Containing Addresses Made at the Meetings During the
Winter of 1903-1904, by the Various Speakers.
CHAS. M. CONNER,
Florida Agricultural College
LAKE CITY, FLA.
E. O. PAINTER & COMPANY, PRINTERS,
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BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
GEO. W. WILSON, President ............ Jacksonville.
C. A. CARSON, Vice-President ............ Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary .............. Brooksville.
F. E. HARRIS, ......... ...... ........... Ocala.
E. D. BEGGS, ......................... Pensacola.
J. R. PARROTT, ..................... Jacksonville.
F. M. SIMONTON, ......................... Tampa.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
Lake City, Fla., June 6, 1904.
DR. T. H. TALIAFERRO, President.
SIR: I submit herewith, for publication, a report of
the Farmers' Institute work during the year 1903 and
1904. The papers in this Report were furnished in part
by the speakers and partly from stenographic report.
Institutes were held in several new counties this year,
and proved very satisfactory. The meetings were better
attended and more interest manifested than last year.
This was probably due to the method of advertising the
meetings by sending personal letters or postal cards
to farmers. They became interested in the movement
and, unless prevented by bad weather, turned out well.
When we have visited the same place the second time,
we have found, in most cases, that our talks have done
CHAS. M. CONNER,
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
GROWING AND FEEDING BEEF CATTLE IN
BY CHAS. M. CONNER.
The growing of beef cattle in Florida is not of recent
origin. For many years prior to the late unpleasantness
cattle were grown in large numbers and sold in the West
Indies or in the States to the north. In those days, and
up to within a very few years ago, these cattle were
allowed to take care of themselves, and were rounded up
once or twice a year, and such as were fit for market
were taken out and sold. They were allowed to inbreed,
and very little or no selection was followed. These cattle
were small, by force of circumstances. If the calf was
dropped, say in the spring, it made a fair growth before
the pastures were cut short in the fall by frost; but dur-
ing the coming winter it lost most of the flesh and fat
that had been gained during the summer, and by the next
fall it has just gotten in fair shape, when winter comes
on and it suffers another set-back. Its condition reminds
one of the problem of the cat in the well, which crawls
up two feet during the day and falls back three during the
night; how long will it take for the cat to get out of the
well? Now, if the cat had some sort of a prop which
would hold it up during the night and keep it from slip-
ping back, it would soon get out. This part of the prob-
lem we will discuss later.
The long continued breeding of these cattle in this
way, and under these food conditions, has developed a
breed (if you will permit the use of the word here)
which has characteristics so firmly fixed that it is hard to
break them up. This is the reason why all pure-bred
bulls do not always make their impress on the first lot of
calves, when crossed on native cows. The type of the
native is more firmly fixed than that of the pure-bred.
This living under adverse conditions for so many gen-
erations has endowed the animals with characteristics
which enable them to meet these conditions: or, rather,
it is the survival of the fittest. These conditions, also,
have made it almost impossible for the animal to consume
large quantities of food and make good use of the same.
I have found that no matter how much you give the
native animal to eat, even if it is of the most fattening
kinds of food, the animal will not make the gains that
well-bred animals will make.
These same conditions existed with the range cattle
of the West before the long-horns were replaced by
short-horns, Herefords and Angus.
If you go back in the history of England two hundred
years, you will find that the average weight of a dressed
carcass in the Smithfield market was about 370 pounds,
while today England produces the finest of beef, and a
large part of it on grass alone. Of course, the chalk and
clay hills present a different proposition from a sandy
plain when it comes to the question of making pastures.
which is necessary if beef is to be produced cheaply.
The beef situation today is rather peculiar. Twenty
years ago we thought the range inexhaustible, and that it
would furnish pasture for countless herds for years to
come. But the restless settler has pushed west and taken
up that part suitable for farming, thus reducing the range
area. The remaining portion was soon much injured by
overstocking. Large areas are being fenced each year
and the free range is becoming more and more restricted
as the years go by. Cattlemen who are posted and know
the situation, say that cattle never will be as cheap as
they were during the last depression. But in Florida we
must remember that we have another factor to contend
with-the Cuban market. In a few years we will find
this market falling off, so far as our native cattle are
concerned, owing to the fact that Cuba is preparing to
produce her own meat. and our stockmen will then be
forced to look for a market at home. This brings us to
the question, then, Are we going to raise good beef or
canners? We should raise good beef, and the following
are some of the reasons why we should have better blood:
The improved beef animal has been trained, for genera-
tion after generation, to consume large quantities of food
and turn that food into flesh and fat. Not only will he
turn more of his food into flesh and fat, but so place this
flesh and fat that it will sell for a higher price than that
from the scrub. This is proven by extensive experiments
carried on in Illinois, where car lots of the different
grades of cattle were fed under similar conditions and
a record kept of the rate of gain and cost of gain. The
grades used were fancy, choice, good, medium, and
inferior. It was found that: "More rapid and much
larger gains may be secured on the better than on the
more common grades. The better the grade of cattle,
the higher the percentage of dressed beef. Low grade
cattle carry larger percentages of internal fat. It does
not pay to feed the low grades through a long period.
Steers containing a high percentage of beef blood pos-
sess greater capacity for consuming larger quantitities of
feed than steers of more common grades, especially
toward the end of the fattening period." As I said be-
fore, the native turns a greater per cent. into bone, etc.,
which are waste products to the butcher. If a large per
cent. of the animal is made up of b)one, hide. neck, shank,
hoofs and horns, etc., he is not so valuable as the animal
that has only a small percentage of his total weight made
up of these. The bulk of the value of an animal is con-
tained in the loin and round-steak cuts. The placing of
fat has much to do with the value of the animal. The
scrub, or native, and also some of the dairy breeds, place
the surplus fat on the inside of the ribs and around the
intestines and other organs of the body. When so placed
it brings only tallow prices; but when the fat is placed
between layers of lean meat, as in the pure-bred beef ani-
rial, it sells for the price of the lean meat, which may
mean a difference of 12 to 20 cents per pound for the fat
of the well-bred steer over that of the scrub, as illustrated
by this drawing. (Here a drawing was exhibited, show-
ing the placing of fat in cut from scrub and shorthorn.)
The well-bred animal will net about 60 to 65 per cent. of
meat to the butcher, while the native runs from 49 to 51
There are two lines of live stock farming, and are
best illustrated by the terms "low" pressure and "high"
Under the "high" pressure system the animal is made
to grow as rapidly as possible by feeding, and is fitted
for the market in a very short time; the other is to allow
the animal to use cheaper feeds and make slower gains
and sell for much less a price per head. The objections
to this latter method, as illustrated by growing cattle on
range, without any supplementary feed, bring us back
to the question of better blood and the price of meat
again. Under the "low" pressure system, the animal
makes a minimum amount of muscle, so that when he is
three or four years old and is ready for the fattening
pen, his muscles are thin and flabby, never having had a
chance to develop. The muscles do not grow much, if
any, during the fattening period. This is particularly true
with old animals. Since the butcher considers that car-
cass the most valuable which will cut the greatest amount
of high-priced meat, lean meat, then, must be formed
during the growing period. The secret of getting the
cat out of the well is, don't lose the calf fat. The west-
ern breeders recognized this years ago, and now nearly
every ranchman provides food for the winter season,
and as a result they are sending cattle to the corn belt
which are equal to or better than those raised in that sec-
tion, while twenty years ago their cattle did not bring as
much as Florida cattle. Keeping the animal constantly
growing, and finishing him well before sending him to
market, makes the difference between high and low priced
meat. This helping the animal need not be to the extent
of keeping the animal growing rapidly at all times, but
help should be given to the extent that the animal will
never lose in weight.
Can we do this? Most assuredly we can. There is
no section of the United States where protein and carbo-
hydrates-the essential digestible products--can be grown
cheaper than in this section of the South. Protein is
essential to flesh formation in the growing animal. It is
a strange fact that protein which is used to form flesh,
can also be used to supply heat and energy to the body, and
can also be turned into fat; but this is not true of carbo-
hydrates, they being used to supply heat and energy. They
cannot supply nitrogen to form muscle.
In the corn belt, where the bulk of cattle are fattened
for the market, they find some difficulty in raising enough
protein to balance their rations. When corn alone is fed,
it is too wide, or in other words, it contains an excess of
carbo-hydrates for growing animals. This is also true
when the animal is fed on timothy hay. So that in order
to narrow the ration, it is necessary to feed clover or
alfalfa hay; or it may be done with mill stuff, such as
linseed meal or cottonseed meal.
In Florida we have, as a source of protein, the cow
pea, beggarweed, velvet bean, soy bean, cottonseed meal
and some other commercial feed stuffs.
For supplying protein, the following crops may be
mentioned in order of importance:
Velvet bean, beggar weed, cow pea, soy bean, alfalfa.
By referring to the table, we find that from one acre of
velvet beans we can get 560 pounds total protein, about 80
per cent. digestible. This plant also furnishes 1224
pounds of carbonaceous matter, which is used for fat
formation and supplying heat and energy to the body.
An average crop of cow pea hay will furnish 216
pounds of digestible protein, and 772 pounds of digesti-
An average crop of beggar weed will furnish 339
pounds of protein, about 80 per cent. digestible, and about
808 pounds of carbo-hydrates.
Beggar weed and cow peas will furnish protein
cheaper than velvet beans, pound for pound, because
these can be grown in the cornfield after a crop of corn,
and thus no expense incurred for seeding or use of land.
In case of the cow pea you have cost of seed and cost of
sowing, but the beggar weed, after it is established, costs
nothing, if it follows some cultured crop. Our method.
of saving hay is to gather the corn, if we have not already
cut it, and start the mowing machine behind the wagons,
cutting corn stalks and all. In this way we saved on an
average 1.2 tons per acre for 50 acres. We expect to
do better this year. The two crops combined (corn and
beggar weed or cow pea hay) give us just about a bal-
In the case of the velvet bean, the best method of
handling seems to be to provide something for the beans
to run on to keep them off the ground, and then allow
them to stand in the field until wanted, and pasture as
your stock require. The cost will depend upon how much
culture you give the bean.
The soy bean has not been grown extensively in this
section, but it did fairly well with us at the Station last
year, and we are going to try it more extensively this
In regard to alfalfa I would say that good alfalfa hay
is about equal to wheat bran as a food for live stock, and
it only remains for us to make it grow successfully in
the State to solve the problem of stock feeding.
If the crops above mentioned could be saved and fed
out to the animals as wanted, there would be enough pro-
tein in the velvet bean to last a I,ooo pound animal 280
days, or ten animals 28 days. A glance at the table will
show you that velvet bean hay is not a balanced ration,
for there are only enough carbo-hydrates to last about 90
days. In order to make it clear, I will state that an ani-
mal of I,ooo pounds, live weight, on full feed, requires 2.5
pounds of protein and 14 pounds of carbo-hydrates and a
small amount of ether extract per day. This makes what
we call a balanced ration. If the animal is turned in the
field of velvet beans and not given any carbonaceous or
starchy food, it will consume more than 2.5 pounds of
protein. This extra amount of protein might have been
used by some other animal and the heat and energy sup-
plied and fat formed from a cheaper, starchy food. such
as cassava, sweet potatoes or something of that sort.
Table I is calculated on the basis of an average yield
per acre, and shows the total amount of dry matter and
total amount of digestible protein, carbo-hydrates and fat
one acre of these crops will yield.
One Acre Will Furnish
Av. Yield. 4 *
Sweet Potatoes............................... 4 Tons 2312 72. 1776. 24
Corn......................... ................... 20 Bushels 996.8 88.45 7.17. 48.16
Corn Stover.................................... 1200 Pounds 720. 20.4 388.8 8.4
Cow Pea Hay............................... 1 Ton 1786. 216. 772. 22.
Bermuda Grass Hay.......................... 1 Ton 1720. 138. 780. .16.
Red Clover..................................... 1 Ton 1694. 131. 716. 34
Tim othy .......................................... 1 Ton 1737. 56 868. 28.
Sorghum [green].............................. I Tons 1648. 48. 976. 32.
Table II contains those crops for which there has been
no reliable digestion coefficient determined. The table
shows the chemical analysis only. The sweet potato was
left in this table in order that cassava may be compared.
One Acre Will Furnish
Tons. w P S
Cassava............................... 4 2672. 85 6 146.4 2419.2 12.
Sweet Potatoes.................... 4 2312. 120. 104. 1976. 32.
Beggar Weed...................... 1 1790. 339.6 453.8 808.8 49.8
Velvet Bean Hay............... ..................... 3600. 560. 1508. 1224. 72.
Teosinte.............................. 5 9300. 910. 2313. 4992. 122.
Mexican Clover................. 1500 Pounds 9765. 84. 416.8 740.7 43.35
Velvet Bean Pod............... 1500 Pounds 1320. 256.95 85.5 715.8 69.15
In the case of the cow pea we have enough protein
from one acre of land to last one animal 84 days, and
enough carbo-hydrates to last 55 days.
In case of beggar weed there is enough protein from
one acre to last 104 days, and carbo-hydrates to last about
So that you see all the above rations are deficient
in starch or fat forming foods. As a supply for these, we
have cassava, sweet potatoes, teosinte, corn, sorghum,
grass and many other plants.
In case of cassava we have enough starchy matter to
last about 175 days, and protein in cassava to last 25
If we add the nutrients from one acre of velvet beans
and one acre of cassava, we have enough protein to last
one animal 305 days and enough carbo-hydrates to last
263 days. Thus you see that about one and one-fourth
acres of cassava are required to balance one acre of vel-
vet beans. In regard to feeding these two crops on a
large scale, I think the best plan would be to give the
cattle a feed of cassava by pulling what they will consume
in one day and either hauling it to them or turn the cat-
tle in the field and allow them to fill up on cassava before
turning on the velvet beans; following the method each
By reference to the table you will see that sweet pota-
toes are about as valuable as cassava, being a little under
in carbo-hydrates, but higher in protein.
It has not been determined yet which will furnish car-
bo-hydrates cheaper, the cassava or sweet potatoes. In
some feeding tests at the Florida Experiment Station, I
found that it takes a less number of pounds of cassava
to make a pound of gain than it does of sweet potatoes,
but the sweet potatoes made a more rapid gain. We have
not collected enough data, as yet, to make positive state-
Teosinte, which gives such large quantities of car-
bo-hydrates and protein, has not been used extensively.
It is valued principally for green feed. No digestion
work has been carried on with it, hence, we do not know
just how much digestible matter an acre will yield.
In some sections, Mexican clover furnishes a source
of carbo-hydrates, but is rather low in protein.
Crab grass and sand burr should not be left out of the
list of grasses furnishing a supply of carbo-hydrates.
By comparing the yield per acre of digestible nutri-
ents of the common crops of the North and those of the
South, it will be seen that we can grow more digestible
protein and carbo-hydrates per acre and at less cost.
The combinations of crops that can be grown on the
same piece of land in one season is not shown in the
table; e. g., a crop of cow peas or beggar weed can be
grown in the corn and this saved for hay. Many other
combinations can be made, when the crops are to be saved
in the silo.
BY R. E. ROSE, STATE CHEMIST.
Ladies and Gentlemen:-In discussing a subject of
this kind, I do not like to make statements without mak-
ing them positively; hence, I do not like to make them
from memory alone, so I usually read a paper.
As we all know, the question of fertilizers and their
intelligent application is the most important one coming
before the farmer. Your crops must be fed exactly as
your stock is fed. If you feed cattle on corn cobs, the
result would be very poor; but if you feed them on a bal-
anced ration, the animals thrive. It is the same with a
crop. The same elements that go to nourish our animals
are absolutely essential for the nourishment of our crops.
You buy cottonseed meal to feed to cattle for identically
the same purpose you buy it to feed to your plants. The
three essential elements required by the plants and ani-
mals are alike; therefore, our feed stuff for a crop should
be subjected to the same guarantee and care as that for
The use of fertilizers is rapidly becoming more gen-
eral. Last year more than four million tons of mixed
fertilizers were used in this country. Florida has a reputa-
tion of being a sterile, poor State, but it today produces
most of the high grade phosphate of the world. Our high
grade phosphate rock averages 71 to 78 per cent. bone
phosphate of lime and is the best rock on the European
market. The Tennessee and Carolina rock never goes
above 60 per cent., and averages about 54 per cent. bone
phosphate of lime. In spite of the fact that we are pro-
ducing a very high grade article in this State, most of
our farmers insist on using a low grade fertilizer. It is
almost impossible for the manufacturer to make this
grade of goods. In this low grade there is about 1,280
pounds per ton of fertilizer, and to make up the
remaining 720 pounds he hauls foreign substances
like slag of clinker, grinds and mixes it up with the 1,280
pounds and gives you a ton of "fertilizer." You
have to pay for the hauling and crushing of this
foreign substance without getting any added plant food.
In regard to soil retaining its fertility under cultiva-
tion, I may say that in the State where I spent my young
manhood, the soil is considered the richest in the United
States. I refer to Louisiana. The lower portion of that
State is composed of soil brought down by the large riv-
ers from the most fertile valleys of Missouri, Tennessee,
Kansas, etc. It was said that the fertility of this soil
was inexhaustible. I have seen thousands of tons of the
richest manure hauled to the river and thrown away. To
these same fields they are now applying from 9oo to I,5oo
pounds of commercial fertilizers yearly. A few years
ago they said they did not need commercial fertilizers in
the West. Today millions of tons of fertilizers are going
into that section;
The best agriculturists that the world has ever known
are probably the Japanese. They know how, but do not
pretend to know why. They have been successfully cul-
tivating the same soil for thirty centuries. Agriculture
is probably the oldest art, but it is the youngest science.
It is a subject which requires great study. The oppor-
tunities afforded along this line have been very meagre
until within the last few years. Within the last thirty
years there has been a considerable amount of discovery
along these lines. I hope to see the time when agriculture
will be taught in our public schools, along with the multi-
plication tables and other elementary subjects. I think it
is as important that our farmers should understand agri-
culture as it is for them to understand arithmetic. There
is no question more important to the farmer and stock-
man, and to the world in general, than the fertilizer ques-
tion. The feeding problem and the fertilizer problems
are identical. Varied information on the fertilizer ques-
tion is contained in the monthly reports of the State Agri-
cultural Department. Those of you who do not receive
these reports can get them by writing to the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.
Question: Is there any difference in phosphoric acid
in dry bone and in the phosphate rock?
Answer: None in the world. It is absolutely the
same thing derived from whatever source. Ninety per
cent. of the "dissolved bone" sold in this and other coun-
tries is made from phosphate rock.
Question: It is known that phosphate rock is reduced
by sulphuric acid. If there is a portion of the acid left
insoluble is it injurious to plants?
Answer: I do not think so. The amount of sul-
phuric acid would be so very small that the lime in the soil
would more than counteract it. There is no danger of
getting a phosphate that has an excess of sulphuric acid
unless you get it from the importer, before it has had
time for the acid to mix with the rock. In green phos-
phate there may be a little free sulphuric acid, but a few
days will allow this to become a dry, neutral mixture.
When the material first comes out of the mixer it is like
mortar. It is mixed in ton lots and, after standing a short
time, becomes a dry, neutral mixture.
Question: Does muriate of potash take longer to act
than the nitrates?
Answer: I think so. Still I think it advisable to apply
all fertilizers some time prior to putting in the crop.
Probably no question is of more importance to the
farmer than the cost, or value, of the fertilizer he uses, on
which depend the success or failure of his crop, the profit
or loss of his year's work. The question is frequently
asked by the farmer, or planter, "what is the value ot
Jones' or Brown's guano?" "Do you consider Smith's
phosphate better than Green's?" Such questions cannot
be answered categorically. The only reply as to the
values of any brand, that can be fairly made, is to give
the relative commercial or "State values" of the actual
"plant food" in the material.
The only comparison that can be drawn between two
brands is to compare the actual amount of available
"plant food" in each, giving to each its commercial value,
and noting the difference in the sum.
Fertilizers are of value only in proportion to the
amount of available nitrogen (or ammonia as known to
our law), available phosphoric acid, and potash, you are
The tons or pounds of other material with which it is
mixed should be considered no more than the weight of
the barrel, box or sack, in which it is packed.
The value of the various plant foods at our sea ports
is readily obtained from the price lists of reliable dealers
and from current market prices in the various trade jour-
Quotations are made daily or weekly, of the market
values of the various materials used in the manufacture
of commercial fertilizers.
The ammoniates, cottonseed meal, fish scrap, blood,
tankage, nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, etc.: the
various potashes, sulphates, muriates, kainits. ashes. etc.;
the phosphates, acid phosphate, bone. bone black, etc., are
all quoted, and their price is fixed by the unit, or pound
of the actual nitrogen, potash, or phosphoric acid. in the
material, regardless of the weight or bulk of the extra-
neous matter combined with it.
To protect the citizen, the consumer, and legitimate
manufacturer or dealer in reliable goods from the impo-
sition of worthless or deficient fertilizers, the State has
passed a stringent law, plain in its terms, simple, and
readily understood, requiring the manufacturer, or seller
of fertilizers to place on each package of fertilizer sold
in the State, a plain statement, or guarantee, of the
amount or percentage of the three essential plant foods;
namely, ammonia, available phosphoric acid, and potash.
It requires the State Chemist to annually publish a state-
ment of the commercial values of these three essential
elements; this information being taken from the pub-
lished market reports, and averaged, to make as fair a
"State valuation" as possible. These values are for ton
lots, purchased at sea ports for cash. He also makes in
addition to this a statement of the values of these ingredi-
ents in larger quantities or car load lots. While these
valuations may not, at all times, be exactly similar to
trade values, they seldom vary greatly, and are made lib-
eral to meet such fluctuations; at no time during the past
three years have the State values been less than the mar-
ket values. At all times the farmer could purchase from
reliable dealers the necessary ingredients at or below the
values fixed by the Agricultural Department.
It is unnecessary to go into details as to the various
sources of commercial fertilizers. They are largely com-
posed of waste animal, or vegetable matter; the refuse of
factories, fish scrap, blood, bone, tankage from slaughter
houses, garbage from cities, wool, hair, horns, etc.; from
nitrate of soda, mined in South America; from sulphate
of ammonia, a refuse material from the manufacture of
gas, cottonseed meal, castor pomace, etc., and most
largely from phosphate rock, mined in our own State
(the largest producer of high grade phosphate in the
world), and from phosphates mined in South Carolina
The bulk of the fertilizer sold in this and other coun-
tries is made from phosphate rock dissolved in sulphuric
acid; the predominant plant food in commercial fertili-
zers generally, is available phosphoric acid, closely fol-
lowed by the soluble potash; the smallest portion of plant
food in an average fertilizer is the nitrogen (or am-
monia), though it is the most costly of all the necessary
The commercial values for the last year, 1903, as fixed
by the Agricultural Department of Florida, are as fol-
lows, and are published in each monthly bulletin of the
For Available and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, A.m-
monia and Potash for the Season of 1904.
Available Phosphoric Acid .......... C cents a pound
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ........... I cent a pound
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitro-
gen) ......................... T5 cents a pound
Potash .as actual potash. K20) .. 5 1-2 cents a pound
If calculated by units-
Available Phosphoric Acid ........... $i.oo per tnit
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid ......... 20 cents per unit
Ammonia (or its equivalent in nitro-
gen ............................. $3.00 per unit
Potash .............. ............. $i.To per unit
With a uniform allowance of $1.25 per ton for mixing
A unit is twenty pounds, or one per cent. of a ton. \Ve
find this to be the easiest and quickest method for calcu-
lating the value of a fertilizer. To illustrate this, take
for example a fertilizer which analyzes as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid, 6.22 per cent. x $I.oo- 6.22
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, I.50 per cent. x .20- .30
Ammonia ................ 3.42 per cent. x 3.00-10.26
Potash .............. ... 7.23 per cent. x 1.10- 7.95
M ixing and bagging ........................ 1.25
Commercial value at sea ports ............... .$25.98
Or a fertilizer analyzing as follows:
Available Phosphoric Acid, 8 per cent. x $I.oo-$ 8.00
Ammonia .............. 2 per cent. x 3.00- 6.oo
Potash ................ 2 per cent. x I.Io- 2.20
Mixing and bagging .......................... 1.25
Commercial value at sea ports ................ $17.45
The above valuations are for cash for materials deliv-
ered at Florida sea ports, and they can be bought in one
ton lots at these prices at the date of issuing this bulletin.
Where fertilizers are bought at interior points, the addi-
tional freight to that point must be added.
If purchased in car load lots for cash, a reduction of
ten per cent. can be made on above valuations, i. e.:
Available Phosphoric Acid .........90 cents per unit
Potash (K20) ................... 99 cents per unit
Ammonia (or equivalent in nitrogen)...$2.70 per unit
The valuations and market prices in succeeding illus-
trations are based on market prices for one ton lots.
I find it very largely the practice of Florida manufac-
turers and dealers, carrying large stocks in the sea port
cities, to deal direct with the consumer: that most of the
largest consumers, particularly in the fruit and vegetable
regions, order their goods direct from the factory, or the
general agency, at the sea port.
It is frequently asked, which is the most economical to
apply, large quantities of low grade goods, or a smaller
amount of higher grade, more expensive goods? "Are
two tons of an $18.oo goods not better or cheaper than
one ton of $36.00 goods?"
If the goods are sold on their merits, and the two
brands are commercially worth the price demanded, I
should certainly advise buying the high priced, or high
grade goods, knowing I should get, in either case, the
same amount of plant food; have just half the freight to
pay, only one ton to haul from the depot to the field,
instead of two, and but one-half the labor in distributing
it on the field, with a certainty of equally as good results.
To illustrate, a ton of 8-2-2 goods has
160 pounds available phosphoric acid.
40 pounds ammonia.
40 pounds potash.
240 pounds of plant food.
1,760 pounds of useless matter, of no fertilizing or com-
The same amount of fertilizing material can be had
by using the following combination:
I,ooo pounds 16 per cent. available acid phosphate.
200 pounds 20 per cent. sulphate of ammonia.
80 pounds 50 per cent. sulphate of potash.
1,280 pounds containing 240 pounds of plant food, the
same amount as contained in a ton of 8-2-2 goods,
saving the freight and handling of 720 pounds of
The average amount of plant food in twenty-four
brands, taken from six of the largest dealers in the State,
for the years 1902 and 1903, was 340 pounds per ton, the
average of all mixed goods sold in the State during 1903
was 338 pounds per ton; the average of plant food in com-
mercial fertilizers throughout the United States is about
300 pounds, showing that Florida growers demand a
better average quality of fertilizer.
The average price was $33.00 per ton; the average
commercial value (or State value) was $27.00, showing
an average excess over State values of $6.00 per ton, not
including $2.00 per ton allowed for mixing and bags.
This was not the highest price, for the same class of
goods, by any means, one lot of brands showing 296
pounds of plant food sold at an excess of $10.30 per ton
above State values.
Another lot, with 327 pounds of plant food. sold at an
excess of but $2.05 per ton over State values; in one case
the dealer making the profit of $ro.30 on 296 pounds of
plant food, in the other but $2.05 profit on goods having
327 pounds of plant food. In both cases the goods were
from reliable and trustworthy manufacturers, and made
from first-class materials.
In one case 296 pounds of plant food sold for $36.00.
or 12 cents per pound for the actual food in the ton of
material; in the other ease 337 pounds of plant food
were sold for $29.25, or 8.7 cents per pound for the
actual plant food in the ton of material.
The average profit per ton of goods sold in the State
during 1902 and 1903 was (including $2.00 for bags and
mixing) $8.oo per ton. Hence it is evident that the rela-
tive cost of high grade goods is less than that of low
In this connection, I quote from Bulletin No. 99. of
the Vermont Experiment Station, published in May.
1903, an acknowledged authority on the subject, as fol-
"The high grade fertilizers for a third advance in
price over the cost of a low class goods, furnished twzo
thirds more plant food, and five sixths more commercial
The average of a number of the most generally used
brands, by six of the most reliable manufacturers and
dealers in Florida, shows practically 4 per cent. of am-
monia, 6 per cent. of available phosphoric acid, and 7
per cent. of potash, or 17 per cent. of total plant food, or
340 pounds of a necessary fertilizing element in each ton.
For general use this is undoubtedly a good formula. The
general average of all mixed goods sold in the State dur-
ing 1903 was practically the same percentage as above.
Some crops demand larger proportions of nitrogen.
However, there are special crops that demand different
proportions of these essential elements. All succulent
crops, grown for their foliage, such as cabbage, celery,
lettuce, etc., require nitrogen (or ammonia) as the pre-
dominating element. Hence large quantities of blood and
bone, tankage, fish, scrap and the nitrates are used in
making fertilizers for these crops, nitrogen being the pre-
dominant element required for succulent foliage crops.
Plants cultivated for their starch, or sugar content,
require larger amounts of potash to insure a large yield
of grain or fruit. Hence the predominant element for
such crops is potash.
Plants grown for fibre, cotton, flax, or hemp, or for
maturing the wood of fruit trees, to form cellulose or wood
fibre, require an excess of phosphoric acid in a properly
balanced fertilizer; hence, in cotton fertilizers, phos-
phoric acid is the predominating element.
It may be broadly stated, that the necessary elements
are used by the growing plant as follows, it being under-
stood that all of them are absolutely essential to the
healthy growth of the plant, that each of them must be
present in the soil, in an available condition, and in suf-
ficient quantity to supply the demands of the crop:
Ist. Nitrogen, to produce foliage, succulent leaves,
green stems and immature wood.
2nd. Phosphoric acid, to induce the formation of
fibre, woody tissue, cellulose, to mature the woody part of
a plant, or to make fibre, as in cotton, flax or hemp. to
produce mature wood in fruit trees.
3rd. Potash, to assist in the formation of starch,
or sugar, as in the potato, grain, sugar cane, or fruit.
The cotton grower requires all three of these elements
-nitrogen to give his crop a quick, healthy growth, pot-
ash to harden the stems and mature the seeds, and phos-
phoric acid to grow the fibre.
Experiments made by trained investigators have
shown that these elements are required for cotton in about
the following proportions:
Ammonia, 3 per cent.
Potash, 2 1-2 per cent.
Available phosphoric acid, 7 per cent.
Or, 12 pounds of ammonia, Io pounds of potash, 28
pounds of phosphoric acid per Ioo pounds of fertilizer,
using about 400 pounds per acre.
A crop of 300 pounds of lint cotton requires 22
pounds of nitrogen, 50 pounds of phosphoric acid, and
15 pounds of potash. To supply all this amount, assum-
ing there be none of these essential elements available in
the soil, would require an application of not less than 800
pounds of the above formula per acre. However, all
soils have more or less of these elements of fertility; some
(though very few soils) have all of them, particularly
new lands, not worn out.
Our cotton fields are rapidly being robbed of their
original fertility. The lint is sold, as is the seed, taking
from the land, with each I,ooo pounds of seed, 38 pounds
of ammonia, 13 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 12 pounds
of potash. Excepting the ammonia, these elements are
permanently lost, and must be restored by man, or the
field will necessarily become barren.
The sale of the seed from our cotton fields, with no
return of the mineral elements, has removed millions of
dollars of actual wealth; while also the sale of each ani-
mal, each bushel of wheat, or ton of hay, has impover-
ished to a certain extent the fertile prairies of the West.
That our farmers, the cotton planter, the corn and
wheat producer, and the stockman, have wasted the nat-
ural wealth of their lands, is best evidenced by the enor-
mous growth of the fertilizer industry. An industry,
practically unknown thirty years ago, is now one of the
most important in the country, with hundreds of millions
of dollars invested in the business. Besides the enormous
domestic consumption (approximating 4,500,000 tons,
worth $Ioo,ooo,ooo.oo), we exported in 1903, up to
November ist, 5,600,000 dollars worth of fertilizers, and
imported 2,600,000 dollars worth.
The question of maintaining the fertility of our fields
and pastures is certainly the most important one now
before our farmers. Its importance is becoming greater
each year. Fields formerly said to be inexhaustibly fer-
tile, now demand assistance to produce average crops.
The question is, "How can we economically preserve
and increase the fertility of our farms?" As fertilizers
are known to be generally the waste or offal of our homes,
factories and cities, the answer is contained in the ques-
tion, and is simply, "Stop wasting." Don't sell off the
fertility of the farm, make more manure, return to the
soil all that is possible, feed your crude materials to your
cattle, care for and carefully husband the waste material
of all kinds, sell only the finished product, economize in
the purchase of the necessary fertilizers, pay for what
you need and don't buy things you do not need. Don't
sell a ton of cottonseed without buying back I,ooo
pounds of cotton seed meal. Feed this meal to live stock
and save the manure, mix it with acid phosphate and
kainit, and apply it to your field.
If the meal from the seed of an acre of cotton, were
mixed in proper proportion with acid phosphate, and pot-
ash, and returned to the field each year, its fertility would
increase annually, the yields be greater each year, instead
That most expensive element of fertilizing, nitrogen,
that costs three times as much per pound as either potash
or phosphoric acid, can, by proper rotation and care, be
to a large extent produced on the farm. It is the only one
*. .. . ..
.. ..... .. .....' .. ..
'"... . . .." " .
of them that can be so produced. Any soil supplied with
the necessary available potash and phosphoric acid can
be made to produce abundant quantities of nitrogen by
planting the various legumes, or nitrogen-gathering
plants, such as cow peas, velvet beans, beggar weed and
the various clovers. Such crops demand first, a supply of
available phosphoric acid, and the potash in the soil. They
will then produce large quantities of nitrogen from the
air, leaving the soil in better condition for the production
of other crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and grain, that
require, but do not produce nitrogen, as do the legumes
mentioned. These leguminous crops make the best of hay
or forage and as such should be utilized on the farm; all
the manure should be carefully saved, and reinforced by
potash and phosphate, returned to the soil.
For general use under the conditions outlined, on our
ordinary cotton soils, I would suggest that acid phosphate
and potash (either kainit or the higher grade goods) be
used, with very little ammounia, if any. The lands to be
planted in peas, velvet beans or beggar weed, to be fol-
lowed by cotton, oats or corn, making a three years' rota-
I,ooo pounds of 14 per cent. available phosphate, I,ooo
lbs. of 12 per cent. kainit, making a ton, would analyze
7 per cent. phosphate and 6 per cent. potash, with a total
of 260 pounds of plant food. This mixture can be pur-
chased at $14.oo per ton, mixed and sacked for $1.25,
making the cost at seaports, $15.25 per ton: 260 pounds
of plant food costing less than 6 cents per pound.
Or, I,ooo pounds of 14 per cent. available phosphate,
500 pounds pf 12 per cent. kainit, 500 pounds of 8 per
cent. cottonseed meal, making a ton, would yield 7 1-2
per cent available phosphate, 3 1-3 per cent. potash, 2 per
cent. ammonia, or 257 pounds of plant food, costing 7.4
cents per pound; this mixture will cost $18.75 per ton, at
present market values, including mixing and bagging.
and will be sold under full guarantee. The guarantee iu
-*. ,* . -: .
S.. *..-. *
: ." "'* ""
'. .* : : ** "* * *.~.
required of the manufacturer, and is just as essential to
insure the obtaining of the materials required, in the
proper amount, on a special mixture, made to order, as
on a regular brand, and should be demanded and insisted
on in lach case.
In conclusion, I would mention that our Governments
both National and State, are spending vast sums of
money in experimental work at the various experimental
stations. They are providing agricultural colleges, fur-
nishing lectures to thousands of farmers' institutes, and
publishing a large number of bulletins, all bearing on
agriculture in its various forms. These are valuable
papers, by eminent practical and scientific men, upon
almost every agricultural subject, all classes and kinds of
crops, soils, fertilizers, stock raising, poultry, hogs and
cattle, the best methods of feeding, of dairying, and the
many various industries allied to agriculture.
These bulletins are published for free distribution and
are available to every farmer, and every citizen in the
land. I particularly mention a few that are of great value
to those seeking information as to the proper use of ferti-
lizers, to be had from the United States Department of
No. i6-Leguminous Plants.
No. 21-Barnyard Manure.
No. 44-Commercial Fertilizers.
No. 36-Cotton Seed and Its Products.
There are many others to be had for the asking. A
list of them is published in the bulletins mentioned. Our
Agricultural Experiment Station at Lake City also pub-
lishes a number of bulletins of peculiar value to our Flor-
ida farmers. These bulletins should be in the hands of
every farmer in the State, being applicable to the crops,
climate and soil of the State. They are published for the
benefit of the farmer, and belong to him. As he pays for
them, he should avail himself of them and procure those
treating upon his particular lines of agriculture, be he
farmer, trucker, fruit grower, dairyman or stockman.
EXPLANATION OF FERTILIZER LAW.
There has been a great deal of difficulty in getting
our farmers to understand their privileges in regard to
fertilizer inspection. When you get a fertilizer or cotton
seed meal, of which you are at all suspicious, you should
simply take a can and fill it with this fertilizer, or cotton
seed meal, in the presence of two witnesses. Seal it and
hand it to one of your friends and tell him to send it to the
Commissioner of Agriculture. If this fertilizer or cotton
seed meal in any point, falls below the guarantee
stamped on the sack or tag, you not only do not have to
pay for it, but you get damages to the amount of twice
the value of the fertilizer. In buying fertilizers, it is the
privilege of the farmer to have the fertilizer examined,
and a good many are taking advantage of it. Last year
we found but one sample that was deficient in all three
ingredients. There were quite a number deficient in one
ingredient, that is, having less than four-fifths of the
guaranteed per cent. There have been fertilizers sold in
this State for $16 per ton that were worth 45 cents. I
have analyzed goods for potash that had less than a quar-
ter of one per cent. of potash in it. In one case a ferti-
lizer, supposed to contain 3 per cent. ammonia and Io per
cent. potash, was deficient 2 1-2 per cent. ammonia and
9 per cent. in potash.
Query: Do you think it would be advisable and
profitable for truck growers to buy and mix their own
fertilizers, provided they did it intelligently.
Answer: Undoubtedly it would, or you can make
your own formula and send it up to the manufacturers,
and they will mix it for you for $1.25 per ton. This is
perhaps the most advisable. The law compels the man-
ufacturer in this case to guarantee the percentages you
Query: What per cent. of potash is there in cow
Answer: From a quarter to one-half of one per cent.,
governed largely by what the animal eats. You would
have to mix acid phosphate and kainit with cow manure
to get a properly balanced plant food.
ADDRESS OF W. E. EMBRY, OF DADE CITY,
FLA., AT FARMERS' INSTITUTE AT
The subject for discussion this morning is chat of
growing tobacco, and as that has been a source of indus-
try from which I have derived most of my revenue since
I was a boy twelve years of age, I feel at home with my
subject. However, it will not specially interest you to
go into details of how we have grown our Kentucky types
of tobacco, and the manipulations of the same, from the
plant beds to the packing in the hogsheads and marketing
But as you are specially interested in the rapidly
growing industry of Sumatra tobacco growing in Flor-
ida, I shall confine myself to this variety and the experi-
ences and observations of its growth and marketing of
same. Now, from observations of your lands, I am fully
convinced that these fine upland hammocks are ideal loca-
tions for magnificent tobacco plantations and am sure
that in the near future they will be called into requisition.
for no other section of the State has so much of this
choice tobacco land, with as many natural advantages of
location and drainage; but perhaps, before going into
detail as to the growing of the Sumatra tobacco crop, it
would be well to have a little talk, by way of explanation,
why this industry, from which so much was expected in
the growing of Havana and Sumatra leaf, should have
been discarded, when so many had tried so hard to recu-
perate from reverses by means of this new industry, some
six or seven years ago, and to explain why it has been
abandoned by almost every one in South and Central
Florida; for we do know that many built high hopes of
this industry being a permanent thing that would bring
prospertiy once more to their door, and many were bitterly
disappointed, and became only poorer because of their
venture and quit it in disgust. I studied the situation
closely and tried hard to find out the causes of failure
to make a success of the industry, and will now give you
my conclusions on the subject.
First, the people knew little of the intrinsic value of
the crops they first grew, and naturally wanted to receive
full value for crops; and, having read of the high prices
prevailing in Havana and Sumatra, and being told that
their product was as good, or approximately so, they
were loth to accept prices that would have paid them well
for their labor and in an industry that was sure of crops,
and where no -frosts ever interfered with the saving of the
Second, there were some who had not adequate house-
room for their crops, and insufficient ventilation, and in
consequence they were disappointed in not making wrap-
per leaf, and the grade of tobacco was of little value and,
not being marketed promptly, there was a little worm
that bored through the dried leaves after being put in
bulk, and unfitted it for wrappers, even the best crops,
for these could have been sold in the winter, and at from
40 to 60 cents per pound for the Sumatra, had not the
owners held out for still higher prices. I have known of
some of this tobacco that could have been sold at 40 cents,
pole cured, which, after being kept two years, was sold at
8 cents per pound; and have known other crops kept until
it was worth only 4 cents per pound, as snuff stock. As
an illustration of the mistake made by the sellers, I will
give an instance in our own county, and this is but a fair
sample of the mistakes that were made. We decided to put
a number of our crops into the hands of one of our lar-
gest growers, to have him effect sale of same as he saw fit,
or to have it sweated, assorted and baled, ready for mar-
ket, if he thought best (for he had some baled and sold
the previous year at fair prices). We shipped 87,000
pounds of our tobacco to Quincy to have it baled, etc.,
should he not have a bid sufficiently tempting to induce
him to sell. Our tobacco crop was about half Sumatra
and the other half Havana leaf. On its arrival at Quincy,
Fla., he was offered 40 cents per pound for the Sumatra,
that being half the crop; and, as it had cost only 13 cents
to grow it, would have been a magnificent profit. But
the offer was declined, unless the would-be purchaser
would take the Havana leaf at the same price, which he
would not do. So it was put in sweat and gotten ready
for assorting, baling, etc.; and it so happened that the
party who had contracted with him to do this work got
married about that time and neglected to give it his spe-
cial attention, but delegated it to the care of a youth of
17 years, who allowed it to become over-sweated, and as
a result, impaired its value to such an extent as to cause
much of it to be sold at only a few cents per pound, and
only a very few bales at ends of bulk, that was not so
badly sweated, brought $I.oo per pound. Satisfied that
our tobacco was O. K., but only mismanaged, I started
in to grow tobacco the following year, and contracted
some of it to your fellow townsman, Mr. Otto C. Butter-
wick, at 25 cents per pound, to be delivered as soon as
pole cured, unassorted and in big bundles. It made 1,165
pounds to the acre, and I,ooo pounds of it was the 25
cent grade, and I received that price for it. Subsequently
I grew and sold it to Mr. Dzialynski at 24 cents per
pound, "crop round," after careful inspection, and after-
wards sold other crops at good prices to a Chicago firm
who are also growing large acreage (160) at Quincy,
under one-half shade. They were so pleased with it that
they proposed that I should grow them io or 20 acres
under one-half shade, and offered to furnish me the
money to build the shade, and such other supplies that I
might need to make a success, and would pay me 40 cents
per pound for it if it ran 75 per cent. wrapper (which it
did), and the crop was delivered to them in their big
"hands," or bundles @f forty leaves, in September, put
up in high case in dry goods boxes, and the price was
40 cents per lb. f. o. b. I have a contract with them for
five years on the same terms. Subsequently they agreed
to put up io acres more, one-half shade, on the same
terms, and we are now making arrangements to clear
more new hammock and grow it in the same way, and
confidently expect to make 1,200 pounds per acre on this
Now, having awakened your interest, and feeling that
you will listen attentively to me, I shall proceed to give
you some of the details of growing the tobacco, cost of
shades, etc. First, I will say that the one-half shade
under which the tobacco is grown is constructed as fol-
lows: Posts II feet long are put in the ground, 4 feet
apart at the two sides, opposite each other, from which
the wire is to be stretched. The posts on these outside
lines are 3x3, and heart stuff. About 12 feet back of
these lines of posts are ditches dug 3 feet deep, and live
oak or fat pine wood is used, in pieces about 3 feet long,
around which the stay wires are wound and the other
ends attached to the tops of the posts, and the dirt filled
in the ditches on the sunken pieces. After this, other
posts, 14xi8 feet apart, are put in the ground, posts II
feet long, 2x4, and put 2 feet in the ground, and stream.
ers are nailed to these lines of posts, flush with the top of
same. These streamers are I 1-2 x 3 inches, and across
these the No. 12 wires are stretched real tight, and only
20 inches apart. Wire No. 22 is used to weave 48 inch
slats, one inch wide, over this frame, and it is done by
hand. Then on the outside of frame work the common
inch lumber, worth $8.00 per thousand feet, is put up for
half the way, and then lighter lumber of refuse flooring
or weather boarding used for the rest of the walls. These
walls and this net work of lath are designed to protect
the growing crop from the depredations of the horn
worms, by excluding the tobacco flies, which are almost
as large as humming birds, and yet very timid about fly-
ing through small holes. They cannot get through the
lattice work, except they alight and crawl under, which
I have never known them to do. The half shading also
makes the leaf finer and more valuable.
With reference to the seed beds, we scorch the land by
burning wood and brush on it, and make beds about four
feet wide, using four or six inch planks as sides, with a
pass-way one foot wide between the beds, they
being slightly elevated. That would prevent the
tobacco seeds being washed off in watering the seed
beds, for that has to be done each day. if it does not rain;
and we would do better to water twice a day in very dry
weather. The plants we find in our locality do best if
put in from the 20th of April to the ioth of May. So we
endeavor to sow the beds so as to have the plants coming
in from the 20th of April, sowing at intervals of a few
days, and commencing about the 2oth of February. We
use about a ton of cottonseed meal per acre, and 600
pounds of carbonate of potash and ground bone meal as
fertilizers, and readily grow from 900 to 1,1oo pounds
of Sumatra tobacco per acre.
The fertilizers are sown along the furrows (laid off
3 1-2 feet apart), and mixed with the soil by a "grass-
hopper stock," a narrow plow, and then beds of two fur-
rows are made to cover it. This we aim to do two weeks
before planting. Planting is usually done in a dry time.
and it necessitates moving barrels to hold the water, and
about a half dozen or more are required. We use pal-
metto leaves in shading for the young plants; old shingles
or old berry cups, if it is very hot, or if it is cool and
ground damp, no shading is necessary under this one-
half shade covering. The shading is left on until it
rains, and then is used for other plantings. Insects of
the bud worm variety injure the plants very much, if not
guarded against by an application of Paris green, mixed
with meal. We apply about twice a week, if rains wash
We plant about 9,000 to .o,ooo plants to the acre,
putting the plants about twelve inches apart in the rows.
To protect the young plants from the ravages of cut-
worms, we make up a quantity of shorts and molasses,
using about a tablespoonful of Paris green to two gal-
lons of the mixture, and drop a piece the size of a pea at
the root of the new-set plant. The cut-worm eats of it
and is killed, and we thus secure almost a perfect
"stand" the first planting. (You can use this remedy on
other crops to advantage.) Culture is about three plow-
ings with a Plant. Jr., cultivator, and perhaps two hoe-
ings. The tobacco is not topped till it is in bloom, and
every bloom pulled off, leaving thirty to forty leaves on
the plant. We commence gathering the leaves soon after
topping (about ten days), pulling about one-third of
the way up the stalk, and placing on lighters and carrying
them to the barn, if in 300 yards, or placing lighters on
wagons and hauling to barns if further away. Use tables
to deposit the leaves on, and turn on the girls and boys to
dothe stringing on twine attached to four-foot laths. They
put on from 200 to 350 laths per day, and receive 40 cents
per Ioo laths, putting forty leaves per lath, on an average.
The tobacco is then hung in tiers and allowed to air cure,
closing the swinging windows of wood at night ahd in
the middle of the day, so that it will not cure too rapidly.
In about three weeks it is ready to box and be sent to
the sweating house, and this is done very rapidly, so that
by the 20th of September the tobacco is all boxed and
As all the tobacco is off by the ioth of August, the
land is ready for vegetable crops, and it is under most
favorable conditions for these crops. I have found that
Irish potatoes, planted the 5th of September. paid well,
as I have obtained on an average of over $5 per barrel
for them. I grew 60 bushel~ per acre, and feel sure it
would have been doubled in amount had not the heavy
frost of November 24th frozen the vines and stopped
growth. We dug the potatoes in January, and planted to
string beans, and expect to market these by the 2oth of
April and prepare the land for tobacco again. We used
about $50 worth of fertilizer per acre for our tobacco,
and for these other crops about $15 per acre on each crop.
We also had some of the land in cucumbers and cabbage
and lettuce. The cabbage promises to pay well. The
cucumbers were beautiful and promised well, but were
killed by the use of too strong a solution of Paris green,
applied for insects that were preying on the vines. The
lettuce made a wondrous spread of leaf and covered the
ground, but did not head well; so it sold for small prices.
I shall plant a couple of acres of this shaded land in ber-
ries in August, and feel sure it will pay well. After this
crop is removed, then plant to tobacco again. Intensive
farming like this, I feel, is destined to work a revolution
in Florida productions, and it is to become the winter
garden for a large part of the United States.
It would be pleasant to talk much more on this sub-
ject and the marketing of fruits and vegetables, which I
feel would interest you, and cannot resist the temptation
to tell vou of some of my "mistakes and failures" as well
as successes. I have shipped a great many vegetables in
the past five years, buying perhaps 75 per cent. of what
are grown around Dade City, as well as a large part of
the berries, peaches, plums, melons, cantaloupes, etc. I
find that it is best-to stick to some reliable house, and
touch but lightly the new man who hands you his stencil,
or mails it to you, and in car load shipments to demand
advances on same before consigning. I have made the
most money in my dealing direct with grocerymen and
retail fruit dealers, quoting them prices f. o. b., to be
sent C. O. D., securing names from the express com-
panies' agents, they having a list of dealers in all parts
of the United States. I price the goods in advance of
readiness for shipment, and as soon as ready can ship
right along on orders.
W. E. EMBRY, OF DADE CITY, IN AN ADDRESS
BEFORE THE FARMERS OF CITRUS
COUNTY, CRYSTAL RIVER,
FLA., FEB. II, 1904.
Ladies and Gentlemen:-The question of vegetable
growing has occupied my time to a great extent for sev-
eral years. I came to Florida to grow tobacco, and that
is my main business; but in growing a crop of Sumatra,
we can also utilize our land for growing two crops of veg-
etables. Our specialty is potatoes. I was told when I
came to the State that I could not raise Irish potatoes
here. I had seen from the reports of the Experiment Sta-
tion that it could be done; so I decided to try it. The sec-
ond crop I had I found that I could grow them, and that
year we raised forty barrels. We shipped them to Cin-
cinnati and received $8.00 per barrel for them. I was
delighted with the results. Subsequent to that I have
grown lettuce, green peas and cabbage under the shed
where we had ten acres of Sumatra tobacco. I have three
acres of cabbage, which is worth $60 per ton in New
York. We cannot supply the demand made on us for cab-
bage, at $2.50 per crate.
Query: When did you plant this?
Answer: About two months ago, December Ist. We
use the early summer varieties and the Jersey Wakefield.
The Wakefield is probably, in some respects, better than
any other variety.
As a rule we find that the best results obtained are in
the Southern markets. The best market for vegetables
we find to be in Raleigh, N. C., and in marketing we have
learned something from sad experience. There is the dis-
honest commission man to contend with. WVhen you send
him a car load of vegetables, he writes back that the mar-
ket is very depressed, etc. Another man writes, "Your
cantaloupes arrived, but were all yellow;" "The okra
which you sent was rotted. We decided to take it out,
but with misgivings, and the best we could do was $4.00."
This for an investment of many times that amount.
One of our specialties in Dade City is egg plant. Some-
times I raise 400 crates per acre. Two years ago we had
a beautiful crop of them, and were shipping extensively.
The returns were unsatisfactory. One of my sons was
passing through Chicago, where we were shipping, at
that time, and I wrote him that I had shipped a lot and
asked him to investigate the sales. When he reached the
commission house all but seven crates had been sold. My
son stood around for awhile without letting himself be
known, saw my name on the crates, and saw them sell for
$3.25 per crate. The commission man reported that he
had sold the lot at $2.75. Later I shipped six crates of
beans and twenty-six crates of egg plant. I had a sec-
ond son in Chicago at this time-employed there-and I
decided to see what my vegetables really brought, and
also decided to get value received. My son saw the egg
plant and beans sold at $2.25 per crate. No returns were
made to me. Five days later I wrote in regard to the
shipment, and received the reply that the market had been
crowded, my goods had arrived in bad shape, etc., etc.,
and he got only express charges for them.
Query: I think, Mr. Embry, you should give us the
name of that firm.
Answer: The man who did it was A. J. Manchester.
He made an assignment that year.
So it seems that the question is, how shall we market
our produce? Many people can and do make good crops
of vegetables, but do not know how to dispose of them
to the best advantage. As a rule the smaller towns are
the best markets. I ship a good deal to Kentucky and
North Carolina. I am shipping my cabbage to Albany
and Bainbridge, Ga., and to North Carolina. I sold my
oranges f. o. b. in the same way.
Query: How do you ship your beans?
Answer: To these interior points I ship my
beans by the barrel. Thirty-two pounds is a bushel
of beans. I ship them to Raleigh, N. C., in
sugar barrels. By this means the freights are
reduced, but they are high enough then. In shipping let-
tuce, we use a crate that we find to be admirably suited
to it. We are shipping now, and it does not take more
than twenty-eight heads of lettuce to fill a half-barrel
crate. We have sold it f. o. b. at $1.25 per crate. If we
shipped it ourselves we might get $3.00 for it, but in this
way we are well satisfied, and we never lose by it.
If any of you gentlemen are raising vegetables, I
would suggest that you place a reasonable price on the
same and then submit these prices to reliable dealers in
some of the thriving inland towns. We ship goods to
Charlotte. N. C., and Hopkinsville, Ky., and make money.
while in the case of the larger cities and the commission
men we often lose on account of false returns. In Tampa,
where I do a great deal of marketing. I find that I can
sell direct to the Dago, save commission, and get better
results. The idea is to let your produce go to someone
who will pay you for it, and who will not swindle you in
the returns, as is often the case. Now, I do not mean to
say that all commission men will swindle you. I have
received good results from some of them. Barbot & Stork
of New Orleans, have given entire satisfaction for the
last five years, or ever since I have been dealing with
them. We have to learn a good many things in connec-
tion with marketing as we go along.
There is another point that I wish to dwell on in my
talk, and that is the growing of peaches here. I notice
around here large tracts of land on which I imagine
peaches would do well, as they thrive on similar land
around Dade City. One person from Nebraska has
planted fifty acres in peaches there. I have trees at Dade
City from which I secured as much as two baskets of
peaches the second year after planting.
Peaches planted three years ago this month will yield
three crates per tree. They are selling at $1.50 per crate
in Tampa. $1.50 per tree and 1oo trees per acre will
make a man money. Peaches yield in a shorter time
than oranges can be grown. One gentleman in our vicin-
ity planted a seedling and in three years sold one and one-
half bushel from that tree at $1.50 per bushel. This
same man has guavas ripening at all seasons of the year.
It is the great possibilities of this State which so inter-
est me. I see that certain crops can be grown and may be
grown profitably if the people will just turn their atten-
tion to them.
A gentleman in our neighborhood has a grove of
4,000 bearing orange and grapefruit trees. I was there
last Friday and purchased his fruit on the trees. From
a number of Tangerine trees I expect to get three bushels
each. He has orders for a quantity of fancy grapefruit
at $8.00 per box. He protects his trees from cold and
frosts by fires. He has 700 boxes of as fine Tardiff Late
oranges as you would wish to see, and will keep them
until late-in April-and probably get $2.50 per box for
them f. o. b.
Of course, there are crops, as you know, that have
been failures, but the idea with us is not to get discour-
aged, and to do the best we can under the circumstances.
I had no set speech to make this morning. Prof.
Conner just requested that I come up and assist in hold-
ing the Institute, and if there are any questions that any-
one would like to ask along the lines I have discussed, I
shall be glad to answer them and to give any information
on the subject I can.
In reference to our tobacco I would like to say this:
On ten acres we grew 9,735 pounds, and have contracted
at 40 cents per pound for all we can grow for the next five
years. We are doubling our acreage under shed this year
and will continue to grow two crops of vegetables after
each crop of tobacco. I will state that the parties at
Quincy furnish the money for these sheds, also the fer-
tilizer. They furnish the money, and we the experience.
They purchase all our tobacco. We anticipate that they
will put in sixty acres another year. This, of course,
will bring factories for this class of tobacco, and will add
to the wealth of the country.
Query: What kind of land do you use to grow this
Answer: Hammock land. The natural growth on
this land is palmetto, hickory, dog-wood, water and live
oak and trees of like character.
Query: What is the cost per acre to clear this land?
Answer: About $4o.
Query: What is the cost of shedding per acre?
Query: Are the sheds completely covered overhead?
Answer: Yes; that is, with a woven lath covering.
The slats are 5-8 inch thick and 50 inches long,I inch wide.
We use 650,000 of them, woven with No. 22 wire. The
posts are 1 feet long, with two feet in the ground. A. shed
of this kind makes an ideal place for the growth of lettuce
and other vegetables, as well as tobacco.
Query: How much is allowed between the slats?
Answer: One inch. We remove all stumps from
the sheds so as to allow them to be cultivated easily. A
single horse is sufficient to cultivate a crop of Io,ooo
pounds of tobacco.
Query: Your vegetables, as I understand you, Mr.
Embry, are marketed largely in the small interior towns
of the South?
Answer: Yes; we have tried to find the best mar-
kets for our goods, and think these towns are the best.
Query: How do you ship your beans?
Answer: As a rule, we ship them in sugar barrels.
We cut holes in the barrels for ventilation, and just pour
the beans in, after allowing them to wilt for a short time,
which sweetens them.
Query: What variety of peaches do you find most
Answer. In my experience it has been the Angel,
Jewell and Waldo. I would say right here that the Peen-to
peach is of a good quality, but I have not seen it tested as
it should be. There is a tree of this variety at Dade City
which has been planted for sixteen years, and which yield-
ed $34 worth of fruit last year. Another party has some
trees three and four years old which produced two and
three bushels of peaches per tree. I think the variety
Query: Is it earlier than the other varieties?
Answer: No, Jewell is earlier. It is a small peach,
but sells readily in the New York market, commanding a
Query: Are you troubled with the San Jose scale?
Answer: No I do not think it has ever been in our
section. The orange trees in our neighborhood also seem
free from scale. The Kelsey plum is large and fine and
the tree very thrifty. It is quite profitable, ships fairly
PROF. H. A. GOSSARD ADDRESSES FARMERS'
INSTITUTE ON INSECTS.
Ladies and Gentlemen:-I am very glad indeed to see
such a crowd out this morning. The only criticism I
have to offer, so far, is that you have not asked enough
I want to sound a little note of warning, in the first
place, that I am giving before all the Institutes that I
address this year. I understand that cotton growing is
not a very great industry in this immediate territory, but
perhaps for that very reason I should warn you against
the Texas cotton boll weevil. The extent of the damage
done by this small insect in the State of Texas alone
amounts to from eight to twenty-five million dollars.
Georgia, Louisiana and Alabama have all quarantined
against Texas cotton seed, and the people of Texas will
naturally be looking for other markets to dispose of their
surplus seed. Entomologists in this State have tried at
different times to get laws passed by the Legislature look-
ing toward the quarantine of dangerous insects in Flor-
ida, but the people of the State do not seem to think that
a bug amounts to much. If the people of Florida think
that the cotton crop of this.State is of sufficient impor-
tance, possibly they can agitate the matter sufficiently to
get such a law passed. For the present, my advice is, do
not bring into your section of the State any Texas cotton
I will just name over a few insects about which you
may want information, and you may select those which
you wish discussed: San Jose scale, orange scale and
other orange insects, sugar cane borer, pecan insects, veg-
Query: We would like to hear something about the
green cabbage worm.
Answer: The green cabbage worm I would fight, in
those areas where the crop lacks several weeks before
maturing, with Paris green or green arsenoid. Arsenate
of lead is also an excellent preparation. If you make an
application of this in the spring of the year. an analysis
in the fall will show that some of it is still on the plant.
There is no danger at all to persons from it, unless, of
course, it be eaten in very large quantities. According to
analysis, a person would have to eat nearly eighteen
heads in order to get enough arsenic from Paris green
to result fatally. Arsenate of lead is less poisonous than
Paris green. It will not burn the plants, either. It is
a little more expensive than Paris green, but since it stays
on the plant so much longer, it is possibly cheaper in the
end. Two prepared brands of this are on the market:
Swift's Arsenate of Lead, which can be procured from
E. O. Painter & Co., Jacksonville. Fla., or from the man-
ufacturers; the other brand is fully equal to Swift's, and
is known as Bowker's Disparene; it can be had of Wil-
son & Toomer, also of Jacksonville. _If you wish to pre-
pare an arsenate of lead for yourself, the following is the
formula: Take 11 ounces of acetate of lead and four
ounces of arsenate of soda. Mix together-they will go
into a solution readily-in a pail of water. For use,
dilute with 50 to Ioo gallons of water.
You can also use Persian insect powder for cabbage
worms. Mix it with flour-equal parts-and allow it to
stand in a closed receptacle over night. By the next day
the flour will be just as strong in killing power as the
insect powder. This is not poisonous to human beings.
and is therefore desirable for use after the cabbages begin
Query: Let us know something about scale on peach
Answer: For the San Jose scale on peach trees, the
hme-salt-sulphur wash will give better results than any-
thing else. For this formula take thirty pounds of lime,
twenty pounds of sulphur and fifteen pounds of salt. Use
an iron kettle and boil this up in sixty gallons of water for
two or three hours. You need not use all the water to boil
the solution. Use just enough to make a good solution,
say fifteen or twenty gallons, adding the rest afterwards.
Apply this mixture twice during the winter. Wait until
the trees are dormant to apply it. It is too late to apply
it now. One application should be made in December,
and another just before growth starts in the spring. It is
best to apply this mixture while it is warm. In using
your pump with this, you should see that it is thoroughly
cleaned out after each application, by running clear water
through it. The lime and salt seem to be very corrosive,
especially with brass, and as all the best pumps are made
with brass fittings, it is evident that the pump will be
damaged if left dirty.
Query: You do not recommend it at all during the
Answer: No; it might be all right on the trunk and
larger limbs, but would not do on the foliage. For summer
use, I am inclined to kerosene emulsion. It is always saf-
est. Do not use crude petroleum in the summer. About 15
per cent. mechanical mixture of kerosene, applied with a
Gould pump is satisfactory. To make a kerosene emul-
sion, take one-half pound of hard soap, shaved up fine,
and dissolve It in a gallon of water by boiling. While
this is boiling hot, pour it into two gallons of kerosene.
Always pour this into the kerosene, removed some dis-
tance from the fire, so as to avoid all danger of fire. Now
take a force pump and pump it back into itself for about
fifteen minutes. It will become a thick, creamy white
substance. After you have mixed it so there is no oil on
top, you have an emulsion. For use, dilute this by adding
twelve to fifteen gallons of water to each gallon of emul-
sion. Use rainwater, if you can get it. Put this on the
trunk and leaves of the tree. It will not hurt the foliage
very much, but it is best to put a little more on the trunk
than you do on the leaves.
Query: Do you think the dust spray would do any
Answer: I should be very doubtful of it. I have not
used it personally for scale, and perhaps should not say.
Query: How about the use of sulphur and lime dust
for the red spider?
Answer.: That will depend upon conditions. The
lime and sulphur will kill the spiders, but it will also
destroy, to some extent, the fungus which feeds on the
scale. During the course of a season the fungus will
often clean up an orange grove of scale as well as an
insecticide. If you put on lime and sulphur, you will
kill the fungus also. If there is no fungus present, you
may apply the lime and sulphur with fair results. Lime
and sulphur dust is not a scale destroyer, on account of
the scale being encased in a hard shell, or case. Hence,
its greatest value, if it has any at all in this respect, is in
destroying the young scales before they become encased
in their armor. Returning to San Jose scale, when you
put on the lime-salt-sulphur solution, you will not notice
the results for some time. For immediate effects the oils
will give better results; but if you examine your trees
three or four months after an application of the former
wash, the results appear to be in its favor.
Query: Can you tell us how to control the cut-worm?
Answer: You can manage cut-worms very readily
by giving poisoned bait. To make this, take a peck of
bran and mix two or three tablespoonfuls of Paris green
with it; stir in enough syrup to make the mass slightly
sticky, and spread it around where the worms are. You
will find that it gets a good many of them. If you are
doing gardening on a larger scale, take one pound of
Paris green to seventy-five or one hundred pounds of
bran. There are very few plants which cut-worms will
not leave to feed on this bait.
The drill worm that you have in corn is the same
insect known as the cane borer. In this exhibition case
is shown an example of its work in the cane stalk. The
best remedy that I can offer for this is clean culture.
There are several broods of this worm each season.
Destroy aM cane stubble, and keep the stalks gathered up
from your field. The borers will breed in corn stalks
or Johnson grass; hence, all this should be cleaned up and
burned in the fall rather than in the spring.
Query: I should like to ask another question about
scale on peach trees. If the fungus is on the trees so it
can be noticed, will it be safe to leave them to take care
Answer: I have seen some orchards in which it was
doing better work than an insecticide would do. For
an orchard, say five years old, the fungus is sometimes
sufficient, but if the trees are young and the fungus is
late in coming, it is best not to wait on it. In this case,
if you wish to spray your orchard and still retain the fun-
gus, if it is present, you can leave a few trees unsprayed,
on which to propagate the fungus.
Query : Do you think that San Jose scale gets on the
Answer: Yes; I have seen it on wild persimmon, and
for this reason I would not bring any of these trees into
an orchard without examination, since they might become
a source of infection.
Query: Professor, how do you rid your corn of the
bud worm? They trouble us here a great deal.
Answer: I think the birds will control them better
than anything else. Of course, they can be killed by the
application of green arsenoid or Paris green to those
parts of the plants they first attack. Some people report
success from putting fine sand in the top of the plant on
the worm. especially when the sand and ground beneath
is highly heated by the sun.
Query: Our peach trees grow bigger under the soil
than above. What is the cause, and is there any remedy
Answer: There is no satisfactory remedy for crown
gall. It is a bacterial disease that causes this malformed
growth. The only thing to do is to buy your trees of
nurserymen who can be relied on to tell you the truth
about their trees. Some nurserymen grow trees on the
same ground year after year, knowing it to be seriously
infected with this disease.
Remark by Mr. Embry: I do not believe this disease
will affect your trees if they are grafted on plum roots.
The prettiest peach grove I have ever seen is on plum
roots, the trees being three years old.
Query: How do you kill lice on sugar cane?
Answer by Mr. McQuarrie: "We generally discard
that part of the field. When we find the lice on any row,
we trace the rows up as far as they go, dig up that cane
and destroy it. The only remedy that I know of is to
keep them out of the field. They could be sprayed with
any weak insecticide, such as caustic soap or lime-salt-
In regard to the peach borer I will say that it is proba-
bly the best known of all peach insects. This is the grub
or worm that we find at the base of the tree after having
turned back some of the soil. It is usually found just
beneath the bark. There is no more satisfactory way,
especially in small orchards, to fight these insects than to
take your knife, dig them out and kill them. Go over all
the trees in the spring and again a little later, so as to be
sure not to miss any. In California, where they have
large peach orchards, they fight the borer with carbon
bisulphide. The liquid is dangerous to peach trees in
heavy, clay soils, that is, if you use too much of it too
close to the trunk. The results obtained by the California
growers, however, lead me to believe that, used on a
large scale in Florida, it would be very successful. You
will need to use about one-half ounce per tree, or possi-
bly an ounce, depending upon the size of the tree. Make
a ring around the tree about three to five inches from
the trunk, by raking back the sand. Put the liquid
around the trunk and heap the sand over it. The sand
will allow it to evaporate quickly enough to prevent injury
to the trees. The peach borer is rather a deceptive insect;
you think you have found all there are on the trees, but
you are likely to overlook the little ones, and thus a brood
will be grown, notwithstanding your attention. There is
only one brood a year, but they deposit their eggs so irreg-
ularly that some of the insects may be very small while
others will be fully grown at time of examination.
Query: When does the moth deposit the eggs?
Answer: Whenever she is out, usually during three
or four months in the spring, perhaps, commencing in
Query: Is it beneficial to put tobacco dust around
the trees to keep them away?
Answer: I think it would be beneficial, if used
in large enough quantities and kept there. Still, this
would have no effect if the moth were to deposit its egg
in the forks of trees, as I have sometimes seen it do.
In other cases I have seen the grubs six or more inches
below the surface.
Another insect that always becomes abundant in any
district where peaches are largely grown is the curculio.
This is the insect which stings the peach and causes it
to become "wormy." Whenever you find them becom-
ing wormy, I think the best idea is to turn the pigs in
the orchard and allow them to pick up the peaches as
Query: Is there anything known in regard to meth-
ods of combating root-knot?
Answer: Use new ground, unaffected by the disease.
It has a special tendency to attack legumes, especially
peas, beans and cowpeas. Beets, egg plants, tomatoes,
cabbages, strawberries, etc., are usually affected to a
greater or less degree. In Germany a trap crop is used.
A crop which the disease attacks quite readily, such as
the sugar beet, is planted, and in about five weeks it is
collected and burned. This process is repeated several
times. In some places, it is reported that lands which
would not produce more than Io per cent. of a crop, after
being treated with two or three trap crops, would produce
80 to 90 per cent, of a crop.
Query: Do you find it successful to use lime at the
Answer: Lime has not been used enough, as yet, to
fully determine its value in this direction, but a soil con-
taining lime is affected the same as any other. I would
advise, as far as possible, planting crops not affected by
this disease upon infested ground, and to plant those
crops which are affected in new, clean ground. Root-knot
does not affect beggar weed, and velvet beans only very
slightly, if at all. Mr. Godbey, of Waldo, says that
mulching peach trees with an organic mulch, especially
with pine straw, will keep them free from root-knot.
Whether this is a local or general result would be hard to
About the only suggestion I can make in rtgard to
leaf hoppers is to burn everything upon the fields they
infest, in the fall of the year. They lay their eggs in the
blades of grass, or just underneath the tissues of green
vines, so that if you burn all stubble and growth on the
field they may be destroyed in this way. They do not eat
the tissues of the leaf, merely sapping it; so you can't
Query: Can you tell us what it is that injures the
Answer: It is a bacterial blight which sometimes
wilts them. It can be prevented by a liberal application of
Bordeaux. Spray your ground before putting in the
crop. About every two weeks spray the plants. Do not
allow the' disease to appear, for, once the disease is estab-
lished, nothing can control it.
Query: Is there any way to prevent blight on our
pear trees from spreading?
Answer: The only way would be to enclose the tops
of the healthy trees in a netting and keep all insects away,
letting the tree depend on itself for pollination. It is
advisable to cut and burn badly blighted trees. A great
many different remedies have been tried, but without suc-
cess. The United States Government has had a man
working upon pear blight for a number of years, and he
has not yet found out what to do for it.
CANE GROWING AND SUGAR MAKING.
BY C. K. IC QUARRIE.
Ladies and Gentlemen, Farmers of Citrus County:-
I am very glad to meet you here today. Upon this and
other siJjects I am the only one of your party who car-
ries a bottle. Now, this looks strange, to carry a bottle
into a dry county; but my bottle contains something that
is good, and is here for examination by those pres-
ent, and after examination, I think you will agree with
me that it contains something that is good.
In talking on the subject of cane growing and syrup
making one hardly knows where to begin. It is a crop
that I haye taken great pride in advertising. We have
our orange belt, our cotton belt, our pineapple belt, but
the cane crop is at home in all belts. In every county
of the State the cane crop is at home, and in every county
it will produce a profitable crop to the man that grows it.
It grows in West Florida, on those clay lands, but you
can produce it to perfection down here in this sandy soil.
On the bottom lands around K-issimmee, you can get
good cane crops, while hammock lands will produce an
especially fine crop.
Another good thing about it is that it has very few
enemies. There are some enemies which attack it once
in a while, but comparatively speaking, the damage they
do is small when compared to the damage done to other
Now comes the question, why is the cane crop not
more extensively cultivated; why does the farmer of this
State not take more interest in that crop and grow it more
extensively? It is a crop that will keep. You can make
good syrup out of the cane, and if the market does not
exactly suit at that time, you can lay it away for an in-
definite period. I have syrup at home today that has been
laid away for six or eight years. I am keeping it just
to see how long it will keep.
In my talk here, I am not addressing the man who
can go into the business on a large scale, who can invest
thousands of dollars in it. I represent what is known as
"the one-horse farmer," of which the main portion of the
farmers of this country is made up.
Of course, the sugar industry in Florida is as yet in
its infancy. I look forward to the time when it will be
fully developed, and all Florida will be plottedd with sugar
factories. In the meantime, we have "one-horse" farmers
to talk to and to deal with.
In starting to grow the cane crop, it is well to begin
at the beginning. In preparing the ground for the crop,
you should plow deep. Two-thirds of the plowing done
in the State today is not plowing at all: it is only scratch .
ing, and not very good scratching, at that. Before low\\.
ing, however, there is another matter you would do well
to take into consideration.
In going through Florida you see fields full of stumps,
some of them twenty feet high. These should not be
there. No good farmer is going to leave stumps in hi-s
field. They cause him to use some rather strong lan-
guage sometimes, when he strikes a root and breaks
something. Old stumps should be gotten rid of, no mat-
ter what kind of crop you are raising.
Now that you have cleared your fields of stumps, take
a disc plow, hitch two mules to it, and you will gain as
much time again, and time saved is money made. When
you get your land plowed well, then comes the fertiliz-
ing. The Florida farmer is the most intelligent in the
world today, in regard to the fertilizer question. It is
wonderful how they have advanced along this line in the
last few years. In fertilizing the cane crop it is best to
plow under some leguminous crop, which will give you
the nitrogen. Your rotation of crops should be so
arranged that a cane crop will follow a leguminous crop.
The plant requires the same kind of food and in the same
proportion as the milk cow, the steer, etc. You can't
feed the same ration to any advantage to horses, pigs,
calves, and other animals. They each require their food
to be composed of the different elements in their proper
proportions. It is the same with plants. The cabbage
has its plant food, sugar cane has its plant food, corn has
its plant food and one will not answer to the best advan-
tage for the other.
The fertilizer of the cane crop is composed largely of
potash and nitrogen. There is phosphoric acid in it, but
not to the same extent as the other ingredients; hence
phosphoric acid is not essential. The cane crop of 20 tons
requires 127 pounds of potash, 148 pounds of nitro-
gen, and 32 pounds of phosphoric acid per acre. The State
Experiment Stations and the United States Department of
Agriculture will give you the analyses of important
plants like this, and farmers should avail them-
selves of the opportunity offered to find out what
the different ingredients of a plant are, and
thereby find out what fertilizer they require. You
can't go at it helter-skelter and expect to get a
good crop. The fertilizing of a crop is the most
important phase of the whole situation. Any crop will
produce according to the quantity of potash allowed it.
If you allow potash for a twenty bushel crop of corn,
and apply the other elements for fifty bushels, you will
get only twenty bushels. In fertilizing the cane crop, the
material added to the soil should contain the fertilizing
elements in the proper ratio, as in all other crops. There
is no use wasting time and money in putting a fertilizer
in the soil that is not of good quality. I want to emphasize
what Capt. Rose has said. A ton of high grade fertilizer
is worth three tons of low grade goods, on account of
the extra time and labor consumed in applying the low
grade article, the extra expense in bagging, it, etc., and
the superiority of the high grade. A high grade fer-
tilizer is undoubtedly cheaper in the long run. The appli-
cation of low grade fertilizer is the poorest economy you
In fertilizing the cane crop you should never use less
than I,ooo pounds per acre. If your soil is a little poor,
use more. The fertilizer should be applied some little
time before putting in the crop.
Now, lay off the furrows, having them rather deep.
Run a plow through them twice. I would advise their
being at least six feet apart, perhaps seven. This makes
a sweeter cane than when planted-in four-foot rows, as
some people insist on doing.
Place the seed down in the furrow and cover it shal-
low. As the crop grows, the soil is cultivated to it until
the furrow is level. If the crop is planted deep it will
withstand the winds much better than if planted shallow.
Keep scratching the soil with a weeder or some light
machine of that kind. Avoid tearing the roots, as it
ruins the crop. We have a weeder particularly adapted to
this sandy soil, which will do more work in an hour than
ten ordinary weeders in a day. Therefore I should say by
all means get a weeder, because it is one of the most use-
ful machines on the farm. A weeder on the farm will
save time and money and make better crops.
When you get one-I am not going to advise
any particular make of weeder, for they are all
good--but I would get an adjustable one. If there
is no rain; you should keep that crust on the top.
of the soil broken, so that the capillary action of the soil
will prevent what moisture there is in the soil from evap-
orating. A weeder is the best implement to do this with.
The cane can grow very high before the weeder does it
any damage. Even after it gets up to a considerable
height you can adjust the machine so as to allow it to
run between the rows. An adjustable cultivator like the
Planet Jr. is also a valuable tool for this purpose.
Now comes the next step in the raising of the cane
crop upon which I wish to dwell. This is stripping and
topping the cane. Along in the fall, if you can get the
labor and have the time, it is well to keep the leaves strip-
ped off. You know the cane is a peculiar plant. When-
ever it makes a node that prepetuates its species for the
next year, it throws off the leaf at that joint, and as the
crop ripens, you should assist nature by pulling these
leaves off, thereby allowing the cane to sweeten more
readily. This practice is also useful toward making the
sap sweeter when you come to grind it. From experience
I have found that it is best not to leave too many green
joints on the stalk. These contain glucose in greater
quantities than anX other part of the cane, and will give
your syrup a cany, greenish taste.
In the top of the cane crop is often one of the greatest
wastes of the Florida farmer. The tops are very useful.
as you can feed them to any of the stock, and they make
good feed, too. The general way of breaking them off
and throwing them on the ground is a sheer waste. These
tops should be laid up in banks, for feed, and they will
keep there for an indefinite time. I use them for my milk
cows. Mixed with corn tops. etc., they make a fine feed.
I have nearly enough cane tops to carry my cattle through
When cutting cane, it is best to cut before any heavy
frosts come, as that will injure it. A light frost, how-
ever, will not hurt the cane; and, in fact, if it is cut and
laid in windows and a light frost allowed to fall on it.
it will sweeten it and make it aH the better.
When it comes to the making of the syrup, (remem-
ber, I am talking to the small farmer), the kettle method
is a good one, but it is slow. I would advise getting an
evaporator. I have seen a number of different evapora-
tors working and, by picking out some of the good points
of them all, I made a fairly good one myself. I have a
model of it here that I will show you. An evaporator of
this kind is a thing any farmer can make, or he can buy
it ready made. By going to any of the men in that line
of business, he can get just what he wants. In a great
many cases, if he cannot get the proper materials near
home, he can buy the evaporator cheaper than he can
make it. The pan that I use is 17 feet long, and is
divided into three compartments. The bottom is made
of No. 22 galvanized sheet steel.
I would advise getting a strong, heavy mill. as a
small mill will not give good results. In most cases they
will only get about fifty to sixty per cent. of the sap out of
To make good syrup it is necessary to thoroughly
strain the juice and to thoroughly skim it at all stages of
its boiling. Have the juice well settled and strained
before it gets on to the evaporator. It should be run
through three or four strainers before reaching the pan. I
want to lay especial stress on this, the more straining and
filtering you give the juice, the better syrup you will get.
If you are making syrup on a large scale, of course you
will have your filters and settling vats: but the ordinary
farmer, as a rule, is not situated so that he can have these.
For a filter, I use the ordinary black moss. From the
mill the sap runs into a barrel, which has been filled with
the moss. It runs through a coarse cloth strainer on top
of the barrel first. From the barrel the sap runs down
through a pipe into the evaporator, passing through a
very fine wire strainer at the end of the pipe. The mill is
set on an elevation, so that the sap is carried to the
evaporator by gravitation. While moss may not be all
that is claimed for it, yet a great number of syrup mak-
ers speak of it very highly. Use black moss, and not
green. I have two batches of moss, and change them
every little while, washing one in a tub of cold water,
thereby having clean moss to run the sap through all the
time. You can see from the moss when it is washed that
it gathers a vast amount of impurities from the sap.
When the juice first begins to heat to the boiling point
in the first compartment of the pan, a heavy green blanket
of vegetable matter, which the heat causes to expand and
rise to the top, will form on the surface. Never let the
sap begin to boil until this green blanket is removed.
If it does, you cannot get rid of that green, cany taste in
your syrup. To remove this blanket I have a paddle (a
small model shown here) that I use for drawing it off.
After getting rid of this, the sap is passed through into
the middle pan, or compartment. After the first skim is
removed, the next is of a different color, being a brown-
ish or blackish cast. I remove this by means of a board
like this (model exhibited) laid flat on the surface. The
skimmings will adhere to this board, and can then be
scraped off. The ordinary way of skimming with a per-
forated strainer is to be condemned, as a portion of the
impurities fall back into the syrup, becoming thoroughly
mixed by the force of the fall, and can not be removed at
all. After your sap gets pretty near to syrup, this skim-
ming is put back into the first pan so that none of the
syrup will be lost. When the syrup finally gets to the
other end of the pan, I test it for density. A good many
eyaporators are made to run the syrup off a little at a
time, but I test and run it off in batches of fifteen to
twenty gallons at a time, and thus get it more even and
better. In testing, I use a hydrometer. I don't know
whether any of you have a hydrometer, but to make syrup
to the same density, one is required. I boil my syrup to
34 degrees hot; it will stand at about 40 degrees cold. To
use a hydrometer you simply fill the glass with hot syrup
and then place the thermometer in it. With the use of
this instrument, you can make thousands of gallons of
similar density, when it would be absolutely impossible
without one. In testing with a hydrometer, the prevail-
ing weather will have a very slight effect on the temper-
Now, in regard to marketing. This is a question that
is undergoing a revolution in this state. There is quite an
amount on hand among the farmers that is not sold.
But when you get right down to the bottom of the matter,
the reason for this is that the syrup is not of a good
quality. There is always a demand for a good article.
Men who make good syrup have no trouble in selling it.
People in the Northern States are fast learning what
good syrup we have.
The farmers of a community should combine, raise
the cane and make several thousand gallons of syrup-
employing a competent and experienced man to make it
-make it all of the same density, and put it up in attrac-
tive packages. Then put a man on the road to sell it.
Let the people know what you have, and you will have no
trouble in disposing of all that you have. The poorer
grades of syrup are often sold to the syrup factories, who
clarify it, mix it up with corn syrup, and make a very
good article of it. The men who make a low grade syrup,
however, have to sell it at a low price. I never sell syrup
for less than 50 cents per gallon, and when it is put up
in small packages I get 60 cents for it. I believe that a
farmer can make more money out of the cane and syrup
than with any other crop.
The time is fast coming when this is going to be a
good sugar-producing State. The State of Florida to-
day can give 125 to 130 pounds of sugar to every man,
woman and child in the Union. Still, Florida is consid-
ered a poor State.
In regard to the packages, I may state that I use one
gallon cans, and put up a good part of my syrup in quart
cans. The package is a most important thing. You may
make a very fine quality of syrup, but if you put that
syrup into a package that you cannot sterilize, it will not
keep. You can't put good syrup into a barrel and expect
to take it out in the same condition. You can't sterilize
barrels. The best way to do is to put your syrup into
glass bottles and seal while hot. If you do this it will
keep indefinitely; otherwise, it is liable to spoil. It may
be kept some time without spoiling, but I have never
yet seen it tried when the syrup retained its quality.
Question: -What do you do about the Japanese cane?
Answer: I have grown Japanese cane for three years
and have found it to be all right. I think, however, that
the future of this cane is for a stock feed. The Japanese
cane has a great many good points. It will grow on poor
soil and make a good crop; it can stand four to six degrees
more cold than the other cane and will thus move the
cane belt about 60 to 75 miles farther north; it will
grow for a number of years with one planting. If you
plant it in rows io feet apart, in the course of five or six
years, it will be one solid mat all over the field.
All kinds of stock like it and thrive on it. It is splendid
hog feed and I believe it is one of the coming stock feeds
of this State. A number of farmers who have experi-
mented with Japanese cane do not like it for making syr-
up as it requires so much more time and labor to strip
and grind it. The ordinary cane mill will not extract all
the juice from this cane, but with a six-roller mill you
can get it all out.
Question: In saving seed, what part is best to save
and plant and how do you keep the seed?
Answer: The general rule is to dig up the cane and
bed it. This is simply throwing away stubble. The
Japanese cane will do better not to dig it up. The best
portion of the cane for seed is the upper one-third of the
stalk. This should be fully matured or it will decay
quickly. I bed this as other cane, taking greater care
with it, however, as I think it necessary to preserve good
Question: How do you cultivate Japanese cane ?
Answer: No weeds will grow in the same patch after
it is well established.
Question: Do you use fertilizer on it?
Answer. Very little, if any.
Question: Will it build up the soil?
Answer: It will to a certain extent. There is a good
amount of refuse returned to the land from a crop of this
cane. Of course, you will have to fertilize year after
BY A. W. STEWART OF GALT, FLA.
Let us look at the United States Bureau of Statistics
for 1900. In the animal reports we have the following
KIND. NUMBER. AV. PRICE. VALUE.
Horses.... .. .21,365,250 $44.61 $ 953,103,802
Mules ......... 3,459,582 53.56 185,295,212
Milch cows .....18,172,914 31.60 574,264,082
Other cattle .. ..51,349,820 24.97 1,282,205,005
Sheep .... .. ..61,115,363 2.93 180,620,802
Hogs ........ 1,893,491 4.58 298,228,383
Goats ........ 19,992 2.93 5,537,928
Asses .... .... 53.56 6,426,771
This stupendous sum, showing less than the actual
aggregate value of the domestic animals of the United
States, on June I, 1900, exceeds the total combined value
of the products of all the fields, forests and mines of
the nation for the preceding year. Astonishing as that
proposition may seem, it is nevertheless susceptible of
easy demonstration by official figures. In reality the
total value of the nation's live stock is much greater than
the above shows, owing to the fact that the prices are the
estimated value on farms of farm animals only, the ani-
mals in cities and towns being considered much higher in
value. It is safe to say the present value of the live stock
of the United States is approximately $4,000,000,000, a
sum almost too vast for comprehension, calculated notonly
to arrest the attention of the general reader, but to arouse
the admiration of the world for such a splendid develop-
ment that has taken place in the past few years.
It is not generally understood, but it is nevertheless
true, that the live stock industry of the United States
contributes more than anything else to American agricul-
tural prosperity, which is the basis of our national prog-
ress. Few persons outside of those who study compre-
hensive totals pertaining to the production and distribu-
tion of the necessities of life realize the magnitude and
importance of this great business. It is rather a startling
situation to find that notwithstanding the great increase
in the meat-consuming capacity of the country, a gain in
the population, in the past eight or ten years, of I I,6oo,-
ooo, or a gain of 18 per cent., there was a gradual de-
crease of 27,000,000 head of meat-producing animals in
that period, or a decrease of nearly 20 per cent. Under
such conditions, an advance in price is inevitable. Hence
now is the time for Southern stockmen. At present a
majority of the Southern cattle are of a very small type,
and, while they take on flesh rapidly at certain seasons
of the year, are rather small for the market. We must do
away with the scrub. To do this it is necessary to be cau-
tious, for it is well known that aged cattle brought from
north of the quarantine line will not do well in the
South. I would make the suggestion that you buy your
bulls south of the quarantine line, or have them inocu-
lated. Use the bulls on our common cattle, and get the
best you can; and, if you can afford it, get a few heifers.
and this will soon give you a good herd. The first cross
will be double the weight. I find that my blooded cattle
will stand it, and the same feed, and weigh two or three
times as much as the scrub: and yet you will hear men
say they do not do here. Now, take a comparative table
with two crosses of pure bred stock on our native heifers.
They will weigh, at two years old, I,ooo pounds and
over, and it will not cost any more to raise them up to
this point than the scrub that will only weigh 500 pounds.
Suppose we feed these two steers, for one hundred days,
twenty pounds of cottonseed hulls per day, or one ton
for the whole period, five pounds of cottonseed meal per
day, allowing a gain of three pounds; the scrub would
weigh 800 pounds and he would bring four cents per
pound, which would be $32. On the same rations the
grade would weigh 1,300 pounds. Owing to his extra
weight, he would bring five cents per pound, or $65. The
cost of the two has been same; so you have the difference
of $33 in favor of the grade. And yet we have men that
will say it will not pay to grade up our cattle. Twenty
years ago Texas had the long horn, and today they have
as fine cattle as you will find in the United States, and it
has all been brought about by bringing in full blooded
bulls. Look at the two-year-olds that they sold to Eng-
land, to go to South Africa. If we had started at the
same time, we could have sold them for more than the
Texas men got, for the freight had to be paid to Pensa-
cola. They cost in Texas $25 per head. So you see what
we would have gotten for them.
I would prefer the Shorthorn, while others would pre-
fer the Hereford, or Polled Angus, or Red Polled; but
for the farmer the Shorthorn is the dual purpose cow-
not only good milkers, but the steers make the finest kind
of beef. I am like the old maid who went out to pray for
a husband, and an owl said. "Who.? Who?" and she said,
"Oh, Lord, any man." While I prefer the Shorthorn, if
we can't have them, let us have any good beef strain.
The worst thing we have to contend with in the South is
the Jersey turned loose on the range. While the Jersey
is a good milker, they are too small for beef and, when
crossed with ttl scrub, makes the cross smaller than the
scrub. If we will turn our attention to improving our
live stock, it will be but a little while until we will be ship-
ping beef and pork to the North, instead of buying from
them. According to Government reports, the most suc-
cessful farmers are those that combine stock raising with
Take six of the leading grasses of the North and
South: While in the green state ours are not as rich in
protein, carbo-hydrates and fat as those of the North,
in their dry state they are much richer. Roots and all
silage crops can be produced in one section as well as
Now, let us look for a moment at this table, which
contains the grains or feed for fattening. Corn is pro-
duced as well in the South as in the North. Take those
of the North:
Substance. Protein. Carbo-hydrates. Fat.
Corn meal ....... .7.01 65.20 3.25
Barley Meal .... ... 7.36 62.88 1.36
Linseed meal .... .. .28.76 32.81 7.06
Those of the South are corn, cottonseed meal and
peanut meal. We use cottonseed hulls as a dilutant, be-
ing bulky; and while of itself having only three per cent
protein, 33 per cent. carbo-hydrates and 1.7 per cent. fat
mixed with cottonseed meal it makes nearly a complete
ration, when used in the proportion of five pounds of
meal to twenty pounds of cottonseed hulls:
Substance. Protein. Carbo-hydrates. Fat.
Corn .. .. ......... 7.01 65.20 3.25
Cotton seed meal .. 37.01 16.52 12.58
Peanut meal . .. 42.94 22.82 6.86
By comparison of these tables you will see that we are
nearly two and a half times greater than those of the
North. Let me say right here that cottonseed meal is,
as a rule, 30 per cent. cheaper than corn meal, and these
being the two great fattening staples, we have this great
advantage, and let us take advantage of it and feed our
steers instead of selling them and the cottonseed meal to
others to feed, and then pay a big profit to them, and
freight both ways, and save buying so much fertilizer.
Now, lst us look at the following figures, which show the
average price made at the auction sale of pure-bred
breeding stock, all in the North. Let us try to raise some
of this at home.
Breeds. No. Sold. Av. Price. Total Sale.
Shorthorns .... ..4,45 $280.91 $1,136,290.95
Herefords .. .....1,885 240.80 458,305.00
Red Polls ...... 79 230.50 18,210.00
Polled Durham .... 243 216.56 52,625.00
Galloway ........ 68 207.57 14,115.00
Angus ........ 894 277.43 248,025.00
What I have said about cattle will apply to horses,
sheep and hogs. One year ago last fall, I went to the State
fair to buy some Shorthorns, and failed to find any. I
met Mr. Gaitskill and Prof. Conner, and we concluded to
go to Kentucky and get some. Mr. Gaitskill got twen-
ty-six and I got fourteen Shorthorns. Since that time
some eight or ten car loads of blooded cattle have been
brought into this State, and most of them of the best that
could be found, and have found their way into every
section of the State. And let me say in closing, that the
names of such men as Z. C. Chambliss, of Ocala, P. K.
Younge, of Pensacola, H. S. Gaitskill, of Mackintosh,
W. R. Storrs, De Funiak, Dan Hughes, of Ponce de Leon,
and Prof. Conner, of Lake City, will be handed down to
postertiy for the good they have done for the live stock
industry of this State.
At Dade City, Mr. L. D. Bigger exhibited some fine
alfalfa plants, which he grew on his farm. Some ques-
tions were asked about it, and Prof. Conner made the fol-
Capt. Rose has just told us how we may increase the
fertility of our soil. The phosphoric acid and potash is
derived from foreign substances, rocks, etc., while the
nitrogen comes from the air originally. Now, the
legumes, of which alfalfa is one, are the agents by which
nitrogen is gathered and deposited in the soil. The
value of beggar weed is dependent largely upon its nitro-
gen-gathering qualities. A ton of beggar weed turned
under will give the same result as a ton of low grade fer-
tilizer. This same beggar weed contains 3.65 per cent, of
potash, .85 per cent. of phosphoric acid and 2 1-2 per
cent. of nitrogen, according to the chemist's report. It
is worth about $12 per ton as a fertilizer, if cut and
plowed under. It is necessary to turn it under to get the
full value as a fertilizer, but do not turn under too green.
The leguminous plants collect nitrogen from the air
by the aid of minute organisms in the soil. You can
detect the presence of these by the nodules on the roots.
The plant cannot collect nitrogen from the air unless
these nodules form on the roots.
The beggar weed is an annual. When it makes a
growth, it dies. It will reproduce itself from seed, fields
having been known to produce for fifteen years without
The alfalfa is more easy to handle than the beggar-
weed, after it is once established. It has a comparatively
small stem, and more leaf. Its roots have been known to
grow thirty feet into the ground. If you can successfully
grow this plant here, you will not need to import any
more corn from the North, as your stock will keep in
good condition upon it. If the season is not too dry,
you can get three tons of hay per acre from it. This is
worth at least $20 per ton. If you want to grow it as a
money crop, you can well afford to grow a small area to
put on the market. The plant has not been successfully
grown in Florida as yet, and we are trying to find out
why. I have tried growing it in various sections of the
State, and have failed. It gets up to a certain height and
dies. The reason for this could not have been the lack
of fertilizer, so I attributed it to the fact that there was no
bacteria in the soil. I sent to Louisiana last fall and got
a two-bushel sack of soil which contained this bacteria.
We hope to get good results from this experiment. If
we can get this plant to grow here, we have settled the
question of feed for live stock in this State. The plant
grows on similar soil in the West, and I see no reason
why it cannot be grown here.
While I am on my feet, and there is nothing very
pressing, I want to say a few more words in regard to
some work we are doing at the Experiment Station. Be-
sides being Director of Farmers' Institutes, I am a mem-
ber of the Station Staff, and have charge of the Agricul-
tural Department. Following up what Capt. Rose said
regarding bulletins, I would say that at any time we can
furnish any information regarding any crop, plant, dis-
ease or insects, we will be glad to do so.
Our work in agriculture is at present divided between
live stock and fertilizers. Just at present we are con-
centrating our energies along the line of sweet potatoes,
cassava and velvet beans. I am now running an experi-
ment with our work stock, about eight head of horses
and mules. I started out first by feeding a ration of corn,
sweet potatoes and beggar weed hay. I determined first
how much corn these animals would take under ordinary
circumstances, and found that we fed, on the average,
say ten pounds of corn per day, with hay. To a part of
these animals I gave five pounds of corn and fifteen
pounds of sweet potatoes and hay. This was run for six
weeks, and we then swapped about, putting those horses
which had been on corn on the mixed ration, and ran it
for another six weeks. At the end of that time we sub-
stituted cassava for sweet potatoes. Our work has been
hard this winter, and our teams have stood it well. That
simply means that three pounds of sweet potatoes equal
one pound of corn. It is no trouble to make 150 bushels
of sweet potatoes per acre. If this is the case, we can
make our horse feed a good deal cheaper by substituting
sweet potatoes for a part of the corn ration.
We are also feeding pigs and steers in the same way.
I will say that I have not had as good results from feed-
ing sweet potatoes and cassava to steers, but have had
good results from velvet beans. We do not know anything
about the actual feeding value of cassava, but are carry-
ing on experiments now to determine this. In these
experiments we take an animal and carefully weigh what
lie actually consumes, also the water he drinks. Then we
weigh the refuse from this animal, thus getting the
amount of food digested.
In regard to velvet beans, I would say that we are
trying to increase the fruitfulness and reduce the.tendency
BUTTER AND ITS ADULTERATION.
BY A. W. BLAIR.
The laws enacted by Congress to regulate the butter
industry of the United States, recognize four grades of
butter, as follows: Genuine dairy butter made from milk
or cream, or both; "process" or "renovated" butter;
"adulterated" butter and oleomargarine. There is no
Federal law governing the manufacture and sale of genu-
ine butter, but the production and sale of the other three
are regulated by laws enacted by Congress August, T886,
and May 1902.
"PROCESS" OR "RENOVATED" BUTTER.
"Process" or "renovated" butter is made from the
inferior grades of butter collected by the peddler in sec-
tions where there is little knowledge, skill or care in but-
ter production. This inferior product is melted, refine
and made to resemble genuine butter. The melted butter
is refined by skimming, settling, aerating, washing and
other processes. But after being thus treated it becomes
an oil or fat almost free from taste or odor, and it must
therefore be treated in such a way that it will have
restored to it the butter characteristics. For this purpose
the processed butter is usually granulated by cooling
and churning or mixing with milk, cream or buttermik-,
and may or may not have salt and artificial coloring
added. Having passed through this treatment, butter
that was at one time rancid, sour, moldy or otherwise
faulty and unmerchantable, looks, smells and tastes like
genuine butter, and has become a marketable product.
The law above referred to, provides that every manufac-
turer of renovated butter shall pay a special tax of $50
per year, and also that he shall pay a tax of one-fourth of
a cent per pound on his manufactured product. Anyone
evading the special tax becomes liable to a fine of not less
than one thousand nor more than five thousand dollars, in
addition to the tax.
If in "renovating" or "processing" butter, any acid.
alkali, chemical or other foreign substance (including
any fat or oil other than butter fat) is introduced into
the butter, or if it is made to hold abnormal quantities of
water, milk or cream, it is, in accordance with the act, to
be treated as "adulterated" butter." Renovated butter
containing 16 per cent., or over, of moisture is classed as
"adulterated butter." Manufacturers of adulterated but-
ter must pay a special tax of $600 per year and must also
pay a tax of ten cents per pound on their output. WThole-
sale dealers in adulterated butter must pay a special tax
of $480 per annum and retail dealers $48 per annum.
Fines are provided for failure to pay these taxes.
All other "butter compounds" or "substitutes" which
are variously known under the names of oleomargarine,
oleo, butterine, lardine, etc., when made in imitation of
butter, are by act of Congress classified as "oleomargar-
ine." The method of manufacturing oleomargarine as
described by Mr. Armour, of the firm of Armour & Co.,
in one of the Senate~documents of the 49th Congress is as
follows: "The fat is taken from the cattle in the process
of slaughtering and, after a thorough washing, is placed
in a bath of clean, cold water, and surrounded with ice,
where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has
been removed. It is then cut into small pieces by machin-
ery, and cooked at a temperature of about 150 degrees,
until the fat, in liquid form, has separated from the
fibrine or tissue, then settled until it is perfectly clear.
Then it is drawn into graining vats and allowed to stand
a day, when it is ready for the presses. The presses
extract the stearine, leaving the remaining product, which
is commercially known as oleo oil, which, when churned
with cream or milk or both, and with usually a proportion
of creamery butter, the whole being properly salted, gives
the new food product, oleomargarine." Butterine is
made from selected leaf lard in a very similar manner to
Manufacturers of oleomargarine are required to pay
the same tax that is required of manufacturers of adul-
terated butter, that is, a special tax and a tax of ten cents
on the pound: excepting that when the oleomargarine is
free from artificial coloring matter intended to make it
look like genuine butter, the tax is one-fourth cent per
Section 3, act of August 2, 1886, as amended by sec-
tion 2, of the act of May 9, 1902, provides: "That any
person that sells, vends or furnishes oleomargarine for
the use and consumption of others, except to his own fam-
ily table without compensation, who shall add to or mix
with such oleomargarine any artificial coloration that
causes it to look like butter of any shade of yellow, shall
also be held to be a manufacturer of oleomargarine with-
in the meaning of said act, and subject to the provisions
Fines are provided for failure to pay these taxes, as
in the case of "process" or "adulteraqd" butter.
It is now conceded that there is nothing injurious
about oleomargarine when properly made, and some even
prefer it to butter, but the wrong comes in its being
placed upon the market as "dairy butter.". "creamery but-
ter," etc., at the price of the best creamery butter. The
cost of manufacturing oleomargarine is much less than
the cost of producing good butter, and for it to be placed
upon the market as butter, at the price of the best butter,
is manifestly an injustice to the dairymen, to say the
least. If it is placed upon the market under its right
name and on its merits, there can be no objection to it.
The great trouble in the past has been that the law has
THE FLORIDA MARKET.
Renovated butter is certainly more objectionable than
oleomargarine, and should not be placed upon the market
except when properly labeled; while adulterated butter, if
sold under its right name, would have a very limited sale.
and that at a low price. Borax and boric acid have been
and are used to some extent, as a butter preservative, and
while they may not always prove injurious, yet it is only
right that the purchaser should be informed of their pres-
ence by a proper label.
Whether under the new Federal law there is much
oleomargarine, "renovated" and "adulterated" butter
being shipped into Florida, I am unable to say, but cer-
tain it is that material under the name of butter is being
shipped into the State from Western cities which are
the centers of the great packing house industries. If it
can be shown that these packing houses have gone into
the dairy business, then perhaps we may feel assured that
we are getting creamery butter. That great quantities of
these materials have been consumed here in the past there
is no doubt.
I think we may hardly hope for any great reform in
this direction, until there is a State law, with provision
for its execution, to work in conjunction with the Federal
law. Florida, with her mild winters and many natural
advantages, offers excellent opportunities for dairying.
and were it more largely engaged in by the farmers of the
State, many thousands of dollars could be kept in circu-
lation at home. which now go to the North and West to
pay for a grade of butter inferior to that which may be
THE NECESSITY FOR A PURE FOOD LAW FOR
BY A. W. BLAIR.
The Legislature of 1903 passed a pure food law, but
since no provision was made for its enforcement-no
funds appropriated and no officer charged with its enforce-
ment-it is a dead letter, and might as well be erased from
the statute books. That there is need of a law
that can and will be enforced, there can be no
doubt. True, no extensive investigations have been
undertaken here to show that the food products that
come into the State from abroad are adulterated, but
the mere fact that the United States Department of Agri-
culture and a number of the States north of us have been
investigating this subject for years, and have proved
beyond a doubt that nearly all forms of human and ani-
mal food products, as well as drugs and medicines, have
been, or are adulterated to a greater or less extent, and the
further fact that many of the States are now enforcing
laws regulating the manufacture and sale of these prod-
ucts, should be sufficient proof to convince all right-
minded men that Florida without a law, or with a law
that is a dead letter, will get her share, and more, of
Some may argue that as other States pass laws, food
products in general will improve, and adulteration will
gradually disappear, even from States having no laws.
But such reasoning will not hold good. Manufacturers
and dealers do not carry on business in this way. Just
so long as there is a place on the face of the earth where
cheap and adulterated goods can be sold, just so long
will they be manufactured. If the manufacturer can-
not sell his inferior and adulterated products in Massa-
chusetts, or Illinois, or Kentucky, he will pack them off
to Georgia, Florida, Arkansas, or some other State hav-
ing no law, and furnish the States having laws with
goods according to requirements.
Thus it is that Florida and other Southern States are
becoming the "dumping ground" for adulterated goods.
Some time after the Kentucky pure food law went into
effect, the Director of the Experiment Station wrote:
"Kentucky has been the 'dumping ground' for inferior
food products that could not be sold in other States." He
further cites an instance in which a car load of preserves
had been condemned as unfit for use in Ohio, whereupon
instructions were given to send to Indianapolis, add sal-
icylic acid, boil and ship to Kentucky. Another case
cited is that of a grocer who bought a car load of jelly,
in tubs, at a low price, and after keeping a short time, it
separated into glue and a liquid, and was worthless.
The Director of the Kentucky Station, in commenting
on the work there, says: "We have found salicylic acid,
sometimes in large quantities, in tomato catsups, pre-
serves and other food products, which were sold as pure.
We have found formaldehyde and other preservatives in
milk, which perhaps, in some cases, was fed to infants."
A later report from the same Station emphasizes the fact
that the prohibiting of the sale of injurious articles, and
compelling imitative, artificially preserved, and adul-
terated articles to be properly labeled and sold on their
merits, brought a better class of foods into the State.
And what pure food laws have done for Kentucky,
they have done for all the States where they have been
The chemist of the Wyoming Experiment Station,
in a bulletin on food adulteration, issued in February,
1903, says: "Most of the States have more or less
stringent pure food laws, and since all efforts to get a
law through Congress have so far failed, there has been
a tendency to unload poor adulterated goods on those
States which have not been so protected." Wyoming is,
however, now protected by a law, and no doubt Florida
is getting her share of the poor goods that formerly
went that way.
Food adulterations may be divided into those which are
injurious to health, and those which are fraudulent,
though not necessarily injurious. As examples of the
first may be mentioned the addition of salicylic acid to
fruits and preserves, formaldehyde to milk, and borax
to butter and meat.
Fraudulent adulterations take principally two forms,
viz: substitution and immitation. The substitution of
chicory or cereal products, in part or in whole, for coffee,
or glucose for maple syrup, are examples of the first, and
the selling of oleomargarine for butter, or cottonseed
oil for olive oil, are examples of the second.
Most, if not all the preservatives that are added to
canned goods, milk, meat, preserves, jellies, etc., are poi-
sonous and, when taken into the system constantly, even
in small quantities, may finally produce serious digestive
disorders. Especially is this true in the case of invalids
It is not necessary that adulterations, which come
under the head of substitution and imitation, should be
entirely prohibited, but it is important that the packages
bearing these foods should be properly labeled, that is,
the name of the adulterant, diluent or preservative
should be plainly stated on the label, and then if the con-
sumer prefers to use a substituted or adulterated article
at a correspondingly lower price, he does it intelligently.
Cottonseed oil is very useful and is not injurious
for use in salad dressings and for other purposes where
such an oil is required, but to refine it and place it upon
the market as pure olive oil, is manifestly a fraudulent
proceeding. Distilled or spirit vinegar, which can be
manufactured from "spirits" at a very small cost, is
paraded before an unsuspecting public as "apple" or
"cider" vinegar, and retailed at the price of the genuine
Peppers and spices containing a high percentage of
adulterants in the form of hulls, beans, peas, ground olive
stones, etc., are sold under a label which gives no hint of
the complexity of the mixture.
Lard is adulterated with beef fat and cottonseed oil.
Much of the strained or extracted honey found upon the
market is made by flavoring glucose syrup with a small
amount of honey. Jellies are made from starch, paste,
and glucose, colored with aniline dyes, and flavored with
ethereal flavors; while flavoring extracts are in many
cases entirely foreign to the fruits from which they are
supposed to have come. These are facts which have been
established beyond question, and since Florida imports
the greater part of her food products which are liable to
be adulterated, it is extremely important that her citizens
be protected by law. Such a law would in no way restrict
the sale of any proper food or drink, but would prohibit
the addition of ingredients manifestly injurious to health.
and insure that all foods, drinks, and drugs be truthfully
labeled. Such a law could work no hardship upon the cit-
izens of the State, and would certainly not be asking too
much of manufacturers in other States.
According to a report recently issued by the United
States Department of Agriculture, many of the States
declare a food to be adulterated under the following con-
"First, if any substance or substances have been mixed
with it, so as to lower or depreciate or injuriously affect
its quality, strength, or purity; second, if any .inferior or
cheaper substance or substances have been substituted
wholly or in part for it: third, if any valuable or neces-
sary constituent or ingredient has been wholly or in part
abstracted from it; fourth, if it is an imitation of or is
sold under the name of another article; fifth, if it con-
sists wholly or in part of a diseased, decomposed, putrid,
infected, tainted, or rotten animal or vegetable substance
or article, whether manufactured or not, or in the case
of milk, if it is the product of a diseased animal: sixth, if
it is colored, coated, polished, or powdered, whereby
damage or inferiority is concealed, or if by any means it
is made to appear better or of greater value than it really
is; seventh, if it contains any added substance or ingredi-
ent which is poisonous or injurious to health: Provided,
That nothing in this act shall prevent the coloring of pure
butter; and provided further, That the provisions of this
act shall not apply to mixtures or compounds recognized
as ordinary articles or ingredients of articles of food. if
each and every package sold or offered for sale bears the
name and address of the manufacturer and be distinctly
labeled under its own distinctive name and in a manner
so as to plainly and correctly show that it is a mixture or
compound, and is not in violation with definitions fourth
and seventh of this section."
These provisions have been adopted in substance in
the following States: California, Connecticut, Illinois,
Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North
Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vir-
ginia, Washington, Wisconsin.
In most of these States it is specifically provided that
ordinary articles of food, wholesome in themselves, and
not misrepresented as to their nature or composition, may
We demand stringent laws to regulate the manufac-
ture and sale of fertilizers; to control contagious diseases
of animals, and to regulate and control the sale and dis-
tribution of nursery stock, but have no fixed standards of
purity for those who manufacture and sell that which
goes to nourish the body and heal its diseases. Is it rea-
sonable to assume that those who manufacture and sell
food products, drugs, and chemicals, are more scrupulous
than those who manufacture and sell fertilizers or dis-
tribute nursery stock?
Let Florida, then, with other States which are pro-
gressive, demand a pure food and drug law, which shall
be more than a dead letter, and thus be assured of the
purity and wholesomeness of those things which are in-
tended to nourish and heal the body.
SOME COMMON DISEASES OF STOCK.
BY DR. C. F. DAWSON, STATE VETERINARIAN.
LAKE CITY, FLA.
(Read before Cattlemen's Convention, Jacksonville,
There are, apparently, fewer destructive diseases of
stock in Florida than in other States. Just why this is so,
I am unable to say, more than to sum up the advantages
of climate, the disinfectant qualities of our intense sun-
light, the permeability of the soil by the microbes of dis-
ease, the more or less general absence of a clay sub-soil
which in other States arrests the disease-producing germs
near the surface and allows of their being brought again
to the surface by capillary attraction and by sprouting
grasses; the non-overcrowding of animals, and access in
all seasons to pure air; and, lastly, the present compara-
tive absence of intercourse with the stock of other sec-
We may reasonably ask, Will this condition of affairs
regarding destructive diseases continue? The answer
should be, Yes, if present conditions continue; but No, if
Florida is going to take her place as a stock-raising State.
I do not believe, however, that Florida will ever, on ac-
count of the natural barriers to the dissemination of dis-
eases enumerated above, be visited continuously, season
after season, by the animal scourges common to other
sections. The great mistake made by other States in
declining to protect their live-stock industry by effective
sanitary legislation at the beginning, should not be re-
peated by Florida. It is far easier and less expensive to
keep out diseases, than it is to put them out after they
have gained headway.
The object of this paper is merely to point out the
ways of handling the common, everyday ailments of our
Professional ethics not only prevent a detailed disser-
tation upon the more complicated diseases, in such a
paper, but it is the opinion of the writer that the time and
energy of both writer and reader would be wasted. Were
conditions in Florida such that every community could
support a competent veterinarian, this paper would not
For no particular reason, I take up first, the diseases
of cattle which can be discussed in a paper of this kind.
This disease kills more native cattle in Florida than
all others combined. It is so well known, because we
know so little about it, that I will not take up space here
to say more regarding the symptoms than that it is char-
acterized by loss of and perverted appetite, terrible ema-
ciation, slight fever and profound anemia, with all its
concomitants. After considerable observation, I have
arrived at the conclusion that salt sickness is a disease
brought about by several causes. It is well known to vet-
crinarians that any condition which lowers the vitality
of an animal predisposes to an invasion of that animal by
parasites. Hence, while it is well known that certain
regions are more productive of the disease than others, we
must take into consideration that the large majority of
our cattle are improperly cared for-that they are allowed
to roam at will and eke out an existence upon unfenced
pastures which, during the winter season, are almost free
of forage grasses. Then, again, such pastures are the
breeding places of the cow-tick, and these in turn exact
their quota of blood from the already anemic animal,
which is now in a condition to become invaded by intes-
tinal parasites. The chief parasite which I have found in
the intestines of salt-sick animals is the cattle hook-worm
-Uncinaria radiata. It is a well known fact that the
hook-worm causes intestinal derangement when present
in sufficient numbers. The same genus produces a dis-
ease in man, which has many of the characteristics of salt
sickness in cattle. As children and young adults are most
susceptible to hook-worm infection, so young cattle are
most susceptible to salt sickness. Affected children eat
dirt, have abdominal pains, fever, diarrhoea, swollen feet
and hands, puffed cheeks, are emaciated, have pendulous
abdomens, are undeveloped and have heart troubles.
About the same symptoms occur in cattle.
The hook-worm found in cattle is about three-fourths
of an inch long about the diameter of an ordinary pin,
and has one end, its head, curved. It is found adhering
to the lining of the intestine, near the stomach. It sucks
the blood from the wall of the intestine, moving about
from place to place. It secretes a poisonous saliva whose
purpose is to prevent the blood from clotting, thus arrest-
ing the small hemorrhages. It lays its eggs in large nunm-
bers, and these pass out of the bowel, hatch out in the
dung, and infect others or the same animal during graz-
ing or drinking.
Treatment.-It is evidently both medical and sanitary.
Efforts should be made to kill the worms in the animal and
to destroy the eggs or young worms, and to change a pas-
lure as soon as it becomes affected. The stable and cow
yard should be kept free of dung, and dry. The drinking
trough should be scrubbed out weekly. These, changing
pasture, isolating the sick and removing ticks are about
all that can be done by the practical stockman in the way
of hygienic treatment. As a rule, the condition of the
animal is such that it is evident they cannot stand active
vermifuge treatment. All we can do is to remove the ani-
mal from the source of infection by keeping the stall clean
and administering a tonic. In the case of range animals,
all that can be done is to change the range, supply clean
water and put out a salt-lick. Such a lick may be com-
posed of salt, ioo parts; sulphate of iron, 2 parts, and
plaster of Paris in sufficient quantity to hold the lick in
shape. In cases where the animal can be medicated by
hand, the following iron tonic may be tried: Sulphate of
iron, bicarbonate of sodium, powdered ginger, of each
three ounces, and powdered capsicum, one ounce. M1ix
and divide into twelve parts, giving one powder two or
three times daily. Other remedies may be used, but they
should all contain iron, as this not only destroys the
worm, but has tonic properties as well. If the bowels are
constipated, give handful doses of Epsom salts dissolved
in half a pint of water, as a laxative. Another remedy for
which the proprietor makes great claims shows upon anal-
ysis it is composed of carbonate of iron. sodium sulphate,
sulphur and capsicum. The proportion for one dose
would be carbonate of iron, one drachm; sodium sulphate.
one ounce; sulphur, one ounce; and of the capsicum. one
half drachm. This dose is for an adult, and would have
to be decreased for young animals.
EXTERNAL PARASITES-TICKS, LICE, MANGE, RING
Of these, the most important is the cow-tick. Although
the native-born bovine early acquires an immunity to
Texas fever, which is produced by this tick, there is no
immunity to the constant drain of blood from the sys-
tem. It stands to reason that thousands upon thousands
of these ticks, as we sometimes see them upon animals, are
a source of great loss of blood. They should be kept
down within reason, and this can be done by spraying
the animal with kerosene emulsion, such as is used upon
plants. In the absence of the emulsion. any of the oils.
such as cottonseed oil, or crude petroleum, may be used.
When given a dose of these or other oils. the ticks will
drop off in a day or two. shrivel up and die.
Lice damage animals most by causing irritation and
loss of rest. These can be effectually stopped by the use
also of kerosene emulsion, made as follows: Kerosene,
two gallons; common or whale oil soap, one-fourth
pound; water, one gallon. Heat the solution of soap and
add it boiling hot to the kerosene. Churn the mixture for
five or ten minutes. Dilute the emulsion with eight parts
of water, and apply it to the animal by the spray or with
a brush. Fifty animals can be treated with ten gallons
of the liquid.
Flies cause considerable loss of flesh and a decrease
in the milk yield. These may be kept away by smearing
those parts of the body which the animal cannot reach
with its tail, with the following oil compound: Fish oil,
one part; crude petroleum oil, two parts, mixed. One
application will be effective for several days. The same
mixture will kill ticks and lice.
Grubs or warbles are the larvae of a fly which creates
consternation when it attacks, frequently stampeding the
herd. 'This grub or larva remains under the skin during
the winter months, to develop. In the spring it crawls
out, falls to the ground, buries itself, changes to the pupa
stage, which lasts about six weeks, and then emerges an
adult fly. Warbles cause uneasiness, pain, loss of appe-
tite and flesh, and decrease in milk. The warble or grub
should be removed by enlarging the hole already in the
skin, and pressing out the parasite. Some inject kero-
sene or turpentine in upon the warble by means of a small
Ring-worm is a common disease in young cattle,
Aside from the ugly white patches, it causes irritation,
and is communicable to man. It is caused by a fungus,
and hence local fungicide treatment is indicated. This
consists in removing the crusts by washing with warm
water and soap, drying the part and applying acetic acid,
sulphur ointment, or nitrate of mercury ointment. When
the region of the eye is affected, acetic acid must not be
Mange is a disease of the skin, due to an insect which
causes great irritation. The disease is found on the
shoulders and root of the tail, from which points it
spreads to other parts of the body, forming vesicles,
which, when they rupture and discharge their contents,
form crusts. In treating, these crusts must be removed
with soft soap and water. Crusts that cannot be removed
in this way, may be anointed with cottonseed oil and
washed off the next day. These parts may now be washed
daily with a solution of pine tar, soft soap and alcohol,
in equal proportions. As the stalls are also infested with
the parasite, they should be sprayed with a mixture of sul-
phuric acid in water, in the proportion of one pint of the
acid in three gallons of water; or the stalls may be given
a coat of whitewash and thoroughly cleaned, to destroy
Sometimes causes blindness in cattle. It may be of a
temporary or permanent kind. It generally recovers in
about two weeks, if properly treated. The lids are swol-
len, the front of tho eye becomes opaque, there is a loss of
appetite, and fever. In these cases, administer a drench
of Epsom salts, one pound; ground ginger, two ounces;
table salt, four ounces; dissolved in two pints of water
and one pint of syrup. Give also one half ounce of salt-
peter three times daily, in water, and wash the eyes with
a solution of zinc sulphate, two grains.; sulphate of mor-
phia, four grains; water, one ounce. Keep the animals in
an airy, shaded place.
This disease is known by other names, but the layman
is best acquainted with the one here adopted. The trou-
ble comes on in heavy milkers, after they have had sev-
eral calves, at the time of, just before, or just after calv-
ing. The mother refuses the calf, wobbles in her gait,
whisks the tail, is off her feed, and finally goes down, not
to rise again, unless properly treated. While down, the
attitude is characteristic. The head is drawn to thQ side,
the eyes closed, the ears dropped, the front limbs folded
on the chest, the hind limbs, off to one side, are limp and
powerless. The animal groans at every breath. The bow-
els are constipated, and the bladder is full, because both
are in a state of torpor. If some of the dung be removed
by hand, it will be seen covered with bloody mucous.
Treatment.*' -All the old forms of treatment must be
brushed aside as useless, as the losses were generally very
heavy. Now we know that the very simple expedient of
inflating the udder with oxygen or atmospheric air will
cure a large percentage of cases. As the pure oxygen
treatment is only to be considered by those having the
oxygen tank on hand, we simply mention it. The
best thing for the Florida owner to do is to procure a
bicycle pump, attach it by means of a small rubber tube,
the ordinary milk tube, and inflate each quarter of the
udder, through the teat, with air. If by other mechanical
means the air can be forced through or drawn through
cotton, the air germs will be filtered out and thus
avoid some little danger of setting up inflammation. Cer-
tain preparations are necessary before injecting the air.
The udder of the cow should be washed off perfectly with
warm water. A sheet should be slid under i, to keep the
teats protected from dirt. Wash each teat with five per
cent. carbolic acid solution, or other disinfectant. Boil
the milk tube and rubber connections for five minutes,
(*Foot-note: An excellent apparauts for applying
the air-inflation treatment will be furnished by Z. D. Gil-
man. 627 Pa. ave., Wash. D. C., upon receipt of price,
which includes express charges, $2.75.)
just before using, and wash the hands in carbolic acid
solution. Milk out the udder thoroughly, and then inflate
it till it is quite tense and tie tape around the teats to pre-
vent the air from escaping. The udder is now to be knead-
ed to cause the air to penetrate all the milk recesses. Prop
the animal up on her belly between boxes, boards or other
articles, which may be at hand, as she will rest easier in
this position. Cover her with a blanket, as her tempera-
ture is below normal. If she can swallow, give very care-
fully small quantities of alcohol, weakened with water
or milk. As the throat is usually in a paralytic state.
there is great danger of the medicine given as drenches
going the "wrong way." Whisky or brandy may be
injected under the skin with a hypodermic syringe, in one-
half ounce doses, every few hours. Rectal injections of
warm water and soap will clear the rectum of hardened
(lung, and tickling the floor of the vagina will cause the
bladder to empty itself. Usually the animal shows signs
of improvement in three or four hours. If she does not.
inject more air under the same precautions. In some cases
the animal seems perfectly well in a day or two. In oth-
ers, it is several days before she regains her usual strength.
One attack predisposes to another, and their severity
increases. Preventive measures are of importance. These
consist of a light, laxative diet for a weelk before calving
time, and a drench of Epsom salts a day or two before
the expected calving.
BLOAT OR TYMPANITES
Is akin to wind colic in horses. It is caused by overeating
easily fermentable food. The gases produced in the stom-
ach by the fermenting food may increase to such a degree
as to cause the inflated stomach to encroach upon the
heart and the lungs and thus kill the animal. If the cow
is down, gasping for breath, pass the largest blade of a
pocket knife into the side of the animal at the hollow place
just in front of the hip bone, on the left side. Turn the
blade so as to open the wound and allow the gas to escape.
A special trochar is made for the purpose, but this is usu-
ally found only in the veterinarian's outfit. When the
animal has been relieved, give four-ounce doses of bicar-
bonate of sodium (baking soda), or half-ounce doses of
chloride of lime, in half a pint of water, every half hour.
Usually three doses will do. Follow this with a purga-
tive drench composed of Epsom salts, one pound; ground
ginger, one ounce; nux vomica, two drachms; dissolved
in three pints of water. The next day, put the animal on
this tonic, to prevent a return of the trouble, and also
stop the feed that caused it: Quinine, sulphate of iron
and nux vomica, of each, one ounce. Mix, divide into
eight parts, and give one part twice daily.
IMPACTION OF THE STOMACH
Is treated the same as bloat, with the exception that no
attempt is made to let off the gas. The swelling of the
left side is due to accumulated food, and not to gases.
In some cases, it is necessary to cut open the side and
remove the contents of the stomach by hand. A veter-
inarian is here necessary.
GARGET, INFLAMMATION AND CONGESTION OF THE UDDER
Are among the more frequent affections of the udder in
the dairy animal, especially in heavy milkers. Just before
calving, it is the rule that the udder is enlarged, hot and
tender, and that a pasty swelling may form on the abdo-
men, just in front of the udder. If there be no compli-
cation, these symptoms disappear in two or three days
after milk secretion has been established. The suckling
calf greatly aids in the breaking up of the condition, and
it may be also hastened by stripping three times a day
and rubbing the udder with lard or camphorated oil.
Should such an animal be exposed to drafts of cold air,
in a damp, filthy stall, we may have inflammation set in.
In such a case, the bag is hot, tender and soggy. The
milk has a reddish tinge, or is slightly bloody, or is clotty,
and can be drawn with difficulty, or it may be watery.
Active treatment is now necessary. The calf should be
removed at once. The udder should be slightly lifted,
by means of a, sling passed around the body, and so
arranged, with a strap between the hind legs and reach-
ing up over the rump, that it will hold the sling in place.
Four holes should be cut in the sling to allow the teats to
project through. Raw cotton should be tucked in the
sliag, around the udder, and upon this should be poured
hot water three or four times a day, for half an hour at a
time. At night remove the cotton. This treatment must.
in some cases, be carried out for several days before the
gland is reduced. A pound of Epsom salt, dissolved with
one ounce of ginger, two drachms of nux vomica, in two
pints of water and one pint of syrup, will do much to rem-
edy the condition. If the disease persists, inflammation
will set in, and we find a hot, dry muzzle, quick pulse,
increased breathing, impaired appetite, constipation, les-
sened milk yield, especially in the affected quarter. If the
disease runs its course unchecked, we find one or more of
the quarters hardened permanently, or an abscess formed,
which opens through the side of the udder or into the
milk ducts. In rare cases the udder becomes gangrenous,
with the loss of the animal or the whole of the udder.
If the animal is seen in the initial stage of inflammation,
when she is shivering or has the chill, one may cut it
short by giving large quantities of hot water as a drench;
by copious rectal injections of hot water: by the applica-
tion of hot, wet blankets to the body; by active rubbing
by two persons; by giving a half pint of whisky, or half
as much strong alcohol, in water, as a drench, and by rub-
bing the animal dry antl applying a dry blanket.
Where inflammation has set in, give at once the
Epsom salt drench recommended above, and one ounce
daily of saltpeter, in water. Apply the hot water as
already recommended every ten or fifteen minutes for
an hour or two. Dry the udder, cover with a layer of
soap, and suspend in the sling. If there is great tender-
ness and pain, apply as an ointment, mercurial ointment,
one part, soap one part, and extract of belladonna one
part, instead of the soap alone. If abscesses form (indi-
cated by fluctuation from finger to finger), lance it and
syringe out cavity daily with an antiseptic solution. These
cases may become very obstinate, and require all the time
of one man for several days. If a veterinarian is obtain-
able, consult him and prevent troublesome complications.
Is a very common disorder in Florida cattle anl is, I
believe, the forerunner of so-called salt sickness. Cows
pregnant, or with young calf, are prone to the trouble.
There is loss of appetite, condition and milk yield;
staring coat, slow gait, restlessness, frequent bellowing
and low fever. Small blisters form under the tongue, and
if the disease continues unchecked, the animal will become
worn out and will die. The object of treatment is to im-
prove the digestion and to supply good food. To pro-
mote digestion and assimilation, give the following tonic
powder in the food, or administer by hand dry, or as a
drench: Carbonate or sulphate of iron, bicarbonate of
sodium, and ginger, three ounces; powdered capsicum,
one ounce. Mix, divide into twelve parts, and give one
part two or three times daily. Also mix with the food
three times a day two tablespoonfuls of powdered char-
coal, and supply a lump of rock salt.
In calves is common everywhere, because we find a com-
mon cause-mismanagement in feeding. These are,
allowing animal to suck at too long intervals, feeding
large quantities of cold milk at long intervals, too early
weaning, etc. The bowel becomes congested with undi-
gested food, which acts as an irritant and brings on a
stubborn diarrhoea which, if not checked, will cause
As treatment, the calf should be given one or two
ounces of castor oil and a tablespoonful of laudanum.
After the irritant matter is removed by the castor oil, or
by two to four ounces of equal parts of linseed oil and
lime-water mixture, the subsequent treatment should be
directed to allaying the irritability of the intestine, and
restoring the digestion. For this purpose the following
powder may be given: Powdered rhubarb, one and one-
half ounces; carbonate of magnesia, three ounces. Mix
and divide into twelve parts. Give one part, dissolved in
one-fourth pint of milk, to which two teaspoonfuls of
whisky are added, four times daily. Allow the calf to
suck six times a day for short periods. Sometimes the
condition of the health of the mother is the cause of the
WARTS ON THE TEATS
Are troublesome because they become tender and cause
the cow to kick. They should be snipped off with a pair
of scissors. The wound should then be touched with a
stick of lunar caustic and smeared with oil or vaseline.
CHAPPED OR CRACKED TEATS
May be relieved by washing the parts with sugar of lead,
one drachm, dissolved in one pint of water, and then
applying benzoated oxide of zinc ointment.
This occurs because the parts become relaxed, and extra
pressure being brought upon them through efforts at ris-
ing, when down, and from other causes, the womb is
forced outside the body. It usually occurs after calving.
The womb, in falling, becomes everted, ol- turned inside
out. The reduction of the condition is a comparatively
easy matter, if undertaken properly. A clean sheet is
placed under the mass, as the animal is usually found
"down." The womb is then washed with as hot water
as can be borne, and is then taken in both hands and
squeezed like a sponge, to force the blood out of it. Mean-
while efforts are made with the thumbs at the edge of the
opening to push in the adjacent parts. When the womb
seems to move in, the clenched fist is placed against the
apex of the presenting part, and strong pressure is made.
The organ in most cases will go forward as though
pulled by a spring, once it has been started. The fist and
bared arm should follow as far as possible, in order that
the womb may be forced into its natural position. To
prevent a future version, apply a rope truss as follows:
Take two, three-fourth inch ropes, each about eighteen
feet long. Double each rope at its middle, and lay the
one above the other at the bend, so as to form an ovoid
of about eight inches in its long diameter. Twist each
end of the rope twice around the other so that this ovoid
will remain when they are drawn tight. Tie a rope
around the root of the neck and a surcingle around the
body. Place the rope truss on the animal so that the ovoid
ring shall surround the opening, the two ascending ends
of the rope on the right and left of the root of the tail, and
the two descending ends down the inside of the thighs on
the right and left of the udder. All the four ends are
then carried forward, the lower ones being tied to the sur-
cingle and neck rope on the under aspect of the body,
while the upper ends are tied at corresponding points on
the upper surface of the body. The truss should be worn
for several days, by which time all danger of a repetition
of the trouble will have ceased. Should the animal be
standing when discovered, two assistants will be needed,
with a sheet to help lift the organ, while a third person
endeavors to replace it, as directed above. Sometimes the
immense size, due to engorgement, renders the work long
DISEASES OF THE HORSE.
Colic.-The most common complaint in horses and
mules, in Florida, is colic in some one of its various forms.
My own experience has been that flatulent or wind colic
is the most prevalent. Colic may be due to so many dif-
ferent causes that they cannot be all considered in this
paper. Suffice it to say that improper diet or feeding is
the one great cause here. The animals, especially mules.
are allowed to gorge themselves, with the result that
nature cannot take care of the food properly. It under-
goes fermentation, and the gas thus forms distends the
bowels, which soon become torpid from overdistention,
and we have a case of wind colic. In these cases the ani-
mal is swollen on the right side. This becomes quite
apparent if one stands to the rear of the animal and com-
pares the two sides. The usual hollow just in front of
the hip bone is obliterated, and by tapping here, we get a
drum-like sound. The animal paws the ground, makes
effort to urinate, is restless and when he goes down, does
so in a careful manner, which is distinctive as indicating
that it is not ordinary belly-ache or spasmodic colic, in
which form the animal goes down in a heap, and with no
care as to consequences. In these cases, do not make the
common mistake of supposing that because the horse
strains that he has kidney trouble. I have seen but one
case of kidney disease in a horse, and that was due to an
injury to the loins. The indications are for the exhibi-
tion of remedies to produce the following results: Stop-
ping fermentation, relieving pain and restoring the activ-
ity of the bowels. My routine treatment consists in the
administration, at once, of one ounce doses of the oil of
turpentine (not the spirits) in a half pint of raw linseed
oil, repeated every half to three-quarters of an hour till
the animal is relieved. Usually three doses suffice. At
the same time, the belly is rubbed with a mixture of the
oil of turpentine and linseed oil in the proportions of one
to two. Rectal injection of the latter mixture are also
made in three ounce quantities. When the pain has ceased,
the animal is given, either dissolved in one-half pint of
water or in the form of a pill, one ounce of aloes, one
drachm of pulverized ginger and two drachms of pulver-
ized nux vomica, as a purge. This should act in from
five to ten hours. If it doesn't, do not repeat it, but give
handful doses of Glauber's salt, dissolved in half a pint
of water, three times daily. Other substances may be
used instead of the oil of turpentine, such as four-ounce
doses of bicarbonate of sodium, chloroform, whisky, and
chloral hydrate, the latter being a fine corrective of fer-
mentation and pain reliever. It is given in one-ounce
doses, dissolved in half pint of water, and is to be fol-
lowed by the aloes purge and rectal injection. In cases
where the animal is much swollen and in evident danger
of collapse, the first and most important thing to do is
to tap the bowel and allow the imprisoned gas to escape.
This is best and most safely done by using a trochar and
canula. As the layman does not have one, as a rule, his
only expedient is the knife. The hollow just in front of
the hip bone on the right side is washed clean with soap
and water after the hair has been clipped. The knife
blade is passed inward, downward and forward through
the skin, muscle and bowel, opposite the center of the hol-
low. In the incision thus made a quill or tube is placed.
so as to allow the gas to escape. The small blade of the
knife should be used, as the larger the wound, the greater
the danger of complications. Tapping will frequently re-
store the animal when onlookers consider him "gone."
After a serious attack of colic, the animal should be
rested a day or two, fed a daily ration of bran mash, and
be put on a tonic, as follows: Sodium bicarbonate, two
ounces, nux vomica and sulphate of iron, of each one and
one-half ounces. Divide into twelve parts and give one
powder three times daily.
Constipation.-This is indicated by the hard dung and
straining efforts at passing it. It is relieved by a drench
of one pint of raw linseed oil, or by the aloes purge recom-
mended in colic.
Conjunctivitis, or sore-eye, is generally caused by irri-
tating vapors, or foreign bodies getting in the eye. Here
in Florida, the common smut grass has, in my experience,
been a cause, and sand-spurs is another cause. The mow-
ing of the smut grass, is, of course, the only thing to be
done to remove the cause. The eye may be bathed with
cold water, and treated three or four times daily with
boric acid, one drachm, and sodium bicarbonate, twenty
grains, to four ounces of water. In the case of sand-spurs,
they should be removed at once, as they cause intolerable
pain, and rapid blindness from inflammation. The inflam-
mation should be allayed by cold water applications and
the above-named eye lotion. When the soreness has sub-
sided and the front of the eye remains white, it may be
absorbed in time by blowing calomel upon the eye ball
once or twice weekly. Sand-spurs may be largely pre-
vented from getting into the eye by trimming off the
fore-top, so it will not reach down over the eyes, and
throw the spurs clinging to it into the eye.
Heaves.-It is at light farm work that theheaveyhorse
can be used to advantage. The term indicates that a
number of the air sacs making up the lungs have been
ruptured and the lungs thus made too small for any work
requiring the animal to breathe faster. The disease is
incurable, but can be relieved temporarily by using a pow-
der like this: Arsenic, two drachms: sulphate of iron, one
and one-half ounces; nux vomica, two ounces; sugar,
four ounces. Mix, divide into twenty-four parts and give
cne powder three times a day.
Harness Galls are very common in the farm, turpen-
tine and lumber-camp animals. There are dozens of rem-
edies on the market, all of which are probably useful, be-
cause they protect the parts. The following is a good one:
Oxide of zinc ointment, three ounces; acetate of lead,
three drachms; vaseline (low grade), four drachms,
made into an ointment and applied frequently.
-.lMisciar Soreness, Sprains, etc., from over-work,
known to some by the name of "stove-up," may be
relieved by rest and rubbing three times daily with tinc-
ture of aconite, fluid extract of belladonna, soap liniment
and alcohol, of each four ounces.
Itching is frequently due to derangements of diges-
tion. In these cases improve the same by giving daily,
after meals, dilute hydrochloric acid, one drachm; tinc-
ture of nux vomica, one drachm; water, two ounces. Fur-
ther apply to the affected surfaces, several times daily, the
following lotion: Bichloride of mercury, twelve grains;
dilute hydrocyanic acid, half ounce; glycerine, two
drachms; water, ten ounces.
Retained Urine.-Apparently of frequent occurrence
in colic, but generally needs no especial attention. In
other cases, give rectal hot water injections and, internal-
ly, one ounce of laudanum and one drachm of fluid
extract of belladonna every three or four hours during
the day till relieved.
Worms.-The large, round worm lives high up in the
bowel: hence, medicines must be taken internally to reach
them. The small, long-necked maw worm lives in the
rectum, and may be killed by rectal injections. In both
cases their presence is best determined by searching for
them in the dung. The large round worm may be killed
and expelled by single doses of arsenic, ten grains: calo-
mel, one drachm, and aloes, four drachms. Do not repeat
for a day or two, or until you are sure it has acted and all
passed through the animal. The small maw worm may
be killed by giving a rectal injection of warm soap solu-
tion to free the bowel of dung, and following this with
rectal injections of strong salt solutions, in one or two
The approximate age of a horse may be known by the
following conditions of the front teeth: At two years, a
full mouth of worn milk teeth is found. At four years,
the nipper teeth are those of the permanent variety. The
next on either side of the nippers, the permanent dividers,
appear. The milk corner teeth are worn, loose and ready
to drop out to make room for the second set. At five
years, the nippers and dividers are worn even and the
corner teeth show a notch upon their back border, and are
not as long, or are lower than the other teeth. At six
years, the black marks have disappeared from the two
lower nippers, and the corner teeth are on a level with the
others. At seven years, the black marks have disappeared
from the next pair in the lower jaw. At eight years, these
marks are absent in the corner teeth. At nine years, the
black marks disappear from the two upper nippers, and
each of the upper corner teeth project downward at the
outer edge. At ten years, the marks disappear from the
upper dividers, and at eleven years, from the upper corner
At twelve years, the teeth are becoming triangular.
DISEASES IN SWINE.
Lice may be destroyed by using the same remedy as
advised for cattle.
The Pants occur mostly in young pigs, and sometimes
kills the entire drove. The trouble is due to the accumu-
lation of worms in the lungs, which finally stop up the air
tubes and suffocate the animal. The mode of treatment
is to burn or bury deeply the bodies of those that die and
fumigate the others by placing them in an air-tight room,
in which there are burning rags, leather, feathers, hair,
tar, asafetida, or equal parts of tar, sulphur and turpen-
tine. Allow the animals to be subjected to the fumes of
these substances for twenty-five minutes on three different
days. Kill all the worms which the animals cough up as
a result of this treatment.
Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.-Both these diseases
frequently exist at the same time. Hog cholera is a dis-
ease of the bowels, resembling typhoid fever, and swine
plague is a disease of the lungs or a form of pneumonia.
They can both be treated with considerable success by giv-
ing the following powder as directed: Wood charcoal,
one pound: sulphur, one pound; salt, two pounds: bicar-
bonate of sodium, two pounds: sulphate of sodium, one
pound; hyposulphite of sodium, two pounds; sulphide of
antimony, one pound. Mix these thoroughly, and give
one tablespoonful to each two hundred pounds of live
weight of hog once a day, mixed in the feed. If ordered
in fifty pound lots, it can be bought of a wholesale drug-
gist for about fifteen to twenty cents per pound.
DISEASES OF DOGS.
There are many valuable dogs in Florida, and a few
lines concerning the most prevalent diseases in them may
The common hen flea is plentiful here, and in South
Florida it is a great pest to dogs. It is unlike the common
flea, in that it does not hop. It occurs in masses on all
parts of the body, especially on inaccessible places, such
as the tips of the ear, the eve-lids and lower back part of
the legs. This flea breeds in dark, dry places, under the
houses. It is easily killed by any substance which will
stop up its breathing pores, such as insect powder, car-
bolic salve or sulphur ointment. Baths in two and one-
half per cent. solutions of creolin or other coal tar disin-
fectant would be the most effective application.
Blain, Sore Tongue or Black Tongue, seems to be
somewhat common in Florida. It is a disease which arises
from neglect, and is characterized by the formation of
vesicles or blisters on the tongue and mouth parts, which,
when they burst, form ulcers. The animal soon emaciates
and dies in a few days. The treatment indicated are
tonics for the general system, and local antiseptic washes.
For internal use, try the following: Potassium chlorate,
three drachms; tincture of chloride of iron, half ounce;
glycerine, two ounces: water, enough to make eight
ounces. Mix, and give a dessert spoonful after food
three times a day. Procure a stick of nitrate of silver
and carefully touch the ulcers with it every few days till
they show healing.
Sprains and bruises are common in hunting dogs, and
if untreated, may lead to permanent weakness. The
treatment indicated is rest and cooling lotions, such as
lead and opium wash, consisting of Goulard's extract of
lead, half drachm; liquid extract of opium, half ounce:
water, four ounces. Extract of witch hazel may also be
used. Another good, cooling, evaporating lotion is:
Muriate of ammonia, two drachms; tincture of opium.
four ounces; alcohol, two ounces: water, half pint. Apply
on cotton to the part. After the soreness has subsided,
apply a stimulating liniment to encourage a return to the
healthy condition. For this purpose, use ammonia lini-
ment, soap liniment, or turpentine liniment.
Sore eyes if left untreated, may permanently impair
the dog's usefulness. A good lotion in the acute stage is:
Boracic acid, half drachm: fluid extract of belladonna,
half drachm: liquid extract of opium, one drachm: water,
add four ounces. Wash the eyes with warm water and
apply the lotion in small quantity to each eye several times
Constipation.-This is common in dogs which lack
proper food and exercise. An adult dog can be relieved
by giving castor oil, one ounce, and syrup of buckthorn,
one drachm. Puppies may be given a drachm of castor oil
and a drachm of olive oil.
Distemper probably kills more young dogs than any
other disease. In this disease there is sneezing, cough,
discharge from the eyes, dry muzzle, fever, emaciation,
loss of appetite, diarrhoea and a disagreeable odor is
exhaled from the body. If taken in time, the following
line of treatment will be of service: At first, give for a
day or two calomel in doses of from three to five grains,
to open the bowels. Give also, every three or four hours,
two-grain doses of quinine and teaspoonful doses of
sherry wine. The following tonic is excellent also: Elixir
of calisaya, iron and bismuth, one ounce: potassium ace-
tate, one and one-half drachms: spirits of nitrous ether,
two drachms: water, one ounce: syrup of tolu, enough to
make four ounces. Mix, and give a dessertspoonful
every three hours. The dog's eyes should be looked after
and kept free of discharge by anointing the lids with
vaseline, to prevent their adhering together. The eve
lotion for sore eyes would be useful here. Feed the ani-
mal on broths, rice pudding, etc. The following is a good
tonic pill for a dog in poor health, or when recovering
from a disease: Reduced iron, two grains: strvchnia,
one-sixtieth grain: quinine, two grains: arsenic, one-
twentieth grain. Give these, made into a pill, three times
daily, to ordinary size dog.
Rattlesnake Bites.-The following remedy has been
successfully used by Dr. Rhodes, of Tampa: Give the dog
two ounces of pure olive oil every thirty minutes, till five
doses are taken, then give it every one to two hours. Give
also, according to size of dog, from ten drops to one tea-
spoonful of tincture of digitalis, or whisky, carbonate of
ammonia, or other heart stimulant. Bathe the wound
with the oil by applying on bandage.
AGRICULTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
During the session of the last Legislature the name
of the Florida Agricultural College was changed to the
University of Florida. This did not do away with the
College of Agriculture, however; it still stands as a part
of the University.
This school offers to the young men of the State an
opportunity to fit themselves for agriculturists, horticul-
turists, and various other callings allied to agriculture.
One who tills the soil should have a knowledge of chemis-
try, in order that he may know how to successfully ferti-
lize his crops, and understand the chemical actions that
take place in the soil.. He should have a knowledge of
botany, that he may understand the various methods
of propagating and originating new varieties, and
how to improve old varieties. He should under-
stand plant diseases, and have a. thorough knowledge
of insect life and know those that are his ene-
mies and those that are his friends. It is estimated
that the insects alone cost the farmers of the United
States millions of dollars per year. If we know how to
combat them, we shall save a part, at least, of this loss.
The young farmer should have a thorough knowledge of
veterinary science, in order that he may know how to
treat his animals, when they are sick or handle a conta-
gious disease should it break out among them. Agriculture
is a broad subject, and includes all the sciences.
A great many people have an idea that anyone can
farm, and that there is little to learn at an Agricultural
College. They have a prejudice against "book farming."
If you were going to hire a lawyer to defend you in court,
would you select one who had never read a law book, or
one who was learned in his profession? If you were sick,
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