Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Patterns of progress ;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077032/00001
 Material Information
Title: Patterns of progress ;
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Guyana. Government Information Services.
Copyright Date: 1961
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077032
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 23469274 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Pages 16-17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Back Cover
        Page 34
Full Text






The Development Programme aims to increase the
wealth of the country so as to provide more jobs and to
raise living standards. The Programme aims to do this:
(a) By providing basic services such as
V Sea Defences to protect the land
Roads and ships and other means of trans-
port essential to development
SAn efficient postal and telephone system
(b) By providing great new areas of land through
large scale drainage and irrigation works

(c) By encouraging the expansion of old crops and
the production of new crops especially for the
local market
Sby offering bonuses for certain new crops
Sby credit facilities for farmers
Sby conducting research and experiments for
the purpose of improving methods, yields,
varieties of crop and fodder and breeds of
livestock; and
Sby investigating soil types and fertility
(d) By establishing marketing facilities for farm-
ers produce
(e) By expanding the export trade
(f) By assisting industry with advice, research,
credit facilities and tax holidays
(g) By encouraging co-operative effort and aided
In addition the Development Programme aims to
4 More houses
0 Expanded Health Services
SThe extension of Pure Water Supplies
SMore schools and facilities for secondary
P Help for community organizations and
welfare activities.

To carry out the Development Programme a sur
of $110 million is required.
Towards this sum grants totalling $22 million are

S available from Her Majesty's Government.
^ The remainder, $88 million, must be borrowed
from Her Majesty's Government, the World Bank and
other sources, overseas and local, or raised by taxes.
p' On money borrowed, the country will be required
to pay interest charges.

The current Development Programme has only been
in progress for one year but the story of Government's
achievement since 1957 is told in the following pages.


- -

7.g,8;, /


S _-


Of special importance to Government's efforts to
assist private enterprise in establishing industries is its
programme to set up three industrial estates within easy
reach of the urban market and Port Georgetown. The
first to be completed for occupation is at Pin. Ruimveldt.
Negotiations are in progress for the purchase of a section
of Pin. Farm, East Bank, Demerara, and there are also
proposals to develop a third estate at Garden of Eden,
East Bank, Demerara. The estate at Ruimveldt which
has been provided with roads, water and electricity will
accommodate about twenty-four light manufacturing
industries while the estates at Farm and Garden of Eden
will provide sites for heavier industry with access to river

-\ \\\ i \

// N
The Co-op Movement has made a considerable stride
forward both in number of societies and volume of
business. Land societies have now become the chief
means available for the inexpensive development of new
lands. In the last three years twenty-five co-operative
societies have put 15,000 acres of land into cultiva-
tion. Co-op machinery societies are now helping with
mechanical ploughing and reaping and a Co-op has
taken over the Vergenoegen Rice Mill and is doing well.
This year a beginning will be made with the establish-
ment of cooperative rice mills. These mills besides
saving money for the farmers will represent the farmers'
contribution to the improvement of the quality of rice
produced in British Guiana.

Government is assisting in many ways in the pro-
motion of trade and industry so as to create a more
balanced economy, to increase the national income and
the number of jobs available for a rapidly growing
population. Surveys of our industrial possibilities have
been made with the help of I.C.A. Consultants; and de-
tailed project reports on a number of possible indus-
tries are available. There is also a continuing pro-
gramme of research into the use of local raw materials.
Aid to industry legislation which grants tax relief and
other benefits to new industries is being revised and
improved. At the same time Government continues
to promote trade especially with neighboring territories.
Trade Missions have been sent to Venezuela, and the
United Kingdom and trade and economic missions
have been received from Canada, India, New Zealand,
Hungary, Japan, Germany and the U.S.A.

While private enterprise will be encouraged in every
way to establish industries, Government proposes to set
up factories either on its own or in partnership with
private enterprise. Plans are well advanced for the
setting up of a factory to make container glass and
pressed ware. Other factories which may be estab-
lished include a mill to produce oil from rice bran and
the manufacture of alcohol from broken rice, produc-
tion of cements and paints and bio-gas plants.

Surveys using new methods to discover additional
mineral resources in the Interior have been carried out.
Such good progress has also been made on the new
provisional geological map of B.G. that plans are being
made to publish it this year, one year ahead of the
target date. Of special value to Government's Pure
Water Supply programme is the research which has
been done on artesian water supply. The result of this
work has been to show that far from being near exhaus-
tion the coastal artesian basin can stand much more
development and is one of the country's greatest re-
sources. The Demerara Bauxite Co.'s alumina plant
is now in production. Manganese production has
begun, diamond production has shown a considerable
increase and an offshore survey has been made in con-
nection with the search for oil.

As a result of a request made by the British Guiand
Government, Her Majesty's Government in the United
Kingdom has agreed that the British Guiona Govern-
ment should in future deal direct in the first instance
with the United Nations Technical Assistance Board.
United Nations Technical Assistance is now being given
in the survey of hydro-electric potential, soils, harbour
siltation and sea defences and in public administration.


The wharf and storage bonds at the Rice Market-
ing Board have been extended to accommodate on extra
hundred thousand bags of rice and another bond is be-
ing erected. A modern re-milling plant has been installed
to bring rice up to a quality equal to the best produced
in any part of the world and three more machines for
automatic packaging of rice are being put in. All
these improvements costing more than half a million
dollars mean that the Board can produce three times
as much packaged rice ofrthe highest quality as before
to meet an expanding market.

The United Nations has been approached to give
assistance with a thorough stock-taking of our forest
resources. In the meanwhile because of the heavy
drain on certain woods especially greenheart Govern-
ment- is trying to popularise locally and abroad many
other species of worthwhile timber. Certain areas are
also being replanted with Caribbean pine which is in
much demand in the world market.


~~ I.

Government is now paying bonuses to farmers for
new lands put under the following crops-onions, cab-
bages, dholl, peanuts, sesame and other oil seeds, cocoa,
and coconuts. Farmers are also being assisted with
seed and planting material. For certain of these crops
there are guaranteed prices and steps will also be taken
to restrict importation of similar products when the crops
are in sufficient supply. Credit facilities are available
to farmers.

S 1 '' ,\ ,' .

The expansion of the rice industry is perhaps the
most notable achievement of Government. The figures
speak for themselves :

Acreage under Total Produc-
Cultivation tion in Tons
1957 152,475 55,446
1958 183,326 100,519
1959 195,776 104,075
1960 220,000 120,000
Government has been assisting rice farmers with their
mechanisation problems, better yielding varieties of
paddy, and the more effective control of insect pests
and blast disease.

Of the 90,000 acres, about, 11,500 have been
given to Co-op Land and Producers Societies. Another
25,000 acres have been given out to settlers on the main
land settlement schemes, Black Bush Polder, Garden
of Eden, Mara and Onverwagt. The remainder has
gone to individual farmers. A good deal of this land
has been put under rice.

Livestock farmers are being assisted to improve
their herds with new breeding stock. 30 Santo
Gertrudis and Zebu have been imported and should
have an important effect on herd improvement in the
savannahs. Likewise 30 Holstein have been imported
for the dairy industry. A number of Large White and
Landrace pigs have also been brought in from Canada
for the pig industry. At the same time, a great deal is
being done on new grasses and disease control. The
poultry industry which now ranks second in importance
to beef as the national meat is being satisfactorily pro-
tected by disease control measures.


RICE 120,000
S 100,5s9 104.075

157 1456 I959 I160

SFishermen are being assisted to build trawlers by
: a bonus amounting to 12-1% of the actual cost of con-
struction of new trawlers. With the help of an I.C.A.
specialist, fishermen are also being helped to improve
S their techniques and equipment. Reorganization of fish
handling and storage facilities at the Marketing Division
has; increased handling capacity and improved storage

,_ __ -- ; -.- ..' I ',.,-.- ,


I -, -

Since 1957 the sum of $23 million has been spent
on drainage and irrigation. The Boerasirie project has
been opened. Black Bush Polder now nearing comple-
tion provides for cultivation of paddy on 21,000 acres
of new land. Work has begun on the Tapakuma
scheme on the Essequibo Coast which when completed
will provide 36,000 acres of land. Plans and designs
have been completed for Stage One lAbary Control) of
the Mahaica-Mahaicony-Abary project which will provide
over 250,000 acres of land with drainage and irrigation.
It is hoped to commence surveys for the Greater Canje
Scheme in the very near future. In addition since 1957,
there have been thirteen small drainage schemes which
aim to improve the drainage facilities of villages from
the Corentyne to the Charity area. These small
schemes benefit some 30,000 acres of village farmlands
and cost altogether about $11 million.

As a result of negotiations with the sugar com-
panies, agreement has been reached for the expansion
of peasant cane farming in the rural districts near to
sugar factories. A thousand additional acres of cane
will be cultivated by cane farmers and this should go
far to improve standards of living in those villages.

Nt 1,

The Marketing Division continued to offer pro-
ducers an assured market at fair prices. Purchase of
plantain and other food crops by the Marketing Division
increased from 4,125,000 Ibs. in 1959 to 4,696,000
Ibs. in 1960. Exports of plantains to the West Indies
rose to 3-1 million Ibs. compared with 1,600,000 lbs. in
1959, an increase of 118%. The Milk Pasteurization
Plant in Georgetown purchased 622,262 gallons com-
pared with 498,876 gallons in 1959, an increase of
25%. Milk distribution is now being reorganised to
provide a milk supply for the main coastal areas.


--i ~n9~



s if

Great emphasis has been placed on the training of
personnel in order to improve efficiency of existing ser-
vices or to provide new services. With the help, in many
cases, of WHO, training has been or is being provided
in a wide variety of fields e.g., malaria eradication
techniques, health engineering, public health education,
other aspects of public health, laboratory techniques,
pharmacy, physiotherapy, dietetics, radiography, pure
water development, psychiatry, opthalmology, leprosy
and obstetrics. In certain instances where specialists
services have been unavailable in British Guiana, patients
have been helped to go abroad for treatment to
Venezuela, Surinam and Trinidad.

Malaria With U.N. assistance a scheme has just
been launched to wipe out malaria entirely from this
country by the use of medicated salt and intensive
spraying. The campaign is being specially directed to
the Interior.
Filaria Since 1959 more than a 100,000 persons
have been tested for this disease and mass treatment
carried out in certain areas. A plan of operations has
been drawn up with the help of I.C.A. for a more active
campaign against this disease this year.

Outstanding improvements include the newly established
Orthopaedic and Physiotherapy Units, of special benefit
to paralysed children and young adults, and a new Ear,
Nose and Throat Department. New theatres for gen-
eral and caesarian surgery are also in use and an
extension to the Central Medical Laboratory for public
health work and a blood bank is under construction.
Persons unable to pay for specialist services are inter-
viewed by an Almoner who ascertains whether they
qualify for free treatment.

___ / \z^

--- .

Anti-Typhoid Scheme-More than 70,000 elemen-
tary school children in Demerara and Berbice have
already been inoculated against typhoid. The cam-
paign is to be extended this year to Essequibo.
Anti-Polio Campaign-More than 48,000 children
between the ages of 6 months to 31/2 years have re-
ceived the first dose of anti-polio vaccine, 41,000 the
second dose and about 27,000 of these have received
the third shots. In 1961, additional third shots will
be given and more children between the ages of 6
months and 3/2 years will be inoculated.

Many overhead tanks have been completed, new
wells drilled and 31 miles of new pipe lines laid. In addi-
tion in several areas the supply has been improved by
relaying the pipe line. Work on a pure water supply for
Bartica should begin shortly and a water supply is being
put in on the new land development schemes, Garden of
Eden and Lesbeholden at Black Bush Polder. 37
miles of pipe lines will be laid this year and in several
areas a house supply of pure water is being provided
by the installation of pumping stations. Annual expendi-
ture on pure water supply which has been doubled now
stands at $1 million and the experiments and research
done in recent years is now resulting in considerable
technical progress.




A start has been made on a new housing programme
which provides for the erection of between 1,500
and 1,800 houses by 1964 at a cost of $5,000,000.
Work has begun on the erection of 81 houses by aided
self-help in East La Penitence; 86 new resi-
dential sites have been developed at Sparendaam for
people in those areas and steady progress is being
made in the erection of houses by persons in the lower
and lower gniddle-income groups on lots sold to them
by Government. 57 shop sites in Campbellville, Ruim-
veldt and La Penitence have been allocated. The
pace of construction of houses to satisfy the demand
for low cost houses will be accelerated this year.
The Government's direct aid programme has been
supplemented by the grant of loans through the Credit
Corporation for house construction. The benefits of
the Rent Restriction Ordinance, formerly confined to
the urban areas now apply throughout British Guiana.

Fourteen of twenty-four new health centres have
been completed and opened and others will soon
be opened. A new cottage hospital has been opened
at Leguan and a G.M.O. stationed in the Leguan-Wake-
naam district where fee collecting is not permitted.
Two hospitals at Leonora and Mahaicony are soon to
be opened. Twenty-one new maternal and child health
clinics have been established in the riverain areas-4
in the Mahaicony River; 1 on the Pomeroon; 6 in the
Demerara River; 2 in the Mahaica River; 1 on the
Canje River and 7 in the County of Essequibo. With
the help of UNICEF, government has been able to get
supplies of milk and vitamin tablets for free dis-
tribution in these clinics. Plans are being worked out for
the early establishment of many more clinics in the rural
areas. Government has also been able to speed up
the training of midwives and has been able to place
more. midwives in the villages and rural areas.

By means of Wages Councils or Advisory Com-
mittees, wages and working conditions have been
improved for workers in Quarries, Groceries, Hardware
Stores, Dry Goods Stores, Drug Stores, Rural Cinemas
and the Garment Industry. Watchmen and clerks also
enjoy better hours and working conditions. Steps are
now being taken to improve wages and working condi-
tions of workers in the timber, sawmill, aerated water,
building and printing industries, laundries and licensed
premises and mechanical road transport services. Annual
holidays with pay have been prescribed for workers in
Timber Grants, Sawmills, Bakeries, Garment, Printing,
Stone Crushing Workers, Clerks, Domestics and Chauf-
feurs. The Workmen's Compensation Ordinance now
embraces domestic servants and the benefits and pro-
tection provided to all workers under the law have been
greatly increased.




2 '' I
\< 1 I

Modern passenger and vehicle ferry services have
been introduced on the Demerara and Berbice Ferry.
The Canje river passenger and cargo service has been
restored and a fast passenger launch service from New
Amsterdam to Kwakwani has been introduced. Im-
proved cargo services have also been introduced between
Georgetown and the Essequibo Islands. The Georgetown
Goods Wharf has been greatly enlarged and equipped
for rapid cargo dispatch and delivery arrangements.
Progress has been made on the reconstruction of the
Ferry terminals at Vreed-en-Hoop and Georgetown and
the Adventure Stelling serving Suddie Coast has been
reconstructed and enlarged.

In the Interior a new airstrip has recently been
opened at Kamarang, another in the total of 18 now in
regular use by Dakotas of B.G. Airways, in addition to
the 36 water alighting areas still in regular use by the
Grumman Goose. A start has also been made with the
provision of safety and rescue facilities at remote air-
fields. Radio navigation aids in the Interior have also
been improved. Government has under consideration
plans for a new international airport near to the city of
Georgetown but because of the low-lying nature of the
ground, this project will be difficult and expensive.
Consideration of these plans has meanwhile prevented
heavy expenditure in the rehabilitation of the Atkinson

In the years to come it might very well turn out
that the building of the Interior road was the most
important item in the current Development Programme.
Not only will this road help to develop the areas
through which it passes but it will also stimulate trade
with the neighboring territories of the Rio Branco and
Amajonas and provide them with a much needed out-
let through Port Georgetown. Reconnaissance surveys
have been completed over the whole route of this area
and engineering surveys over a good part of it. Con-
struction work has been done for 20 miles from Bartica
towards Potaro. With a grant of $300,000 (U.S.)
I.C.A. is helping with the more detailed surveys which
are required before possible assistance can be sought
from the U.S. Development Loan Fund for the com-
pletion of this important project.

---- -

!1111 -

Increased passenger train services have been in-
troduced on the East and West Coast railways and the
speed of operation accelerated. These improvements
are reflected in increasing demand for the movement
of passengers by railway and shipping. The total num-
ber moved in 1957 was 5,788,283; the number in-
creased to 6,319,214 in 1959 and is still increasing.


--Z1 _
- -5 -


Land for Farmers ANPPO

In order to provide employment for a rapidly growing population, the development of
our Coastlahds to bring new areas into cultivation is an urgent necessity. The present position
is that out of about 1,000,000 acres of land on the Coast which are suitable for cultivation
only about 300,000 acres are at present cultivated. Of the remainder it is estimated that
about 600,000 acres could be cultivated if adequate drainage and irrigation is provided. In
the current Development Programme $341 million is therefore being spent on drainage and
irrigation projects. It is estimated that the pr ects likely to be completed by the end of this
programme will provide some 200,000 acres whichh are at present uncultivated and give a
reasonable means of livelihood to at least 10,000 families. In addition these drainage schemes
will provide better drainage and irrigation for large areas of land already under cultivation.
At the same time, much work is also being ,n.e on minor drainage and irrigation schemes
designed to benefit village farmlands. The map above shows the Major Drainage and
Irrigation Projects.

16 17

A great deal of work on the scheme for the
expansion and modernisation of the telephone service
has been done. The new Central Telephone Exchange
in Georgetown with a present capacity of 5,200 exchange
lines was opened in March, 1960 and many small auto-
matic exchanges in the rural areas have also been
brought into service. It is expected that -all the
exchanges with the exception of New Amsterdam should
be in service by the end of 1961 and a first rate tele-
phone system will then be available from Charity in the
West to Skeldon in the East and to Kwakwani in the
South. Many call boxes are also being erected for the
convenience of the Public.

~--- eq- -.-

To protect the farmlands and the towns and vil-
lages and factories along the entire coast the con-
struction of adequate sea defences is essential. Much
work has been done in strengthening the sea defences
along areas presently threatened by flooding, 241 miles
of earth dam, 5 miles of concrete walls and 3 miles of
groynes were constructed. In addition 6 concrete sluices
were constructed. New sea defences are also being
built to protect the great new areas of land being re- F
claimed by the drainage and irrigation schemes. Since
1957 a total of $6,785,600 has been spent on sea

To replace existing Post Office buildings, nine new
ones have been erected for use as Post Offices and three
S more are to be erected for the same purpose. Fourteen
Post Offices have been extended to provide more
accommodation for the public and it is expected that
three more Post Office Buildings will be extended shortly.
The Parcel Post section has been re-organised to
facilitate the handling of parcels, both incoming and
outgoing. Seven new Postal Agencies have been
established to provide increased postal facilities in areas
in which no postal facilities previously existed.

The British Guiana Electricity Corporation has been
set up to run the Demerara Electric Company's under-
taking recently acquired by Government and some addi-
tional plant and equipment for the development of the
undertaking has already been received and installed. It
is proposed to extend the system as far and as quickly
as is economical and practicable into the rural areas
with rural electrification as the next step in development.
In the meanwhile with the assistance of the United
Nations a hydro-electric expert has made a preliminary
survey of our hydro-electric potential. This preliminary
survey indicates that there ,are sites where economical
hydro-electric development is a distinct possibility and
the matter is being pursued.

- -^ -



The Government School Building Programme embraces
(a) providing whole schools, (b) expanding existing schools
by the provision of new buildings, enclosing lower flats and
otherwise enlarging existing buildings, (c) providing home
economics and wood-work departments to existing schools.
On the basis of 10 superficial feet of floor splace per child,
places for 10,670 children have been provided and places for
4,844 more are in process of being provided. Three home
economics and wood-work departments were completed and
contracts for 5 more were awarded. Approximately $1,240,000
will be.spent for the above purposes. A new curriculum for
primary schools was worked out to come into effect during
1961. The control and management of primary schools is
being reformed in so far as schools built out of public funds
are concerned. Legislation is being enacted to enable the
Government to assume control and management of 51 such
schools now under denominational control. Denominational
schools which have been enlarged by the Government by the
enclosure of bottom flats and the provisions of new buildings
remain unaffected. Religious instruction in the Christian re-
ligion will continue in all schools. The appointment, promo-
tion and discipline of teachers in Government schools will be
the responsibility of a Teachers Service Commission. The
school feeding scheme serves about 24,000 children daily on
the coastland, riverain and interior areas.

The Government Technical Institute embarked during
1960 upon the training of middle bracket supervisory staff
for Government Departments e.g. Public Works and Drain-
age and Irrigation, and private firms. Through I.C.A. assist-
ance a one-year course in Land Surveying was also started to
provide an increase in the number of land surveyors.


The Goverment Training College in July 1960 com-
c plated successfully its first one-year emergency course for the
training of primary school teachers. This scheme produces
yearly 5 times the previous output of trained teachers an
increase from 30 to 150. A one-year training course for
nen-graduate teachers leading to the Professional Certificate
in Education was also stated by the U.C.W.I. last year partly
as a result of representations made.

There are now 14 private secondary schools which re-
ceive financial aid from the Government to assist in the pay-
ment of teachers' salaries, etc, and for the extension of their
buildings and the establishment of science laboratories. Re-
current and capital grants of approximately $652,000 and
$130,000 respectively have been made to these schools. The
Common Entrance Examination which serves both as the basis
for the award of the Government County scholarships and for
admission to the Government and Government aided Schools
was introduced in 1960.
The Government has sought and made available scholar-
ships for British Guiana students tenable at Commonwealth
and other Universities. In addition, approximately $246,000
have been lent to students to enable them to proceed to
Universities and other institutions of higher education over-
seas. Exhibitions are also awarded by this Government ten-
able at the U.C.W.I.

Over the period 480 self-help schemes have been
approved to the value of 5996,887 with the Government's
contribution amounting to 5448,091. These self-help schemes
include community centres, schools, roads, co-op buildings and
shops, health centres, drainage and irrigation facilities, stell-
ings and bonds. It is the aim of the Government to expand
this movement until it reaches every settled community in the
country. Approximately 551,000 have been granted to
voluntary organizations catering for the welfare of orphans
and destitute persons and approximately $65,000 to organisa-
tions catering for youth and community welfare e.g. B.G.
Youth Council, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Women's Institutes.
The Government has also granted approximately $44,000 to-
wards the erection of community centres in the rural areas.
The sum of 5545,000 approximately was granted to the muni-
cipalities of Georgetown and New Amsterdam.


The Government has sponsored a History and Culture
Week which has proved a success and which has for its aims
the promotion of knowledge of the history and culture of the
Guianese people with a view to developing in them a love of
Guiana and her people and with a view to fostering the social,
cultural and emotional integration of Guianese into one People
as one Nation with one Destiny. The Government has also
sponsored a Council of The Arts. The Government made
grants approximating 526,000 to various local sports organisa-
tions over the period 1958-1960 for the promotion of overseas
arts and games.


Since 1957 steps have been taken to give the people of
the rural areas a greater degree of responsibility in the man-
agement of their own affairs. This has been done by raising
country districts to village district status and by such means
* as the relaxation of Local Government Board control over
the award of contracts. At 31st December, 1957, there
were 46 village districts (with partly nominated councils) and
48 country districts (with wholly nominated councils). At
present, there are no nominated members on the coun-
cils of village districts all members are elected and gener-
ally the number of councillors comprising the village council
has been increased to give wider representation to villagers.
Several Local Authorities have been amalgamated and made
into larger units with village district status, the boundaries in
many cases being extended before amalgamation. In the
meantime legislation is being enacted to give full effect to the
Government's proposals for comprehensive Local Government
reform whereby the 90-odd existing Local Authorities will be
reduced to 20 in number 18 district and 2 urban councils.
The Government has also provided over the period $405,000
approximately for loans to Local Authorities.

The rates of old age pensions and public assistance have
been increased by $2.50 per month. The additional cost
will be approximately $1 million per annum. The diet at
the Palms has also been improved.

Growth and Expansion

of the Economy

The last three years in spite of certain initial set
backs in the markets for some of our main products,
have been on the whole a period of remarkable growth
and expansion in the country's economy. Growth in
1960 has been especially notable. The total value of
the country's production (or the gross domestic product
as economists describe it) reached the all-time record
figure in 1960 of $240 million, an increase of about 11
per cent on last year and surpassing the previous peak
production of $225 million in 1957.
Some of the aspects of the growing economy are
described briefly below.

Trade and Industry and Investment

Exports in 1960 totalled a $120 million-a gain
of 15 per cent on 1959 and an all-time record.

Imports for 1960 stood at $140 million, some
twenty-five percent higher than 1959 and reflects heavy
capital inflow and investment expenditure.

Gross capital formation in industry for the years
1958-60 is estimated at $165,000,000.

Since 1958, $33-1 million worth of machinery and
equipment for private industry have been imported into
the country duty free under the Industry Aid and En-
couragement Ordinance.

Since October 1957, 96 companies have been reg-
istered with share capital of $16 million.

Since October 1957, 28 companies have been
granted five year income tax holidays under the Income
Tax in Aid of Industry Ordinance as follows:

Manufacture of:
Concrete blocks
Hollow clay blocks and
other clay products
Aluminium goods
Steel and aluminium
Mattresses and cushions
for furniture
Particle Board
Nails, metal doors and
windows, air condition-
ing units and ready
mixed concrete

Processing and/or con-
ning of fish, crustaceans
and production of fish-
Canning of fish and sea-
food and marine pro-
ducts and manufacture
of fishmeal
Canning of cooked beef,
pork sausages, pepper-
pot, ham, bacon, etc.
Manufacture of:
(2 Companies)
Baking powder and con-

Plantain chips
Juices from local fruit
and distribution of
juices and pasteurised
milk by use of auto-
matic vending machines

Manufacture of:
Brassieres and other
foundation garments
Leather boots and shoes
Hats and headwear

Manufacture of:
Paper from wood-pulp
Paper bags, paper cups,
plates, etc.
Cardboard cartons etc.
Electric batteries
Processing of colour films
and colour slides
Diamond cutting and
Extension of an existing


Savings in commercial banks rose
million in 1957 to $221 million in 1960.
the Post Office Savings Bank rose from
in 1957 to nearly $22 million in 1960.

otter trawling.

from $171
Savings in
$19 million

In 1960, the savings, shares and other deposits
held by Co-op Societies stood at $1,100,000 as com-
pared with $644,000 in 1957.

In the period July, 1959 to June, 1960 the B.G.
Credit Corporation was lending at the rate of $2.3
million per annum for small-scale agricultural and
industrial development and housing.


The total amount of bauxite produced in 1960 was
2,47f,190 tons as compared with 1,674,416 tons in
1959,'an increase of about 50 per cent.

Total production in 1960 was 101,004 metric
carats as compared with 62,328 metric carats for 1959
and represents the highest output for any year since

The manganese project went into production in
March of last year and production to year end totalled
122,726 tons.


Sugar production rose in 1960 to the record out-
put of 334,441 tons as compared with 284,425 tons in
1959, an increase of 171 per cent.

The output in 1960 was 120,000 tons compared
with the 1959 record of 104,000 tons, an increase of
15 per cent.

Output in 1960 climbed to an estimated
38,300,000 nuts compared with 28,344,000 nuts in
1959, an increase of 32 per cent. Copra production
rose to 5,700 tons as compared with 3,432 tons in

Production of crude oil and refined coconut oil
rose to 739,800 gallons as compared with 531,600
gallons in 1959.

Purchases of plantains and other food crops by the
Government Marketing Division increased from
4,125,000 Ibs in 1959 to 4,696,000 Ibs in 1960.
Exports of plantains to the West Indies rose in
1960 to 3,500,000 Ibs. as compared with 1,600,000
Ibs. in 1959, an increase of 118 per cent.

Beef slaughtered in the Rupununi and transported
by aircraft to the Georgetown Market increased in 1960
to the record figure of 1,836,071 Ibs. as compared with
1,392,286 Ibs. in 1959, a rise of 39 per cent.

The Milk Pasteurization Plant in Georgetown pur-
chased 622,262 gallons of milk in 1960 as compared
with 498,896 gallons in 1959, an increase of 25 per

Since 1957, the local industry has increased its
output by over 300 per cent and poultry now ranks
second in importance to beef as the national meat.
Slaughterings of broilers by the major producers who
supply the Georgetown Market rose from 312,725 birds
in 1959 to 398,780 birds in 1960, an increase of 26
per cent.

The most important achievement in fisheries is in
commercial shrimp production (mainly for export) which
amounted to 2,140,493 Ibs. in 1960 as compared with
1,206,336 Ibs. in 1959, an increase of 77 per cent.

Landings of fish by trawler totalled 997,000 tbs.
in 1960 as compared with 458,000 Ibs. in 1959, an
increase of 118 per cent.


All the signs-the growth of investment, the record
production in mining and agriculture-tell the story of a
rapidly expanding economy. If market conditions for
our export products continue to be favourable, the five-
year period which began last year and ends in 1964
is likely to be marked by a continuing growth in the
economy of some 61- per cent per year. This means
that the total value of the country's production should
rise from the record figure of $240 million in 1960 to
$300 million in 1964. With an increase of 61 per
cent. in the total value of the country's production and
a population increase of slightly over 3 per cent. per
yeqr, there is thus substantial real growth of the
economy of the order of some 3 per cent. per year.

Land Development

Since 1957 some 90,000 acres have been given
out to farmers. Of the 90,000 acres, about 11,500
have been given to Co-op Land and Producers' Societies.
Another 25,000 acres have been.given out to settlers on
the main land development schemes, Black Bush Polder,
Garden of Eden, Mara and Onverwagt. The remainder
has gone to individual farmers.

Co-op Societies are now one of the chief means for
the inexpensive development of land.
Since 1957, twenty-five Co-op Land and Producer
Societies with membership of 1,100 have put about
15,000 acres into production. This acreage includes
11,500 acres of Crown land.
The main crop especially in Berbice is rice but
there is also citrus, cocoa and ground provisions and in
the North West, peanuts, corn and sheep-rearing.
Land Societies receive loans from the B.G. Credit
Corporation for the purchase of seed, fertilizer and
agricultural machinery and aid under the rural aided
self-help schemes for the fencing of pastures and build-
ing of roads and bridges and for empoldering.

The object of land development schemes is to
settle farmers who are without land by developing
family-size farms and building up independent farming
S communities.
Since 1957, 25,000 dcres of land have been given
out to farmers re-settled on land development schemes.
Land for these schemes is being provided as at
Black Bush Polder by the great drainage and irrigation
schemes but to obtain quick results suitable land on the
river banks as at Garden of Eden and Mara, as well as
a number of scattered areas of Crown Land, are also
being used.
The approach to land settlement is best seen in
the settlement now taking shape at Black Bush Polder
where 1,300 families are being settled. At Black Bush
Polder each settler has a rice plot of 15 acres in a
cultivation area and a 22 acre homestead area in a
village centre on which the settler will live and produce
food crops other than rice. In the village centre sites
have been reserved for a recreation ground and churches
and in addition certain services are being provided by
Government including schools, a pure water supply, a
police post and the district services of the Health, Postal,
Public Works and Drainage and Irrigation Departments.
Under the guidance of the Department for Co-operative
Development, settlers have formed Co-operative Societies
and financial assistance is being given for the cultiva-
tion, transportation, storage and milling of paddy and a
station for the sale of fuels and lubricants and the pur-
chasing and operation of agricultural machinery.



The Federal Supreme Court (Appeals) Ordinance,
1958 conferred appellate jurisdiction in both civil and
criminal cases in the Federal Supreme Courts of the
West Indies, which sits in British Guiana at least 4 times
a year. There is now an avenue of appeal to this Court
from the decisions of Magistrates' Courts.

The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordi-
nance, 1957, provides for the application of the provi-
sions of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, Chap-
ter 111, to domestic servants.

The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordi-
nance, 1960, increases the rates of compensation pay"
able and extends the definition of workmen in the
Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, Chapter 111, to
include persons in receipt of remuneration not exceeding
the sum of $2,700 per annum. The Ordinance also
provides that where a lump sum payment of compen-
sation is paid to a workman as a result of permanent
incapacity or where he dies of his injuries any amount
paid as periodic payments shall not be deducted from
the lump sum payment.

The Bakeries (Hours of Work) (Amendment) Ordi-
nance, 1958 amends the Bakeries (Hours of Work)
Ordinance, Chapter 120, so that as the law now stands
all the provisions of the Bakeries (Hours of Work)
Ordinance (except section 7 which relates to the keeping
of a register of employees) apply not only to employees
but also to self-employed persons engaged in the manu-
facture of bread or flour confectionery.

The Shops (Consolidation) Ordinance, 1958 regu-
lates the opening and closing hours of certain shops, the
hours of work of shop assistants and provides for the
welfare of shop assistants. The Ordinance restricts the
hours of work per week of a shop assistant to 40- hours
instead of 47 hours as was the case formerly. The over-
time work of a shop assistant is limited to 2 hours in any
one day or 20 hours in any one month. The Ordinance
also provides for compulsory pay at the rate of one ana
a half times the ordinary rate for all overtime work
including work done during the period of eight working
days immediately preceding Christmas Day.
The Labour .(Amendment) .Ordinance, .1960,
amends the Labour Ordinance, Chapter 103, with the
principal object of giving effect to the Labour Inspector-
ates (Non Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947
and the Penal Sanctions (Indigenous Workers) Conven-
tion, 1939. Among other things, the Ordinance pro-
vides that an employer must supply to his employee
information concerning the particulars of his wages and
any change in those particulars. The Ordinance also
empowers officers of the Labour Department, when on
visits of inspection, to carry out such enquiries as they
consider necessary to satisfy themselves that the law
relating to the employment of persons is being strictly
observed, and makes it compulsory for every employer
to grant to his employees and their representatives every
facility for communicating freely with the Commissioner
of Labour and other officers of the Labour Department
when on a visit of inspection.

The Land Registry Ordinance, 1959, provides
a new system of land registration under which the sale,
lease and mortgaging of land can be effected expedi-
tiously and cheaply. The transport system of convey-
ancing which is a relic of Roman-Dutch Law is still
retained. The Ordinance provides for the establishment
of land courts with jurisdiction to grant declarations of
title to land at little cost.
The Land Bonds Ordinance, 1959, provides that
where land which is not beneficially occupied is com-
pulsorily acquired for a land settlement scheme the com-
pensation payable may be met by the issue of Govern-
ment land bonds. Where land is purchased or compul-
sorily acquired by the Government for any other public
purpose the purchase price or compensation may be
made by the issue of land bonds if the seller agrees to
this course.

The Local Government (Amendment) Ordinance,
1959, abolishes the nominated element on Village
Councils. The Ordinance provides for a minimum of
six councillors to be elected to sit on any Village

The Rice Marketing (Amendment) Ordinance, 1959,
empowers the Rice Marketing Board to make loans to
rice producers and to make grants from its funds for the
award of scholarships for the purposes of research and
technical training in production, processing and
marketing of rice.
The Rice Marketing (Amendment) Ordinance, 1960
gives rice producers greater representation on the Rice
Marketing Board. Where the Board previously had 8
producer members and 8 others, it is now comprised of
12 producer members and 4 others. Appointments to
the Board will now be made by the Minister of Trade
and Industry. The Board has power to elect its Chair-
man and Vice-Chairman and to grant leave of absence
to its members.
The British Guiana Rice Producers Association
(Amendment) Ordinance, 1960 amends the British Gui-
ana Rice Producers Association Ordinance to provide for
the representatives of the Association to be nominated
by the Council of the Association for appointment by
the Minister of Trade and Industry. The Committees
of the District Associations of rice producers are now
directly represented on the Council. The Ordinance
provides that each Committee shall appoint one of its
members to the Council, and that the Committee mem-
bers so appointed shall elect as members of the Council'
four other rice producers. The Ordinance also vests the
functions, powers and duties of the Council in a small
Executive Committee in order to expedite and facilitate
the management of the affairs of the Rice Producers

Help from Overseas
To carry out the Development Programme as
quickly and efficiently as possible, Government has been
seeking assistance from overseas by way of grants, the
services of technicians and advisers and facilities for
research and the training of Guianese. Such assist-
ance has come mainly from three sources the United
Kingdom (C.D. & W. Funds), U.S.A. through I.C.A. and
the United Nations and its Agencies.
In the current Development Programme projects
financed in part from C.D. & W. Funds include:
Land Reclamation Education
Tapakuma Drainage Primary school
& Irrigation project buildings and
Minor Drainage equipment
Schemes Post Primary
Land Development schools
Black Bush Polder Domestic Science
& Mara and exist- and Handicraft
ing Land Develop- Centres
ment Schemes Health
Interior Land Deve- Hospital Extension
lopment Schemes Cottage Hospitals
Agriculture and Health Centres
Soil Surveys Malaria Eradication
Cocoa Development Polio and Anti-ty-
Livestock Research phoid vaccination
Fisheries Research Pure Water Supply
Agricultural Labora- Housing
stories Rural Self-help schemes
Public Works Youth Welfare
Sea and River De- Amerindian Develop-
fences ment
The Interior Road Medical Huts
Geological Surveys Training Centres
Airport Surveys Pure Water Supply
Aerial Photography
Under the I.C.A. technical assistance Programme,
thirty-six U.S. personnel have been assigned to date to
British Guiana and on additional thirty-five have visited
in a short term advisory capacity. One hundred and
twenty Guianese have received training in the U.S.A.
mainly in the fields of agriculture, health and public
administration. Some of the main projects on which
technical assistance has been given since October 1957

are listed below:
Development of the
Dairy Industry
Production of plant-
ing material for
cocoa, coconuts and
Agricultural mar-
Training of rural
Credit policy for
Training for farm-
Fisheries develop-
Industrial Surveys
Road Surveys
Civil Aviation Surveys

Hospital Adminis-
Cancer Diagnosis
Investigation and
control of Filariasis
Vocational Education
Training of land
Commercial and
business education
Industrial Arts &
Vocational Educa-
Surplus Food
Distribution of milk
in co-operation with
UNICEF and the
Red Cross.

Amerindian Development

The Amerindians, the first people of British Guiana
have always had the special attention of Government
and in the last three years in particular there has been
a striking programme of development, some of the more
important features of which are given below:
Amerindians ore now being given high priority on
admission and treatment at Government Hospitals and
Health Centres and other medical institutions.
The Amerindian hostel in Georgetown has been
improved and new rest shelters provided at Mahaicony,
Supenaam, Anna Regina, Morawhanna, Bartica, Lethem
and KamarAng.
DDT spraying of houses in the Interior has con-
tinued especially in the Pomeroon and North West Dis-
tricts. In addition Government has launched a scheme
to make supplies of medicated salt available in Interior
areas, a recently developed anti-malaria technique which
should be of special benefit to Amerindians.

In the south savannahs in the Rupununi, wells have
been completed at seven villages and work is proceeding
on the construction of others. Windmills, overhead tanks
and pipelines are now being installed. A water supply
system was completed last year at Hosororo in the North
West District.

About forty-five miles of fence have been com-
pleted to take in adequate grazing and agricultural
lands for five of the main villages in the South Savan-
Cattle belonging to Amerindians in remote areas
are now being vaccinated against rabies free of charge.
Of special importance is the Kumaka-Quebana land
development scheme in the North West District. This
scheme will take in approximately twenty-five thousand
acres of agricultural land for development and settle-
ment. Roads are being put in and lots laid out and
already a good deal of work has been done in preparing
and planting. An agricultural station has been

Help from Overseas (contd.)

The United Nations and its Agencies are at present

helping with the following
Soil Surveys of
Coastal and River
Survey of hydro-
electricity potential
Survey of harbour
siltation and sea
Public Administra-
tion (Training and
Pre-investment sur-
vey of the Canje
Drainage and irri-
gation project
(likely to be
approved shortly)

surveys and projects:
UNICEF and WHO are
assisting with
Malaria eradication
Environmental sani-
tation (including
expansion of the
health services, ma-
ternal and child
care, health edu-
cation and pure
water supply)
UNICEF is also helping
with milk for
School children and
pre-school children
For expectant and
nursing mothers.

Prospects 1961

The pages you have just read have told the story
of progress in the development of this country. Deve-
lopment is however a continuing process. New ships
and sluices, and schools and factories and community
centres and health centres are all the time being built.
Even since this booklet went to press there would have
been many new developments. Some of the develop-
ments which it is expected will take shape in the
months ahead are described briefly below.
The next few months should see the establish-
ment of many of the light consumer-type in-
dustries which have been allocated sites in
the newly established industrial estate at
SFour co-operatively run rice mills will be
established on land development schemes,
three at Black Bush and one at Cane Grove.
Legislation will be introduced based on the
United Kingdom Hire -Purchase Act to
regulate hire purchase transactions.
There will be further trade expansion especially
with regional territories. A Trade Mission
may go to Brazil and there will be the
development of the Cuban and other nearby
rice markets. It is also proposed to take
steps to further liberalise trade with North
With a capital increase of 1.7 million dollars
and a loan which is expected from the World
Bank, the Credit Corporation is taking steps
to double the scale of its operations for the
next two and a half years from two and a half
million dollars per annum to about five
million dollars per annum. The emphasis is
being put on loans for agricultural develop-
ment and industry.
The next few months should see a good start
on the $11 million Tapakuma Drainage and
Irrigation project which will provide jobs for
about a thousand people and will benefit
about 36,000 acres of land. The first steps
will also be taken to secure international
assistance for the execution of Stage 1 of
the Mahaica-Mahaicony-Abary S c h e m e
designed to provide water control for well over
250,000 acres between the Mahaicony and
Berbice Rivers.
It is proposed to make a start with Interior
land settlement and to establish a pilot pro-
ject of a thousand acres for the cultivation
of cocoa and other crops on the hills of the
North West District.
A farm school is to be established at Mon
Repos where fifty young farmers on a long
term basis (for whom residential accommoda-
tion will be provided) and other farmers on
a short term basis will be trained in the
techniques of farming.
To assist the rice farmer the production of
pure line seed paddy is being rapidly ex-
panded. In co-operation with the Rice
Marketing Board a scheme will be introduced
using twenty-four motor blowers for the
elimination of paddy bug (the cause of black
rice) in those areas where this pest occurs.

c Work will commence shortly on 188 two-
bedroom working class houses for rental or
hire-purchase in the East La Penitence area.
Lay-out plans are now being prepared for the
construction of a further lot of 181 hire-
purchase and self-help houses.
SA nation wide campaign for the control and
ultimate eradication of filaria will be
launched. This scheme will have the benefit
of expert assistance provided by I.C.A. and
will include a considerable body of research
and a programme of health education.
* New cottage hospitals will be opened at
Leonora and Mahaicony and new health
centres at La Grange, West Bank Demerora;
Hackney, Pomeroon; three in West Coast
Berbice, Golden-Grove-Nabaclis; Plaisance and
No. 47, Corentyne.
* Pure water supply for the villages will be
further expanded with the laying down of
thirty-seven and a quarter miles of pipe and
twelve pump installations from Corentyn: to
the Essequibo Coast. Especially notable are
the wells being put in at Black Bush Polder,
the scheme now being worked out for a pure
water supply for Bartica, and the weHs and
pumps and nine and a half miles of pipe-
line for the villages of Leguan.
" Work will begin shortly on the con-
struction of a million dollar sister ferry ship
to the Mokouria and Torani. This ship will
be used on a service between Parika, Leguan,
Wakenaam and the Essequibo Coast and act
as a relief ship on the Demerara and Berbice
O Work will begin shortly on the installations
necessary for the new turbines which have
been ordered for the British Guiana Elec-
tricity Corporation and on the rehabilitation
and extension of the line distribution system.
" Plans will be finalised for the reorganization
and improvement of the British Guiana Air-
ways Services.
* A decision should also be taken on the import-
ant question of a new International airport
and the foundations laid for the establish-
ment of a Meteorological organisation for
weather forecasting.
* The project surveys for the Interior road, East
Coast and West Coast Roads should also be
O The 1961 school building programme will pro-
vide accommodation for approximately 15,000
school children at an approximate cost of
over $1,000,000.
" A secondary school at Anna Regina of the
grammar school type will start functioning in
May this year.
@ A special course for serving officers in the
Social Welfare Division will be held this year
under the direction of a specialist in com-
munity development from the University of
The sum of $100,000 has been allocated for
assistance to self-help groups under the Rural
self-help scheme. It is the aim of Govern-
ment to expand the movement until it
reaches every settled community in British


-it '



* 1 a,-


The keynote of Government's Health
developmentt Programme is the prevention
and control of disease. To carry out this
irogramme new hospitals and health centres
ire being built as port of a network of
tclth units. A large number of new
naternal and child health clinics have also
,een established in the coastal and river
Ireas. This map shows the development of
eolth centres and hospitals throughout the


Cottage Hospitals established before 1957
Cottage Hospitals established since 1957
Cottage Hospitals to be opened.
Health Centres established before 1957
Health Centres established since 1957
Health Centres planned, under construction
or to be opened


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs