• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Map of Florida vegetable producing...
 Foreword and acknowledgments
 Definitions
 Costs and returns data














Group Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons (Economic information report)
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076936/00012
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: v. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Dept.
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1962-1963
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began: v. 4 (1948/1949).
Numbering Peculiarities: Isues are cummulative from the 1945/1946 season until v.5 (1949/1950); Agricultural Economics series (<1948/1949>-1951/1952, Agricultural Economics mimeo report (1952/1953-1964/1965), Economics mimeo report (1965/1966-<1967/1968>), Ag. econ. report (<1969/1970->, Economics report (-1972/1973), Economic information report (1973/1974-<1975/1976>)
General Note: Description based on first issue; title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1977.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076936
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03425969
lccn - 76368517
issn - 0149-0613
 Related Items
Preceded by: Per acre costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Map of Florida vegetable producing areas
        Page ii
    Foreword and acknowledgments
        Page iii
    Definitions
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Costs and returns data
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
Full Text

April, 1964


Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report EC 64-11


COSTS AND RETUR


from


VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

SEASON 1962-1963




by
Donald L. Brooke


Agricultural Economist









DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Gainesville, Florida















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


Map of Florida Vegetable Producing
Foreword and Acknowledgments . .
Definitions . . . . .


Areas


Costs and Returns Data


Beans, Snap. .
Beans, Pole.. .
Cabbage . .
Celery .. ...
Corn, Sweet. .
Cucumbers. . .
Eggplant . .
Leaf Crops . .
Peppers, Green .
Potatoes, Irish.
Squash . . .
Tomatoes .
Watermelons .


. . . 1- 2
. . . . . . . . 3
3
. . . . 4- 5
. . . . 6- 7
S . . . . 8- 9
. . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . 11
10
11
S. . . 12
S . . 13
. . . . . 14-15
. *. . . . . . . 16-17

S. . . 18-20
. . . . . 21











( 1'Y9 -
19 8

IJ I
II I '

\~ -J- \
A ,
L


FL
VEGETABLE
With Principal


ORIDA
PRODUCING AREAS
Vegetables Produced


/ -L,


1 Dade tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries
2 Pompano snap beans, peppers, eggplant,
cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
3 Immokalee-Lee tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers,
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
4 Everglades snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage,
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes
5 Fort Pierce tomatoes, watermelons
6 Wauchula cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons
7 Sarasota celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage
8 Manatee-Ruskin tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
watermelons
9 Plant City strawberries, peppers, squash,
pole beans, southern peas, okra
10 Sumter cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons
11 Zellwood sweet corn, celery, escarole,
lettuce, snap beans, radishes
12 Sanford-Oviedo cabbage, celery, snap beans,
lettuce, escarole, sweet corn, peppers
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell tomatoes, watermelons
14 McIntosh-Island Grove squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua snap beans, cucumbers, peppers,
Irish potatoes, watermelons
16 Hastings Irish potatoes, cabbage
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler snap and lima beans,
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana pole beans, cucumbers, squash
19 Escambia Irish potatoes


/


Q V 0










FOREWORD

This is the third in a new series of summaries of costs and returns
from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in Florida.
There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agencies, research
workers and teachers for current factual information of this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual production costs
were used when available, and estimates taken when records were not kept.
As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained from each grower.
Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have been separated and
labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a few cases where crop sales
were not available from growers, they were computed on the basis of average
prices received for the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida.













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable growers
for their excellent cooperation, to the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association,
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida, and
to various county agents for much worthwhile assistance. Much credit is due
Dr. H. G. Hamilton under whose direction this work is being conducted.







DEFINITIONS

Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records
or estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for
all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the
area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a normal
valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of land values
in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm real estate
are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed: This item includes the cost of seed or plants for
planting the crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures include costs of
labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed costs, unless other-
wise noted.

Fertilizer and side dressing or compost: This represents the actual
cost of nutrient materials applied to produce the crop. Labor or machine
costs of application are not included.

Spray and dust: Spray and dust includes the cost of materials only,
unless application labor is specified in which case some machine costs may
also be present. If minor elements were added for nutritional purposes,
their cost is also included here.

Cultural labor: This item contains the cost of man labor, whether
hired or family, to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for
harvest. It does not include supervision by the operator, since his com-
pensation is to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the
crop.

Machine hire: The cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charge for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease: The cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in producing
the crop is included in this item.

Repair and maintenance: This figure represents the cost of repairs to
equipment used in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such
as hoes, rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.







Depreciation: This includes the annual charge for depreciation and
obsolescence of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation
charges could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming
a 10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance: The cost of licenses and insurance items when
chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for trucks and autos
used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop insurance and fire or
windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment. It does not include health
or accident insurance of the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital: Interest on production capital was
charged at the rate of 6 percent on all cash costs for the number of months
required to grow and market the crop regardless of whether or not much
production capital was actually borrowed. This percentage was used because
it is believed to be the normal interest rate. It is realized that pro-
duction capital may be obtained at times from certain government organi-
zations at a lower rate, but seldom can growers secure capital at lower rates
when dealing with commercial banks or individuals.

Interest on capital invested (other than land); Interest was charged
at 6 percent of the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the
capital invested in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all
equipment was presently worth one-half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous: This figure includes such items as office supplies,
administrative expense other than value of operators management, legal and
audit fees, telephone and telegraph and incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing labor: Where possible, harvesting and
marketing labor has been divided into two items: (1) picking and (2) grading
and packing. Picking, cutting or digging labor includes actual cost of
harvesting the crop and preparing it for movement to packinghouse or wash
house. Washing or grading and packing labor includes preparation of the
product for shipment either at field house or packinghouse. Where this is
done for such crops as snap beans in the Everglades and in Dade County and
for tomatoes, celery and Irish potatoes in most locations, it is a contract
charge and includes machinery and overhead costs in addition to labor. The
same is usually true for all crops in all areas where grading and packing
is done off the farm in packinghouses.

Containers: Includes the cost for hampers, crates, bags or baskets
in which the product is moved to market.

Hauling: Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to
packinghouse or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis
and includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was performed
by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from production
labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.

Other: The cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment or,
for watermelons, the cost of government inspection prior to shipment or sale.
Inspection fees on other crops, when incurred, are included in packinghouse
charges and are not reported as a separate item.







Selling: The packinghouse, market, sales organization, or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from the
producer's price. This cost does not include charges for unloading, grading,
packing, etc.

Crop sales: Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before
deduction of growing, harvesting and marketing costs. These differ from
U.S.D.A. data by the amount of the selling cost.

Net return: Return to the producer after deduction of all expenses
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application, and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the appropriate
charges.

In the case of cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the different
crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the grower
except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The total
cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most cases, pro-
rated to the various crops on the basis of available data developed at the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to man hours required,
in various parts of the state, to produce different crops from land prep-
aration to harvest. A similar situation also applies to such items as
machine hire, tractor fuel, oil and grease, repairs, depreciation and other
production costs where, except in very few cases, records had not been kept
as to their respective charges to different crops. Prorations were also
made of these items on the basis of available data. (D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling, and precooling. Thus, these costs are based
only on the over-all average for all growers contacted in each area, and
footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the area. Footnote data
involving more than one area read from left to right, respectively.

Per-Unit data: Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing
the average yield per acre in the area into the various items of cost
shown in the individual tables. They are merely averages of the data
recorded and, in many cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the
service because some growers may not have incurred every item of cost.







Snap Beans
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Pompano Everglades
------ _ __ ___ -----


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (bushels).


11
8,626
784
93


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
.at return . . . . .


Acre
$ 18.09
17.87
41.01
S 10.33
25.08
4.38b/
10.20
S 14.46
S 8.02
4.71

3.03

S: .80
5.43


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 20.42
16.33
13.67-
5.45
10.57
2.22-
7.35
12.29
4.86
2.84


1.89

:.49
: 3.48


.: $163.41 : $1.757


$ 80.30
34.81
9.27
9.16


. : $133.54


$296.95
$342.03
$ 45.08


:($0.864

.374
S .100
: .098


: $101.86


$ 70.52
19.74E/
19.87E/
8.21
8.65


: $1.436 : $126.99


: $3.193
: $3.678
: $0.485


$228.85
$181.50
$-47.35


/Reported by 6 growers averaging


$15.94 per acre.


b/Reported by 7 and 4 growers averaging $6.88 and $3.89 per acre, respectively.

S/Reported by 6 growers averaging $23.03 and $23.18 per acre, respectively.
Source: Grower records and estimates.


7
1,285
184
85


Unit


: $ 1.198


$ 0.830
.232
.234
.096
.102

:$ 1.494

$ 2.692
:$ 2.135
: $-0.557







Snap Beans--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Sanford
^ __ -- ____________________________ _ _____


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (bushels).

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . .... .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
. . . : $ 23.34
. . . : 20.11
. . . : 48.23
. . . : 8.48
. . . : 41.14
. . . 6.51
. . . : 8.74
. . . : 7.66
. . . : 2.42

. . .. : 3.27

. . . : .76
. . . : 4.35


$175.01


: ($118.09

: 44.78a
8.96
15.39

$187.22


$362.23
$367.57
$ 5.34


: $1.224


$0.825
.313
.063
.108

$1.309

$2.533
$2.570
$0.037


Source: Grower records and estimates.


a/Reported by 7 growers averaging $57.57 per acre.







Pole Beans
Costs and Returns in the Dade County Area in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Dade


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower .. .
Average yield per acre (bushels).

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance. ..
Depreciation . . ....
Licenses and insurance.. ...
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . .. . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .


6
2,581
430
218


Average per
Acre Unit
. . . : $ 45.96
. . . . : 20.39
. . . : 53.67
. . . : 27.08
. . . . : 129.20 :
. . . : 8.35-
. . . : 11.98
. . . : 18.41
. . . : 10.97
. . . : 8.91

. . . : 6.93


1.09 :
22.48


. . . : $365.42


$129.06
79.49
21.73
29.76

$260.04

$625.46
$636.18
$ 10.72


Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales. . . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


: $1.676


S$0.592
.365
.100
.136

: $1.193

:$2.869
:$2.918
:$0.049


Source: Grower records and estimates.


!/Reported by 5 growers averaging $10.03 per acre.


: : : : : : : : i








Cabbage
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Hastings Everglades


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (50 lb.)


17
1,521
89
353


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed and seedbed . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Acre
$ 24.51
23.26
72.16
19.19
59.89/
1.87-
10.55
15.15
11.92
5.40


. : 4.74

: 1.19 :
: 5.01


Average per
Unit Acre
S$ 21.73
S 7.48
S 27.63
S 27.28
53.74a/
2.07
S 9.45
S 19.02
S 10.92
S 5.38


3.61

1.09
6.64


. : $254.84 : $0.722 : $196.04


$ 52.33
114.62
7.06-
49.83

$223.84

$478.68
$578.31
$ 99.63


$0.148
.325
.020
.141


: $0.634

: $1.356
: $1.638
: $0.282


$ 79.96
129.68
17.66
31.49


: $258.79 : $0.766


$454.83
$563.55
$108.72


acre, respectively.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


9
1,524
169
338


Unit


: $0.580


$0.237
.384
.052
.093


d/Reported by 13 and 5 growers averaging $2.45 and $3.72 per

h Reported by 7 growers averaging $17.14 per acre.


$1.346
$1.667
$0.321







Cabbage--Concluded
Costs and Peturns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Sanford


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (50 lb.)


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . . . .
Seed and seedbed . . . . .
Fertilizer. .. . . . .
Spray and dust . . . . .
Cultural labor . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . . .
Deprecia ion. . . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . ..
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . . .


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 27.58
20.05
79.44
32.99
68.80
11.66
16.52
13.79
3.76


. . : 5.34


1.38
5.96


. . . : $287.27


$ 88.60
149.59
25.24
50.86
15.98A


. . . . : $330.27


$617.54
$691.59
$ 74.05


: $0.606


$0.187
.316
.053
.107
.034


: $0.697


$1.303
$1.459
$0.156


.'Reported by 2 growers averaging


$103.84 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


13
1,073
82
474







Celery
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Central Everglades
:_________________ :_ Everglades___


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates)


13
1,839
141
495


Growing costs:


Average per


Land rent . . . .
Seed and seedbed . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .


Acre
$ 32.68
42.14
127.21
51.94
183.63
4.001'
21.48
32.47
31.11
10.91


S 13.11


3.11
18.04


Total growing cost. . . . . : $ 571.83


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing labor .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .


$ 237.61
211.02
32.95
79.60
85.25


: $ 1.155


$ 0.480
.426
.067
.161
.172


Total harvesting and marketing. . : $ 646.43 : $ 1.306


Total crop cost. . . . ... ..:
Crop sales. . . . . .. .
Net return . . . . . . :


$1218.26
$1090.76
$-127.50


$ 2.461
$ 2.204
$-0.257


: $ 502.07 : $0.918


$ 186.31
228.14
32.72
83.73
77.02


$0.340
.417
.060
.153
.141


: $ 607.92 : $1.111

: $1109.99 : $2.029
: $1299.55 : $2.376
: $ 189.56 : $0.347


/Reported by 5 growers averaging $10.39 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


9
7,836
871
547


Unit


Unit


Acre
24.44
27.19
84.93
64.91
154.48

24.76
45.40
24.19
12.49


: 11.60 :

: 2.42 :
: 25.26 :


: *
. :








Celery--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item West Coast


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates)

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . . .
Seed and seedbed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . .. ..
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales .. . . . .
Net return . . . . .


5
705
141
679


Average per
Acre Unit
. . . . : $ 45.57
. . . . : 51.56
. . . . : 120.29
. . . . : 58.14
. . . . : 275.05
. . . : 47.74
. . . : 40.74
. . . 37.69
. . . : 20.33

. . . : 18.73

. . . 3.77
. . . : 89.96


. . . . : $ 809.57


$ 281.87
284.56
32.51
100.35
77.24


. . . . : $ 776.53


$1586.10
$1635.80
$ 49.70


: $1.192


$0.415
.419
.048
.148
.114


: $1.144


$2.336
$2.409
$0.073


Source: Grower records and estimates.


- -








Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Zellwood Everglades


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates)


6
2,949
492
229


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance .. ..
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense .. ...

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Acre
$ 20.57
8.88
37.651/
51.54
41.89b/
5.29-
6.87
17.15
8.29
6.16


Average per
Unit Acre
S$ 20.24
S 6.40
S 33.08
51.95
27.01b/
S 3.44/
S 10.06
15.89
S 9.53
S 4.27


. : 4.01

: .83
: 4.56

$213.69 : $0.933


$ 67.31
78.74
13.37
37.51
25.28


. : $222.21


$435.90
$475.91
$ 40.01


:$0.294
.344
.058
.164
.110

:$0.970

: $1.903
:$2.078
:$0.175


Unit


3.60

: .95
: 7.60

: $194.02 : $1.141


$ 49.72
55.14
10.87
25.30
21.84


$0.293
.324
.064
.149
.128


: $162.87 : $0.958


$356.89
$356.96
$ 0.07


$2.099
$2.100
$0.001


Source: Grower records and estimates.


14
18,132
1,295
170


A/Reported by 5 growers averaging $45.18 per acre

k/Reported by 2 and 8 growers averaging $1.59 and $6.02 per acre, respectively.








Sweet Corn--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Lower East Coast
.. .


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates)


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . ...
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer. . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance. . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . .....
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers. . . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . . .
Other . . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing. .

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . . .
Net return. .. . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 39.84
10.53
62.56
38.31
32.02 :
1.47A/
9.05
13.78
8.88
5.16

4.44


.89
9.16


$236.09


$ 67.49
65.97
19.83
24.71
22.55


: $1.098


$0.314
.307
.092
.115
.105


$200.55 : $0.933


$436.64
$551.96
$115.32


$2.031
$2.567
$0.536


!/Reported by 3 growers averaging


$1.96 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


4
1,846
462
215


- -




r









Cucumbers
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Immokalee-Lee Pompano


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (bushels).


12
1,107


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
tf L-- 12 --A


Machine hire . . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease ...... :
Repair and maintenance. .... :
Depreciation. . . . ... .
Licenses and insurance. .... :
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .. :
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . . :
Miscellaneous expense . . . :

Total growing cost. . . . . :

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Acre
$ 8.15
5.58
101.96
42.99
80.30
9.54/
16.19
16.44
12.52
5.14

7.38


Average per
Unit Acre
S$ 26.09
S 7.37
S 70.56
S 61.13
52.76
14.21
S 16.03
S 20.11
S 11.24
S 5.95


7.12

1.13 :
10.70


1.25
8.70


$316.14


: $1.565 : $304.40


Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


$ 94.62
94.94
90.71
28.87
30.57


. : $339.71


$655.85
$643.21
$-12.64


$0.469
.470
.449
.143
.151


$ 73.70
55.62
71.74
14.53
16.29


: $1.682 : $231.88


$3.247
$3.184
$-0.063


$536.28
$588.42
$ 52.14


a/Reported by 11 growers averaging $10.40 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


6
455


Unit


: $2.206


: $0.534
.403
.520
.105
.118

: $1.680

: $3.886
:$4.264
: $0.378








E&gplant
Costs and Returns in the Pompano Area in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item : Pompano


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower .. .
Average yield per acre (bushels).


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . . .
Seed . . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . .....
Spray and dust . . ...
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance .. .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . .. .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense ..

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing. .

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 29.38
8.58
159.56
74.18
165.89 :
19.22'
27.18
37.23
28.65
12.28


. . . . : 13.81 :


*.......


2.86
18.71


. . . . : $ 597.53


$ 231.16
265.20
54.97
55.56


. . . . : $ 606.89


$1204.42
$1122.57
$ -81.85


: $0.989


$0.383
.439
.091
.092


: $1.005

: $1.994
: $1.859
: $-0.135


A/Reported by 9 growers averaging


$21.35 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


10
326
33
604







Leaf Crops
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Sanford Everglades
,,^ r. m ii~ m .,, .__________


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates)


7
389
56
327


8
2,425
303
483


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor .. .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense .. ...

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Acre
$ 31.52
11.92
68.08
13.18
83.65

10.65
14.17
12.36
3.83


S4.87


1.23 :
6.43


. : $261.89


$ 62.41
130.87
16.63
47.58
31.67


. : $289.16


$551.05
$530.72
$-20.33


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 23.20
5.19
32.86
15.44-/
59.71
1.67/
9.10
17.14
9.14
4.76


: 3.50


.92
6.18


: $0.801 : $188.81


$0.191
.400
.051
.145
.097


$ 96.20
181.08
26.97
70.94
54.37


: $0.884 : $429.56


: $1.685
: $1.623
: $-0.062


$618.37
$681.04
$ 62.67


/Reported by 7 growers averaging $17.65 per acre.

k/Reported by 4 growers averaging $3.34 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Unit


: $0.391


: $0.199
: .375
: .056
.147
.112

: $0.889

: $1.280
: $1.410
:$0.130


: *
. :








Green Peppers
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item. Pompano Immokalee-Lee
a ___


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower .. .
Average yield per acre (bushels).


13
2,047
157
282


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . .


Acre
$ 27.37
23.37
153.34
S 71.42
251.17
29.45/
34.20
S 42.84
S 25.44
13.82

16.68


3
. .


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 13.22
18.35
133.93
S 49.96
: 134.86
26.31
S 32.19
34.28
: 30.69
9.59


: 11.77


3.07
17.91 :


2.55
20.14 :


ToLal growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

.Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


. : $ 711.79


210.34
196.19
45.44
44.39


. : $ 496.36

S: $1208.15
:$1550.40
:$ 342.25


: $1.603


:$0.474
: .442
: .102
: .100


: $ 516.13


$ 103.53
116.29
123.16
45.63
37.68


: $1.118 : $ 426.29


: $2.721
: $3.492
: $0.771


$ 942.42
$ 808.60
$-133.82


-/Reported by 15 growers averaging $31.41 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Unit


: $1.830


$0.367
.412
.437
.162
.134


: $1.512

: $3.342
: $2.867
: $0.475


. : i
:







Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Immokalee-Lee Dade


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower ...
Average yield per acre (cwt.) .

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense .. ...

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing. .

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


9
4,076
453
178


Acre
$ 23.75
78.62
76.59
25.56
43.40
5.46
17.10
16.15
18.00
6.71


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 42.92
93.40
51.45
33.26
29.14
1.12A
10.64
14.27
11.01
8.08


. 5.99 :


1.80 :
5.82


. : $324.95 : $ 2.006


$ 21.57
47.95
23.42
19.12
17.60


$ 0.133
.296
.144
.118
.109


Unit


: 5.80 :

: 1.10 :
: 5.85 :

: $308.04 : $1.731


$ 30.38
81.10
32.97
20.39
31.07


$0.171
.456
.185
.114
.174


. : $129.66 : $ 0.800 : $195.91 : $1.100


$454.61
$429.10
$-25.51


:$ 2.806
:$ 2.649
:$-0.157


$503.95
$509.36
$ 5.41


$2.831
$2.861
$0.030


8/Reported by 4 growers averaging $2.52 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.







Irish Potatoes--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Hastings


Number of growers . . .
Number of lcres . . . .
Average acres per grower.. .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


Growing cests:


Land rent . . . . . .
Seed. . . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance .. .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs: .

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return. . . . . .. .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 26.27
65.65
70.04
14.13 :
32.22a/ :
2.27-
14.65
18.49
16.65
6.69


: 5.13

: 1.66
: 6.19


. . .. : $280.04


$ 30.85
49.56
33.45
24.27
37.92


: $176.05


$456.09
$509.81
$ 53.72


: $1.444


$0.159
.256
.172
.125
.195


: $0.907


$2.351
$2.628
$0.277


Source: Grower records and estimates.


23
4,348
189
194


A/Reported by 15 growers averaging $3.48 per acre.







Squash
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Pompano Dade


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres .. . . .
Average acres per grower ..
Average yield per acre (bushels).


7
415
59
105


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . .. .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust.. . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing labor . .
Containers. . . . . .
HaU- ing . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Acre
$ 23.38
9.84
49.36
31.70
38.04
9.56A
16.36
20.71
14.15
5.52


. : 4.24

. : 1.41
. : 7.72


$231.99


$ 60.14
65.98
12.87
12.13

$151.12

$383.11
$378.40
$ -4.71


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 33.22
10.29
49.61
35.83
25.47
2.02^
12.20
12.91
8.99
7.53


: 3.96

:.90
: 8.94


: $ 2.209


$ 0.573
.628
.122
.116


: $ 1.439


$ 3.648
$ 3.604
$-0.044


: $211.87


$ 57.45
55.23
10.24
15.87


: $138.79 : $ 1.262


$350.66
$317.05
$-33.61


A/Reported by 6 and 3 growers averaging $11.16

Source: Grower records and estimates.


and $5.40 per acre, respectively.


8
930
116
110


Unit


: $ 1.926


$ 0.523
.502
.093
.144


$ 3.188
$ 2.882
$-0.306







Squash--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Immokalee-Lee


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower ...
Average yield per acre (bushels).


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance ...
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 4 mos.) . .....
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 7.70
6.37
71.93
28.20
29.86
5.24
8.96
8.21
6.81
3.20


3.45
. . . : 3.45 :

S. . . : .68 :
S . . . : 2.90 :


. . . . : $183.51


$ 51.05
68.13
64.10
20.03
22.28


. . . . : $225.59


$409.10
$428.60
$ 19.50


: $1.765


$0.491
.655
.616
.193
.214


: $2.169


$3.934
$4.121
$0.187


Source: Grower records and estimates.


6
255
42
104







Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Dade Ft. Pierce


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower. .
Average yield per acre (60 lb.)


15
8,322


16
4,050
253
201


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .


Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Acre
$ 43.43
6.71
120.77
68.84
79.20
4.61-
19.68
31.47
21.92
15.35


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 14.32
S 5.41
S 95.76
S 63.46
134.91
S 52.45
S 25.79
S 37.60
S 27.21
S 10.79


. : 10.27


2.19
20.80


. : $445.24


$130.08
116.49
92.20
25.06
28.52


: 11.73


2.72
28.78


: $ 2.249 : $510.93


$ 0.657
.588
.466
.126
.144


$132.29
132.82
109.27
44.40
33.96


. : $392.35 : $ 1.981 : $452.74


$837.59
$808.05
$-29.54


$ 4.230
$ 4.081
$-0.149


$963.67
$922.29
$-41.38


R/Reported by 8 growers averaging


$8.65 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Unit


: $2.542


:$0.658
.660
.544
.221
.169

:$2.252

:$4.794
:$4.588
$-0.206


. .







Tomatoes--Concluded
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas
Season 1962-63


in Florida


Item Immokalee-Lee


Number of growers . .
Number of acres .. ...
Average acres per grower.
Average yield per acre.


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor .. .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance.
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance.


Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.) . . ..
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . .


13
2,182
168
164


Average per
Acre _uit
$ 10.85
6.87
97.36
55.33
90.72
30.77
26.42
23.35
23.98
5.07


. . : 9.40

. . : 2.40
. . . : 29.30


. . : $411.82


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


$120.13
107.69
91.35
39.33
30.76


. . . : $389.26


$801.08
$767.96
$-33.12


: $ 2.511


$ 0.732
.657
.557
.240
.188


: $ 2.374


$ 4.885
$ 4.683
$-0.202


Source: Grower records and estimates


,
.*







Tomatoes (Staked)
Costs and Returns in Selected Areas in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item. Manatee-Ruskin Pompano-
. ________________ ___ _____________________________ ^ _


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (60 lb.) .
( 8 b.)

Growing costs:

Land rent. . . . . .
Seed . .. .. . . . .
Fertilizer . .. . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .....
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Grading and packing labor . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing.

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


10
1,743


13
1,324
132
567
4,254


334


Acre
$ 38.78
9.99
112.30
70.52
224.57
13.08-
28.46
31.36
27.45
15.71


Average per
Unit Acre
$ 54.96
S 13.13
333.06
S 231.98
765.85
S 57.93
S 40.64
S 65.32
47.96
S 19.69


: 14.43 :

. : 2.75
: 32.34


. : $ 621.74


$ 200.08
279.51
172.93
45.92
54.58


. : $ 753.02


$1374.76
$1483.26
$ 108.50


: 43.77

: 4.80
: 168.42


: $1.861


:$0.599
.837
.518
.138
.163

:$2.255

:$4.116
:$4.441
: $0.325


: $1847.51 : $3.258


$ 498.88
742.55
534.05
87.87
175.93


: $2039.28 : $3.597


$3886.79
$4431.91
$ 545.12


a/Vine-ripened.

b/Reported by 8 growers averaging $16.35 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.


Unit


$0.880
1.310
.942
.155
.310


$6.855
$7.816
$0.961







Watermelons
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area in Florida
Season 1962-63


Item Immokalee-Lee


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower. .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


14
2,047
146
318


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance. ..
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mos.) . . . .
Interest on capital invested
(other than land) . . .
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking labor . . . . .
Packing labor . . . . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . . .
Selling . . . . . .
Other . . . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing..

Total crop cost . . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


Average per
Acre Unit
$ 11.97
5.40
96.28
52.24
90.51
28.80
20.15
19.21
21.34
5.34


8.60

2.14
13.92


. . : $375.90


$ 36.08
15.37
12.90
75.53
36.89
12.25

$189.02

$564.92
$642.14
$ 77.22


: $1.182


: $0.113
.048
.041
S .237
S .116
S .039

: $0.594

: $1.776
:$2.019
:$0.243


Source: Grower records and estimates.


DLB:ba 4/2/64
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 1,000




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