much to bring order out of confusion. The prin-
cipal branches of botany are:
1. Morphology, relating to etexrnal form;
2. Histology, relating to structure of tissues;
3. Cytology, relating to the cell;
4. Embryology, deals with the development of the egg-
5. Physiology, with the functions and vital actions of
6. PHYTOPATHOLOGY, with PLANT DISEASES;
7. Ecology, with environmental influences;
8. Phytogeography, with plant distribution;
9. Taxonomy, with the classification of plants;
10. Paleobotany, of fossil plants;
11. ECONOMIC BOTANY,-including
and cognate subjects.
Animal life is defined as "Sentient organisms, having
organs of sense; life which feeds on other organisms.
Animal life is usually to be distinguished by their taking
food into a digestive tract or cavity, and by the power of
The comparative relationship of the various divisions
may be shown as follows:
a3 Class: phyla
a4 Order: group of families
a5 Family: usually comprising two or more genera
a6 Sub-family: one or more genera
a7 Genus: a classafactory group embracing one or
a8 Species: capable of fertile interbreeding
a9 Breed: group within a species
alO Strain: a line within a breed with dis-
Vegetable life is defined as "living organisms not pos-
sessed of animal life."
The comparative relationship of the various divisions
may be shown as follows:
a3 Class: phyla
a4 Order: group of families
a5 Family: two or more genera
a6 Sub-family: one or more genera
a7 Genus: one or more species
a8 Species: capable of fertile Interbreeding
'a9 Breed: a group within a species
al0 Variety: a line of a breed with dis-
a4 Cryptogamla: flowerless-propagating by spores
a5 Myzophyta-slime molds
c5 Thallophyta: algae, fungi and lichens
d5 Bryophyta: mosses and liveworts
e5 Pteridophyta: ferns and their allies
f5 Schezophyta-fusion plants, including bacteria
b4 Phanerogamia: flowering-having stamens and pistils
DnIvSIoNs ON ANOTHER BASIS
On another basis we may divide animal life as follows:
A. Vivipora: Those which are born and suckle their young
b All warm-blooded quadrupeds
c Bats, seals, cetaceans and sirenians
B. Ovipora: Those that hatch from eggs and do not suckle
C. Spores: Containing no embryo
CLASSES OF PARASITES
THE DISEASES THEY PRODUCE AND REMEDIES
Al Animal Parasites: Creatures with digestive tract and
organs, with power of voluntary motion, that live in
or on some other organism.
a2 Insects: Six-legged anthropods; 300,000 species have
been named and five times as many unnamed.
b5 Codling moth
c5 Canker worm
d5 Fall web worm
e5 Tent Caterpillar
f5 Pear slug
g5 Larva of moths and butterflies
h5 Beetles and their grubs
k5 Saw flies and their larva
SPRAYS FOR CHEWING INSECTS
1. Paris green
2. Arsenate of lead
3. Arsenate of soda
4. Arsenate of lime
5. Scheele's green
6. London purple
7. White arsenate
a5 San Jose scale
b5 Oyster shell scale
c5 Plant lice
d5 Leaf hoppers
e5 Pear psylla
SPRAYS 'FOR SUCKING INSECTS
1. Lime sulphur concentrates
2. Self-boiled lime--sulphur mixture
3. Fish-oil soap wash
4. Kerosine emulsion
5. Crude petroleum emulsion, distilled
6. Nicotine solution
8. Caustic potash
9. Carbolic acid emulsion
10. Sulphur spray
11. Resin wash
Effective against all insects when feasible to use them:
1. Hydrocyanic-acid gas
2. Carbon disulphid
3. Sulphus dioxid
The mosquito is both herbiverous and carnivorous, there-
fore omnivorous. That is to say, it eats herbs and sucks
blood, therefore is both a chewing and a sucking insect-
chewing plants and sucking animals. It is a menace only
to the latter.
B1 Vegetable Parasites: Organisms not possessed of animal
life; 400,000 species have been described.
a2 Fungi: Thallophytic plants destitute of chlorophyl
a3 Obligate parasites, with power to exist under but
b3 Faculative parasites, having power to accommo-
date themselves to different conditions-aerobic
c3 Obligate saphrophytes, living on dead organic
d3 Faculative saphrophytes, living without free
DISEASES THEY PRODUCE
1. Brown rot of peach
2. Bitter rot of apple
8. Some "blights"
SPRAYS FOR VEGETABLE PARASITES
1. Bordeaux mixture
2. Lime sulphur
3. Sulphur dust
4. Copper sulphate-lime dust
5. Corrosive sublimate
b2 Slime Moulds: Not differentiated into cells, a mass
of protoplasm propagating by spores-functioning
as seed in plants.
d2 Bacteria: The unicellular variety which propagates
by fission-splitting of the organism. No univer-
sally accepted and satisfactory classification of bac-
teria has been made.
METHODS OF TRANSMISSION OF PLANT DISEASES
There are half a dozen methods by which plant diseases
1. By soil inoculation: such as the Irish potato scab, the
Irish potato rhizoctonia, and the same with beans and
onions, tomato fuscopiceous wilt, and lettuce drop.
2. By water infection: as the lemon brown rot of Cali-
3. By air infection: as the lemon scab, celery leaf spot,
cucumber downy mildew, tobacco peronoaper, peach brown
4. By insect transportation: such as pear fire blight,
cucumber wilt-bacterial-potato mosaic, peach brown rot.
5. By seed inoculation: as bean anthracnose, bean bac-
terial blight, sugar cane red rot, watermelon anthracnose,
cucumber angular leaf spot.
6. By dead wood: such as wither tip of citrus fruit,
stem-end rot of citrus fruits.
7. By miscellaneous methods: some diseases are spread
by more than one method.
OTHER DIVISIONS OF THE SUBJECT OF PLANT DISEASES
As to effect of disease on plants:
1. Killing: blights, rusts, wilts, etc.
2. Reducing health conditions
3. Producing malformations
As to parts affected:
As to kind of plants attacked:
2. Fruit groves
3. Field crops
4. Truck crops
5. Ornamental shrubs
Pathology is that branch of medicine which treats of
morbid conditions: their causes, symptoms and character-
istics--including a study of physiology and anatomy.
Therapeutics is that department of medical science that
relates to the treatment of disease and the action of remed-
ial agents on the human organism, both in health and dis-
A physician is one versed in or practicing the art of
medicine or healing bodily diseases, usually by the admin-
istration of remedies regarded as standard by the profession
-such as are in the Pharmacopoeia.
FORMS OF BACTERIA
A bacterium is a schizomycetes, or microscopic fusion
Staphylococcus poygenes aureus: the principal agent in
supuration-the process of forming pus.
Pathogenic bacteria: capable of doing harm directly-
a few score of them. Two general classes: those which are
strictly parasitic and those which live free in nature. A full
list of the species and of the diseases which they produce
would be too comprehensive for present purposes even were
such a list scientifically established.
NAME OF BACTERIA
Bacillus typhi abdominalis
Streptococcus of erysipelas
Spirillum choleric Asiatlcse
Lactic acid bacteria (bulgarlcum)
Bacillus of potato rot (solanace-
NAME OF DISEASE PRODUCED
Anthrax (malignant postule)
Tuberculosis and Scrofula
agent in spreading inflammation
for combating noxious bacteria in
lodged in roots where they fixate
nitrogen and leave it in the soil
A plant pathologist is one versed in diagnosing and treat-
ing plant diseases.
It is an anomaly in the economy of nature that human
life is dependent upon micro-organisms and at the same
time the greatest enemies of the human race are to be
found among these same micro-organisms.
Some of the uses of bacteria may be mentioned-
In the arts:
1. Maceration Industries-Such as Linen, Jute,
Hemp, Sponges, Leather.
2. Fermentative Industries-Such as Vinegar, Lactic
acid, Butyric acid, Bacteria in Tobacco Curing.
In Natural Processes:
2.-In Food Processes.
3.-In Soil Fertility.
5.-In the Dairy.
The science of microscopic life is modern in origin-in a
practical sense it is less than a hundred years old. All
parasites are not microscopic, and such as are not received
earlier attention. Insects, fungi and bacteria constitute
a militant army that is the most formidable enemy of the
human race. Some of these are man's friends, and it be-
hooves him to understand each class, that he may cope with
the problems which they present.
That branch of biology which includes a study of human
life reaches its highest and most complex themes in psychol-
ogy and sociology.
Morphology treats of form-the static form of life.
Physiology treats of function-the dynamic phase of life.
For the purpose of our present study we shall have to
confine ourselves to those branches of biology which have
to do with organisms that work an economic injury to the
human race, touching incidentally those which work a
physical injury in our treatment of bacteria.
Therefore, by process of elimination, we come to the three
branches of biological study:
Entomology-the study of insect life, as it relates to
plant pathology and economic botany.
Mycology-the study of fungi, as it relates to plant path-
ology and economic botany.
Bacteriology-the study of bacteria, as it relates to plant
pathology, economic botany and human pathology-patho-
(Affecting the Human Body)
Pathogenic, disease-producing bacteria constitute a rela-
tively small number of species of bacteria. The harmless
species are not parasitic and cannot grow in an animal
organism. There are two general classes of bacteria which
1. The pathogenic class, which live free in nature and are
not strictly speaking parasitic.
2. The true parasitic class, which live in the bodies of
The most generally accepted theory of how bacteria cause
disease is that they produce in their growth a number of
biproducts of decomposition and that some of these bi-
products are poisonous. It has not been shown that all
pathogenic germs produce their effect that way, but it has
been proven that it is the method in a number of cases.
Recognizing that bacteria may produce poisons, we read-
ily see that it is not always necessary that they should
be parasitic in order to produce trouble.
Ptomaine poison is caused by eating putrifying animal
matter, or of alkaloids produced by bacteria. An alkoloid
is any nitrogenous organic base, especially of vegetable
origin, having a powerful toxic effect on the animal economy
-as strychnin or morphen.
It is not always the case that a specific germ produces a
definite disease, nor that each germ disease has its specific
bacterium. For instance, the inflammation of wounds,
formation of pus, or the different types of blood poisoning,
such as septicemia pyemia, gangrene, etc., all appear to
be caused by bacteria, and it is impossible to make out any
definite species associated with the different types of these
troubles. There are three forms of so-calles pus cocci, and
these are found almost indiscriminately with various types
of inflammatory troubles.
Germs are in the air, in the ground, in the water, on
clothing, on the skin, in the mouth and the alimentary canal.
Commonly they do no harm, but they have the power of
doing injury if they get into wounds or susceptible mem-
branes. Some species are universal inhabitants of the ali-
mentary canal and are ordinarily harmless, but under other
conditions they invade the tissues-and give serious trouble.
The following diseases are among those regarded as
caused by distinct specific bacteria: Measles, whooping
cough, bronchitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pneumonia,
Most pathogenic bacteria can be in some way so treated
as to suffer a diminution or complete loss of their powers
of producing a fatal disease; on the other hand conditions
may cause an increase in the virulence of a pathogenic
The general course of a germ disease is divided into
three stages: (a) incubation, (b) development, (c) recov-
ery. Disease germs enter the body through the mouth, nose,
skin and secretary ducts.
The germs of smallpox, tuberculosis,,scarlet fever, etc.,
are carried to us through the air and breathed into the
cells of the lungs, where they find lodgment and penetrate
the delicate membranes and get into the circulation. It is
then that a battle ensues between the powers of the body
and the microscopic invaders. Only a few of the thousands
of species are able to combat nature's resisting power. Those
that sometimes win out and produce disease we designate
In the blood and lymph of man and other animals there
are certain products called alexines, which are poisonous
to germ life. Ordinary micro-organisms are destroyed at
once when brought in contact with these mysteriously gen-
Apparently the pathogenic bacteria are able to overcome
the alexines of the body by producing in their turn certain
other products which neutralize the work of the alexines.
These pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing bodies
which have been named lysines, whose mission is to neutral-
ize the effect of the alexines. This marks the line of dis-
tinction between the pathogenic and the non-pathogenic
bacteria-the power to produce these mysterious lysines or
the lack of this power.
However, if the lysines do overcome the alexines the
battle is not over. There are minute bits of protoplasm
present in the blood and lymph in large quantities, known
as white corpuscles. They have a power distinct from red
corpuscles. They are active and capable of locomotion.
They are not compelled to follow blood vessels. They are
life-savers. When the flesh is cut they rush direct through
the body and throw themselves into the gaping wound in
order to form a blood clot and stop the waste of blood. They
are martyrs. In the moment of danger they are valiant
soldiers. They are frequently found to take into their
bodies small objects with which they come in contact. They
absorb irritating bodies which may be in the blood or tissues
and carry them away for excretion-acting as scavengers.
They collect in great quantities at the point of invasion of
bacteria, and their presence is manifest by what we call
inflammation. When these white corpuscles die in the con-
test they may accumulate in the form of pus, and should
be discharged, as absorption takes it up as a poison and it
must be eliminated in some other way. If the bacteria are
stronger than the corpuscles the disease proceeds unabated.
Remember that the bacterium is a schizomycete or micro-
scopic fission-fungus, and that all minute organisms are not
bacteria. While most germ diseases are caused by bacteria,
there are some whose inciting cause is organisms belonging
to other groups. Some of these are plants and some are
animals. Their life habits are somewhat different from
bacteria, hence the nature of the disease is commonly dif-
It is generally conceded that malaria is caused by a
unicellular animal, related to the amoeba. Little is really
known of this pestiferous animal. Its most deadly drug
seems to be quinine, and so is used as a specific for this
intruder. There are other disease-producing microscopic
animals, but we' cannot extend the discussion.
There are parasitic plants which fasten themselves in
the skin and produce irritation. Ringworm, thrush, alo-
pecia, and a number of other diseases are caused by plants.
The study of medicine has been mostly empirical-by
experimental observation-and with very little scientific
basis. Most of the advance made in scientific medicine is
the result of the discovery of the germ theory of disease,
and this discovery is due to bacteriology. The science has
borne its most beneficial fruits in the line of preventive
medicine and hygiene.
In contagious diseases what is needed is a germicide that
is harmless to the human body and that can be introduced
into the circulation. Pasteur said that each contagious dis-
ease is caused by a pathogenic germ or germs which may
be identified. He predicted that a universal germicide
would be discovered, harmless to human beings, and that
thereafter no one need contract disease by infection, and
that contagion would be impossible in the presence of such
a universal germicide.
Inasmuch as a germicide that would destroy plant germs
might not destroy animal organisms, it might not be pos-
sible to have a universal parasitic specific. But if a germi-
cide can be found that is harmless to animal organisms, but
which destroys all vegetable' germs, it would mark the
greatest stride in remedial science. The production of such
a germicide is claimed for the invention of William John
Knox of Ann Arbor. It produces scientifically a germicidal
vapor which is respirable. It is a chemical product pro-
duced by a union of ozone and vapor of pinene. Atmo-
sphere is introduced into the machine and dried, coming
in contact with electric volts guaged to rule, when ozonized
and vaporized it is expelled in the form of vapor, the
formula of which is C0o Hi. O,-a gaseous pinene ozonide.
THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE HIGHER AND LOWER
ORDERS OF LIFE
Man is destined to struggle for his existence and the
attainment of his desires. It is by struggle that he ad-
vances. The more complex the civilization the more strenu-
ous the struggle. Only the primitive barbarian has no
complex problems to worry him. The absence of difficult
problems indicates a primitive society. The capacity of
the human race to support themselves in great numbers
in a given territory is depenednt upon a complex social
compact and efficiency of efforts. The wider the circle of
man's activities the stronger the conflict between mankind
The struggle between man and the microscopic organisms
of the living world has become intensified many fold during
the last century. This intensification has been brought
about by the spread of parasites and the diseases which they
produce on the animal and vegetable kingdoms. This
spread has been accentuated by the universal exchange
of commodities and the migration of people from clime to
But for some friendly help automatically furnished by
certain of the feathered tribe and other consumers of worms
(Note-If interested in further investigation address E. J. Bagnall,
10308 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, Ohio).
and insects the struggle would have been vastly intensified.
He has not always appreciated these helpers in the struggle
It is not much trouble for man to rid the community
of wild game of the large kinds, that are a menace to him
or his crops and domestic animals, but when it comes to
dealing with the microscopic living world the struggle is
shifted to an entirely different field. Although he has
among these some which contribute to his welfare there is
enough of the injurious kind to render it necessary for
him to be of grave concern.
In the outlines which have proceeded the attempt has
been made to place before the reader a comparative analysis
or classification of living things, so as to make it easy to
see the relationship of living creatures to man's welfare.
Knowing this, it will be easier to protect plants and ani-
mals from the inroads of their enemies. The pursuit of this
task is the more interesting as we understand the character-
istics and life habits of the nuderworld which we must com-
There are 300,000 species of insects already classified, and
several times as many not classified. A large percent of
these is parasitic-pestiferous as to plants or animals, or
There are 400,000 species of vegetable parasites classified.
A considerable percent of these infest plants or animals, or
The distribution of these enemies of life is so nearly
universal and their operation so continuous and destructive
that they constitute man's greatest economic and physio-
logical menace. Millions of dollars must be spent annually
to combat the enemies of vegetation and other millions to
combat the enemies of animals and of man.
Man has enough to enlist all his fighting energies if he
keeps back the armies of untold millions and billions which
are continually attacking him personally and the sources
of his means of a livelihood. Only by constant vigilance
and the help of science and the art of employing efficiently
the most destructive agencies to the myriads of creatures
which are a menace to the vegetable and animal kingdoms
which minister to the welfare of mankind can the race
survive in the struggle for existence.
CLASSES OF INSECTS
BY F. B. PADDOCK
Entomologist, Experiment Station, Texas
The most serious insect pests with which the grower may
come in contact can be classed as follows:
1. Biting or chewing insects, those which defoliate or
2. Sucking insects, those which live upon the juices of
the plants, causing them to wilt.
3. Boring insects, those which live within the plants.
4. Insects attacking stored products.
These insects are most often noticed by the casual ob-
servdr, as the destruction which they accomplish is usually
very striking. The real injury done by this class of insects
depends somewhat upon the time of year that the attack
is made on a crop. If the attack is made in the spring,
the danger to the crop is much greater than if the attack
is not made until fall. This class of insects is the easiest
to control since it is possible merely to cover the foliage
of plants with a comparatively cheap material with which
to poison them. Under certain conditions the crop may
not be valuable enough to warrant the expenditure neces-
sary to purchase a poison, but such cases are very rare. In
the case of grasshoppers, which usually appear in hordes
over the entire field, it is often a very difficult matter to
apply poison enough and fast enough to kill all the hoppers
present. The crop may be lost even after the poison has
been liberally applied. A mechanical device called a hopper-
dozer is often very successful in catching great quantities
of grasshoppers. Very often it is possible to eradicate a
scourge of grasshoppers by the use of this device, in which
case it is not necessary to apply any poison. With some
insects, as the cutworms, a poisoned bran mash, or similar
material, used as a bait, gives far better results than the
application of the poison to the plants that are being eaten.
SThis mash is usually so placed as to entice the worms into
eating it before they reach the plants.
Sometimes it will be found that measures other than the
use of poisons will be of service in combating some pests.
Worms that climb the trunks of trees to defoliate them may
be stopped in their upward travel by placing bands, such
as strips of burlap, around the trunks of the trees. A sticky
material, such as tree tanglefoot, is often put around the
One kind of biting insects-the curculios-may be con-
trolled by jarring them from the trees early in the morn-
These insects do their injury to the plants by sucking
the juices, which they do by inserting their beaks into the
tissue. Therefore it is not possible to eradicate such insects
by applying material on the leaves of the plants. It is
necessary to use what are called "contact insecticides" to
combat this class of insect pests. These sprayes are often
oily or caustic and produce their effect by stopping up the
breathing pores of the insects. The spray must be directed
toward that portion of the plant where the insects are
attached and feeding. With any contact insecticide, the
insects must be hit in order to be killed, and even with
extreme care it seems impossible to hit every insect that is
present. For this reason a single application is seldom
enough to eradicate a pest; consequently it is necessary to
make two and sometimes three applications of a materiaL
The soft-bodied insects-as the plant lice-are very easily
killed when hit with a spray, but some of the protected
insects-as the scales--are very difficult to eradicate. With
these it is necessary to use very strong solutions and to
make the applications when the plants are dormant. Some
of the sucking insects fly when disturbed-as the leaf hop-
pers-and measures other than the application of contact
insecticides must be employed. For this purpose one may
use a frame that has a sheet stretched over it and on
which is spread some sticky material. As they fly, the leaf
hoppers will be caught on this frame. Some form of hop-
perdozer may be used in a similar manner.
The injury to the plants is sometimes considerable, as
the sucking insects usually concentrate upon a certain
part, as the growing tip, tender twigs, buds, or seed. The
plant is seldom able to overcome such concentrated attacks.
Often sucking insects may cause abnormal growth of the
plant and are protected in such a growth. The application
of a contact insecticide under such conditions does not
Some of the sucking insects feed under ground upon the
roots of the plant. The attacks of these insects are seldom
fatal to the plant, but they greatly reduce the vigor and
the plant cannot withstand the attacks of other insects
or diseases above ground. The means we now have of
eradicating these underground insects are unsatisfactory.
They depend upon making the soil unfit for habitation
rather than upon the actual killing of the insects.
These insects cannot be satisfactorily treated after they
have entered the plants. Reduction of the injury done by
them lies in preventing their entrance into the plants.
After the insects are in the plants the best thing to do is
to dig them out by means of a sharp chisel. By carefully
following the burrow of the insects one will do no new
damage to the plants. The wound should be properly
treated to prevent the exposed part from decaying. The
injury done by these insects is not the food which they
consume, but the plant which they attack is usually made
unfit for further service.
Many devices are in use to prevent boring insects from
entering plants. These fall into two classes: mechanical
protectors and repellant washes. The protectors may be
wire netting, wrapping paper, or even a mound of dirt.
The protectors are not entirely satisfactory, as the insects
will often lay their eggs above them.
When boring insects attack annual plants the best method
to employ is to pull up the infested plants and burn them
at once. In this way the insects are destroyed before they
complete their growth. Often boring insects attack the
roots of annual plants. For such insects there is no satis-
factory means of control other than to destroy the plants
immediately. To clean up and burn all infested plants will
do much to keep these insects in check.
INSECTS ATTACKING STORED PLANTS
These insects work within the individual kernel or grain
below the surface of the pile. They are, therefore, beyond
the reach of any material that might be applied to the
surface. By means of fumigation it is possible to satisfac-
torily control this class of insects, as a gas is able to pene-
trate to their feeding places. The injury done by these
insects may be greatly reduced by cleaning the storage
room thoroughly from time to time and burning all the
refuse that may have accumulated. These insects live from
year to year in the small lots of grain which are often over-
looked or neglected.
INSECTS AND SPRAYS
MISTAKES OFTEN MADE
1. Treatments are often made for troubles which are in-
curable; consequently no results could possibly be obtained
from any operation which might be attempted against
2. Treatments are often given where there are no needs
for them. When first starting to control insects many
people get the idea that they must spray even if they do
not know whether a pest is present or not.
3. Expensive methods are often used when cheaper ones
would serve the purpose equally as well. Even .when a
cheap method is used, it can be so manipulated that maxi-
mum results may be obtained with a minimum expense.
4. The wrong time is chosen to make the application for
many insects. It is necessary to understand the general
principles of the life history of a pest in order to make
timely treatments for it.
5. The improper selection of the material to use against
an insect is the most common mistake that is made. As will
,be clearly shown later, it is not possible to kill sucking
insects by the use of poison.
6. Too often the grower unknowingly purchases an in-
ferior grade of spray material. The grower must insist on
a good grade of spray material, since he is paying good
money and can rightfully demand the best.
7. The use of a spray outfit not adapted for the par-
ticular operation, and the improper use of a good outfit,
are the causes of much failure. There are accessories for
use with spray outfits that will greatly simplify the opera-
If some of these common mistakes are guarded against
there is no reason why more satisfactory results cannot be
obtained in the spraying operations against insect pests.
Local experience is really the sure guide fdr successful
Materials which are used to destroy insects are called
insecticides. They may be divided into four classes:
1. Poisons-which kill by being eaten and usually con-
tain some form of arsenic; so are often called arsenicals.
2. Contact insecticides-which kill by clogging up the
breathing system by suffocation or by a corrosive action on
3. Repellents-which keep the insects from attacking
the plant or animal to which they are applied.
4. Gases-which are used for fumigating.
Poisons are the cheapest form of an insecticide. They
are applied to the food of the insects and must be eaten to
be effective. It is evident that poisons are effective only
against biting insects, which go beneath the surface of the
plant for their food. Nearly all of the poisons are made
from arsenic and consequently are termed "arsenicals."
The amount of arsenic varies with the different poisons,
but the standard for each is set by law. Arsenicals are
insoluble in water, and it is necessary constantly to stir
a liquid spray to prevent the poison from settling. In some
of the arsenicals there is a small quantity of what is
termed "water-soluble" arsenic. Such arsenic will readily
combine with water, and when such a combination takes
place heat is given off. It is in this way that the foliage
of plants is burned when such sprays are applied. The
poorer grade poisons contain more water-soluble arsenic
than the better grades. With those poisons which contain
this water-soluble arsenic it is necessary to add lime to
prevent or reduce the burning of the foliage. Most of the
arsenicals may be used either as a dry or dust spray, or as
a liquid spray.
This material should never be used as a spray to put on
plants, 'since it severely burns all tissue that it comes in
contact with. The only place it can be safely used is in
making poisoned baits for grasshoppers and cutworms.
It is the cheapest form of poison that can be purchased.
This material is so variable in composition that the results
obtained by its use have been very unsatisfactory. It should
never be sprayed on any plants since it will severely burn
the foliage. It is possible to use this material in the
poisoned bran mashes, but it is seldom recommended. The
use of London purple has been discontinued for many years
in the progressive spraying sections of the country.
From the beginning of the spraying practice Paris green
has been the only material that was generally recommended.
However, it has not given entire satisfaction. When used
as a liquid spray it settles very quickly and causes an un-
even application. It does not stick well on the foliage, and
as it contains a considerable amount of water-soluble ar-
senic, it may burn the foliage of the plants to which it is
applied. As a spray material Paris green has practically
gone out of use.
Liquid Spray.-Never more than one-half pound of Paris
green should be used for fifty gallons of water, and when
one is spraying tender plants, such as the peach, only one-
fourth pound should be used. The Paris green should be
thoroughly mixed into a thin paste and then added to the
water. This insures a better mixing of the powder and
water. To neutralize the action of the water-soluble arsenic
is is necessary to add two pounds of good stone lime to
every fifty gallons of water.
Under some conditions it is advisable to use a combined
spray of a poison with a fungicide. When Paris green is
used in combination with Bordeaux mixture, the same
amount is required for fifty gallons of Bordeaux as for
fifty gallons of water, and it is not necessary to add the
Dry Spray.-For many crops it is not advisable to use
a liquid spray. Paris green may be applied as a powder,
but it must be dusted with eight to ten times its weight
of flour or air-slaked lime, preferably the latter. As it is
usually best to apply a dry poison when there is some dew
on the plants, and since dew will combine with the water-
soluble arsenic, there is certain to be considerable burning
of the leaves from the use of this spray upon cotton. The
cotton plant is particularly sensitive to burning by Paris
green, and for that reason it is not recommended now for
use on cotton.
ARSENATE OF LEAD
This material is now almost universally used as a poison
spray. It is possible to make this material at home, but
the commercial preparations are to be preferred, as the
contents of the product are guaranteed. This poison is
available to the grower in two forms-paste and powder.
The cost of the powder is somewhat higher than that of the
paste, but the cost of the spray made from either is about
the same. This poison is far superior to Paris green, as
it does not settle so quickly in the spray tank, is much more
adhesive to the foliage, and does not burn the plants; so
there is no need for the addition of lime to the spray." The
action of this poison is somewhat slower than that of Paris
green but certainly as effective.
Liquid Spray.-For a liquid spray either the paste or
powdered form of arsenate of lead may be used; three
pounds of the paste or two pounds of the powder are re-
quired for fifty gallons of water. Mix the required amount
of paste or powder into a thin paste before adding to the
barrel of water. It is also possible to use this poison with
the Bordeaux mixture, the same proportions being used
as suggested for water.
Dry Spray.-When a dry spray is desired the powdered
arsenate of lead may be used without the addition of any
other material. The powdered arsenate of lead is recom-
mended for use on cotton against all chewing insects.
This poison is comparatively new, but the results which
have been obtained from it thus far indicate that it may
be superior to any other poison now on the market. The
greatest feature of this poison is that it is very adhesive to
There are two materials which are poisonous to insects
but not to higher animals unless taken in quantities. These
are hellebore and pyrethrum or Persian insect powder.
Hellebore is a white powder made by grinding the roots
of the hellebore plant. This powder loses its strength rap-
idly and must be fresh to be of any value. It may be used
as a dry or liquid spray. If a dry spray is desired, mix
the hellebore with flour at the rate of one to three pounds,
respectively. For a liquid spray use one ounce of hellebore
to three gallons of water. As the hellebore loses its poison-
ous properties quickly, it may be safely applied to fruits
and vegetables just before harvest.
Py'rethrum is a yellowish powder made by grinding the
dry flowers of the plant. The destructive power of this
material is due to an essential oil. It may be used in the
same manner as suggested above for hellebore and in the
same proportions. This material is also valuable as a spray
for fruits and vegetables that are ripening. If one will
close up rooms that are'infested with flies and mosquitoes
and then fill the air with pyrethrum and keep the rooms
closed over night, most of the insects will either be killed
or stupefied and drop to the floor.
POISON BRAN MASH FOR GRASSHOPPERS
Probably the best poison for this purpose is called "Kan-
sas Grasshopper Poison." This is made as follows:
Bran .......................... 20 pounds
Paris green, or white arsenic........ 1 pound
Syrup .......................... 2 quarts
Lem ons ......................... 3
W ater .......................... 3, gallons
To prepare this mash mix the bran and the poison thor-
oughly in a wash tub while dry. Squeeze the juice of the
lemons into the water and chop the pulp and peel into fine
bits and add to the mixture. Dissolve the syrup in the
water and then wet the bran and poison with the mixture,
stirring so as to dampen the mash thoroughly. The amount
of water here given is sufficient to properly moisten the
POISONED BAITS FOR CUTWORMS
In addition to the Kansas grasshopper poison, which is
successful against cutworms, the following poison mash
gives excellent results:
Wheat or rice bran................. 50 pounds
Arsenic or Paris green............ 1 pound
Molasses .......................... 1 quart
Water to moisten.
Mix the poison and the bran together dry. Dilute the
molasses in a gallon or two of water and add it to the poison.
Mix thoroughly and add only enough water to make the
mixture moist but not sloppy.
Poisoned baits of clover are often successful against cut-
worms. For this purpose cut a small quantity of clover
or alfalfa and chop this into rather fine bits. Then spread
it out and spray with Paris green at the rate of one-fourth
pound to twenty gallons of water. After the poison is dry
on the clover it is ready to be distributed in small bunches
around the base of the plants that are liable to attack by
the cutworms. This poisoned clover should be made late
in the afternoon and distributed just before dark so that
it will be attractive to the worms when they come from their
hiding places at night.
Caution.-These particles of clover or alfalfa which have
been sprayed will retain the poison for some time. If the
worms do not eat this freely it should be collected and
burned and not allowed to dry up and blow around where
stock and poultry may get it.
The following formula is especially valuable against those
ants which are attracted to sweets. This formula is best
prepared by a druggist:
White arsenic .................. ... gram
Cane sugar ....................... 20 grams
W ater ............................ 100 c.c.
The arsenic is dissolved in a portion of the water by
boiling and the sugar in the remaining portion. The two
solutions are then mixed and water is added to make up
for the evaporation. Some color of fruit paste should be
added to warn of the poisonous nature of this solution. For
use this poison may be put in shallow dishes which are
placed in the locations frequented by the ants. The use of
this poison is not advised where there are small children
in the home.
Contact sprays are applied to the insects and only inci-
dentally to the plants. With these the great aim is to apply
the material so carefully that it will certainly come in con-
tact with all the insects, as a mere spraying of the foliage
is of no value whatever.
The lime-sulfur wash has always been the standard rem-
edy for the San Jose scale, and during the last few years has
come into wide use throughout the country. The lime-
sulfur wash is a chemical combination of the lime and the
sulfur. It has also been found to be an efficient fungicide,
and the spring applications just before the buds start are
very effective in killing the winter spores of various fung-
The material is used both as a winter spray, when the
trees are dormant, and as a summer spray; but the solution
for the summer is much weaker. Materials of the proper
strength for winter use must never be used on trees that
are in leaf, as it will burn the foliage. The most effective
season to apply the winter strength of lime-sulfur is the
early spring, just before the buds begin to swell. It may
be applied in the fall, however, any time after the leaves
There are three ways of preparing the winter wash of
lime-sulfur: by diluting the commercial concentrated solu-
tion to the required strength; by making a concentrated
solution at home and diluting when needed, and by making
a solution which, when finished, is ready for use without
COMMERCIAL CONCENTRATED LIME-SULFUR
The leading manufacturers and dealers in insecticides
are now selling a concentrated lime-sulfur solution which is
made ready for use by merely diluting to the desired
strength. This is sold at a price that makes the final
product cost 21/2 to 3 cents per gallon,-nearly as cheap as
it can be made at home and with the saving of time and a
Commercial concentrated lime-sulfur is a clear, reddish-
brown liquid. For use, this material is simply diluted with
water. The amount of water to be added is usually indi-
cated on the container, but it is best to test the strength.
This is done with a hydrometer, which will indicate the
specific gravity. These hydrometers, made especially for
testing the lime-sulfur mixture, may be obtained from
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, Rochester, N. Y., and
other dealers in laboratory glassware. The dilutions
should be made according to the table given later.
Since this spray is quite clear, it shows but little on the
trees. Some prefer to add lime to the material after it is
ready for the spray tank, but the lime should be added
before the final straining. For this purpose either lump
or air-slaked lime may be used, at the rate of six to eight
pounds to fifty gallons of the spray. There is no real advan-
tage in adding the lime, but it is easier to tell when the
tree has been well coated with the spray.
HOME-MADE CONCENTRATED LIME-SULFUR
If suitable appliances are at. hand it is feasible to make
up concentrated lime-sulfur at home, which can be diluted
for use when needed. It is absolutely necessary to keep
the finished product sealed from the air. It is also essen-
tial that the purity of the materials to be used are guaran-
teed, and it is highly important that only the best grade of
lime should be used. Lime which is less than 90 per cent
pure should be discarded. In most cases it will be found
that the commercial concentrate is safer to use.
The New York Experiment Station has made extensive
experiments on the best methods of making and diluting
lime-sulfur, and the following is quoted:
GENEVA STATION FORMULA FOB MAKING LIME-SULFUB
Lime, pure ...................... 36 pounds
Lime, 95 per cent pure.............. 38 pounds
Lime, 90 per cent pure.............. 40 pounds
Sulfur, high grade, finely divided.... 80 pounds
W ater ............................ 50 gallons
In making, slake the lime in about ten gallons of hot
water, adding the lumps slowly so as to avoid too violent
boiling. The sulfur must be well moistened and made into
an even paste without lumps. Then pour the paste grad-
ually into the slaking lime, stirring constantly to prevent
the formation of lumps. When the slaking has finished
add the full amount of water and boil gently for an hour.
If kettles and fire are used, water must be added from time
to time to make up for the loss due to the evaporation.
It is much better if the cooking can be done with live steam
in a closed vessel, but an open fire will do. When the boiling
is done in this way the mitxure will be more likely to in-
crease the volume and it will not be necessary to add any
REGULAR HOME-MADE LIME-SULFUR SOLUTION
Lime (good stone) ................. 20 pounds
Sulfur ........................... 15 pounds
W ater ............................ 50 gallons
This material when finished is of the proper strength for
use as a winter spray without any further dilution. It con-
tains much sediment and must always be carefully strained
Place the stone lime in an open iron kettle and add a
few gallons of hot water; then gradually add sulfur, which
has been made into a paste. Add about twelve gallons of
hot water and boil hard for an hour, stirring constantly.
Dilute with enough water to make fifty gallons.
DILUTIONS FOR DORMANT AND SUMMER SPRAYING WITH
Amount of Dilution. Number of Gallons of
Water to One Gallon of Lime-sulfur Solution
Kerosene emulsion is a very valuable insecticide for the
destruction of sucking insects, such as plant-lice, scale-
insects, etc., and for the destruction of insects hibernating
in rubbish or collected in large masses on tree trunks, etc.
Kerosene emulsion is not a poison, but kills by closing up
the spiracles or breathing pores of the insects. The ingre-
dients of the emulsion are kerosene, soap, and water in the
Laundry soap ...................... 1 pound
Boiling water ...................... 1 gallon
Kerosene ......................... 2 gallons
A low grade of kerosene, which is cheap, is as satisfactory
as the higher priced illuminating oil and, if desired, soft
soap may be substituted for the ordinary laundry soap.
The soap forms a coating around each minute particle
of oil, "emulsifying" it and permitting of its then being
dissolved or. diluted with water. Both the soap and oil are
active agents in destruction of the insects.
Preparation.-To prepare the emulsion, shave one pound
of laundry soap (or soft soap) into one gallon of soft water
(rain water). Have the water boiling hot. As soon as the
soap is all dissolved remove the solution from the fire and
add the two gallons of kerosene. At once agitate the ma-
terial violently. Continue for at least five minutes. This
is best done by the use of a bucket spray pump; turn the
hose or nozzle back into the bucket or tub so that the ma-
terial is constantly forced vigorously through the pump.
In a few minutes a smooth, creamy emulsion is formed,
without any free oil. This will get thicker as it cools, but
if it is properly made no free oil will separate out. This is
the "stock solution" and will keep indefinitely if sealed
from the air. (Do not try to make the emulsion by stirring
with a paddle, or similar means, for this does not cause
sufficiently violent agitation to thoroughly emulsify the
Dilution.-For use on trees or shrubs that are dormant,
the stock solution may be diluted with five to seven parts of
water, forming a spray containing 8 to 11 per cent of oil.
On trees or plants that are in leaf, one should dilute the
stock solution with ten to fifteen parts of water, thus mak-
ing a spray containing 4 to 6 per cent of oil. Soft-bodied
insects, such as plant-lice, are usually killed with a 5 to 6
per cent solution. The following table shows how to dilute
the stock solution to secure any desired per cent of oil:
For 4 per cent. strength, add 153 gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 5 per cent. strength, add 121 gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 7 per cent. strength, add 8i gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 10 per cent. strength, add 5g gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 12 per cent. strength, add 4J gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 15 per cent. strength, add 3h gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
For 20 per cent. strength, add 2A gals. water to 1 gal. stock solution.
Kerosene emulsion is best applied on bright, sunny days
when the wind is blowing, since a considerable quantity of
the oil will evaporate quickly, and the danger of injury to
the plants will thereby be reduced.
COMMERCIAL TOBACCO EXTRACTS
There are now on the market highly concentrated ex-
tracts of tobacco. For use these liquids are diluted with
water according to the concentration of the brand and the
insect which is to be killed. Usually the tobacco sprays
will spread more readily and evenly on the plants if soap
is added to the solution at the rate of one pound to fifty
gallons. It has been found that strong tobacco sprays may
kill the eggs of some plant-lice. The weaker dilutions of
tobacco extracts are especially valuable for destroying soft-
bodied insects, as plant-lice. "Black Leaf 40," "Nico-
Fume," "Sulphate of Nicotine," and "Black Leaf Ex-
tract,"' are some of the trade names for the tobacco extracts.
The cost of these extracts may seem prohibitive, but when
diluted the spray is not any more expensive than other
materials for the same purpose.
HOME-MADE TOBACCO EXTRACTS
It is possible to make an extract at home from the tobacco
stems or dust. Place one pound of the stems or dust in one
gallon of water and heat to just the boiling point for one
hour, making up for any loss of water. This solution should
never be allowed to actually boil, as some of the active
principles will be lost in the vapors. Dilute this mixture
with two parts of water and add soap at the rate of one
pound to fifty gallons of spray.
WHALE OIL SOAP
Whale oil or fish oil soap is commonly found for sale in
the hard form, made from caustic soda. The potash soaps
are much to be preferred, as they dissolve more readily
in water. This soap solution is especially valuable for use
against soft-bodied sucking insects, but it is not generally
effective against the more resistant sucking insects. For
plant-lice, dissolve this soap in water at the rate of one
pound to seven gallons. The hard soap must be shaved into
a small quantity of boiling water and the mixture stirred
for some time. After the soap has been dissolved, cold
water may be added to make the above formula.
If whale oil soap is not available it will be found that a
simple solution of laundry soap is very effective for spray-
ing plant-lice. Any good grade of laundry soap may be
used for this purpose. The formula of one pound to seven
gallons of water has proven very effective against plant-lice.
Laundry soap does not dissolve readily, and it is best to
shave it into a liberal quantity of boiling water and stir
frequently. When the dissolution of the soap is complete,
cold water may be added to make the above formula.
Dry sulfur or powdered sulfur, sometimes called flowers
of sulfur, is often used as a contact insecticide, especially
against the red spider. The dry sulfur should be thor-
oughly dusted over the foliage in an effort to hit all the
spiders. It is best to apply sulfur when the foliage is moist
with dew. Hydrated lime mixed in eqeual parts with the
sulfur will make it more adhesive. Sulfur becomes effective
only when the sun vaporizes it; so if applied when the sun
is not shining it will remain inactive until the first bright
Repellents.--A repellent is any material which is applied
to a plant or animal that may be of service in driving away
any insect that might attack it. Dry air-slaked lime is of
service in driving away some pests. It should be dusted
directly onto the insects which are feeding upon the plant.
Tobacco dust acts as a repellent to some insects, especially
the rott-feeding insects. Naphthalene flakes or moth balls
act as a repellent for insects that infest stored products.
Bordeaux mixture, a fungicide, acts as a repellent for many
insects, especially for some forms which feed upon potatoes
and tomatoes. The various fly sprays which are applied
to stock merely act as repellents.
PROTECTIVE TREE WASHES
1. Dissolve one pound of hard soap in three gallons of
water. Add one-half pint of crude carbolic acid and two
ounces of Paris green. Then add enough lime to make a
thick paste, such as will be easy to apply to the trees.
.2. Dissolve sixteen pounds of hard soap in eighty gallons
of boiling water. Then add two quarts of crude carbolic
acid and enough freshly slaked lime to make a thick paste.
3. Slake one bushel of lime in a small quantity of warm
water. Add ten pounds of sulfur, which has been pre-
viously made into paste. Then add one-half gallon of gas-
tar and dilute with water to fifty gallons.
4. Dissolve seventy pounds of quicklime in fifty gallons
of water. Add six pounds of caustic potash and two and
one-half pints of crude carbolic acid.
These washes should be painted on the trunks and lower
limbs of the trees, and the application should be very thor-
ough to be effective. Every small crevice in the bark should
be well coated with the wash. Unless rains occur imme-
diately after the application is made, two or three applica-
tions will be sufficient during the summer.
There are a great many home-made and proprietary ex-
ternal remedies for repelling flies from stock. Many of
them have a value, but many more are of no service whatso-
ever. The most common defect of many of the repellents
is the very short period during which they are effective.
Some repellents are undoubtedly poisonous and should be
used with extreme care. The qualities to be sought in a:
satisfactory repellent are absence of toxic or other detri-
mental properties, a decided repellent action on the flies,
and a long period of effectiveness. The following has given
satisfactory results over the country:
No. 1. The Moore formula:
Fish oil ............................100 parts
Oil of tar........................... 50 parts
Crude carbolic acid................. 1 part
No. 2. The Bishop formula:
Fish oil............................. 1 gallon
Oil of tar......................... 2 ounces
Oil of pennyroyal .................... 2 ounces
K erosene .......................... 1 pint
This mixture is very effective in keeping flies from live
stock when applied lightly with a brush.
No. 3. The Parrott formula:
Fish oil ............................ 2 quarts
Crude carbolic acid .................... 1 pint
Oil of pennyroyal. ................... 1 ounce
Oil of tar............................ 8 ounces
Kerosene sufficient to make one gallon of the mixture.
The cost of this is given at 80 cents a gallon. It must be
applied with a hand atomizer and not with a brush.
Fumigation is available only for insects that can be
treated in an enclosed space. This method is good for the
treatment of pests which attack stored products and for
This material is most extensively used against insects
which attack stored products. Household goods may be
fumigated with this material if the proper precautions are
taken. It is used to some extent for root-feeding insects
by injecting it into the soil. Carbon bisulphide is a clear,
yellow liquid with a very strong and disagreeable odor.
When exposed to the air it evaporates very quickly and the
fumes being heavier than air go to the bottom of the en-
closed space. The fumes are not so effective below tempera-
tures of 600 F. and a larger dose is required under such
conditions. Any material to be fumigated should be placed
in as small a space as possible, since it is the confined area
and not the contents that determines the dosage. The
bisulphide should always be put in shallow dishes 'and
placed on top of the material that is to be fumigated. The
amount of bisulphide necessary for a single application
varies considerably according to the insect that is to be
killed. One pound to a thousand cubic feet is sufficient
for many insects, but as much as ten pounds is required
Do not allow any fire or source of fire, as a lighted cigar,
to be near the fumigation or the stored bisulphide. The
fumes from carbon sulphide are highly inflammable and
under certain conditions explosive. Use the same precau-
tion in handling this material that would be used in hand-
ling gasoline. The fumes should not be inhaled as they
cause a suffocation which results in dizziness.
The fumes of burning sulphur have long been recognized
as a standard remedy for the fumigation of dwellings. It
is an excellent remedy for bedbugs in empty houses. The
serious objections to the use of sulfur fumes are: they will
bleach fabrics; they will tarnish brass; they will destroy
vegetation, and they will destroy the germinating power of
For fumigating greenhouses tobacco fumes are univer-
sally used. This material can be employed where the most
tender plants are grown, and it is especially effective in
controlling plant-lice. Many outdoor plants, as melons
and low shrubs or trees, may be fumigated with tobacco
fumes by means of specially constructed covers. The meth-
ods of fumigation are to burn tobacco stems, or dust, or to
vaporize some of the liquid extracts, or to burn some of
the punk papers now for sale. This last method is most
satisfactory as it is possible to designate the proper amount
of paper to be burned in a given confined space.
This is the most active fumigant known. It is made by
combining water, sulphuric acid, and potassium cyanide.
This gas is a deadly poison to all plant and animal life,
and it should not be used unless the operator has had ex-
perience or unless propeir directions are carefully followed.
STANDARD SPRAYS AND SOLUTIONS USED IN
THE OVERCOMING OF PLANT DISEASES
Bordeaux mixture is used for the control of fungous
diseases of many vegetables and fruits and as a deterrent
of flea-beetle attack. It can be purchased in convenient
package form from seed dealers or prepared at home from
bluestone (copper sulphate), and fresh stone or lump lime
Dissolve the bluestone in a wooden or earthenware vessel,
using hot water. Dilute with half the water. Do not use
tin or other metal containers, as they would be spoiled.
Slake the lime by adding water, a little at a time. When
reduced to a milky fluid, dilute with the rest of the water
and strain through doubled cheese-cloth or a brass wire
strainer of 18 meshes per inch and pour into it the blue
stone solution. Stir well and apply at once. This is best
when prepared fresh for each using.
Mercuric chlorid (corrosive sublimate) is used for treat-
ing seed potatoes and cabbage seed for diseases. It may
be purchased at drug stores in the form of tablets. Dis-
solve two large tablets in a quart of water to make a 1 to
1000 solution. For larger quantities use 21/2 ounces to 15
gallons of water. Corrosive sublimate is a deadly poison.
It attacks metals and, therefore, must be used only in a
wooden, glass, or earthenware vessel.
Formaldehyde (formalin) is used for treating seed pota-
toes, seeds, and soil, to prevent diseases. This is a clear
solution of 40 per cent formaldehyde gas in water. It is
very iritating to the eyes and to cuts, but not poisionous.
It does not attack nietals. Use teaspoonful to a teacupful
of water, 1 ounce to 2 gallons of water, and 1 pint or pound
to 30 gallons of water (for potatoes and onions). It is not
Lime is used to control cabbage clubroot. It neutralizes
soil acidity and therefore tends to increase scab on pota-
toes. It acts at the same time to a limited extent as a
deterrent against certain insects which may be in or on the
soil, such as maggots and grubs, and is a good remedy for
slugs. Air-slaked or hydrated lime is the best form to use.
Lime-sulphur is a valuable spray for fruit trees applied
during the dormant season, but not suited for use on vege-
tables. Experiments have shown that potatoes are injured
rather than benefited by it.
METHODS SUCCESSFULLY USED IN STERILIZING SEED BEDS
Steam tile are used to sterilize the soil by placing lines
of 2-inch to 3-inch glazed tile lengthwise in the beds to be
sterilized, 2 to 21/2 feet apart and 15 inches below the sur-
face, and these are left there permanently. They provide
drainage for the beds, may be used for subirrigation, and
are available at any time for sterilizing the soil, the only
labor being the covering of the beds with boards or a tar-
paulin and the connecting of the tile with a boiler by means
of a piece of steam hose. It is advisable to spade up the
soil, so that the steam may more readily penetrate it.
Steam pans furnish another method of steaming, by
means of admitting steam under inverted galvanized iron
pans, 6 by 10 feet and 6 inches deep. This has been used
in the sterilization of tobacco seed beds and in greenhouse
beds, and has given very satisfactory results. The use of
steam at pressure of 80 to 100 pounds and treatment for
half an hour to an hour after the soil has reached a tem-
perature of 2120 F., as indicated by soil thermometers, has
given the best results.
Formaldehyde sterilization is accomplished by drenching
the soil with a 1 to 100 or 1 to 200 solution of standard
formaldehyde (40 per cent), at the rate of 3/4 of a gallon
per square foot of area, several.days before the soil is to
be used. Formaldehyde, however, does not rid the soil
of nematodes, as steaming does. This method has been
used to excellent advantage in the sterilization of lettuce
beds for the prevention of fungous diseases.
FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES
Many of these mixtures can be obtained already pre-
pared from reliable dealers, which saves much time and
trouble in mixing them. The following precautions should
be taken into consideration:
1. Care should be taken to keep all substances employed
in spraying where they cannot be gotten at and used by
mistake. All substances should be correctly labeled.
2. Solutions and mixtures containing copper sulphate,
corrosive sublimate and arsenate of lead should be made
in wood, glass or earthen vessels.
3. Arsenical solutions should not be applied to fruits,
etc., within two weeks of the time they are to be used as
4. Trees should not be sprayed when they are in blos-
som, as the bees, which are necessary to fertilize the flow-
ers, may be destroyed.
5. Florida growers interested in spraying and other
means of checking insect pests, not fully covered herein,
should write the director of the Florida Experiment
Station at Gainesville, for further information.
4 pounds copper sulphate (blue vitriol).
4 pounds lime unslakedd).
25-50 gallons water.
Dissolve the copper in hot or cold water, using a wooden
or earthen vessel. Slake the lime in a tub, adding the
water cautiously and only in sufficient amount to insure
thorough slaking. After thorough slaking, more water
can be added and stirred in until it has the consistency
of thick cream. When both are cold, pour the lime into
the diluted copper solution of required strength, straining
it through a fine-mesh sieve or a gunny cloth, and thor-
oughly mix. The standard mixtures are:
(a) 25 gallons (full strength solution, or 4-4-25 for-
(b) 50 gallons (half strength mixture, or 4-4-50 for-
It is then ready for use. Considerable trouble has fre-
quently been experienced in preparing the Bordeanx mix-
ture. Care should be taken that the lime is of good quality
and well burned, and has not been air-slaked. Where small
amounts of lime are slaked, it is advisable to use hot water.
The lime should not be allowed to become dry in slaking,
neither should it become entirely submerged in water.
Lime slakes best when supplied with just enough water to
develop a large amount of heat, which renders the process
active. If the amount of lime is insufficient, there is
danger of burning tender foliage. In order to obviate this,
the mixture can be tested with a knife blade or with ferro-
cyanide of potasssium (1 oz. to 5 or 6 ozs. of water). If the
amount of lime is insufficient, copper will be deposited on
the knife blade, while a deep brownish-red color will be
imparted to the mixture when ferro-cyanide of potassium
is added. Lime should be added until neither reaction
occurs. A slight excess of lime, however, is desirable.
The Bordeaux mixture is best when first prepared. Stock
solutions of lime and copper can be made and mixed when
2. The following, known as the 6-4-50 formula, is in very
6 pounds copper sulphate.
4 pounds lime.
50 gallons water.
BORDEAUX MIXTURE FOR PEACH FOLIAGE
The Bordeaux mixture, as ordinarily applied, frequently
injures to some extent the foliage of the peach, etc., causing
a shot-hole effect on the leaves. This injurious effect has
been shown to be largely obviated by the use of the follow-
3 pounds copper sulphate.
6 pounds lime.
50 gallons water.
This is known as the 3-6-50 formula. Some experiment-
ers have also recommended the following for peach foliage:
(a) 2-2-50 formula (Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 180).
(b) 3-9-50 formula.
The latter contains three times as much lime as copper,
BORDEAUX RESIN MIXTURE
5 pounds resin.
1 pound potash lime.
1 pint fish oil.
5 gallons water.
To make resin solution, place resin and oil in a kettle and
heat until resin is dissolved. Cool slightly and then add
lye slowly and stir. Again place the kettle over the fire,
add the required amount of water and allow the whole to
boil until it will mix with cold water, forming an amber-
colored solution. Take 2 gallons of the resin solution and
add to it 10 gallons of water. Mix this with 40 gallons of
Recommended for asparagus rust on account of its ad-
hesive properties. (N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Geneva) Bull.
SACCHARINE OF COPPER
4 pounds copper sulphate.
4 pounds lime.
4 pints molasses.
25 gallons water.
Slake 4 pounds of lime and dilute the same with water.
Dissolve 4 pints of molasses in a gallon of water and mix
with the lime. Stir thoroughly, and let it stand for a few
hours. Dissolve 4 pounds of copper in 10 gallons of water
and pour it into the lime-molasses. solution, while stirring
briskly. Allow the mixture to settle. Draw off the clear,,
greenish solution for use. Recommended in France as at
substitute for the Bordeaux mixture.
AMMONIACAL COPPER CARBONATE
5 ounces copper carbonate.
3 pints ammonia (260 Beaume).
50 gallons water.
Dissolve the copper carbonate in ammonia. This may be
kept any length of time in a glass-stoppered bottle and
diluted to the required strength. The solution loses
strength on standing.
2 pounds copper sulphate.
1 quart ammonia.
50 gallons water.
Dissolve the copper sulphate in 6 or 8 gallons of water;
then add the ammonia and dilute to 50 or 60 gallons of
COPPER CARBONATE MIXTURE
1 pound copper carbonate.
40 gallons water.
Mix the copper carbonate with small quantity of water
to make a paste; then dilute with the required amount of
water. For fruit rot of the peach, etc. (Delaware Agr.
Exp. Sta., Bull. XXIX).
6 ounces copper acetate (diabasic acetate).
50 gallons water.
First make a paste of the copper acetate by adding water
to it; then dilute to the required strength. Use finely
powdered acetate of copper, not the crystalline form. For
the same purpose, and of the same value, as the preceding
COPPER SULPHATE SOLUTION
1 pound copper sulphate.
25 gallons water.
Apply only on trees without foliage.
COPPER SULPHATE SOLUTION
2-4 ounces copper sulphate.
50 gallons water.
For trees in foliage.
3 ounces potassium sulphide.
10 gallons water.
Valuable for gooseberry mildews, etc.
1 part potassium permanganate.
2 parts soap.
100 parts water.
Recommended in France for black rot and mildew of the
IRON SULPHATE AND SULPHURIC ACID
Water (hot), 100 parts.
Iron sulphate, as much as will dissolve.
Sulphuric acid, 1 part.
Prepare solution just before using. Add the acid to the
crystals, and then pour on the water. Valuable for treat-
ment of dormant grape vines affected with anthracnose,
application being made with sponge or brush.
(For Potato Scab)
2 ounces corrosive sublimate.
15 gallons water.
- Dissolve the corrosive sublimate in 2 gallons of hot water.
Then dilute to 15 gallons, allowing the same to stand 5 or 6
hours, during which time thoroughly agitate the solution
several times. Place the seed potatoes in a sack and im-
merse in the solution for 11/. hours. Corrosive sublimate
is very poisonous; consequently, care should be taken in
handling it, nor should the treated potatoes be eaten by
stock. The solution should not be made in metallic vessels.
(For Potato Scab)
8 ounces formalin (40% solution).
15 gallons water.
Used for the same purpose as corrosive sublimate, but not
poisonous. Immerse the seed potatoes for two hours.
1 pound Paris green.
20-50 pounds flour.
Mix thoroughly and apply evenly; preferably when dew
is on the plant.
1 pound Paris green.
4 pound quicklime.
200 gallons water.
Slake the lime in part of the water, sprinkling in the
Paris green gradually; then add the rest of the water. For
the peach and other tender-leaved plants, use 300 gallons
of water. Keep well stirred while spraying.
ARSENITE OF LIME
1 pound of white arsenic.
2 pounds of fresh burned lime.
1 gallon of water.
Boil together for 45 minutes and keep in a tight vessel.
Add 1 quart of this to a barrel (50 gallons) of water, for
This insecticide has been recommended by a number of
experimental stations, but has not yet been sufficiently
tested at the Massachusetts Station to receive an endorse-
ARSENATE OF LEAD
4 ounces arsenate of soda (50% strength).
11 ounces acetate of lead.
150 gallons water.
Put the arsenate of soda in 2 quarts of water in a wooden
pail, and the acetate of lead in 4 quarts of water in another
wooden pail. When both are dissolved, mix with the rest
of the water. Warm water in the pails will hasten the
process. For the elm-leaf beetle, use 25 instead of 150
gallons of water.
WHALE OIL SOAP
2 pounds potash whale oil soap.
1 gallon hot water.
For winter use only.
pound hard soap, shaved fine.
1 gallon water.
2 gallons kerosene
Dissolve the soap in the water, which should be boiling;
remove from the fire and pour it into the kerosene while
hot. Churn this with a spray pump till it changes to a
creamy, then to a soft butter-like mass. Keep this as a
stock, using 1 part in 9 of water for soft-bodied insects,
such as plant-lice, or stronger in certain cases.
A substitute for the last. Made entirely by the pump,
which draws water and kerosene from separate tanks and
mixes them in the desired proportion by a mechanical de-
vice. Several pumps for the purpose are now on the mar-
5 pounds pulverized resin.
1 pound concentrated lye.
1 pint fish or other animal oil.
5 gallons water.
Place the oil, resin and 1 gallon of hot water in an iron
kettle and heat till the resin softens, then add the lye and
stir thoroughly. Now add 4 gallons of hot water and boil
till a little will mix with cold water and give a clear, amber-
colored liquid; add water to make up 5 gallons. Keep this
as a stock solution. For use, take 1 gallon of stock solution,
16 gallons water, 3 gallons milk of lime, 1/4 pound Paris
The object of this preparation is to obtain an adhesive
material which will cause the poison to adhere to smooth
leaves. It has been highly recommended by the New York
State (Geneva) Experiment Station.
LIME, SALT AND SULPHUR
50 pounds unslaked lime.
50 pounds flowers of sulphur.
50 pounds common salt.
Slake the lime in enough water to do it thoroughly, add
the sulphur and boil for an hour at least, adding water if
necessary. Then add the salt and boil 15 minutes more.
Add water to make 150 gallons, and spray hot through a
LIME, SALT AND SULPHUR
Marlatt's formula (from Smith):
30 pounds unslaked lime.
30 pounds sulphur.
15 pounds salt.
60 gallons water.
Boil with steam for 4 hours, and apply hot.
CARBOLIC ACID EMULSION
1 pound hard soap, shaved fine.
1 gallon water.
1 pint crude carbolic acid.
Dissolve the soap in the water, boiling; add the carbolic
acid and churn as for kerosene emulsion. Use 1 part of
this with 30 parts of water.
1 ounce hellebore.
1 gallon water.
Steep the hellebore in a pint of water and gradually add
the rest of the water. Hellebore may also be dusted over
the plants, either pure or mixed with flour or plaster.
INSECT POWDER; PYRETHRUM
Mix with half its bulk of flour and keep in a tight can
for 24 hours; then dust over the plants. Or,
100 grains insect powder.
2 gallons water.
Mix together, and spray.
COMBINED FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES
BORDEAUX MIXTURE AND PARIS GREEN
4 ounces Paris green.
50 gallons Bordeaux mixture.
BORDEAUX MIXTURE AND ARSENATE OF LEAD
1 gallon arsenate of lead (made by formula No. 20).
50 gallons Bordeaux mixture.
BORDEAUX MIXTURE AND ARSENATE OF LIME
1, quarts arsenite of lime (made by formula No. 19).
50 gallons Bordeaux mixture.
(Used for White Fly)
1 bar soap (10-cent size).
3 gallons water.
Apply warm, as it thickens on cooling.
Recommended for rose mildew, red spider, plant-lice, etc.
Any common laundry soap, particularly the yellow resin
soaps, dissolved 1 pound of soap to 15 or 20 gallons of
water, is an efficient application for white fly, red spider,
plant-lice, etc. The addition of 1/4 pound of Paris green
to each 50 gallons of soap solution adds to its efficiency.
There is probably no better formula for white fly than the
Equal parts of soap solution and sulphur wash-made by
dissolving 20 pounds of sulphur with 10 pounds of caustic
soda-is a most excellent general application.
First mix 20 pounds of flowers of sulphur into a paste
with cold water, then add 10 pounds of pulverized caustic
soda (98%). The dissolving lye will boil and liquify the
sulphur. Water must be added from time to time to pre-
vent burning, until a concentrated solution of 20 gallons
is obtained. Two gallons of this is sufficient for 50 gallons
of spray, giving a strength of 2 pounds of sulphur and 1 of
lye to 50 gallons of water. An even stronger application
can be made without danger to the foliage. This mixture
can also be used in combination with other insecticides.
The chemical combination of sulphur and lime, known as
bisulphide of lime, is perhaps a better liquid sulphur solu-
tion than the last as a remedy for mites. It may be very
cheaply prepared by boiling together, for an hour or more,
in a small quantity of water, equal parts of flowers of sul-
phur and stone lime. Convenient quantity is prepared by
taking 5 pounds of sulphur and 5 pounds of lime, and boil-
ing in 3 or 4 gallons of water until the ingredients combine,
forming a brownish liquid. This may be diluted to make
100 gallons of spray.
Almost any of the insecticides with which the sulphur
application may be made will kill the leaf or rust mites,
but the advantage of the sulphur arises from the fact that
it forms an adhering coating on the leaves, which kills the
young mites coming from the eggs, which are very resistant
to the action of the insecticides and result in the plants
being reinfested unless protected by the sulphur deposit.
For spraying machinery address State Market Bureau,
A LA THE PRINCE OF DENMARK
To spray, or not to spray, that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in this State, to nurture
The bugs and fungi that take half our fortune,
Or to take oil against a sea of insects,
And by emulsion end them?-To spray-to lose-
No more; and, by a spray, to say we end
The white fly, and the billion mites and germs
Our trees fall heir to-'tis an assassination
Devoutly to be wished. To spray-to lose;
To lose; perhaps them all;-ah, there's a scheme;
For in that loss of bugs what we would gain,
When we have mixed up a little oil,
Within some soap; there's the spray-dope,
That makes white flies despair of longer life.
Why should we stand at all for rusty fruit,
Dead twigs on our trees, because of wither-tip,
The grade of much spotted fruit, from melanose,
The sooty-mold of white flies, and the marks
That scab and scale leave, weakening all our trees
When we might rid our groves of all these pests
With a small effort? Who will against this speak,
Or ask yoi to excuse the low-grade fruit;
Unless he has some motive of his own,
Some selfish interest to push, from which source
No one for long can gain, it beats the Dutch,
And makes us wonder what has come to man,
That he will seek to undermine the good
Which has been done to benefit us all?
But with the inner force of resolution
We can yet conquer all these pests we have;
And enterprise with an eternal effort,
In this regard, will troubles take away,
And give you fruit worth selling-listen now!
You men of Florida:-Heed, and in the future
Let all your fruit be brighter.
-,-S. M. T., in Florida Grower.
A SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR CITRUS
The following spraying schedule is the result of a con-
ference held at Orlando, Florida, February 27, 1919, par-
ticipated in by H. R. Fulton, J. R. Winston and J. J. Bow-
man, pathologists, and W. W. Others, entomologist, U. S.
Department of Agriculture; H. E. Stevens, pathologist, and
J.'R. Watson, entomologist, Florida Experment Station,
and E. W. Berger, entomologist, State Plant Board.
This combined schedule is based on the work to date of
State and Federal investigators, and represents their com-
posite judgment regarding the control of citrus insects and
diseases by spraying, control of the enemies usually destruc-
tive on grapefruit in an average season, provided the spray-
ing is done thoughtfully. Oranges will usually require,
three applications (Nos. 7, 8, and 9.) Under conditions
unusually favorable for disease or insect increase certain
or all of the remaining applications will be required in
Be cautious about using lime-sulphur solution when the
temperature is above 900. If used under this condition,
use the weaker strength and be sure of the accuracy of the
Beaume test and the diluting.
The Bordeaux mixture requires 3 pounds of bluestone
and 3 pounds of first grade quicklime in 50 gallons of water.
Never use air-slaked lime. If hydrated lime or inferior
grade of quicklime must be used make it 4 pounds.
A SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR CITRUS
Citrus Time of
No. Fruit Application Material Enemy Remarks
1 Grapefruit* Just before first Bordeaux mixture Scab To be applied if scab is abundant on old leaves.
flush 3-3-50 When Bordeaux mixture is used it must be
followed by two of the specified lime sulphur
applications within two months to reduce
2 Grapefruit* Just before petals Lime sulphur sol. Scab To be applied if scab infections appear on new
open 32 Beaume;2 Y Rust mites growth, or if rainy weather favorable for
I gal. in 100 gal. Red spiders scab follows first application.
When 1-3 to 1-2 Lime sulphur sol. Scab Add the nicotine if 25 or more thrips per bloom
3 Grapefruit* the petals are off 2% in 100 gal. Thrips are present.
and p lus Nicotine Rust mites
Orange** sulphate 13 oz. Red spiders
Orne 1| in 100 gal.__
4 Grapefruit* 7 to 10 days afterLime sulphur sol. Scab
third application 2 gal. In 100 Thrips
gal. Rust mites
5 Grapefruit* 7 to 10 days after Lime sulphur sol. Scab To be given if rainy weather favorable for scab
fourth applica- 2% gal. In 100 Rust mites infection follows fourth application.
tion gal. Scale
6 Grapefruit April 5 to 15 Lime sulphur sol. Rust mites If any two our of Nos. 3, 4 and 5 have been
2 gal. in 100 to Tearstain given, this can be omitted; otherwise this
1% gal. in 100 Is the critical spraying for rust mites on
7 Grapefruit In May when fruit Oil emulsion 1% White fly The oil emulsion should be used so that the
and Iis at least 1 In. plus dry soda Scale insects dilutted spray material should contain 1%
Orange In diameter sulphur 2 bs. In Rust mites of oil, i. e., if the emulsion contains 66% of
100 gallons oil, 1% gallons would be required for 100
___ gallons of water.
8 Grapefruit In June Lime sulphur ol. Rust mites On oranges this is the critical rust mite spray,
and 2 gal,. in 100 to Tearstain if the fruit has not received any previous
Orange 11 gal. in 100 lime sulphur application.
9 Grapefruit I Probably in Sep- Oil emulsion 1% White fly To be given if scale or white fly is noticeable.
and tember on Octo- Scale insects
Orange ber, but certain-
ly before Feb. 11
10 Grapefruit November to Lime sulphur sol. Rust mites To be given only if rust mites are noticeable.
and January 2 gal. in 100 to
Orange 1% in 100 gal. I
*The scab applications miay be required on highly susceptible varieties of orange of the kid glove type.
**Required on round. oranges only when thrips are abundant.
SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR OTHER CROPS
FRUITS-APPLES, QUINCES, PEARS-WHEN TO SPRAY
1 Spraying 2 Spraying 3 Spraying 4 Spraying
While Treree e .lust Before
What to Spray for Dormant Blossoming As Blossoms Fall Three Weeks Later
Scale Lime-sulphur con- Lime-sulphur con-,Same as second Bordeaux mixture
Fungus spores Treatment cointrate one gal- (nttrate one and| 44-50- with onei
T'ut caterpillar ion to eight gal- a half gallons to lb. powdered ar-
Bud moth Ions water. 50 gallons water senate of lead.
PEACII, PLUI, APRICOT, CHERRY
Four to Five Weeks
While Trees are Ten Days After Two Weeks After Before Fruit is
_Dormant Blossoms Fall Second Due to Ripen
Scale Lime-sulphur con- Arsenate of lead Boiled lime sul- Self-boiled lime sul-
Fungus spores Treatment centrate one gal- one lb. 50 gal- phur 8-8-50 and phur. 8-8-50
Curculio lons water milk of lime of lead
Brown rot from 5 lbs. un-
Srah slacked lime
When Trees are As Soon as Fruit After Growth After Fruit Sets
Dormant Starts Starts
Scale insects Lime-sulphur con- One and half lb. Lime-sulphur one Shade Trees
Blight Treatment centrate one gal- arsenate of lead and half gallons
Scab Ion to 8 gallons and 5 lbs. un- to 50 gallons Shade trees should
Bud moth water slacked lime 50 water and 1% be sprayed with
Case worms gallons water lbs. unslacked first spray for Pe-
(aterpillars lime cans In case of
Leaf spot scale. If leaf-eat-
ing insects attack
shade trees spray
with 11'/ pounds
pwd. Ar. of Lead.
5 pounds unslaked
lime, to 50 gallons
T'en Days to Twol
Week Before Just After Fruit Weeks After
-liossoms Open Sets Second Spray
Anthracnose Bordeaux mixture Same as first Same as first and F or leaf hopper,
Black rot Treatment 4-4-50 and pwd. add 40% nico- spray against un-
Mildew arsenate lead tine sulphate sol. dser side of leaves
Berry moth 1% lbs. 1/4 pt. to 50 gal-
Leaf folder Ions of mixture
Beetles Arsenate of Lead, \vhen beetles first appear, followed at 10- io not spray while cutting for use, then
4 lbs. powder to day intervals as necessary. Also on old( disc field throwing soil over crowns.
S50 gallons. plantations after cuttings cease.
Rust iControl by spraying Permit no plants to mature during cutting NeSeure resistant variety, like Palmetto.
Unsatisfactory I season. I
Anthracnose Pick and burn dis- (1) As plants break through ground. Ibince this disease is carried on the seed,
eased pods. (2) When first pair of leaves expand. use seed only from healthy plants, prefer-
SBordeaux, 5-5-50. 1 ) Whtn pods have set. ably from a disease-free locality.
Cabbage worm Arsenate of Lead Arsenate or lead when worms first appear. Add a little soap to the water to make the
Cabbage looper or Hellebore Repeat as necessary till heads are poison stick.
____________ _________ formed. Then use hellebore.
Cutworm IWrap paper around the stem when plants Avoid planting on sod land.
_____ are set, sinking it in soil.
Club root Pull up and burn | spread lime on ground in spring. 1 lb. tolPractice rotation. Avoid infected land. Do
_plants q. so. ft. Work it in before setting plants| not get diseased plants.
Black rot Pull up and burn I Sok seed 5 minutes in corrosive sub-
piplants limnte to kill spores wintering thereon..
CANTALOUPE AND CUCUMBER
bacterial wilt Kill the beetles which spread the disease]
_____I_______ I (as below).
Anthracnose I Bordeaux When vines begin to run. Follow with 2 Use a short spray rod with angle nozzle to
Downy mildew I more applications at two or three-week reach the underside of leaves for cucum-
Melon rust I intervals. ber troubles.
Striped beetle iBordeaux with ar-As beetles appear. Repeat as necessary. Bordeaux aids in repelling beetles.
Senate of lead I I
Melon aphis or Nicotine sulfate On first appearance of lice. Repent as
louse necessary. Pull up and burn badly i
fs____ted plants at once.
Squash bug Pick the bugs and crush them. Place small May cover plants with cloth protection.
piece of board near the hills, collecting Leave several small squashes in field
bugs found underneath every morning. after first frost. Collect and burn cu-
cumber insects which will collect there-
SI on.in large numbers.
Leaf spot Bordeaux On young seedlings in seed bed. Follow | ,oine varieties seem more resistant than
by three later spraying at 2-week in-| others.
tervals if necessary.
CORN-POP AND SWEET
Smut to satisfactory (Cut otf andi burn smutted areas before liutale crops.
remedy I they break open.I
Corn car worm No satisfactory IDry arsenale of lead is sometimes dusted Kill the worms as found as ears are pre-
remerv on before the coin ear fully silks out. pared for use.
Drop or wilt il'ull and burn dis- I.oak the di(,casrd area with Bordeaux or ilurn all lettuce trash.
I asked plants atl with Blucstone solution, 1 lb. 7 gal.
karly blight Bordeaux l\hen splits are (i inches high. Make 21 liUorilix arsenate of lead is the usual corn
I more applications at 2-week intervals, hiuntion spray for potato field diseases.
Lale blight Bordeaux I('Coinil snravinu as above at 2-week in-
Tip burn tervals if thought necessary throughout
Colorado potato Arsenate of lead When youni beetles first appear. Repeat When Bordeaux is used in a combination
beetle as new broods hatch, spray it tends to repel the flea beetles.
Flea beetle ________________________
Scab Soak clean tubers in 1 pint formaldehyde
to 30 gal. water 2 hours, then dry and
.ut 1o .nlant.I
Illack rot Select out sound tubers. Soak 2 hours. Bed
StPm rot Formaldehyde, 1-30 and transplant in clean soil. Vine cut-
Wilt. etc. tines are safest for general planting.
SQUASH AND PUMPKIN
Insects and diseases, with treatment, as cantaloupe, which see.
Fusarium wilt Spraying ineffective leo velop resistant strains. i
SSterilize soil (in green houses).
Antlracnose I I Keep plants uo from ground
Blossom end rot usedsd by lack of moisture or excessive moisture. Strike a proper balance and cultivate properly.
Early blight Bordeaux As for blight on potatoes, which see.
Anthracnose ] Bordeaux Soon matter vines begin to run. Again 2 or
I 3 weeks later.
Wilt I Formaldehyde, 1-40 Sonk seed 10 minutes. Do not plant it in-
I fected soil.
IPowdery mildew IStorable Lime-sulphur 1-40 or Flowers oflApply on first appearance of disease, and ait
I Sulphur. I nt'iirv .ls n, mv lhe necessary.
BLACKBERRY AND RASPBERRY
Orange rust Dig un and burn Since these diseases are perennial in thel Do not plant infected stock or use ground
Cane blight all infected plants canes, spraying is useless after first in-1 previously infected.
Crown gall as soon as noted J fection occurs. I
Anthracnose (1) In spring before growth starts (21/1
Lime sulfur gal. in 50).
(2) When new shoots are 6-8 inches high
(1% gal. in 50).
(3) Just before blooming period. Dilute
What to spray forl Treatment I When to Spray Remarks
Leaf spot IBordeaux JBefore blossoms open. Additional appli- IRnew beds frequently. May mow off and
I I cations If spot appears. I burn foliage after berries are picked.
Paris green cannot be used on foliage of cherry, peach,
Japanese plum, apricot and nectarine without injury.
Black knots on plums or cherries should be cut or burned
as soon as discovered.
If a pail full of lime wash, well strained, be. added to
each barrel full of copper solution (4 ounces to 50 gallons)
delicate foliage like that of the peach, etc., will not be in-
TREES THAT HARBOR CITRUS INSECTS
The following are among the trees that harbor citrus
insects and should be sprayed as punctually as the citrus
grove or destroyed.
Japonica, camphor, croton, oleander, chinaberry, prickly
ash, privet, wild olive, and roses. Mangoes, avacados, and
figs have many insects in common with citrus.
Common Name, Botan-
ical Name, and Du-
ration of Life.
*Bermuda grass, wire-
gress (Caprlola dac-
Bindweed, field bind-
weed (Convolulus ar-
Bindweed, wild morn-
lus sepium), P.
Bitterweed. fennel, yel-
low dog fennel (He-
Bull nettle, horse net-
tle (Solanum caroli-
Bur-grass, sand bur
Chess, cheat (Bromus
isma sangulnale), A.
THIRTY WORST WEEDS OF THE UNITED STATES
(A-annual, B-biennial, P-perennial)
Color, Size, and Ar- Sections where In- Method of Seed Distri-
rangement of Flow- jurious button; Vegetative
ers. Propagation of the
Purple; 1/12 inch; Maryland to Missouri Seeds sparingly; root-
spikes. and southward, stocks.
White or pink; 1 in. Entire United States, Grain and flax seeds;
solitary. especially California creeping roots.
White or rose; 2 in. Misissippi Valley re- Grain and flax seeds;
solitary. gion. root-stocks.
Yellow; 3/4 inch; Virginia to Kansas Wind, hay, animals.
head. and southward
Purple; 1 inch; soli- Entire United States. Plants rolled by wind;
tary. running roots.
Green; 1/3 inch; bur Maine to Florida and Animals, especially
westward to Colorado sheep.
Green: spikelets in All grain sections. Grain seed; especially
White; 1/8 inch; Entire United States. Grass and clover seed,
cymes. animals: has a long
Green; 1/4 inch; head Entire United States. Carried by animals.
Green; spikes. Entire United States, Clover and grass seed,
especia-ly the South. hay, animals.
Place of Growth and
Fields and lawns;
Rich moist soils; grain
and hoed crops.
Rich prairie and river
bottoms; corn and
Meadows and past-
ures; inures live stock
and taints milk.
Everywhere; grain and
hoed crops, pastures.
Sandy land pastures
and waste places;
pastures and wool.
Everywhere; g r 'a i n
Meadows, lawns; win-
Cultivated fields and
, waste places: hoed
crops and wool.
Cultivated fields, gar-
dens, lawns; hoed
Daisy, oxeye daisy White with yellow cen-Maine to Virginia and C o ver seed, hay;
(Chrysanthemum leu- ter; 1 inch; heads. Kentucky. woody, rather short
canthemum), P. root-stock, but large-
ly by seed.
Dandelion (Taraxacum Yellow; 1 1/4 Inch; Entire United States. Wind: taproot, which
officinale), P. head. spreads but little.
Dodder, alfalfa dodder, Yellow; 1/8 inch; All clover and alfalfa Hay, clover, and al-
field dodder (cuscuta clusters, regions, falfa seed.
Fern, brake (Pteri- No flowers Northwestern Slates Spores scattered by
dium aquilinum), P. and the Pacific coast. wind; running roots.
Fleabane, horseweed White: 1/4 inch; Entire United States. hIay. grass, and clover
(Erigeron canaden- heads in cymes. seeds.
Foxtail, yellow foxtail, Green; spikes. Entire United States. Animals, hay, grain,
pigeon grass (Chae- and grass seeds.
tochloa glauca), A.
Ilawkweed. orange Orange; 1 inch; heads Maine to Ohio Wind, grass and clover
hawkweed, d e v i 's- seeds; runners simi-
paintbrush (Hierac- lar to strawberry.
lum aurantiacum), P
*Johnson grass (Hol- Green; 1/8 inch; pan- Virginia to Texas and In hay, grain, and
cus halepensis), P. icle. California. grass seed; running
Mustard, wild must- Yellow; 1/2 inch; Maine to Washington. Grain, grass, clover,
ard, charlock (Brass- racemes, and rape seeds.
ica avensis), A.
Nut-grass, coco (Cype- Brown; 1/16 inch; Maryland to Florida Wind, nursery stock,
rus rotundus), P. spikelets. and Texas. hay, and grass seed;
Pennycress, French- White: 1/8 inch; North Dakota and Wind
weed (Thlaspi ar- racemes. Minnesota.
Plantain, buckhorn, White; 1/16 inch; Entire United States. Hay, clover, and grass
ribgrass (Plantago spike. seed: spreads but
lanceolato), P. slowly from a crown.
Poison ivy, poison oak Greenish while; 1/8 Entire United States. Does not spread fast
(Rhus toxicodendron) inch; panicles. by seeds; running
roadsides; aay, pas-
waste places; hay and
Clover and alfalfa
Logged-off land, mead-
ows, and pastures.
Meadows, pastures, and
Land cultivated in ear-
ly part of season;
young grass and clo-
Untillable pastures and
All crops except hay.
Small-grain fields and
All soils; hoed crops.
Grain fields and pas-
tures; grain and dairy
pastures, and lawns.
Moist rich land, along
fences: poisonous by
THIRTY WORST WEEDS IN THE UNITED STATES-(Continued)
(A-annual, B-biennial, P-perennial)
Common Name, Botan- Color, Size, 'and Ar- Sections where In- Method of Seed Dlstri- Place of Growth and
ical Name, and Du- rangement of Flow- curious. button; Vegetative Products Injured
ration of Life. era. Propagation of the
Purslane, pusley (Port- Yellow; 1/4 inch; sol- Entire United States. Tillage implements; Rich cultivated land,
ulaca oleracea), A. Itary. has a long seeding especially ga r d en;
period. hoed crops.
Quack-grass, wit c h- Green; spike. Maine to Pennsylva- Seeds of grain and All crops on the better
grass (Agropyron re- nia and Minnesota. coarse grasses; creep- soils; hoed crops.
pens), P. ing root-stocks.
Russian thistle, tum- Purplish; 1/4 inch; Minnesota to Washing- Wind rolling matured Ever where; s m a
bleweed (Salsola pes- solitary ton and southward, plants. grain and hoed crops.
Sorrel, sheep sorrel, Red; 1/8 inch; pani- Entire United States. In clover seed; creep- Meadows and pastures.
horse sorrel (Rumex cles. ing roots.
Sow thistle, perennial Yellow; 8/4 inch; Maine to Minnesota. Wind; running root- Grain fields and hoed,
sow thistle, field sow heads. stocks. crops.
thistle (Sonchus ar-
Squirreltall g r a a s, Green; spike with long Minnesota to Texas Hay, animals, wind. Meadows and pastures;
squirrel grass, fox- bristly glumes. and California. barbed seeds produce
tail, wild barley sores on live stock.
Thistle, Canada thistle Purple; 3/4 inch; Maine to Pennsylvania Wind, in hay and All crops.
(Cirslum arvense), P heads, and Washington. straw and in clover
and grass seed; creep-
Wild carrot (Daucus White; very small; Maine and Virginia to In foreign clover and Meadows and pastures.
carota), B. umbels, the Mississippi. alfalfa seed- carried
by animals and wind.
Wild oats (Avena Green; panicles; sim- Wisconsin to Washing- In seed oats. Oat fields; lawns in-
fatua), A. lar to oats. ton. jurlous to stock.
Wild onion, garlic (Al- Flowers rare; umbels Rhode Island to Geor- Seeds rare; bulblets Everywhere; wheat and
llum vineale), P. with bulblets. gia and west to Mis- carried in wheat; un- dairy products.
souri. derground bulbs.
*Also useful for feed.
SPRING AND SUMMER SPRAYING
FOB PEACH, PLUM, AND OTHER STONE FRUITS
1. Spray trees just after the petals fall, when the calyces
are being pushed off. Use arsenate of lead. This is for the
2. Spray about 18 days later, or about one month after
the petals fall, with self-boiled lime-sulphur (8-8-50). To
this should be added 21/2 pounds of arsenate of lead paste.
This is the second treatment for curculio, and the first for
scab and brown rot.
3. About one month before the fruit ripens, spray with
self-boiled lime-sulphur. This is for scab and brown rot
When varieties ripen very early, as the Alexander, May-
flower, Sneed, Arp, and Greensboro peaches, it is likely that
-two applications will suffice. When varieties ripen very
late, as with the Salway, Heath, General Lee, October,
Peen-to, Imperial, and Pallas peaches, they should be given
another spray of self-boiled lime-sulphur about half way-
between the time of the second and third" sprays mentioned
FOB APPLE, PEAR, AND OTHER POME FRUITS
The spraying schedule given below is designed to control
scab, bitter rot, blotch, codling moth, curculio, and canker
1. Spray with lime-sulphur (8-8L50) and arsenate of lead
combined when the calyces are wide open. This spray is
for the codling moth, scab, and any leaf-eating insects.
2. Repeat number one 18 days later. This is for scab,
rot, canker worm, curculio, and blotch.
3. Repeat number two 18 days later.
4. Repeat number three 18 days later.
5. For later ripening varieties repeat number four two
weeks before fruit is ripe.
CONTROL OF GENERAL CROP PESTS
"General feeding" insects which injure nearly all plant
life are usually harder to combat than the ''choice feeding'
varieties which limit their operations to a single crop. For
this reason the table below of general crop pests is given
to aid in the efforts of eradication.
The best remedy is what is called "poisioned bait." For
a large garden, use 1 bushel of bran to 1 pound of arsenic
mixed with 8 gallons of water containing half a gallon of
molasses. This is enough for treating 4 or 5 acres of culti-
vated, crops After the mash has stood for several hours,
scatter it in lumps the size of a marble over the garden
where the injury is beginning to appear and about the
bases of the plants set out. Apply late in the day, so as
to place the poison about the plants before night, which
is the time when cutworms are active. Apply a second or
third time if necessary. Arsenic and Paris green are deadly
poisons. Handle them with great care. It is advisable to
keep young children, live stock and chickens away from
In severe attacks by cutworms on low-growing plants,
such as parsley, a lead arsenate spray will answer in place
of the bait.
Clean, cultural methods and crop rotation are advisable,
as are also deep fall plowing and disking, to prevent recur-
rences of cutworm attacks. Experienced growers become
expert in detecting cutworms, and remove them by hand.
This often can be done with profit on small patches.
Deep plowing is the most effective remedy for white
grubs. Cross plowing and deep disking are sometimes
necessary, and the ground should be disturbed often and
kept clean of weeds, so that the grubs can be eliminated.
Rotation of crops, avoiding the planting of potatoes,
beets, sweet corn and other crops on land which has been
for some time in the same crops or in strawberries, grasses
or weeds, is advisable. Fertilizers, especially kainit, as a
heavy top-dressing, are of benefit. Gas lime is valuable.
Hogs, if allowed the run of the newly plowed garden, or
when the crop is off, will eat large numbers of grubs.
Domestic fowls will pick up grubs on newly plowed land.
The remedies advised for white grubs apply also to wire-
worms, with due care to selecting land for planting and in
fall plowing and crop rotation. Wireworms, however, are
much more difficult to control than white grubs.
Lead arsenate applied at the very outset of attack is the
best remedy. In some portions of the Southwest lines of
men and boys go through fields driving beetles before them
until they reach windows of hay, straw or other dry vege-
table matter previously prepared along the leeward side
of the field. The window is then fired and the beetles
burned. Hand picking is somewhat dangerous, as the blis-
ter beetles are likely to form blisters on a delicate skin.
It is, moreover, somewhat difficult to collect the beetles,
as they are extremely active compared to the sluggish
Colorado potato beetle.
If the plants are grown under glass, plant lice may be
killed by fumigation with a nicotine preparation. The
form suitable for this work is paper soaked in nicotine
which when lighted causes a smudge. Sprinkling plants
with fine tobacco dust is of some value, especially if applied
early in the morning when the dew is on. Under large
vegetable garden conditions standard 40 per cent nicotine
sulphate gives almost perfect results if properly diluted
The best remedy is fumigating the nests with carbon
disulphid by means of a machine oil can made of metal.
Locate the nest, and, if possible, the female, or queen.
Inject about two or three teaspoonfuls of the liquid into
the entrance of the nest, and, if not effective, soon repeat
the dose a little stronger. Hot water will answer the pur-
pose if the insects are not too abundant.
Nicotine sulphate is used with success.
TARNISHED PLANT BUGS
This plant bug, when it occurs ih great numbers, cannot
be kept within bounds by any single remedy. The great
activity of the pest makes it particularly difficult to con-
trol. The best remedies are nicotine sulphate, kerosene-
soap emulsion and fish-oil soap. As in the case of plant
lice, insecticides must be applied in the morning before
the insects have become thoroughly active and while dew
is on the plants. In the small garden, sweeping all the
plants, grasses and weeds with an insect-collecting net will
accomplish much toward keeping the pest in subjection.
The remedies are spraying with soap solutions, kerosene-
soap emulsion and sulphur preparations. Flowers of sul-
phur mixed with water at the rate of 1 ounce to 1 gallon
sprayed over infested plants is of great benefit. Unless
remedial measures are adopted early and applied as often
as necessity demands, red spiders are almost certain to do
great harm to delicate plants, since if the plants become
thoroughly infested they seldom survive. Frequent spray-
ing with soap and water will often keep the pests in check,
especially in greenhouses.
SLUGS AND SNAILS
The best remedy is a preventive, and consists of lime in
any form, quicklime being the most useful, sprinkled over
the plants and scattered about the haunts of the slugs,
which means all about the garden, buildings, outhouses and
fences. When the lime comes into contact with the slug,
the latter secretes slime copiously, and in time this com-
pletely exhausts the animal and it dies.
Other remedies are soot, dust, sifted wood ashes and
kainit. By scattering a line.of any of these substances
around a garden, coldframe, or other inclosure, it will
serve to keep the slugs away. To avoid slugs, it is desirable
to remove all rotten wood and old structures, and to keep
the entire garden and yard free from rubbish of all kinds-
The control is the same as for flea-beetles-Bordeaux
mixture combined with lead arsenate or Paris green.
TO DESTROY JOHNSON GRASS
Plow up land with two-horse plow or disk plow-plow-
ing deep, say 10 or 12 inches, dark nights of August.
J. W. Gibson, Snead, Fla., has 20-acre field now clear of
The following 14 pages are made up of extracts from the
Agricultural News Service, University of Florida:
ONE FARMER HAS NO WORMS ON HIS LATE
Joseph Michael, a North Florida farmer, writes to the
Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville, and says:
"I sure do thank you for sending me a year ago Pro-
fessor Watson's remedies for controlling insects on late
corn crops. You saved me several bushels on every acre.
Send the same thing to every farmer in the State. They
Here it is: "Late corn planted in Florida is apt to be
seriously attacked by two insects, the 'bud worm' and the
"The first of these is a large caterpillar that gets into
the bud from eggs laid on the leaves. It eats the bud, thus
checking growth and often completely ruining the stalk.
It is the same insect that later gets into the ear and is
called the 'corn-ear worm.'
"As a bud worm this fellow is best controlled by dusting
lead arsenate into the buds. Mix with an equal quantity
of lime, which must be perfectly air-slaked.
"Some varieties of corn, such as the Mexican June and
the Cuban, are less injured by this worm than others.
These two varieties grow vigorously and can recover from
the attacks better than most others.
The other serious enemy, the lantern fly, also works in
the bud. It is a small bug which sucks the sap from the
corn which then turns yellow, stops growing, and dies
completely sometimes. This insect gives off a sweet honey-
dew in which grows a sooty mold. This honeydew is much
relished by ants and wasps. Therefore, the presence of
these insects about the corn is often a good indication of
"This insect can be killed by spraying a tobacco solution
into the buds. For 50 gallons water use a pint of Black
Leaf 40 and four or five pounds of soap. This insect is
more troublesome during dry weather."
LEAD ARSENATE KILLS TOMATO FRUIT
"Spray with lead arsenate" is the answer being made
to the many requests for advice coming to the Florida
Experiment Station from tomato growers concerning the
depredations of the tomato fruit worm.
This insect is the most serious pest of the tomato in this
State. It is almost invariably found in corn. Frequently
it is found in green peas, beans, cotton and other plants.
The adult of this insect lays its eggs on the tomato leaves.
The young larvae feed there for a day or two, after hatching
out, but soon migrate to the stems, into which they bore.
As soon as the tomatoes set, the worms go for them. They
eat their way into the fruit and mine the inside. They
may mine a tomato just enough to spoil it and then go to
another. Thus, one worm may cause the loss of many
While making their way into fresh tomatoes the worms
may be poisoned by an arsenical with which the fruit has
been sprayed, according to Prof. J. R. Watson, entomolo-
gist of the Experiment Station. When the first fruits are
small, the chances for poisoning are especially good.
Spread with lead arsenate, using 1 pound of the powder
to 50 gallons of water. The milk obtained by slaking 2
pounds of fresh rock lime should be added to this spray
in. order that it might have good sticking qualities and to
prevent burning the plants. The first spraying should be
done when the earliest tomatoes are the size of peas. A
week later, if there is no rain, make a second application.
Should it rain shortly after the first spraying, it would be
advisable to apply the second application within three or
four days. Even a single application will greatly reduce
the percentage of infestation.
POISON THE COWPEA WEEVIL
It is about time for the cowpea weevil to begin seriously
damaging compeas, says Prof. J. R. Watson, entomologist
of the Florida Experiment Station.
This insect is a difficult one to combat in the field, made
so because few farmers feel like spending much to control
a pest of peas. However, cowpeas is one of the best summer
table dishes and deserves protection. All peas, except
English, are damaged by this large black weevil.
The insects puncture the pea pods for two purposes:
first, to reach the developing pea, which they eat; and
second, to lay their eggs within. The eggs hatch out into
pale, flesh-colored grubs, which live upon the pea kernels.
The weevils are worst early in the season and, if early
attempts are made to control them, the expenses of time
and money to the farmer will not be great. Spread with
lead arsenate, 1 pound mixed with 50 gallons of water.
A fungus, which causes a curling of leaves and pods of
peas, is sometimes noticeable. This may be held in check
by spraying with Bordeaux mixture. If both weevils and
fungi are present, combine the lead arsenate and Bordeaux,
spraying for both enemies at once.
When the peas first come up in spring, the leaves and
stems are attacked. Now is the time to spray without
danger to the consumer. If the peas are to be shelled for
table use, there is no danger, as the poison does not get
into the pods. However, it might be advisable, even in
this case, to wash the pods before shelling. If the peas
are to be snapped, be sure to wash them thoroughly.
Among the most important natural enemies of cowpea
weevils is the quail. This bird deserves to be protected
on the farm.
SPRAYING HINTS FOR THE UNINITIATED
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SPECIALISTS GIVE VALUABLE
INFORMATION TO THE BEGINNER
In spraying for whitefly and scale insects the main ob-
ject is the complete wetting of both sides of every leaf
and all of the trunks and branches.
Good pressure is necessary. The amount of pressure
depends upon the size of the nozzle and the agility of the
man handling it. A rapid worker can handle 250 pounds
pressure; a slow man will not handle more than 150
pounds. Moral-get 'id of the slow man. A barrel pump
operated by hand will not carry more than 80 to 100
pounds. Moral-eliminate the hand pump. A power
pump of at least 175 pounds pressure should be used.
The amount of spraying material needed to thoroughly
cover a tree varies with the size of the tree. A very young
tree will not require over half a gallon while an extra
large tree will take 15 gallons. The average tree of 10 to
12 feet requires about 8 gallons.
Spraying should never be done during a rain or when
the foliage is dripping wet as the water on the leaves
dilutes the spray solution. Spraying should cease at least
10 minutes before a shower and not be resumed until drip-
ping of leaves has stopped.
An expensive spraying outfit and costly materials should
not be turned over to men who know nothing or care noth-
ing about thoroughness in their work or the proper man-.
ner of handling a valuable and delicate machine.
Oil sprays should be mixed with soft water or water
that has been softened.
Spraying should be done for a reason and not on the hit
or miss plan. The best manner in which to judge proper
time for spraying is to watch the trees, know the different
pests to be guarded against, and by the use of a good hand
lens be able to tell the approximate moment when spray-
ing will be most effective and economical. Some people
spray periodically, regardless of the presence of insects
in large or. small numbers. This method will control the
pests if done often enough, but will generally prove ex-
pensive. Others spray after the insects have become
numerous and the damage is done. This is too late. There
is still another class who will not spray for any reason
Spraying in the right manner, with the correct pressure,
at the proper time, with suitable materials, will give satis-
factory results. Any other kind of spraying will give al-
most any other kind of results.
TO CONTROL PECAN CATERPILLARS
Professor J. R. Watson, entomologist of the Florida
Experiment Station, says to the pecan grower: "De-
stroy the fall webworm and the pecan or walnut defoliator
in your trees by burning, or by dipping into a bucket of
water covered over by a thin layer of kerosene."
Pecan caterpillars are more abundant than usual in
many parts of the State and many trees have been de-
foliated by them. Although defoliation at this season is
not as serious as if it had occurred earlier, it is still a
serious check to the growth of the trees, and may consider-
ably decrease next year's crop. As the pecan tree makes
little or no growth from now on, it is active in manufactur-
ing food and forming the winter buds for next year's
There are two species of caterpillars now abundant on
pecan trees. The first species, the fall webworm, is a red.
dish-brown, hairy fellow. His family live in a tent of silk
which they spin over the leaves and twigs. Little danger
will result to the trees by burning the webs out, if done
with care. The webs, or tents, may be pulled out by means
of a hook on a long pole, and by this method practically all
worms will be removed with the webs.
The second caterpillar, the pecan or walnut defoliator,
spins no web but foods on the foliage. Advantage may be
taken of this insect's peculiar habit of coming down to
the trunk of the tree, often quite near the ground, to molt.
At'these times they collect in large masses or colonies on
the trunk and remain in this position almost motionless
for many hours. When these groups are observed, the
caterpillars are easily brushed into a pan with a little
kerosene in it.
Both caterpillars enter the ground when full grown and
emerge in the spring as moths which lay the eggs from
which the caterpillars hatch.
These and many other pests of .the pecan can be con-
trolled by thoroughly spraying the trees with lead arse-
nate, a pound of powder to 50 gallons water.
A full description of these insects with illustrations may
be found in bulletin 147, which may be had for the asking
of the Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville.
POISONING THE FALL ARMY WORM
Hay crops are being injured by the fall grass worms
which travel in great colonies, devouring green grass in
their path as completely as frosts kill it.
In combating this enemy the quickest, and probably the
cheapest remedy to apply is the Kansas bait, which has
been successfully used against this worm in tests by the'
Florida Experiment Station, under direction of Entomol-
ogist J. R. Watson.
To make this bait, mix thoroughly 20 pounds bran, 5
pounds cottonseed meal, and 1 pound paris green. (Cal-
cium arsenote or white arsenic in equal amount may be
used instead of paris green. Lead arsenate should not be
used:) Grate or chop finely (rind, pulp and all) 3 or 4
lemons into 21/ gallons water. Oranges or grapefruit
will do, but lemons or limes are better. Dampen the dry
bran and paris green mixture with the liquid until the
whole mass is moist, but not sloppy. It should be of such
consistency that it will fall in fine flakes when sown broad-
cast over the field. Last of all, knead thoroughly into the
mixture 2 quarts molasses or syrup.
Poisoned mash should be put out in the evening or early
morning so that it will not dry too quickly. Evening would
be better as the worms would have longer to feed upon it
before it dries. If properly prepared and sown, it will
fall in such small flakes that there will be no danger to
fowls or wild birds.
This same remedy may be used for the sweet potato
caterpillar, which will doubtless appear in Florida by the
middle of August.
RED ROT OF SUGAR CANE CAN BE PREVENTED
Red rot, a fungus disease o'f sugar cane, is rapidly
spreading over the State and, unless strict measures
against its spread and establishment are taken, is liable
to seriously reduce the syrup and sugar production of
The following suggestions are offered for its control by
Dr. 0. F. Burger, plant pathologist of the Florida Experi-
-4. Plant only healthy canes. Any canes showing even
the slightest discoloration of the interior should be dis-
carded. In sections where the disease has become preva-
lent, get seed from other localities.
2. As an extra preventive, dip the canes selected for
seed into boredeaux mixture just before planting. This
will kill any fungus that may have gotten onto the cut
ends or surfaces. A large wooden trough is convenient for
holding the bordeaux mixture for dipping purposes. The
formula consists of 5 pounds of copper sulphate, 5 pounds
of lime and 50 gallons of water.
3. A method of dealing with the disease that has been
practiced in the West Indies is to plant some other variety
not subject to red rot.
When the diseased cane is split lengthwise the soft
tissues on the inside show a red discoloration. In the red
areas there also occur large white spots which shade off
into the red. These white spots are especially character-
istic of red rot.
The farmer who has any reason to believe his seed cane
has red rot in it, should by all means follow the sugges-
tions given in paragraphs 1 and 2 above.
POISON THE ANNOYING ANT
Mr. Farmer, are you annoyed by ants in your seedbeds?
There is a remedy for this trouble and you should avail
yourself of its benefits. Professor J. R. Watson, ento-
mologist of the Florida Experiment Station, has the fol-
lowing to say about ants and how to combat them:
"At this time of year (late summer and early fall) we
hear many complaints concerning the depredations of ants
in the seedbed and of their annoying presence in houses.
The best treatment whenever the nests can be found is a
solution of sodium or potassium cyanide in water. For
this purpose dissolve an ounce of the cyanide in 2 quarts
of water. With a cane or a sharp stick punch a hole a
foot or more deep in the center of the hill and pour in a
few fluit ounces of the solution. As soon as the liquid
has saked away, cover up the hole with dirt and trap the
surface solid. The gas given off will find its way through-
out the ant hills and will kill all the ants and pupae
(hatching ants) present. It is best to do this in the early
morning or at night when all the ants are at home.
"This substance must be handled carefully as it is one
of the most powerful poisons, either inhaled or swallowed,
or if gotten into sores or broken places in the flesh or skin.
"Carbon disulphide can be used in the same manner but
is more expensive and is highly inflammable. Kerosene
can be used in the same manner also, but it does not pene-
trate the soil rapidly. It is best to treat all ant hills with
cyanide solution before the beds are planted."
TO CONTROL STEM-END DECAY OF WATER-
Of 150 carloads of inspected melons shipped from Flor-
ida last year, 25 cars, or 17 per cent. were lost, rotten on
reaching destination, and had to be dumped. This was an
unusually heavy toll for someone to pay.
This loss was'caused principally by stem-end decay.
This is a disease that gets on the stems and into the melons
after they are cut from the vines. That is, after the grow-
ers have gone to the expense of breaking the land, apply-
ing fertilizer, cultivating, spraying for anthracnose and
harvesting, there remains a chance to lose 17 per cent. of
the crop by stem-end decay, according to last year's
The disease is caused by a fungus that can be found on
dead or dying vegetation in almost any field. It is ready
and will attack the melons through any bruise or cut..
When the fruit is cut from the vines in the field, the fungi
comes in contact with the gummed, sticky end of the stem,
and in a few hours are within the stem. Before the melon
reaches market, the disease has made sufficient progress
to make it unsalable.
In harvesting the fruit the stems should be cut as long
as possible. When the melons are packed in the car, recut
the stems in order to remove such fungi as have gained
contact. Before the melon reaches market, if remedies
have not been applied, the disease will have made sufficient
progress to make it unsalable.
After the stems are cut they should be treated with a
prepared disinfectant, the best known one being bordeaux
paste, which is made by dissolving bluestone in water and
then adding starch for its sticking qualities.
There is a commercial preparation known as Adex paste
that will be placed in the hands of freight agents through-
out the State during shipping season. When this paste is
properly applied, it is very effective; but in making it,
directions should be carefully followed.
These treatments have been in use a comparatively
short time, but last year it was claimed that over 80 per
cent of the melons shipped from Florida were so treated.
However, the treatment in some cases was improperly
applied; either the stems were not recut, or the mixture
was not properly made or applied.
County agents have full information as to melon treat-
ment, and the Agricultural Extension Division has em-
.ployed G. W. Dansby to assist farmers and shippers in
guarding against the losses caused by the disease.
Any person desiring further information on water-
melon diseases, particularly stem-end decay, should write
to the Agricultural Extension Division, University of
Florida, Gainesville, or should call upon their county
(By PROFESSOR J. R. WATSON, Entomologist Florida Ex-
This insect is the most serious pest of the tomato in
Florida. It is frequently found in corn, green peas, beans,
cotton and other plants.
The tomato is most severely attacked in spring and
early summer. The eggs are laid on the leaves. The
young larvae feed there for a day or two, but soon migrate
to Jhe stems, into which they bore. As soon as the toma-
toes set, the worms go for them. They eat their way into
the fruit and mine the inside. They may eat a tomato
just enough to spoil it, and then go for another. Thus
one worm may cause the loss of many fruits.
While making their way into fresh tomatoes the worms
may be poisoned by any arsenical with which the fruit
has been sprayed. When the first fruits are small, the
chances for poisoning are especially good. The worms
are not able, because of the small size of these fruits, to
eat their way inside; but remain on the outside, and may
eat out sections of several tomatoes in a single day.
Spray with lead arsenate, using 2 to 3 pounds to 50
gallons of water. Two pounds of lime should be added
to this spray in order that it might have sticking qualities
and prevent burning of the plant. The first spraying
should be given when the earliest tomatoes are the size of
small marbles. A week later, if there is no rain, a second
spraying can be given. Should it rain shortly after the
first spraying, it would be advisable to apply the second
within three or four days. Even a single application will
greatly reduce the percentage of infestation.
STERILIZING THE SEEDBED
It is a well-known fact that some destructive diseases
enter'such plants as tomato, cabbage, eggplant, pepper,
and a few others from the soil of the seedbed. E. F. De-
Busk, county agent of Lake County, says it is extremely
important that the seedbed be thoroughly sterilized before
being planted. But he adds that it should be made ready
for planting before being sterilized. Pulverize the soil
to a depth of ten inches and then level down, leaving the
bed with a smooth surface.
There are several methods of sterilizing, but the most
practical and applicable one to the greatest number of
conditions is by the use of formaldehyde. Use 1 pint
regular 40 percent commercial formaldehyde to 61/4 gallons
water. Apply this solution to the seedbed with a sprink-
ler, so as to get a uniform distribution, using the diluted
solution at the rate of 1 gallon to 2 square feet of surface
to be sterilized.
The bed should then be blanketed with old sacks to pre-
vent too rapid evaporation of moisture and consequently
the liberation of the formaldehyde gas before it has
thoroughly penetrated the soil. This treatment should be
given at least two weeks before planting the seed. Two
days after treatment remove the covering and stir the
soil with a potato fork or some such implement to allow
the poisonous gas to escape before the seed are planted.
The cost of sterilizing a seedbed, including material and
labor, should not be more than one cent a square foot of
bed surface. One pint of formaldehyde is sufficient for 25
CONTROL SWEET POTATO WHITEFLY
Are you being troubled by the sweet potato whitefly,
Mr. Farmer? If you are, Professor J. R. Watson, ento-
mologist of the Florida Experiment Station, has advice
to offer which will be of material benefit to you. Here is
what he says about this insect and how to control it:
"The "sweet potato whitefly is present in destructive
numbers every year in a few sections of Florida, but most-
ly in the southern part. This year it has been unusually
abundant and widespread, fields as far north as Marion
County being severely infested.
"This insect is not the same as the one commonly found
on citrus, although they are closely related and work in
the same manner; i. e., sucking the juices of the leaves and
giving off a honey dew in which the sooty mold grows.
Infested leaves turn yellow, wither and die.
"When old, nearly mature fields are attacked, spraying
would hardly pay. The best plan, in such a case, would
be to dig the crop at once.' But when the vines are young
and small, spraying should be resorted to; otherwise the
crop may be a total loss.
'Perhaps the most satisfactory and cheapest spray is a
solution of whale-oil or cheap laundry soap, using about
5 pounds to 50 gallons water. It is important to use a
bent-at-the-end rod, similar to those used for spraying
aphids on melons, so that the under side of the leaves may
be reached. For, like the citrus whitefly, this fly lives
entirely on the under side of the leaves."
CONTROLLING THE PEACH TREE BORER
One of the most serious enemies of the peach tree is the
peach tree borer, according to Professor J. R. Watson,
entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station, Gaines-
ville. If you have peach trees, it will be well for you to
consider well Professor Watson's advice. He writes as
follows concerning the borer:
"There are few moths (which lay the eggs from which
the borers hatch) in the spring and early summer, but
most of them hatch out in August and September. Imme-
diately after hatching the females lay eggs on the trunk
and larger limbs of the trees, seldom over two feet above
the ground. The egg hatches in a week or less and the
young borer crawls down the trunk of the tree to the
ground. Its boring into the tree causes gum to exude. It
feeds in the tree through winter and spring, sometimes
"To control these insects, the earth should be mounded
about the trees in July to a height of a foot or a foot and
a half. Most of the adult moths as they issue from the
pupae in the trees, will be unable to make their way
through this dirt and will perish. The young borers which
hatch out from the eggs laid on the trunks and limbs, en-
counter the mound and at once enter the bark. They are
thus induced to enter the trunk of the tree instead of the
crown or roots. In this situation they are easily gotten
"As soon as all eggs have hatched, which will be in
October, the mound should be leveled and the bark scraped
and the borers dug out. They will not have penetrated
deeply at this time and will be easily scraped off or dug
"Another remedy is to spread para dichlorobenzene (a
white powder) around the base of the tree (not touching
the tree) and then mound and pack the earth about the
tree. An ounce of this powder is a dose for a tree six or
more years old. Apply last of September or first of Octo-
ber. The powder gives off poisonous fumes which kill the
borers. Since the chemical is seldom carried in stock by
retail druggists, growers will find it advantageous to or-
der it at once for use this fall."
PLANT ENEMY OF SOIL MAY BE CONTROLLED
FLORIDA SPECIALIST HAS FOUND PRACTICAL AND CHEAP
TREATMENT WHICH MAY ELIMINATE
Loss OF MILLIONS
The nematode can be controlled. That is a settled fact.
On the Experimental farm of the College of Agriculture,
Gainesville, is conculsive proof that this is true.
This eel-like pest should be controlled, too. Its animal
damage to the farmers and truckers of this State mounts
into the millions of dollars. It burrows into and lives
upon the roots of such plants as tomatoes, snap beans,
cowpeas, okra, cotton, roses, and peach trees. Many other
plants are also affected. Forming enlargements on the
roots in which they live, these insects suck the juices from
their host plants and multiply by the millions.
No more injurious soil pest of plants is known to the
agricultural world. Experiments for its control have been
carried on for years. Prof. J. R. Watson, of the Florida
Experiment Station, has devoted much of his time to this
project and at last he has discovered a simple remedy for
this trouble maker. Recently he was asked for advice
which would be applicable to the Florida farmer or truck-
er. He said:
"If you have a piece of land that is badly infested with
nematodes, you can do nothing better than to grow that
land to bunch velvet beans during summer, keeping the
soil constantly stirred. You will thus eliminate the worms
and improve your land at the same time."
There are at'least three fundamental principles involved
in the control of the nematode, according to Professor
Watson. First, the worm hatches from eggs. To hatch
these eggs requires warmth, air and moisture. Fail to
provide any one of these three things and there will be
no hatching, although the eggs will continue to live.
Second, the worms do not live upon the roots of all plants.
The velvet bean is one of the plants that is immune to the
nematode. Third, soil kept exposed to the hot sun is
"burn-up" or depleted of its soil life.
These principles give rise to the following directions
for what seems a most practical economical method of
controlling the nematode:
1. Upon infested land grow crops that are immune to
the nematodes. Bunch velvet beans is preferred for this.
2. Keep that soil constantly stirred. This permits .air
to reach the eggs and the worms. The eggs hatch out
and, denied of the food they demand, the worms starve.
The bunch velvet bean is recommended in preference
to the running velvet bean because it permits cultivation
which is necessary to prevent the forming of a crust on
the surface of the soil, which crust will prevent the en-
trance of air.
The writer visited Professor Wason's experimental
plots. In one instance snap beans were -seen growing on
a plot that had been given the foregoing treatment last
year. Another plot was given exactly the same treatment
except that it was planted to cowpeas instead of bunch
velvet beans. The first plot had a crop of snap beans
estimated to be at least eighteen times better than the
snap bean crop of the plot which grew cowpeas last year.
Therefore, we have conclusive evidence that the nematode
can be controlled.
The farmer or trucker who is bothered by this insect
should grow bunch velvet beans on his land during sum-
mer and keep it constantly cultivated for four or five
months. In one season the trick may be turned.
POISON EFFECTIVE AGAINST FLORIDA LAND
After various experiments the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture believes that carbon bisulphide prop-
erly applied once will destroy from 90 to 100 per cent of
the land crabs which have been a discouraging pest to
Florida farmers from near Palm Beach to Cape Sable
along the Atlantic coast and adjoining keys. A cost com-
parison between carbon biculphide and phosphorus paste
is greatly in favor of the former for a single application.
This method has been recommended in the past to growers
who complained that it was too expensive. Investigation
brought out the facts that the poison was bought at retail
instead of in bulk, and that although one-half ounce is
sufficient to treat 50 crab holes, that amount was being
used in every hole. It is expected that an anticrab cam-
paign, proposed for next December, when tomato planting
is begun, will meet with enthusiastic cooperation on the
part of landowners and farmers.
Land crabs infest low flat lands where the water level
is from 1 to 4 feet below the surface during the dry season.
From 1,000 to 20,000 crab holes to the acre have been found
in this region. Winter truck crops and tomatoes are se-
verely damaged by the crabs, which seem to be increasing
in number. They devour and injure all kinds of young
and tender vegetation, which they nip off and carry to
When it became known that the land crab menace to
crops and property value was being investigated, numerous
requests for assistance were received by the department,
as well as offers to aid in the work. A representative of
the Biological Survey recently made an extensive study
of the land crab problem, particularly iii Dade County,
Florida, with a view to introducing better and cheaper
methods than those now used for controlling and extermi-
nating this destructive pest.
LOOKOUT ASKED FOR NEW WEEVIL FOUND
A weevil has been found in Stone County, Mississippi,
in considerable numbers, which is injurious to potatoes,
tomatoes and turnips. Southern entomologists are es-
pecially requested by the United States Department of
Agriculture to keep a sharp lookout for this species. It
seems to be identical with Desiantha nociva Lea, known in
Australia as the tomato weevil. It is about one-third of
an inch long, dull gray in color, and bears on the wing-
covers a pale V-shaped mark. It has been known in Aus-
tralia since 1908, and does much damage. The larve feed
upon the plants at night, hiding under ground during the
The State entomologist for Mississippi is trying to find
out how far this weevil has spread, and the Bureau of
Entomology is actively cooperating.
WATCH FOR PECAN SCAB
Pecan scab may be prevalent throughout the growing
season, but it is more likely to break out in August. In
groves where it was found last year it is almost sure to
appear again this year.
The disease is caused by a fungus which grows on the
nuts, twigs, and sometimes on the leaves. It may be recog-
nized by the dark green moldy growth, according to
specialists of the Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville.
Spraying with a 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture is recom-
mended for scab control. If the disease has not stopped
working in three weeks, another spraying may be given,
although one probably will keep it in check. Ammoniacal
solution of copper carbonate may be substituted for the
bordeaux, but since it does not stick as well as bordeaux,
more frequent applications will be necessary. Growers
who have been troubled with the disease before should not
wait until it appears, because it will then be harder to
Clean cultivation will also help keep the disease in check.
If the diseased nuts and leaves fall, they should be col-
lected and burned. This will diminish the severity of at-
tack next year. A thorough spraying should be given in
the spring'before the leaves attain full size.
CITRUS DISEASES AND REMEDIES
A FEW OUTSTANDING ONES ARE HERE GIVEN CONSIDERA-
Of all the diseases of citrus trees--and there are many.
These are: Foot rot, scab, withertip, dieback and stem-end
rot. An attempt is made here by the Florida Agricultural
Extension Division to give as briefly as possible necessary
first-hand information concerning these diseases.
This is a bark disease and attacks the tree at the crown,
or on the main roots just below the surface of the ground.
The first indication is a small aread of decayed bark from
which there is a slight oozing of gum. The decayed bark
first appears water soaked. It is caused by a fungus which
lives in the soil and is found usually in low, moist, shaded
soils. At first indication of the disease remove the soil
from aboit the infected roots. Cut away the diseased
parts of the bark. -Apply some disinfectant and paint with
a wash of air-slaked lime and powdered sulphur.
This is a disease of the leaves, young twigs and fruit. It
is caused by a fungus, and is evident on the parts men-
tioned as circular, elevated, scabby masses and wart-like
projections. Control method is by bordeaux spray, which
should be commenced just before blossoming time and con-
tinued as needed with a 3-3-50 solution.
This disease is also caused by a fungus and attacks the
twigs and branches of weakened trees. The affected parts
wither and die, and many leaves fall. It causes a distinct
type of injury to fruits known'as anthracnose. Sanita-
tion in the grove and keeping up the vitality of the trees
are best remedies. Cut out all infected branches. When
anthracnose appears on the fruit spray with an ammon-
iacal solution of copper carbonate.
This is a disease about which little is known. Five main
characteristic symptoms usually distinguish it from other
citrus diseases, namely: Gum pocket, stained terminal
branches, ammoniated fruits, bark excrescences and mul-
tiple buds. Treatment is both preventive and curative.
In most cases a cessation of intensive cultivation, proper
drainage and limiting the aihount of ammonia in the fer-
tilizer are beneficial. Bluestone in small amounts worked
into the ground is sometimes curative. Bordeaux spray,
3-3-50 solution, is also used as a curative.
This disease is caused by a fungus which is found chiefly
in the dead wood in citrus trees. Scale insects also favor
the development of the disease. Removing the dead wood
and keeping down the scale is a proper method of treat-
ment. Spraying with a solution of oils or soaps is best
for control of scale.
THRIPS IN CITRUS BLOOMS
Citrus trees will soon be in full bloom, if not already,
over the entire citrus section of the State. Now is the time
to combat one of the pests of oranges and other related
fruits, says Professor J. R. Watson, entomologist of the
Florida Experiment Station.
If there are many thrips on and about the blooms, spray
them now with the following solution:
Commercial lime-sulphur solution (32 degrees
Baume) ................................ 3 quarts
Black leaf 40.............................. 1/2 pint
W ater ... ................................ 50 gallons
In applying, drive the spray straight into the blooms
with considerable force. It should be applied just as the
trees are at their height, of bloom.
Some growers are spraying at this season for scab on
grapefruit. If they will add tobacco extract (Black leaf
40) to the solution for scab, they will kill the thrips and
thus do two things at once.
Thrips are small yellowish-brown insects about a twenty-
fifth of an inch in length. They feed on the petals and
other tender parts of the flower, which causes much of the
bloom to drop without setting fruit. Eggs are laid in the
tender stem at the base of the fruit and the young thrips,
which hatch out from these eggs in three or four days,
feed upon the developing fruit and cause smooth, irregu-
lar-shaped, sunken spots in the skin. These spots mar the
appearance of the fruit and lower its grade.
CONTROL WHITEFLY WITH FUNGUS
Do you, Mr. Citrus Grower, want to get rid of the Com-
mon and Cloudy-Winged whiteflies pestering your groves
The Entomological Department of the State Plant
Board, Gainesville, has for distribution, at proper time, a
supply of Red and Yellow aschersonia, both natural ene-
mies of whiteflies.
A culture, the amount of fungus that can be readily
grown in a wide-mouthed pint bottle, is sufficient to treat
an acre of grove. These pure cultures are to be preferred
to fungus obtained on leaves, because by their use there
is no danger of getting any other disease in the grove.
Directions for applying accompany each shipment. The
price is 75 cents a culture, approximately the cost of pro-
Dr. E. W. Berger, entomologist of the State Plant Board,
says: "In localities where some, of the Cloudy-Winged
whitefly is present or where, it is the only species, we
recommend the Yellow as well as the Red aschersonia. To
determine whether or not the Cloudy-Winged species is
present, I would urge that all growers ordering fungus
or making inquiry, send us 20 to 30 leaves, collected at
random from the worst infested trees, for examination."
Send money with each order. Otherwise your cultures
will be sent c. o. d. Orders for 1 to 3 cultures will be sent
by parcel post, if postage is included. Make all remit-
tances to State Plant Board of Florida and address cor-
respondence to Entomological Department.
Shipping weights: 1. culture, 2 pounds; 2 cultures, 4
pounds; 3 cultures, 5 pounds.
For further information call upon your county agent.
ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS
In cases where the other articles to be used as antidotes
are not in the house, give two tablespoonfuls of mustard
mixed in a pint of warm water. Also give large draughts
of warm milk or water mixed with oil, butter or lard. If
possible give as follows:
For Bed-Gub Poison, Blue Vitrol, Corrosive Sublimate,
Lead Water, Saltpetre, Sugar of Lead, Sulphate of Zinz,
Red Precipitate, Vermillion, give milk or white of eggs in
For Fowler's Solution, White Precipitate, Arsenic, give
promptemetic of mustard and-salt-tablespoonful of each;
follow with sweet oil, butter or milk.
For Antimonial Wine, Tartar Emetic, drink warm water
to encourage vomiting. If vomiting does not stop, give a
grain of opium in water.
For Caustic Soda, Caustic Potash, Volatile Alkali, drink
freely of water with vinegar or lemon juice in it.
For Carbolic Acid, give flour and water or glutinalis
For Chloral Hydrate, or Chloroform, pour cold water
over the head and face, with artificial resperation, and use
For Carbonate of Soda, Coopeiras, Cobalt, give promptly
emetic of soap or mucilaginous drinks.
For Laudanum, Morphine, Opium, give strong coffee,
followed by ground mustard, or grease in warm water to
produce vomiting. Keep in motion.
For Uitrite of Silver, give common salt in water.
For Strychnine. Tine. Nux Vomica, give emetic of must-
ard or sulphite of zinc, aided by warm water.
PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS FROM
The Federal Government expends several million dollars
annually in efforts to combat serious insects and plant dis-
eases that have been brought here from foreign countries.
Several thousand insects have been listed in foreign coun-
tries which are known to injure crops and which have not
yet been brought to our shores. Many foreign-plant dis-
eases are also known to occur, and it is of the utmost im-
portance to prevent their reaching us. The Federal Hor-
ticultural Board, an independent branch of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, is endeavoring to keep as many of
these alien enemies out of the country as practicable.
Special quarantines have been issued and rigid attention
is being given to the inspection of plants reaching us so
as to avoid the introduction of the pests.
The Bureau of Plant Industry is desirous of encourag-
ing in every way the production of promising new crops
in this country, and its office of foreign seed and plant
introduction is co-operating with horticulturists and plant
growers in aiding them in introducing new varieties of
plants in such fashion that they will not bring in any dis-
eases or insects. It is often necessary to introduce plants
in very small numbers and to grow them for a considera-
ble time either in greenhouses or under very special con-
ditions out of doors to make sure that all pests have been
removed. When it is certain that the plants are freed of
insects or diseases they may then be propagated more ex-
tensively and distributed to collaborators. In this way
new crops are introduced without danger to the country.
HOW TO KILL GRAIN WEEVIL
Weevil in grain, particularly in wheat, will do much
damage if not controlled or destroyed. "Carbon bisul-
phide," a liquid which rapidly evaporates into a heavier-
than-air gas when exposed to the atmosphere, is the best
weevil destroyer to use for wheat in bin. Apply in warm
part of day. Not less than a day and night should elapse
without entering the bin after fumigation begins.
One pound (one pint) of carbon bisulphide to each
hundred cubic feet or hundred bushels should be suffi-
cient, if the bin is reasonably tight and the air not cooler
than 60 degrees. The liquid should be poured into shal-
low dishes or pans on top of the grain. Poured directly
onto wheat, it discolors the grain and may damage germ-
If the bin is deep, a gas-pipe or tin-pipe, punched with
holes smaller than will freely admit wheat grains, the bot-
tom of the pipe plugged with wood, pushed deep into the
grain, is a good thing in which to pour some of the carbon
bisulphide. A few of such pipes doubly insure destruc-
tion of the weevils. A canvas or tarpaulin, thrown over
the top of the grain in bin or granary, is very helpful in
preventing waste of gas.
Carbon bisulphide will kill all hatched weevil that the
gas reaches, but when the weevil-eggs hatch then another.
fumigation should be made. Examination from time to
time will guard against a fresh lot of weevil.
To fumigate a small quantity of beans, peas or other
farm seed, an air-tight barrel or box is the best thing to
Carbon bisulphide is recommended for destroying ants,
either in walls or in earth dens. A tub inverted over an
ant-den is an easy plan. Pouring the liquid into holes
punched with a stick is less economical.
Carbon bisulphide is inflammable and smothery, there-
fore, matches, pipes, cigars and fire should be kept well
away from it. This liquid is also known by the names of
CS2, carbon disulphid, bisulphid, disulphide, and "high
The completest bulletin on the use of carbon bisulphide
as an insecticide is U. S. Farmers' Bulletin No. 799, which
will be sent free on application to the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington. D. C.
FARMERS SPEND MUCH TIME TO KILL OR
Fighting weeds occupies about 30 per cent. of all the
time a farmer spends in cultivation of crops, according to
experts in the United States Department of Agriculture,
who recently have been conducting a weed survey. Special
attention has been given to the best methods of conquer-
ing some of the worst weeds, and the following publica-
tions on their eradication or control may be obtained by
writing to the department.
Farmers' bulletins: 610, Wild Onion; 660, Weeds in
General; 833, Wild Oats in Hard Spring-Wheat area;
945, Bermuda Grass; 1161, Dodder; 1166, Poison Ivy and
Poison Sumac; 1002, Canada Thistle.
Department circulars: 108, Chicory; 130 (5 cents a
copy), Hawkweeds or Paint Brushes.
Department bulletins: 511 (10 cents), Farm Practice
in the Cultivation of Cotton.
In addition to these the following multigraphed leaflets
on special weeds may be obtained by writing direct to
Forage Crop Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.: Chemical Weed Killers; Eradication of Nut
Grass; Wild Carrot; Crab-Grass; Killing Dandelions in
Lawns; Sheep Sorrel; Chickweed in Lawns; Eradication
of Quack Grass; .Wild Morning Glory, or Bind-Weed;
Honeysuckle as a Weed; Perennial Sow Thistle.
PLANT PESTS CAUSE LOSS OF MILLIONS OF
BUSHELS OF WHEAT
If all the wheat now destroyed annually by pestlould
be saved and made into flour the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture says it would ad approximately
29,463,700 barrels to the yearly output of the Nation. The
annual production of wheat in this country for the four-
year period 1916 to 1919, inclusive, was 783,849,500
bushels. The annual loss from disease during this period
was 147,318,500 blshels.
While it is not possible entirely to eliminate wheat
diseases, it is possible to reduce the toll much below what
it has been in recent years, says the department. One
branch of the work of the office of cereal investigations in
the Bureau of Plant Industry is to work out the preventive
and control measures for the diseases of all cereal erops.
Another branch of the work of this office, which is of equal
importance in increasing production of cereal crops, is
the development and introduction of superior varieties of
grain which produce higher' yields in localities where they
are especially well adapted, or which have disease-resist-
ant qualities. This work is carried on in co-operation with
the various State experiment stations, and in many eases
has made profitable farming possible in sections in which
agriculture was hazardous previous to the introduction of
new crops or varieties particularly well suited to local
CLOVER PESTS CAUSE FARMERS SERIOUS LOSS
Decided increase in the destructive attacks by the lesser
clover leaf weevil, a serious insect pest, in the States of
Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri is reported through the
country-wide insect pest survey conducted by the Bureau
of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture.
This pest, it is said, in conjunction with the clover-leaf
weevil and the clover-root curculio, sometimes accom-
panied by a fungus disease, is becoming so serious in parts
of Ohio that alsike and sweet clover are being substituted
by farmers for red clover, it being impossible to grow the
latter crop successfully.
LARVAE OF CRANE FLY DESTROY GRASS AND
A poisoned-bran mash, similar to the one now used
against grasshoppers, has been developed by entomologists
of the United States Department of Agriculture as a con-
trol measure for saving grass lands, pastures, and grain
and alfalfa fields in California, which 6or years have suf-
fered extensively from the destructive work of a worm,
known to be the maggot or larval stage of a "crane fly."
Specialists of the Government laboratory at Sacramento
undertook the work of formulating control measures
against the insect, analyzing the habits and studying the
life history of the pest.
These blackish worms, from one-half to one inch in
length, have become so abundant that investigation dis-
closed as many as 300 to a square foot of land. They come
from the ground and feed during the night, eating the
tender succulent grass, grain, or alfalfa shoots. With
their occurrence in such large numbers over a given area,
specialists say, it was not remarkable that in a short time
such fields presented a dead, brown aspect and became
useless for grazing or agricultural purposes.
The poisoned-bran mash found to be effective against
the pest is composed of wheat bran, 25 pounds; Paris
green, 1 pound; and water, to make a crumbly mash, 3 gal-
lons. The bran and 'Paris green are mixed thoroughly,
then the water added until a crumbly mash is secured.
'This should be spread broadcast on infested land at the
rate of 10 to 20 pounds an acre. From 70 to 90 per cent
kill resulted in the test experiments.
INSECT CONTROL VITAL TO SUCCESSFUL
SOME COMMON INSECTS ARE REALLY : BENEFICIAL-THE
INJURIOUS TYPES ARE READILY CONTROLLED BY APPLI-
CATION OF PROPER POISON DUS;T OR LIQUID .SPRA' S
By Tnos. II. JONES, Entomologist, Louisiana Agricutural
To those who plant a garden, with hopes of obtaining
therefrom an abundance of fresh vegetables, there often
later come times when they doubt whether their hopes are
to be realized.
It may be that there is too much rain, or the weather is
too dry, but it is often because destructive insects or
"bugs" appear. Such insects usually cause more damage
in the small backyard garden than to the same crops when
grown on a large, commercial scale. The conditions in and
about such gardens are often such that a greater propor-
tion of the insects live over the winter, and increase in
numbers more rapidly during the summer, than is the case
in the open fields. Then, too, because of the limited
amount of land available, rotation of crops, which is of
value in reducing insect injury, cannot well be practised.
It is often also the case that conditions in the home gar-
dens, as regards soil fertility for instance, are such that
the plants do not make an entirely satisfactory growth
and therefore suffer more from insect attack than would
more vigorous plants.
Careful watch should be kept for the appearance of in-
sects in the garden and when they are noted the correct
answers to two questions should be learned. These ques-
tions are, "What insect is it?" and, if it is injuring the
plants, "How can it be controlled?" If the grower can-
not answer the questions himself he should ask the advice
of someone who can. The various agents engaged in agri-
cultural work in the State may be consulted, or the desired
information may be secured from other reliable sources.
Not all insects found in the vegetable garden are in-
jurious. Hence the question, "What insect is it?" Many
insects are beneficial in that they feed upon injurious in-
sects and were it not for them the grower would have
much more difficulty in raising his crops. Several differ-
ent ladybird beetles are commonly present on vegetable
crops and are of benefit in that they feed upon plantlice
and other insect pests.
If the insect is an injurious one the question, "How
can it be controller?" is to be answered. Generally
speaking there are two classes of poisons to be used against
insects that feed upon portions of the plant above ground.
These are the so-called "stomach poisons" and "contact
poisons." The stomach poisons are used against those in-
sects that cut pieces from the plant with their jaws and
swallow them. The contact poisons are used against in-
sects that do not have jaws but beak-like mouths, through
which, after inserting the tip into the plant tissue, they
suck the juice or sap from the plant. Stomach poisons,
such as arsenate of lead, calcium arsenate, and Paris
green, are applied to the plants that it is desired to pro-
tect against insects with jaws. Such insects, in feeding
upon the plants, swallow the poison with their food and
are in this way killed. Putting stomach poisons on plants
is of no value against insects with beak-like mouths since,
because of their method of feeding, the poison is not taken
into their bodies. Stomach poisons are poisonous to ani-
mals and humans when taken internally and proper cau-
tion should be taken in using them.
Insects with beak-like or sucking mouth-parts are con-
trolled with contact poisons, such as soaps and tobacco
preparations, but these must be applied so as to come in
contact with the bodies of the insects, upon which they act
in such a way as to cause death.
Hence the question, "How can the insect be con-
trolled ?" can only be answered after we know how the in-
sect feeds. The Irish potato beetle and the tomato horn-
worm have jaws and can be poisoned by means of stomach
poisons, whereas against the plant-lice, which have sucking
mouth-parts, contact poisons are to be used.
Both stomach poisons and contact poisons are used in
two ways-in liquid form and in dust form. Various
methods of applying them are used, ranging from the
crude method of sprinkling the poisonous liquid onto the
plants by means of a brush, or of dusting the poisonous
powder onto the plants with a cloth sack, to the improved
method of applying liquids and dusts with spray or dust-