Group Title: constitution suspension ordered on October 8, 1953.
Title: The constitution suspension ordered on October 8, 1953
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 Material Information
Title: The constitution suspension ordered on October 8, 1953 Statement by Her Majesty's government, two broadcasts by His Excellency the Governor, Sir Alfred Savage, and a White Paper issued by Her Majesty's government
Series Title: constitution suspension ordered on October 8, 1953.
Physical Description: 36 p. : ports. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: British Guiana -- Bureau of Public Information
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Georgetown?
Publication Date: 1953?
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Guyana   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Guyana
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Bibliographic ID: UF00077047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 01563328

Full Text

Br/A^h Golhna, Bureau ao ,7j//c .7^^^a"/
THE CONSTITUTION

Suspension Ordered on October 8, 1953.




STATEMENT BY

HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT,


TWO BROADCASTS BY

His EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR,
SIR ALFRED SAVAGE, K.C.M.G.,

AND
A WHITE PAPER ISSUED BY


HER MAJESTY'S


GOVERNMENT.


Reprinted by Command
(The Bureau of Public Information.)






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Statement by Her Majesty's

Government
(Read by Hon'ble JOHN GUTCH, C.M.G., O.B.E., Chief
Secretary, over Radio Demerara on October 9, 1953.)


Her Majesty's Government h h g rdpided that the Constitution
of BrTmsn -u!a mus be suspended to prevent communi su
version of the Government and a dangerous crisis both in public
order and in economic affairs. The necessary Order in Council
will shortly be laid before Parliament and an independent Com-
mission of Inquiry appointed to report on what has happened and
to recommend a revised Constitution. The faction in power have
shown by their acts and their speeches that they are prepared to
Sgo to any lengths including violence to turn British Guiana into
a communist state. The Governor has therefore been given
emergency powers and has removed the portfolios of the Party
SMinisters. Armed forces have been landed to support the police
tnd to prevent any public disorder which might be fomented by
communists. These measures are being announced to the people
of British Guiana in a broadcast by the Governor.
2. Her Majesty's Government are quite satisfied that the
elected Ministers and their Party were completely under the con-
Strol of a communist clique. There is no doubt whatever that Dr.
SJagan, Mrs. Jagan, Rory Westmaas and Sydney King, to name
ring-leaders, are closely associated with international communist
organizations such as the World Federation of Trade Unions, the
World Federation of Democratic Youth, the World Peace Council
and the Women's International Democratic Federation. It is well,
known that these organizations are used for indoctrinating sup-
porters in all parts of the world and as a cloak for concerting-
Scommunist plans. From actions and public statements of these
extremists it is clear that their objective was to turn British.
Guiana into a state subordinate to Moscow and a dangerous plat-,
form for extending communist influence in the Western Hemis-
'phere.
3. Ministers have used their official positions in trade unions
to provoke and encourage a stoppage of work in the sugar indus-
try for political purposes without regard to the real interests of
the workers. They deliberately spread the stoppage of work to
other industries including services essential to the life of the
community which it was their duty as Ministers to protect. They
then attempted to gain their political ends in trade unions by
legislation and to set aside the rules of the House to get this passed











*


THE PRIME MINISTER OF GREAT BRITAIN
THE RT. HON'BLE SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, K.G.


I


--- I---------- -~9~111111~L-CPI~-1- __-~_- ____ _~








at once. They incited large and unruly crowds to attend meetings
of the House of Assembly seeking to intimidate opposition mem-
bers with threats and abuse.
4. They have conducted an assiduous campaign to under-
mine the loyalty and discipline of the Police Force and have
proposed to establish what they term People's Police.
5. They have persistently intruded into the sphere of the
Public Service in an attempt to subject it to their political con-
trol: as part of this campaign they have attacked the Public
Service Commission set up to ensure the freedom of the Public
Service from political interference and pressure and have an-
nounced their intention to abolish it.
6. Ministers have promoted the formation of a communist
political youth organisation, the Pioneer Youth League, and have
sought to undermine the position and influence of established
youth movements, such as the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. The
Minister of Education has announced his intention to remove the
Churches from their present participation in the educational sys-
tem of the country and to revise the curricula and text books of
the schools with the evident objective of indoctrinating the
children of the country with their political views.
7. Ministers have sponsored a British Guiana branch of the
communist inspired Peace Committee. Both; personally and
through their agents they have engaged in disseminating commu-
nist subversive propaganda and initiated and directed subversive
activities. They have set up a committee which supports com-
munist terrorists in Malaya and deliberately foments racial hatred.
8. In these and other directions the Ministers have deliber-
ately used their powers not to further the interests of the whole
community but to pervert the constitution and secure totalitarian
control over all aspects of the social, cultural and economic life
of British Guiana. Among other things they are seeking to turn
the workers of British Guiana and their unions into political tools
of the extremists.
9. These events have already done serious harm. Moderate
opinion in the territory is alarmed at the turn events have taken,
as was marked by a recent Resolution passed by the State Coun-
cil. There can be no doubt that in present circumstances no
business will undertake further capital development in the terri-
tory, nor is there any hope of bringing in technical assistance
from abroad that is so badly needed for economic development.
This could only lead and lead soon to mass unemployment.
10. It has become clear to Her Majesty's Government that
the Ministers have no intention of making the constitution work,
that on the contrary their sole object is to seize control of the




























































HIS EXCELLENCE THE GOVERNOR,
SIR ALFRED SAVAGE, K.C.M.G.


.____








whole territory and to run it on totalitarian lines. They have
clearly shewn they are prepared to use violence and to plunge
the State into economic and social chaos to achieve their ends.
Their next attempt to demonstrate their power might have been
disastrous to the territory.
11. These are the reasons why steps were taken to vest in
the Governor full control of the Government of the Colony and
the necessary emergency powers to ensure law and order. As
soon as the necessary legal steps can be taken the present consti-
tution will be suspended and an interim Government set up with
which Guianese will be fully associated.
12. The Commission of Inquiry will be set up in due course
by the Secretary of State to enquire into events in British Guiana
which have led to this check in the political advance of the Colony
and to make recommendations for a revised constitution.
13. The damage which this communist plot has done to the
economic and social life of the community must be repaired as
quickly as possible The Governor will take vigorous steps forth-
with to restore the economic position of the country, to ensure
rapid development of its resources and to accelerate the improve-
ment of housing and other social services.
14. The Governor is announcing that he will hasten to carry
out the recommendations of the International Bank Report-which
has been available in the territory for some time and which is tq
be published shortly. The Bank's recommendations to set up a
British Guiana Credit Corporation which will provide credits for
agriculture, industry, forestry, fisheries and rural and urban hous-
ing will be carried out as soon as possible. In this and other ways
it is hoped that the social and economic progress of the territory
will be resumed.
15. This action in British Guiana is not because of any
change of the policy of Her Majesty's Government of encouraging
political advance which was reaffirmed by the Secretary of State
when he took office: the action has been taken to meet the danger
which hangs over the Colony and is designed solely to protect
the life and liberty of British Guiana.







*
















THE CHIEF SECRETARY,
THE HON'BLE JOHN GUTCH, C.M,G., O.B.E.







His Excellency The Governor's

Broadcast.
(By Sir Alfred Savage, K.C.M.G., over Radio Demerara,
on October 9, 1953.)
The official statement which has just been read to you will be
published in the Gazette and Press but I am arranging for it to be
distributed today with this speech to as many parts of the Colony
as possible. Recent events may have come as a surprise and per-
haps a relief to many of you. But it was inevitable, as I shall
explain, and now each one of you has a duty to your country to
perform at this time with loyalty and forbearance.
2. My first duty is to maintain law and order and I call upon
the Police and the Volunteer Force to carry out faithfully the
tasks assigned to them. I know that attempts have been made in
recent months to undermine your loyalty to the Crown and by
intimidation and other methods to seduce you from the high tra-
ditions of the Forces to which you belong. I know the strain
which this has put upon you but I rely on each one of you to do
your duty without fear or favour and to obey your superior officers
implicitly as you have done at all times in the past and in particu-
lar during the recent strike in the sugar industry. At this
moment the Navy and Army are here in sufficient force to cope
with any emergency that may arise and the forces are widely
distributed throughout the country. They will be used to support
you if their assistance is needed to protect life and property. In
order to preserve public order I may have, much as I regret it,
to use certain emergency powers. It is the duty of every person
to assist the forces of law and order and to maintain the peace.
As a precautionary measure, meetings have been banned and
checks on road traffic have been instituted but I hope in general
there will be as little interruption as possible in the normal life of
the country. The inter-colonial cricket match with Trinidad will
begin this morning and will continue, provided the crowds dis-
perse quickly to their homes after the match.
3. Most of you listening can answer the question "Why has
this been necessary?" It is because over recent months there has
been a planned and continuous programme of strengthening links
with communist countries with a view to making British Guiana
a servile state where people are compelled, under intimidation,
to give up those freedoms which we all cherish. You must have
seen the reports of visits of an increasing number of people to
iron curtain countries. What good were they bringing or send-
ing back to British Guiana? Pamphlets and propaganda to
teach us the Russian way of life. I do not believe the large
majority of you want it.
4. Let me take you back to the 14th April when my wife and
I arrived in this country and we pledged ourselves to your ser-
vice. Since then we have endeavoured to meet as many of you









*


His Honour, the Speaker of the House of Assembly,
SIR EUSTACE WOOLFORD, Q.C., O.B.E.








as possible at public meetings of welcome, in your homes and
in your places of work to learn at first hand of your problems
and to see whether our experience elsewhere could be of assistance
to you. Almost my first words on arrival were to speak of indus-
trial relations to plead for a better understanding between
labour and capital, for without it there could be no substantial
development. I pressed for conditions to be established which
would encourage the investment of capital for development, to
provide more employment and therefore improved standards of
living. But what has happened? Confidence has been recklessly
thrown away. I entered on my task here with sincerity and
enthusiasm. I believed and still believe that much can be done
in the next few years to encourage the economic development
of the country so that as many of you as possible who are un-
employed or under-employed could be given work and so improve
your standards cf living. I and my officials have done our utmost
to make this constitution work. I have done everything I could to
meet the wishes of the Ministers elected by the House of Assembly
and to induce them by goodwill, by tact, by patience and by toler-
ance to carry out their responsibilities. The experience and
advice of the whole public service was at their disposal and as
you know I made no use of my reserved powers to prevent them
acting as they wished. I have pressed on them at every oppor--
tunity, collectively and individually, ways and means of making
progress in the economic field but with few exceptions most of
their time has been spent in building up a political dictatorship,
even stating that they are prepared to use violence to obtain their
ends.
Individual Ministers have told me privately that they dis-
agreed with some of the actions of their colleagues but as collec-
lively they have presented a united front in all their actions I am
forced to treat them all for the present as equally responsible and
I have withdrawn all their portfolios today and they will cease to
be in charge of the departments and subjects which I assigned to
them in May.
5. So much could have been done but so little was attempted
in the social and economic field. We have had probably more
visits of industrialists in the last six months than in many years
before. There appeared to me a growing opportunity for develop-
ment of this great country but the words and actions of the Min-
isters and of certain of their supporters have created doubts as
to their real intentions and the outside world has lost confidence
and the good name of British Guiana has become suspect.
And it is not only outside of this country that confidence has
been lost. Many of the small depositors in our own Post Office
Savings Bank have had their fears. Since 19th August over
$2,500,000 has been withdrawn in excess of deposits, mainly by the
people with small savings. If the people of this country have
not faith in their own Government, how can we expect people
























































His Honour, the President of the State Council and the
Minister without Portfolio,

THE HON'BLE SIR FRANK McDAVID, C.M.G., C.B.E.


_. ___ ____ _ __ _. ___ .........____ ___









overseas to risk their money here? And so as a first step towards
restoring confidence I ask those of you who have withdrawn your
savings to put them back in the Bank. I give you my word that
nothing will be done to prejudice the security of your savings.

6. Next I want to speak individually to the sugar workers.
During the recent strike it was impossible constitutionally for me
to speak to you. You know how I was attacked for not answer-
ing the call for my.intervention and it was suggested that I took
not interest in the workers. That was untrue. Ten days after
the strike began some Ministers suggested that I should intervene
and I agreed to do so provided that both parties would accept my
decision. Dr. Lachhmansingh refused my offer. The sugar strike
was deliberately engineered by certain of the Ministers and others
to secure domination of the industry for political and not trade
union purposes. What good reason was there to cause all of you
and your families to suffer as you have done?

Do you remember my visits to the estates some weeks ago
when my wife and I met many of you and I undertook to do all
I could to help, particularly on the question of housing and land
which so many of you pressed on me? Shortly after my return
to Georgetown I had informal meetings with representatives of
certain companies and put some suggestions to them. Had it not
been for the recent strike I believe arrangements would have
been made by now to provide more money for loans for more
houses. Many of you spoke to me about more land being made
available in sugar areas and the development of peasant farming.
Agh I discussed these matters with certain companies and 1
found them sympathetic. If it had not been for the strike I know
some progress would have been made in this respect. However,
I shall now resume the discussions on these matters and trust
that in the near future I shall be able to make an announcement
on this question. But I do urge on you the necessity for you to
continue your work and to ensure that this crop is reaped with
no further delay. If you fail in this, it can only mean further
suffering to you and your families

7. To the trade unionists of this country I would say, you
have a great responsibility and opportunity to restore confidence
in this country. In the months that lie ahead your words and
actions will be closely watched overseas. On you will depend to
a large extent whether the industrialists who are interested in the
development of the resources of this country will feel that if they
come here they will be given a fair deal by you as well as by the
Government. I watched with anxiety your reactions to the
political pressure for a sympathy strike and I was glad to see that
with certain exceptions you resisted the demand in spite of politi-
cal intimidation.









8. And now a few words to the Civil Service. You, too,
have I known been subjected to severe strain and anxiety during
the past months and I am very conscious of the loyalty and
patience with which the majority of you have resisted political
pressures and have remained true to the high traditions of the
Service. I am confident I can rely on your continued loyalty
in the tasks of reconstruction which lie ahead.

9. And to every man and woman in this Colony let me say
that this constitutional set-back which British Guiana has suffered
and the precautions which it has been necessary to take to ensure
law and order need not and should not be allowed to dislocate our
normal life. I call upon you all to assist me by remaining calm



















The Attorney General
(THE HON'BLE F. W. HOLDER, Q.C.)
and carrying out your normal duties. I have the right to demand
your co-operation. If you give it freely, the sooner will it be
possible to turn our energies to the constructive tasks of develop-
ment and social improvement which have lain neglected during
the last five months and to move forward once more along the
path of progress.
10. For a short time the Government will be carried on
under the present constitution as modified by amending Instru-
ments which have been made and it is intended as soon as circum-
stances permit, to provide for the appointment of an Interim
Government with which Guianese will be fully associated. As
you have heard a Commission of Inquiry will be set up to make









recommendations regarding the new constitution. Meantime, pro-
vided that normal work and business continues I intend to intro-
duce as soon as possible the economic measures which could and
should have been carried out by the late Government and to
accelerate the implementation of the International Bank Report.
I shall set up as soon as possible a British Guiana Credit Corpora-
tion and a provisional Economic Council with a Development
Committee in each county of this country. I do not promise you
the moon but I will see that the different economic proposals
which you pressed on me during my tours of the country will


The Financial Secretary
(THE HON'BLE W. O. FRASER, O.B.E.)

now be sympathetically examined and as far as is practicable will
be implemented.
11. Finally, I realise that I have a very heavy task in front
of me and with the deepest sincerity and goodwill I appeal to
everyone of you whatever your politics, race or religion, to give me
your full trust, your support and your prayers. With them I am
certain it will be possible to recover the confidence cf the people
both here and overseas so that the last unhappy months may be
forgotten and we shall all go forward with a happier and more
prosperous British Guiana.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN,







His Excellency the Governor's

Second Broadcast

(by Sir Alfred Savage, K.C.M.G., over Radio Demerara on
Friday October 16, 1953.)



"People of British Guiana-When I spoke to you a week ago
I sought the support of all sections of the community and I ad-
dressed a special word to all those who are engaged in industry
and particularly to the sugar workers. I am very grateful for the
positive response made and for the many indications of goodwill
which have been conveyed to me and to my advisers.

Since I spoke to you, there has been further evidence of politi-
cal endeavour to create economic chaos in this country. Certain
political leaders have issued a pamphlet and also by verbal in-
structions have called upon all workers to take part in a general
strike in order tc disrupt the economy of British Guiana.

Such a step would of course, have crippled the livelihood of
tens of thousands of families but I am very glad to say that the
attempt to create chaos and distress which would have been felt
mainly by the women and children, has not succeeded because of
the good sense of the mass of the workers.

There has been no general strike in British Guiana. I am
aware however that the councils of certain trade unions are still
considering the matter but I would press on them and their mem-
bers that such action could only do harm to themselves, to their
families and to their country.

I depend on you to demonstrate clearly to the world and in
particular to the industrialists who could be of the greatest
assistance to this country, that you will not allow your trade
unions to be dictated to or fooled by any political party. You
must be free to take your own decisions in your own interests-
both now and in the future.

I understand that there is some confusion among the sugar
workers. Here again, an attempt is being made to create chaos
by repeating false rumours. I believe that with certain exceptions
the sugar estates and factories are now working, although not all
to full capacity. I am informed also that many of the workers on
strike are very anxious to return to work,









May I repeat there is no general strike in this country, there
is no trade dispute and I urge every one of you to get back to work
and be assured that if there is any threat of intimidation of you or
of your families, prompt action will be taken by the police.


As I promised you last week, I have recommended discus-
sions with the Sugar Producers' Association regarding more loans
for houses and a scheme for peasant sugar farming but you must
play your part by resuming full operations and so reap the crop
without further delay. As soon as the sugar estates are back to
full normal working my wife and I intend to pay visits to the
estates and so extend the personal contacts we made some weeks
ago.

At the moment a deliberate lie is being circulated by word
of mouth throughout the country that the deposits in the Savings
Bank will be used to pay the-troops which are here.

This communist technique of undermining confidence has
been used elsewhere. The facts are that the British Government
and not this Government are responsible for the pay and for the
food of the troops and that in any case the Savings Bank deposits
are a sacred trust and cannot-and I repeat cannot-be spent by
this Government or any other Government. The money in the
Savings Bank is as safe there as if it was deposited in the Bank of
England. The large majority of you have realized this but there
may be further attempts to induce you to withdraw your money
and therefore I ask you not to believe the lie which is being
repeated.

This matter is of great importance for if you allow yourselves
to be misled and do not show your confidence in your own Bank,
it may prejudice the loans we have to raise here and overseas for
the development of the country.

This last week has been full of rumours, many of which are
being manufactured in order to confuse you. The truth is that
here in Georgetown and elsewhere business is going on as usual
and general confidence in the future of British Guiana is being re-
established both here and overseas. Owing to the large arrears
of work which were found in the Ministries, we have a substan-
tial leeway to make up but the work is being tackled as quickly
as possible and I ask you to have patience over the delays which
have occurred.









Some people have been reported as saying that they are will-
ing to fight and die for their political aims. May I say that what
we want in British Guiana are leaders willing to live and to work
hard for the economic development of this country and the better-
ment of its people. Political Development without economic
development has little or no practical value. Our first objective
has been and must be to raise the standard of living of the people.

And so again I do urge on you as absolutely essential a con-
structive policy of economic development, a policy of full pro-
duction and of improved industrial relations. I and my advisers
have started work on planning the various development commit-
tees of which I spoke a week ago but we must have the full
co-operation of capital and labour if we are to succeed in develop-
ing the resources of this country.

It is my intention that on all these committees there will be
representatives of Government, of employers and' of the workers
and with the fullest co-operation which I seek and goodwill on
all sides I am certain we shall be able to attract to this country
the capital on which we must depend for future development.

That is all I have to say this morning but I propose to speak
to you from time to time as may be necessary.







British Guiana

Suspension of Constitution

(United Kingdom Government White Paper, published
October 20, 1953.)



I. INTRODUCTION:
1. The new Constitution introduced in British Guiana last
April was based on a Report (Col. No. 280) of an independent
commission (Sir John Waddington, Chairman; Professor V. T.
Harlow and Dr. Rita Hinden, Members). It conferred upon the
people for the first time universal adult suffrage and provided
for a bicameral legislature with a Lower Chamber (House of
Assembly) consisting of 27 members, of whom 24 were elected,
and an Upper Chamber (The State Council), consisting of 9
members appointed by the Governor (two on the recommenda-
tion of the Ministers in the Lower Chamber). The Constitution
provided for the appointment of six elected members of the
House of Assembly as Ministers with departmental responsibility
and gave them a majority of two in the Executive Council, the
principal instrument of policy. The Governor was obliged (save
in exceptional cases) to consult and take the advice of this
Council.

2. In the General Election at the end of April for the House
of Assembly under the new Constitution, the Peoples' Progressive
Party (PPP) gained 51 per cent of the votes and 18 out of 24
seats. With this majority, it secured the election of members of
the Party to the six ministerial posts filled from the House of
Assembly. These Ministers were Dr. C. B. Jagan (Minister for
Agriculture), Mr. L. F. S. Burnham (Minister for Education),
Mr. A. Chase (Minister for Labour), Mr. S. King (Minister for
Works), Dr. J. P. Lachhmansingh (Minister for Health), Mr. J.
N. Singh (Minister for Local Government). Dr. Jagan was
elected Leader of the House of Assembly and Mrs. Jagan, Deputy
Speaker. Two further members of the PPP, Mr. Fingal and Mr.
Robertson, were appointed to the State Council on the recom-
mendation of the six Ministers.

3. The Peoples' Progressive Party therefore held six out of
the ten places in the Executive Council. It also had a working
majority in the 'House of Assembly but not in the State Council.
It would also have had a majority if the Governor had decided
to call a Joint Session of the two Houses for any purpose,









HI. ACTIVITIES OF MINISTERS:
4. The conduct of Ministers showed no concern for the true
welfare of the colony and threatened its progress as an orderly
state. It had seriously endangered the economic life of the coun-
try and had set it on the road to collapse. Examples of this
conduct are:-
(i) Fomenting of strikes for political ends (para-
graphs 15-18);
(ii) Attempting to oust established trade unions by
legislative action (paragraph 19);
(iii) Removal of the brn on the entry of West Indian
Communists (paragraph 8);
(iv) Introduction of a bill to repeal the Undesirable
Publications Ordinance and the flooding of the
territory with Communist Literature (para-
graph 9);
(v) Misuse of rights of appointment to boards and
committees (paragraph 13);
(vi) Spreading of racial hatred (paragraph 14);
(vii) Plan to secularize church schools and to rewrite
textbooks to give them a political bias (para-
graph 36);
(viii) Neglect of their administrative duties (para-
graphs 22-23);
(ix) Undermining of the loyalty of the Police (para-
graphs 9-11);
(x) Attempts to gain control of the public service
(paragraph 12);
(xi) Threats of violence (paragraphs 28-33);

5. Each one of these acts judged separately was serious
enough and the cumulative effect was disastrous: viewed in the
light of the Communist connexions of Ministers their aim was
unmistakable.

6. In the succeeding paragraphs the events of the period
May September 1953 are described roughly in chronological
order.
The Loyal Address and withdrawal of bans on entry of Commu-
nists and Communist Literature:
7. At the first business session of the new House of Assembly
held on 17th June the Party refused to move a Loyal Address to










the Queen in response to Her Majesty's gracious message at the
introduction of the new Constitution (though a Loyal Address
was passed unanimously when moved by the Leader of the Oppo-
sition).

8. At the same time, and contrary to the general policy of
other West Indian Governments, the PPP Ministers insisted on
the removal of the ban on the entry of certain well-known West
Indian Communists into British Guiana. They introduced a Bill
to repeal the Undesirable Publications Ordinance, thus removing
the power of the Governor-in-Council to exclude subversive liter-
ature. Communist literature brought in by Dr. Jagan in 1951 was
seized by customs officials. The proposed Bill sought to invali-
date this seizure and was thus attempting to make these officials
liable to legal proceedings for their official action. It has not yet
passed into law, but meanwhile communist literature has been
pouring into the Country.

Undermining of the Loyalty of the Police.

9. Ministers intended to organize a "People's Police". On
3rd May, Dr. Jagan said: "Comrades; in the past when we asked
for bread we were given ballets and those who fired at workers
were honoured by the masters; but when the PPP gets into power
the same bullets which were fired on those poor people will be
fired on our oppressors. We shall organize a police force. It
will be known as the People's Police".

10. Ministers in their speeches made clear their dissatis-
faction that the existing Police Force was not under the control
of the PPP. They encouraged dissatisfied policemen to make
their complaints to Party leaders and used the dissidents to spread
discontent and disaffection.

11. The Minister for Labour tried to interfere with the con-
trol of the Police by the Chief Secretary. He informed the Chief
Secretary that he proposed to issue a statement for the guidance
of the Police and required the Chief Secretary to draw their atten-
tion to it. The following are extracts from the proposed state-
ment:
"It is nauseating to find that as soon as there is Labour
"dispute or stoppage of work no matter how trivial or
"large the police intervene . Any repetition of the
"past attitude and conduct by the Police will meet with
"stern action on the part of the elected Ministers."
In fact, the Police had not interfered in labour disputes. They
only became involved in the exercise of their duty to maintain
law and order. The Chief Secretary managed to prevail on the
Minister to defer publication until the question had been further









discussed; but on 23rd September the Minister asked that the
Governor should be informed that he proposed to issue the sub-
stance of the statement after resumption of work in the sugar
industry.

Attempts to gain control of the public service:

12. It is fundamental, as it is in this country, and it is written
into all Colonial Constitutions that the Public Services should be
free from all political influences. Accordingly, under the Con-
stitution, responsibility for the Public Service is reserved to the
Governor who is advised on these matters by an independent
Public Service Commission. Ministers, however, clearly showed
that they resented this. For example, in a speech on 26th July,
Dr. Jagan. said: "They have appointed a Civil Service Commission
because they do not want us to have anything to do with the
appointment of Civil Servants. We would like to have power to
appoint our own people who would be able to do our work." Min-
isters made clear their intention to abolish the Public Service
Commission and to refuse to vote provision for it. They encour-
aged dissatisfied members of the Service to come direct to them
for redress. They also encouraged junior officers to act as in-
formers on departmental activities, and have sought their views
regarding the efficiency and conduct of their senior officers. The
Minister of Works instructed the Director of Public Works that
committees of workers should be set up in connexion with works
projects. The functions of these committees were not to be con-
fined to service conditions, but were to advise on the execution
of the projects.

Control over Boa-ds and Committees.

13. Ministers' appointments to statutory boards and com-
mittees showed their determination to put these committees under
Party control without regard for members' suitability and exper-
ience. They appointed four PPP supporters, three of whom were
primary school teachers, to the Education Committee, while the
representatives previously on the Committee of the denominational
governing bodies which control 260 out of 277 primary schools in
British Guiana were excluded. They also proposed to fill five
out of seven seats on the Transport Advisory Council by PPP
supporters. Two of these were junior members of the Transport
and Harbours Department itself, and one was a tailor who earns
his living by selling PPP literature. Ministers pressed the Gov-
ernor to transfer to them his powers to appoint members of other
more important executive boards and committees so as to give
them control over the Local Government Board and such organ-
izations as the Rice Marketing Board. Ministers ordered the
manager of the Rice Marketing Board to disobey the instructions









of the legally appointed Board using the threat that they (the
Ministers) would shortly be appointing a new Board.
Racial Hatred.
14. The Ministers for Education and for Labour started an
"African and Colonial Affairs Committee" which declared support
for the Mau Mau in Kenya and the Communists terrorists in
Malaya and specialized in vicious anti-British anti-white
propaganda.
Labour Unrest.
15. For many years a trade union called the Man Power
Citizens Association (MPCA) has represented the main body of
sugar workers. It has negotiated a number of agreements with
the Sugar Producers Association (SPA) improving wages and
setting up joint negotiating machinery. In 1945, Dr. Jagan, who
had been treasurer of this union, having failed to gain control
of it, broke away. and later, under his influence, a rival union,
the Guiana Industrial Workers Union (GIWU) was formed.
With Dr. J. P. Lachhmansingh (later Minister for Health) as
President, this union set out to break the MPCA and the nego-
tiating machinery between the MPCA and the SPA. After the
Enmore riots on 16th June, 1948, in which a number of people
were killed, a Commission of Inquiry into the sugar industry
reported (Colonial No. 249) that the claim of the GIWU for
recognition was premature and unwarranted and that the claims
and complaints of the workers were amply represented by the
already recognized unions.
16. The GIWU, however, sought to call general strikes in
the sugar industry in the autumns of 1951 and 1952 to obtain
recognition, but failed to secure any general support for its calls
though strikes did occur on individual estates. In the official re-
port of the Registrar of Trade Unions in British Guiana, the num-
ber of members of the G.I.W.U. on the 31st December, 1952, was
given as 817, compared with 7,272 members of the M.P.C.A., of
whom at least half were sugar workers.
17. When the PPP came into power, it espoused the cause
of the GIWU, of which Dr. Lachhmansingh remained President
although Minister for Health. Labour relations in the sugar in-
dustry have steadily deteriorated owing to direct interference
by Ministers in minor matters which would previously have
been settled through the existing joint consultative machinery.
During this year there were 64 minor stoppages from May to
September compared with three up to May In August the
Minister for Labour approached the SPA and pressed for the
recognition of the GIWU. The Association sent a conciliatory
reply, offering joint recognition with the MPCA. A meeting of
the Union was held on the 30th August to consider thi3 offer.









The Minister for Health as President and the Minister for
Works (who held no official position in the Union) attended.
The latter dominated the proceedings and insisted on the meet-
ing calling a general strike in the sugar industry. The meeting
agreed, without considering the SPA's reply to their demand for
recognition; and Mr. King, Dr. Lachhmansingh, Mrs. Jagan
(that is, two Ministers and the Deputy Speaker) and other mem-
bers of the Party toured the estates urging the workers to strike.

18. The resulting strike eventually paralysed the whole in-
dustry. Some days after it had started, the union represented
that its object was to secure an improvement in wages and work-
ing conditions although no previous approach had been made on
the matter to the employers. Attempts were made to organize
a general strike in sympathy in other industries and essential
services. Some members of the Sawmill Workers Union
(President, Dr. Jagan) and the British Guiana Labour Union
(President, the Minister for Education) responded. The.Presi-
dent of the Transport Workers Union, who was opposed to joining
the strike, eventually agreed under pressure and intimidation to a
four-hour sympathy stoppage of work by his union. Even this was
only partially successful and there was little response from other
unions. The Minister for Health then ordered the sugar workers
to return to work.

Labour Legislation.
19. Strikes having failed, the Minister for Health announced
that the GIWU demand for recognition would be pursued by
legislative action. A draft Labour Relations Ordinance was
thereupon published requiring employers to recognize for purposes
of negotiation any union which obtained the support of 52 percent
of the workers in an industry by ballot. Such legislation is con-
trary to policy and practice in British industry because it imposes
an element of compulsion in a field where the principle of mutual
consent which is inherent in collective bargaining can alone yield
satisfactory results. It is claimed to be based on a United
States law, but in fact reflects only one feature of the general
code of industrial law in the United States, which imposes restric-
tions and obligations not only upon employers but also upon
trade unions. At the same time, the Minister for Labour moved
to repeal the Trade Disputes (Essential Services) Ordinance,
1942. The object of this Ordinance is to prevent sudden stoppages
in services where there is likely to be an immediate and serious
effect on the life and health of the community. Without such
protection, the country could be deprived of water supplies, elec-
tricity, transport and drainage, and food supplies and public
health endangered.
20. On 24th September, the day the strike ended, the House
of Assembly mot. Before the session began, large crowds had









been instigated by the PPP and GIWU Leaders to assemble in
the vicinity of the Legislative Chamber. While the Police were
attempting to control them, the Minister for Works exhorted them
to rush the building. It was soon packed with an unruly crowd,
and it was some time before sufficient order could be restored for
the session to begin. The Minister for Labour then moved the
suspension of standing orders so that the Labour Relations Bill
could be taken without due notice through all its stages that day.
The Speaker refused this request on the grounds that such action
infringed the rights of the minority in the House, and that he
could not permit a measure of such importance to the life of the
community to be taken without notice. The Ministers present,
and other members of the PPP, then rose and left the Chamber.
Pandemonium broke out amongst the large crowd in the Chamber,
which invaded the floor of the House, and order could not be
restored for some time. The Leader of the Opposition had to be
given police protection on leaving the building. The Party at
first threatened to boycott the House until the Speaker reversed
his ruling and, at a public meeting, the Speaker was accused by
the Ministers of partiality. Eventually, however, the Bill was
debated for several days and passed. These incidents added to
the already serious tension in Georgetown which was not relaxed
until the arrival of the troops.

21. The alarm generated amongst moderate opinion by these
developments was reflected in a Resolution recorded on the 21st
September by the State Council expressing its grave anxiety at
the sugar strike and regretting that "certain Ministers of the
Crown in the colony had been actively engaged in various parts
of the country in promoting and sustaining this strike.", The
Resolution continued: "Such action by these Ministers of the
Crown is a grave danger to the Constitution, a direct threat to
the peace and security of the citizens of the colony, and the nega-
tion of good and responsible democratic government"; and it asked
the Secretary of State "after due enquiry, to take such action as
he may deem fit to ensure confidence in the Government and the
proper and efficient working of the Constitution."

Ministerial Negligence.

22. When the Ministers were dismissed, large arrears of work
were found in most of their offices. In the case of the Minister
for Works, who was responsible for drainage and irrigation, im-
portant issues had been left undealt with for several months.
The consequences of this neglect, and of Ministers' actions, are
given in paragraphs 24-27.

23. Ministers came into power at an important stage in the
development of the country. Prospects were bright. An esti-
mated total of 10,000,000 overseas capital had been invested in









the colony over the preceding five years. Plans to bring larger
areas of land into production on the coast and to provide for the
ever-growing population had been drawn up involving large
schemes for the drainage of land. Arrangements had been made
to find the substantial sum of money required to meet the cost
partly from the colony's allocation of 3,500,000 from United
Kingdom funds for development. There were favourable markets
for the two main agricultural products, namely sugar and rice,
the former provided by the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement,
1951. The report of the International Bank Mission which visited
British Guiana early this year was available in mid-July. This
report provided zn excellent blue-print for the future develop-
ment of the colony. Ministers made no attempt to take advantage
of all these opportunities, despite the efforts of the Governor
who, as stated in his broadcast, pressed upon them on many occa-
sions ways and rneans of making progress in the economic field.
III. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES.

Not only did Ministers neglect all these opportunities of push-
ing ahead with the development of the resources of the territory,
and thereby improving the standard of life of the inhabitants, but
by their activities, they undermined the confidence of the whole,
business community. Although the International Bank Mission
concluded during its visits that the major part of the large sums
required for development during the next five years could be
raised locally, the Governor was recently advised that any attempt
to raise a local loan would be unsuccessful. A survey by the
Chamber of Commerce of principal business firms shows that turn-
over in wholesale and retail trades decreased by 9% per cent.
compared with the corresponding period in 1952. There is ample
evidence that until private firms have more confidence in the
future of the colony they will make no further capital investments
there. For example, (a) Kennametals International S.A. (Inc.)
abandoned an Exclusive Permission to explore for columbite-
tantalite on 30th June; (b) The New York-Alaska Gold Dredging
Company abandoned an Exclusive Permission on 3rd September;
(c) The Gulf Oil Corporation withdrew their application for an oil
exploration licence on 27th August; (d) Panhandle Oil Canada
Limited has abandoned further exploration pending the clarifi-
cation of the political situation; (e) A building project by Ellis
Associated Companies involving capital investment of $300,000
was abandoned, as financial backers refused to continue negotia-
tions with the then government.

25. Unemployment increased sharply in the building trade
because of a general reluctance to start new construction work.
Local timber mills report decreases varying from 12 per cent to
40 per cent in the demand for lumber for the domestic building
trade.









26. At the end of 1952, Savings Bank deposits totalled approx-
imately $16,000,000. The level of deposits fluctuated during the
first weeks of the new government, but a serious run started in
August as is shown in the following table:
Net
Period Deposits Withdrawals Withdrawals
August 19- 31. .. $281,264 $ 604,605 $ 323,341
September 1 15 .. 369,029 1,371,485 1,002,456
September 16- 30 338,694 712,619 373,925
Total .. .. $988,987 $2,688,709 $1,699,722

B.W.I. Dollar = 4/2
After the arrival of the troops, the rate of withdrawal signi-
ficantly decreased.
27. The numerous strikes and stoppages in the sugar industry
which had taken place during the past four months owing to direct
interference in labour relations on sugar estates by Ministers
resulted in substantial losses in production of sugar and in wages
earned by sugar workers.
IV. THE DANGER OF VIOLENCE:
28. The leaders of the P.P.P. had for some time made clear
their preparedness to use force to gain their ends. For example:
(i) On 10th March this year Dr. Jagan said: "In Kenya the Afri-
cans are not only killing white men who took away their land
but are killing their own people who turn stooges and that should
be done to stooges (here) who are fighting the cause of the Gov-
ernment and not the people". (ii) The Minister for Education
said in the House of Assembly on llth September: "The possi-
bility of our present Constitution being taken from us will be
met by as much force as is necessary". He also said at a public
meeting on 24th September: "They say they are going to take
away the Constitution from us, but I would like them to know
that, when they attempt that, Her Gracious Majesty will not only
hear of the explosion of the atomic bomb in the hinterlands of
Australia but she will hear of it in the mudland of British Guiana
for we intend to fight to the end. I would like not to disclose
our plans for th, intended action which we will take but will
keep it a secret until it becomes necessary to put it into operation".
29. Ministers' actions showed that their speeches were not
mere rhetoric. One example of this was when the Minister for
Works encouraged a mob to rush the Legislature (see paragraph
20). The attempts to subvert the Police Force and to set up
"People's Police" can have had no other object (see paragraphs
9 and 10).









30. It was established from reliable sources that at meetings
attended by Dr. Jagan, the Minister for Education, the Minister
for Works and Mrs. Jagan, a plan was made to set fire to business
property and residences of prominent Europeans and Govern-
ment Officials. It was to be put into force if the Governor refused
to declare a joint session to consider the Labour Relations Bill
or if action was taken to arrest any of the Ministers for sedition,
of if the Constitution was revoked. This information was sup-
ported by reports of unusual sales of petrol to individuals without
cars .who carried it away in cans or bottles.
31. The P.P.P. has a well-developed cell system which
enables contacts to be made and instructions issued and there is
reported to be a hard core of some 400-500 party members, con-
centrated mainly in Georgetown, who are ready to do violence
at the bidding of the leaders, particularly Mr. King.
32. From 1st September to 9th October, 660 applications for
cover against riot and civil commotion to a value of $11,355,000
were received by three of the insurance companies operating in
the colony from persons who have not previously sought such
cover.
33. On 15th October, the Governor reported that "There can
be no doubt that the arrival of troops forestalled any plans for
violent demonstrations with which any moves to take action
against Ministers and the Party, even the withdrawal of port-
folios from one or more of the Ministers, would otherwise have
been greeted".

V. PEOPLES' PROGRESSIVE PARTY LEADERS AND
COMMUNISM:

Ties with International Communist Organizations:
34. Leaders of the Party have been closely associated with
international Communist organizations for many years. Mrs.
Jagan was a member of the Young Communist League in the
United States before 1943, and Mr. R. Westmaas frequently at-
tended Communist meetings in Great Britain before returning
to British Guiana in November, 1952. At least ten members of
the Party have made trips behind the "Iron Curtain" during the
past two years, and these trips have increased in frequency since
the Party came into power. Such Party members who visited the
United Kingdom had frequent contacts with Communists here.
Details of contacts between P.P.P. leaders and international Com-
munist Front organizations are given in Appendix A. It will be
seen that these have mainly been with the "World Federation of
Trade Unions", an organization under Communist control which
has latterly devoted much attention to the incitement of strikes








and agitation in western democratic countries and their colonies.
At its General Council meeting in November, 1951, Dr. Jagan him-
self sought the formation of a Colonial Bureau of the W.F.T.U.
P.P.P. leaders have made it clear that they were prepared to
follow the lead of the W.F.T.U. and to further the aims of inter-
national Communism in British Guiana.

Party Organization.

35. The P.P.P. evolved from a political discussion group
organized by Dr. and Mrs. Jagan. Although the Party had a
following amongst labour leaders, it was firmly controlled from
the outset by Mrs. Jagan as Secretary and Dr. Jagan as President.
They used the Party to disseminate Communist literature and to
spread pro-Communist propaganda in its journal "Thunder". As
already described, the Jagans and their associates set out to cap-
ture the existing trade union movement or, where they failed, as
with the sugar union, to set up rival unions in order to provide
the labour wing to their political party. Mrs. Jagan, shortly after
her election as Deputy Speaker of the House of Assembly, at-
tended the Third World Congress of the Communist-dominated
Women's International Democratic Federation (W.I.D.F.), and,
on her return, she circulated a directive to Party members calling
for the organization of small cells for recruitment and indoctrina-
tion and the selling of the Party's paper and Communist literature.

Communist Propaganda.

36. In official broadcasts, Ministers gave evidence of their
attachment to Communist ideas. Dr. Jagan announced he be-
lieved that Socialism, having replaced Capitalism, would "itself
evolve into the higher Communist stage of society". In an official
broadcast, the Minister for Education said his intention was to
remove churches from their present participation in the educa-
tional system of the country and to revise the curriculum and
textbooks of schools "to give them the true Guianese Socialist and
realistic outlook".

37. The Party, and in particular Mr. R. Westmaas, one of its
Vice Presidents, have promoted the formation of a Communist
political youth organization, the Pioneer Youth League affiliated
to the Communist-controlled World Federation of Democratic
Youth (W.F.D.Y.) and World Peace Council (W.P.C.). All Min-
isters have been present at one time or another at League meet-
ings where propaganda of the W.F.D.Y. and W.P.C. was dis-
tributed. On 16th August, 1953, a Youth Congress to which over-
seas delegates were invited by the Minister for Works was held
to coincide with the Communist World Youth Festival at
Bucharest.








38. The Party sought to undermine the position and influence
of the established youth movements such as the Boy Scouts and
Girl Guides, which are grouped in the colony under a Youth
Council. This Council refused to accept the membership of the
League on the ground that it was a political organization. The
Minister for Local Government and Social Welfare proposed to the
Governor that the Minister for Works should be made Chairman
of the Council.

39. In May, Mrs. Jagan set up a Women's Progressive Organ-
ization which has applied for affiliation to the Communist-con-
trolled W.I.D.F. A British Guiana Peace Committee, in which
the Minister for Works, Mrs. Jagan and Mr. R. Westmaas have
been active, has been spreading this type of Communist "peace"
propaganda for some time and has taken its lead from the Com-
munist-run World Peace Council. Mr. Westmaas is responsible
for running a bookshop which is the main centre for the dissemin-
ation of Communist propaganda.

40. In sum, Dr. and Mrs. Jagan, Mr. S. King and Mr. R. West-
maas especially have been in frequent contact with communists
and Communist Front organizations abroad. They have shown
by their speeches and writings that they are zealots in the cause
of Communism and have demonstrated by their actions that their
objective is to impose a totalitarian control on the P.P.P, the trade
unions, the Police Force, the youth organizations, and the State
itself. All the Ministers have supported the extremists, have
shown that they were prepared to be guided by them, and cannot
therefore evade responsibility for what has occurred.

41. The Soviet Communist Leaders issue periodical directives
in the Cominform journal concerting the National Liberation
Movement in colonial and dependent countries. Communists are
charged with the duty of securing control, of these movements
in order to establish satellite "Peoples Democracies". The tech-
nique by which Communist parties have seized power in other
parts of the world is significantly standardized. In those coun-
tries a highly disciplined Party machine used propaganda, indoc-
trination of the young, infiltration of the Police and the public
services, penetration of all forms of social organization, foment-
ing of class hatred and the creation of economic chaos by strikes
to achieve its ends. Step by step this is the pattern followed by
the P.P.P. in British Guiana.

VI. ACTION BY HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT.

42. It became clear by the end of September that British
Guiana was facing a rapid deterioration in the efficiency of its
administration, in its economy, and in its security. This deterior-








nation threatened not only public order but the very livelihood of
the people. The Governor's reserved powers were certainly never
intended to deal with a situation of this kind, so that effective
action could not be taken within the terms of the Constitution to
remedy matters. After consultation with the Governor, Her
Majesty's Govermnent were driven reluctantly to the conclusion
that the only course was to take steps to suspend the Constitution.
To have waited until further deterioration in the situation had
brought loss of life would have been a betrayal of Her Majesty's
Government's responsibilities.

43. Her Majesty's Government realized the gravity of this
step. Some Ministers had threatened violence, and tension was
great. They and other extremists might have used this occasion
for stirring up disorder. Her Majesty's Government accordingly
decided to transfer to British Guiana the troops which were
stationed in Jamaica and British Honduras to support the security
forces and to ensure the maintenance of order. In the event, the
action taken by Her Majesty's Government was greeted with
widespread relief in the colony and there were no incidents be-
vond the General Strike which the P.P.P. Ministers were attempt-
ing to organize. In the West Indies, fh.e unofficial members of several
Executive Councils and Committees have supported Her Majesty's
Government's action. Strong criticisms of the P.P.P. by leaders
of the two principal political parties in Jamaica have been pub-
lished in the press.

44. Pending the making of the Order in Council to suspend
the Constitution, P.P.P. Ministers were deprived of responsibility
for departments, and steps were taken to amend the Constitution
so that the Governor, in exercising his powers under the Constitu-
tion, was no longer obliged to act on the advice of Executive
Council. This was the effect of the British Guiana (Constitution)
(Amendment) Order in Council, 1953, made on 4th October, 1953,
and of the additional Instructions amending the Royal Instructions
to the Governor of 1st April, 1953, signed by the Queen on the
same day. The Governor was also given emergency powers at
the same time under the British Guiana (Emergency) Order in
Council, 1953. The texts of Her Majesty's Government's an-
nouncement and the Governor's broadcast of 9th October are given
in Appendices B and C. As stated in the announcement, a Com-
mission will be sent out to British Guiana to enquire into the
events which have led to this check in the political advance of the
colony and to make recommendations for a revised Constitution,








APPENDIX A

CONTACTS BETWEEN P.P.P. LEADERS AND INTER-
NATIONAL COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS,
1950-1953.

In November, 1950, Keith Carter from British Guiana was
present at the Second World Peace Congress held in Warsaw
under the auspices of the Communist World Peace Council. In
February, 1951, "Thunder", the organ of the Peoples' Progressive
Party, included an article entitled "Long Live Peace" which fol-
lowed the lead of the Communist-controlled Warsaw Peace Con-
gress in November, 1950, in calling for the abolition of atomic,
bacteriological and other methods of mass destruction.

Towards the end of 1951, a British Guiana Peace Committee
was set up and was dominated by P.P.P. supporters. In the
summer of 1951, Dr. Jagan, the leader of the Peoples' Progressive
Party, visited Europe primarily to attend the Third "World Festi-
val of Youth and Students for Peace" which was held in Berlin
in August, 1951. It was also attended by 13 other British Guianese
residents at that time in the United Kingdom, including Mr. R.
Westmaas who, on his return to British Guiana, became a promin-
ent member of the P.P.P. On 20th August, Prague Radio in its
English transmission broadcast a recorded speech made by Dr.
Jagan in which he denounced British Imperialism for allegedly
exploiting the manpower and plundering the resources of British
Guiana.

In November, 1951, Dr. Jagan attended the General Council
Meeting of the Communist-controlled World Federation of Trade
Unions (1) (W.F.T.U.) in the Soviet sector of Berlin as an
observer. During the course of his speech there, he made a
suggestion that, to assist trade unions in colonial territories, the
W.F.T.U. should set up a Colonial Department. This suggestion
was reiterated by a Trinidad observer present, and later a recom-
mendation incorporating this proposal was approved by the Gen-
eral Council Meeting. A further recommendation approved was
to the effect that the W.F.T.U. should send delegates to colonial
territories in order to strengthen its links with these territories.

Meanwhile, in Vienna, the staff of the W.F.T.U. Secretariat
had been augmented by the arrival there from the U.S.A. of Mr.
Ferdinand C. Smith. A Jamaican by birth, Mr. Smith had lived
in the U.S.A. for over 30 years and was well known there for his
Communist activities amongst maritime workers. He left the
U.S.A. in anticipation of the execution of a deportation order in
force against him. He became an Assistant Secretary in the
W.F.T.U. Secretariat in charge of American, Canadian and Carib-










bean affairs, and later was nominated as Head of the W.F.T.U.
Colonial Department. In the spring of 1952, presumably in ful-
filment of the W.F.T.U. General Council's recommendations
referred to earlier, Mr. Smith, in company with Mr. W. Strachan,
a Jamaican Communist resident in London, travelled to the West
Indies. They visited Jamaica and Trinidad, but were refused per-
mission to visit British Guiana. This decision was later the sub-
ject of a bitter attack by Dr. Jagan in the Legislative Assembly.
Both Mr. Smith, and Mr. Strachan returned to Europe in June,
1952, but a month later Mr. Smith sailed from the United King-
dom for Jamaica where he remained until March of this year.
In March, he led delegates from the Caribbean at an International
Conference on Social Security held in Vienna under the W.F.T.U.
auspices. He travelled to Jamaica once more in April to con-
tinue his activities there on behalf of the W.F.T.U.

After his debut at the Berlin Council, Dr. Jagan and his more
extreme colleagues in the P.P.P. began to take a prominent part
m W.F.T.U. activity. The W.F.T.U. Bulletin of January 16-31,
1952, contained a long article by him on the trade union
"struggles" in British Guiana, in which he attacked the "sham
Constitution" given to the colony and demanded "real independ-
ence". The W.F.T.U. Bulletin of March, 1-15, 1953, contained an
article in extreme terms by Mrs. Jagan on "Civil Liberties in
British Guiana".

In the late summer of 1952, the Pioneer Youth League of British
Guiana came into being as the Youth Movement of the P.P.P. It
was accepted as an affiliate of the Communist-controlled World
Federation of Democratic Youth (W.F.D.Y.) (2) at a Council
meeting held in Prague in February, 1953, and attended by Mr. S.
King, Assistant Secretary of the P.P.P. and lately Minister of
Communications.

In October, 1952, Dr. Jagan was present at a meeting in Bar-
bados called by Mr. Richard Hart, Secretary of the Caribbean
Labour Congress and attended by other Communist sympathisers
from Trinidad, St. Vincent and Barbados itself. Mr. F. C. Smith
intended to be present at this meeting also, at which it is believed
that plans to further W.F.T.U. influence in the Caribbean area
were discussed, but in the event he was not allowed to enter Bar-
bados.

In December, 1952, Mr. S. King, Assistant Secretary of the
P.P.P., travelled to Vienna to attend the so-called Congress of
Peoples for Peaca held under the auspices of the World Peace
Council. He was elected to the Presidium. Later, Mr. King
visited Budapest where he is reported to have made a statement
alleging that 90 per cent. of the youth of British Guiana were
unemployed and that the school children were half-starved. He









also went to Prague where he attended W.F.D.Y. Council meeting
mentioned above. On his return on 5th March, 1953, he brought
back with him a large suit case full of Communist propaganda
pamphlets and correspondence with Communists contacts in
Eastern Europe and England.
In May, 1953, a body known as the Women's Progressive
Organization was formed at a meeting held in Georgetown by
Mrs. Jagan, and a decision taken to apply for affiliation to the
Communist-controlled Women's International Democratic Feder-
ation (3) (Headquarters: Soviet Sector of Berlin).
Immediately afterwards, Mrs. Jagan left for Copenhagen to
attend the Third World Congress of Women organized by the
W.I.D.F. Mrs. Jagan was elected to the Congress Presidium. In
a speech she said: "We need guidance and help. We in the
Colonial World are tied economically and politically like the slaves
of old. Our People turn their eyes to the great Socialist coun-
tries which have been moving forward with great rapidity and
success. Help us to win freedom for all the oppressed colonial
peoples of the world". Mrs. Jagan visited Roumania after the
Congress in June, 1953.
Mr. R. Westmaas, Vice-President of the P.P.P., attended a
session of the World Peace Council in Budapest, during the course
of which Dr. Jagan and Mr. E. Huntley (a P.P.P. member) were
elected members of the W.P.C. Mr. Westmaas stayed in Europe
to attend the Third World Youth Congress and the Fourth World
Youth Festival both events being held in Bucharest in late July
and early August under the auspices of the World Federation of
Democratic Youth. Mr. Westmaas was joined by two delegates
from British Guiana selected by the Pioneer Youth League, Mr.
Martin Carter (an Assistant Secretary of the PPP), and Mr.
*Ramkarran (a PPP member).
Three members of the PPP, Mr. Jackson (President of the
Federation of Unions of Government Employees), Mr. Blackman
(Secretary of the Sawmill Workers' Union), and Mr. Ramkarran
(a member of the House of Assembly) were at the Third Con-
gress of the WFTU which opened on 16th October, 1953. In
Vienna, the Secretary General, M. Saillant, said in his opening
speech that the main task of the WFTU was to develop the work-
ers' struggle "as much against colonial exploitation as for the
strengthening of the social laws won in the course of previous
struggles. That is why we need to stimulate, develop and guide
everywhere the combative spirit". Mr. Ramkarran said at the
Congress: "In this (sugar) strike movement, the organizations
affiliated with the so-called International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions stabbed the workers in the back", (presumably be-
cause they refused to take part in a political general strike). Mr.
*This name should be Ramsarran.








35
Blackman spoke of British Guiana being hidden behind "the
blood-bespattered curtain of British terrorism", and said: -"We
will fight with as much determination even against odds qs the
Malayan patriots and the people of Kenya. We who have lived
in slavery look with pride and admiration at the achievements of
the Soviet Union. The successes of People's China and the Peo-
ple's Democracies in such a short space of time steel us to go for-
ward with greater courage". He appealed to the WFTU for help.
Mr. Jackson was elected to the Presidium. Observers from
Jamaica, St. Vincent and Trinidad attended this function, together
with Mr. F. C. Smith.
Papers seized in recent police raids on party premises show
that the PPP leaders were in constant communication with WFTU
and other international Communist bodies 'in Europe, as well as
individual Communists in the United Kingdom. The following
are examples:

1. Letter from Jean Lafitte of the WPC enclosing photo-
graphic documents and captions concerning bacteri-
ological warfare in Korea and China.
2. Letter from the Committee for Friendship and Cul-
tural Relations with Foreign Countries, Sofia, Bul-
garia. dated 4th June, 1953, sending material and
photographs on the life of Dimitrov.
3. Two letters dated 17th April and 25th August, 1953,
from the WFTU Publications Limited to Mr. Hunt-
ley (a member of PPP) acknowledging notes on
sugar workers and newspapers reproductions.
4. Decla ation from the World Peace Council in Buda-
pest, June, 1953, attended by-Mr. Westmaas.
5. Letter to Mr. Huntley's wife forwarding proceedings
of Third World Congress of Women in Copenhagen,
June, 1953.
6. Letter to the Pioneer Youth League from Jacques
Denis, General Secretary, WFDY, Bucharest, acknow-
ledging receipt of names of four delegates and two
observers elected to attend the World Youth Congress.

There is abundant information available to indicate quite
clearly that, since initial contacts were made in 1950-51, there has
been a steady strengthening of the ties between the PPP under
the leadership of Dr. and Mrs. Jagan, Mr. Westmaas and Mr. King
and the foremost international Communist Front organizations.
There is little doubt that the attendance by PPP leaders at inter-
national meetings organized by these movements has given con-
siderable impetus to the activities of the PPP and the Trade





Dte Due


Rt-

Unio. and Yo'. organizatio :s undee- it .. : ': he increased
att ition paid oy the Wi TL colonir affairs in recent t years
sug ested by Dr. Jagan himself indicates the clear intention of
Soviet Communism to spread disaffection throughout the colonial
empire by exploiting labour troubles and in other ways, while
the presence of Mr. F. Smith in the West Indies shows that that
part of the world and British Guiana in particular has been singled
out for a concentrated attack.

NOTE (1). At the time of its Berlin Council meeting, the
WFTU had been for nearly three years under Communist control.
Its primary task, as defined at its Milan Congress in 1949 by the
Soviet trade union leader, V. V. Kuznetsov, was to "expose the
warmongers and their agents in the labour movement", a task
which "in the colonial and dependent countries", was to be "com-
bined with the call for a struggle for national liberation and inde-
pendence. Kuznetsov insisted that the WFTU should work to
"secure the affiliation of new members, especially trade union
centres in colonial and dependent countries", and that its execu-
tive bodies should "establish close contact with the trade unions
of those countries." The promise of systematic help for trade
unions in the colonial and dependent countries was repeated at
the meeting of the WFTU Executive Committee in Budapest in
May, 1950, which also instructed the WFTU Secretariat to extend
the distribution of WFTU material to Asia, Africa and Latin
America, and to assist trade unions of those countries in starting
and developing a trade union press.
NOTE (2). The WFDY is a Communist-controlled organiza-
tion which has close links with the WFTU. It has always shown
a close interest in colonial problems. Thus, its Executive Coun-
cil reported at its Second Congress in Budapest in September,
1949: "The Imperialists preparations for war have been stepped
up. Everything is being put into motion in order to drown in
blood the irresistible movement of the colonial peoples for
national liberations."
NOTE (3). The Communist-controlled Women's international
Democratic Federation has also shown a close interest in colonial
problems. In accordance with the accepted Communist line a
resolution passed at its Asian Conference at Pekin in 1949 de-
clared: "The WIDF leads women of all the Imperialist countries
in their struggle against their Governments for the immediate ter-
mination of the colonial wars and armed intervention in Vietnam,
Indonesia, Malaya, Burma, and the southern part of Korea."
"Appendices B, and C. of the White Paper consist of the texts
of Her Majesty's Government's statement and His Excellency the
Governor's broadcast of 9th October which have already been
published in British Guiana*anid are reproduced on pages 3 to 15
of this brochure
A.C.L.




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