• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Purpose
 Fresh citrus fruit
 Processed citrus products
 Definition of terms
 Advertising






Group Title: Cost of handling Florida and Texas citrus fruits in fresh and processed form, ... season.
Title: Cost of handling Florida and Texas citrus fruits in fresh and processed form, 1950-51 season.
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 Material Information
Title: Cost of handling Florida and Texas citrus fruits in fresh and processed form, 1950-51 season.
Series Title: Cost of handling Florida and Texas citrus fruits in fresh and processed form, ... season.
Alternate Title: Special report - Dept. of Agricultural Economcs. University of Florida ; 52-5
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Marketing Research Act
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1950-1951
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076935
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 164845076

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Preface
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Purpose
        Page 4
    Fresh citrus fruit
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Processed citrus products
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Definition of terms
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Advertising
        Page 58
        Page 59
Full Text




Special Report
Agricultural Economics
Series No. 52-5




University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Florida; Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
College Station, Texas; and, Cooperative Research and Service
Division, Farm Credit Administration, United States Department
of Agriculture, hashington, D. C., cooperating.









COST OF HANDLING FLORIDA AND TEXAS CITRUS FRUITS IN

FRESH AND PROCESSED FORI, 1950-:1.








A Study Conducted With Funds Provided
by the Research ivharkoting Act












University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
June 30, 1952












PREFACE

This is a report of one phase of the Southern Regional Project SM-L,

"Marketing Citrus Fruits." The costs of packing and processing citrus

fruits in Florida and Texas for the four seasons 19h6-47 to 19h9-50 have

been published previously. A study of the margins paid for wholesaling

and retailing citrus fruits and citrus fruit products and of the factors

affecting these margins, being conducted by the Bureau of Agricultural

Economics and the Fruit and Vegetable Branch of the Production and Mar-

keting Administration, is another phase of this project. Subsequent pub-

lications will include an analysis of the wholesale and retail margins for

handling citrus fruits and a more detailed analysis of the costs of packing

and processing citrus fruits in Florida and Texas.

This report was prepared by:

J. L. Tennant, Visiting Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist and Head, Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.

H. B. Sorenson, Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural
Economics and Sociology, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
College Station, Texas.

C. K. Baker, Agricultural Economist, and J. K. Samuels, In Charge,
Fruit and Vegetable Section, Cooperative Research and Service Division,
Farm Credit Administration, U, S, Department of Agriculture, Lashing-
ton 25, D. C.
















C 0 NTENTS


Page


PURPOSE

FRESH CITRUS FRUIT

Changes in Packing and Selling Costs .

1950-51 Costs of Packing and Selling *

1950-51 Costs of Packing .* *

Containers and Packing and Selling Costs

Containers and Packing Costs .. .

Changes in Containers Used *

Volume and Costs . e -

Type of Firm and Costs .* *

PROCESSED CITUS PRODUCTS

Cost of Processing, Warehousing, and Sel
Citrus Juices and Sections * *


* S 9

* S *

*9 595

* 9 S

* S 9

9 9 9

* 9


ling
. .. 0 4 *


Variation in Processing, Warehousing and Selling
Costs 9 * 0 9 *

Volume and Cost of Processing, Warehousing and
Selling * * . .

Type of Firm and Costs of Processing, Warehousing
and Selling. . .. ..* *

Cost of Processing, Warehousing and Selling
Frozen Orange Concentrate. * .

Definition of Terms *. .* * .

Other Publications Available. ... . .











COST OF HANDLING FLORIDA AND TEXAS CITRUS FRUITS
IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM, 1950-51

Purpose

The purpose is to give the citrus industry and others who have an

interest in the problem:

(1) The trends in handling costs.

(2) The 1950-51 cost of packing and selling fresh
citrus fruit by kind of fruit and type of package.

(3) The 1950-51 cost of processing and selling citrus
fruit juices, salads and concentrates.

This report presents an analysis of 1950-51 costs based on detailed

data furnished by 77 fresh fruit packers, 18 canning plants and nine con-

centrate plants in Florida. A summary of the 1950-51 costs at 12 packing

plants and eight canneries in Texas is included. A discussion of the

1950-51 Texas costs is presented in a separate report, "Cost of Handling

Texas Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form, 1950-51 Season"; a copy

of which may be obtained from the Agricultural Experiment Station, College

Station, Texas.










FRESH CITRUS FRUIT

Changes in Packing and Selling Costs

The cost of packing and selling Florida oranges in 1 3/5 bushel bruce

boxes rose from $0.83 in 1946-47 to $0.92 in 1950-51. Grapefruit rose

from $0.75 to $0.82, and tangerines from $1.16 to $1.42, Table 1-a, Fig.

1.

Most of this advance in costs occurred during 1949-50 and 1950-51.

The net change in costs for the five years from 1946 to 1951 was a rise

of nine cents for oranges, seven cents for grapefruit, and $0.27 for

tangerines per 1 3/5 bushel, Table 1-b.

The cost of packing and selling oranges rose eight cents per 1 3/5

bruce box during the two seasons 1949-50 and 1950-51. This accounted

for 94 percent of the net advance from 1946-47. The cost for grapefruit

advanced five cents in the same two years which was 71 percent of the

5-year rise. For 1 3/5 bushels of tangerines in 4/5 bruce boxes, the

rise was $0.23 which made up 87 percent of the increase since 1946-47.

The reasons for the rise are: (1) The higher prices for containers;

(2) Some advance in wage rates, especially in locations where the demand

for workers is high; (3) The increase in the number of workers retained

on a 12-month basis and on a full-time basis during the packing season,

irrespective of shipping holidays, shipping allocations, and other hin-

drances to steady operations; (h) Rising prices for repair parts, replace-

ments, power, supplies; and, (5) Yiith regard to tangerines, the greater

rise in container prices per 1 3/5 bushels due to the use of the 4/5

bushel container, the special assessment for the promotion of tangerine

consumption, and in some cases, the allocation of a larger proportion










Table l.-Cost of Packing and Selling Florida and Texas Oranges and
Grapefruit in 1 3/5 Bushel Bruce Boxes, and Tangerines
in 4/5 Bushel Bruce Boxes, 1946-47 to 1950-51.


(a) Cost per 1 3/5 bushel


1950-51 : 1949-50 1948-49 : 1947-48 : 1946-47

Florida

Oranges $0.9166 $0.8785 $0.8330 $O.8421 $0.8279
Grapefruit .8196 .8046 .7359 .7323 .7545
Tangerines 1.4250 1.2491 1.1916 1.1812 1.1579

Texas

Oranges $1.0187 $0.9125 $0.8555 $0.7744 $0.7467
Grapefruit .8943 .8056 .7508 .6176 .6506


(b) Changes in the costs of packing and selling
Florida citrus fruit, 1946-47 to 1950-51.


Season : Oranges in : Grapefruit in : 1 3/5 Bushel Tangs.
: 1 3/5 Bruce Boxes : 1 3/5 Bruce Boxes : in 4/5 Bruce Boxes
: Rise : Fall : Rise : Fall : Rise : Fall

1. Change in cost from previous year
Florida
1947-48 $0.0142 $0.0222 $0.0233
1948-49 $0.0091 $0.0036 -. .0104
1949-50 .0455 .0687 .0575
1950-51 .0381 .0150 .1759

2. Change in cost 1946-47 to 1950-51

Florida $0.0887 $O.0651 $0.2671
Texas .2720 .2437 -









Cost per
1 3/5 bushel


~---
i ;

~ :9
: r
i2i
~ i,:
:'~
i
- :
..
i:1


i,: '"*'* :,. -j'1

I iLi 1



: .i! -.



r v*1

-8 'h8-9'1t9-)0
Grapefruit


>***** ii, i
I..i
Ir* I
'i

I
I- : 1
*ii




I
5i0

9tl






50-;1


Fig.l.-Costs of Packing and Selling Florida Oranges and Grapefruit in 1 3/5
Bushels of Tangerines in h/5 Bruce Boxes,


Cost per
1 3/5 bushel


1.hC




1.30




1.20


1.101-


1. oo-


Tangerines
Bushel Bruce Boxes and 1 3/5


1.00


Oranges









of the costs to tangerine packing.

The cost of packing and selling Texas oranges advanced from $0.75 per

1 3/5 bruce box in 1946-47 to $1.02 in 1950-51, a rise of $0.27. The cost

for grapefruit was $0.65 in 1946-47 and $0.89 in 1950-51, an increase of

$0.24 per box, Table 1-a.

Most of the rise occurred during the three years, 1948-49 to 1950-51.

The cost of packing and selling oranges in 1947-48 was only three cents

higher, and the cost for grapefruit three cents less than in 1946-47.

In addition to the reasons listed for rising costs in Florida, the small

volume at many plants in Texas during 1948-49, 1949-50 and 1950-51 was

an important factor. Low temperatures in January 1949 and again during

the peak of the 1950-51 marketing season reduced production to levels

much below those of 1946-47 and 1947-48.


1950-51 Costs of Packing and Selling

The 1950-51 costs of packing and selling Florida oranges and grape-

fruit were lowest for 1/2 box or 40-pound bags with bruce boxes and 1/h

box or 20-pound bags next lowest. The cost was highest for fruit packed

in 5-pound bags, with the cost for 8-pound bags and 1 3/5 standard wrapped

boxes midway between the 1 3/5 bruce box and the 5-pound bag, Table 2.

The cost of materials containers, labels, paste, end guards, paper,

strips, straps, etc., and the cost of labor accounted for two-thirds to

four-fifths of the 1950-51 costs of packing and selling citrus fruit.

Materials made up 43 percent, and labor 24 percent of the cost for oranges

in 1 3/5 bruce boxes. For grapefruit, materials and labor accounted for

48 and 21 percent of the total cost, respectively. For tangerines in 4/5









bruce boxes, materials made up h3 percent, and labor 26 percent of the

packing and selling total.

Master containers used by some irms for shipping 8- and 5-pound bags

add from ,0.42 to ;0.50 to the cost per 1 3/5 bushel. The container used

for fruit packed for export cost 0.73 to $0.76 compared with about ,Q0.40

for the regular 1 3/5 bruce box.

Oranges.-- The 1950-51 total per box cost of oranges in 1 3/5 bruce

containers was 0.91. Oranges in 1/2 box or 0O-pound bags cost ,>0.77

which was ^'O.1 less than the above. Costs for oranges packed in other

containers were slightly higher than for those packed in the 1 3/5 bruce

box. In 1/4 box or 20-pound bags, the per box cost was 0*.94 or three

cents higher. Eight-pound bags averaged '1.15 or i.0.24 more, and 5-pound

bags cost $1.41 or 'O.*$0 more. Oranges packed in 1 3/5 standard wrapped

boxes averaged '.l.21 which was 30.30 higher than the 1 3/5 bruce box.

Many of the differences in the total per box costs resulted from variation

in the prices of the containers used.

Grapefruit.-- At 21 firms the average cost for packing and selling

1 3/5 bushels of grapefruit in 1/2 box or 40-pound bags was .0.63. This

was '0.19 below $0.82, the cost in 1 3/5 bruce boxes at 68 firms. In 1/h

box or 20-pound bags the cost was 40.91 or nine cents higher; in 1 3/5

standard wrapped boxes and 8-pound bags it was $1.09 or "0.27 higher; and

in 5-pound bags -l1.32 or .'O0.50 higher than the cost in 1 3/5 bruce boxes.

Tangerines.-- The cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushels of tan-

gerines in 4/5 bruce boxes averaged $1.43 a t 50 firms. In 4/5 bruce flat

containers, it was 11.36 at 12 firms, and in 4/5 standard boxes 1.49 at

12 firms.

In Texas the 1950-51 packing and selling costs were lowest for fruit








Table 2.-Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit by Type of Container,
77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


(a) Oranges: Cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushel in
1 3/5 15 3/5 1/2 Box 1/ Box 8-1b. -lb.
Bruce Std.Box Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh
Box Wrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Packinghouses, Number 71 22 39 UO 46 40
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 109,051 50,957 1,324 1,581 12,968 13, 87
Costs per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3961 $0.5881 0.2632 $0.3934 $0.5607 $0.7919
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0332 .0328 .0317 .0349 .0391 .0387
Crate making & labeling .0312 .0368 .0078 .0095 .0056 .0063
Foreman, graders, others .0511 .0711 .0517 .0612 .0723 .0829
Wrap and pack .0623 .1082 .0729 .0830 .1008 .1251
Truck, check, load .0354 .0340 .0508 .0O65 .0557 .0555
Payroll taxes .0104 .0137 .0079 .0105 .0085 .0075
Total labor .2236 .2966 .2228 .2456 .2820 .3160
Other direct operating .0560 .0570 .0580 .0669 .0721 .0829
Indirect operating .0351 .0O60 .0295 .0328 .0397 .0329
Total packing .7108 .9577 .5735 .737 .955 1.2237
Administrative & selling .0987 .1084 .0925 .0969 .0964 .0851
Adv., inspection, other .3071 .1101 .1082 .1071 .0981 .09-9
Total packing & selling :w0.9166 1 .2062 0.77'2 00.9027 1.190 41. 086


(b) Grapefruit: Cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushel in
1 3/5 1 3/5 1/2 Box 1/4 Box 8-lb. 5-b.
Bruce Std.Box Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh
Box Wrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Packinghouses, Number 6 21 21 9 39 35
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 81,090 53,371 771 133 3,996 3,72
Costs per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3970 50.5759 $0.2319 $0.O403 $0.5742 $0.7616
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0250 .0294 .0261 .0317 .0343 .0320
Crate making & labeling .0301 .0o09 .0048 .0038 .0072 .000
Foreman, graders, others .0341 .0580 .0330 .0534 .0O66 .0719
Wrap and pack .0A62 .0886 .0560 .0606 .0853 .1250
Truck, check, load .0308 .0249 .0394 .0511 .0439 .0502
Payroll taxes .0082 .0110 .0061 .0163 .0089 .0066
Total labor .1744 .2528 .16 5 .2169 .2262 .2897
Other direct operating .O041 .0501 .0o06 .0514 .0634 .0755
Indirect operating .0305 .0347 .0217 .0333 .0363 .0304
Total packing .6460 .9135 .4596 .7059 .9001 1.1572
Administrative & selling .0848 .1070 .0646 .1229 .0958 .0794
Adv., inspection, other .0888 .0740 .1018 .0797 .0890 .0835
Total packing & selling $0.8196 $1.0945 $0.6260 $0.9085 $1.0849 $1.3201








11
Table 2.-Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit by Type of Container,
77 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Concluded).


Packinghous
1 3/5 Boxes
Costs per 1
Material
Labor:
Receive
Crate m
Foreman
Wrap an
Truck,
Payroll
Total
Other dir
Indirect
Total
Administer
Adv., ins
Total


(c) Tangerines: Cost of packing and
4/5 Bruce
es, Number 50
per firm 23,599
3/5 bushel:
$0.6132

, truck, dump .0391
making & labeling .0597
i, graders, others .0793
Id pack .1141
check, load .0651
taxes .O141
Labor .3714
'ect operating .0971
operating .0596
Packing 1.1413
ative & selling .1624
;pection, other .1213
p- acking & selling $1.h250


selling 1 3/5 bushel
4/5 Bruce Flat
12
12,210

$0.6573

.0491
.0544
.0946
.1084
.0532
.oll4
.3711
.0677
.0348
1.1309
.1018
.1236
S1.3563


in
4/5 Standard
12


$0.7147

.0537
.0314
.100$
.1254
.0919
.0079
.4138
.o655
.0264
1.2204
.0946
.1788
$1.4938


in 1 3/5 bruce boxes and in 1/2 box bags. They were highest for fruit in

5-pound bags, Table 3.

The average cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushels of oranges ranged

from $1.02 in 1 3/5 bruce boxes and $1.04 in 1/2 box bags at 11 fir-ms to

$.l28 in 8-pound bags at 11 firms and $1.55 in 5-pound bags at 10 firms.

The cost was $1.12 in 1 3/5 venco boxes a container similar to a flat

pack- at three firms, and '$1.27 in 4/5 bruce boxes at eight finns.

About 82 percent of the fresh citrus packed in Texas is grapefruit.

The average costs of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushels rrere 0.89 in 1 3/5

bruce boxes at 12 firms and $0.91 in 1/2 box bags at 11 firms. They were

highest at i1-.24 in 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes and $,1.38 in 5-pound bags.

The cost in 1 3/5 venco boxes was ,0*.93 and in 8-pound bags $ .16.


_ __


v v


*









Table 3.-Cost of Packing


and Selling Texas Citrus F-ruit by Type of Container,
12 Packinghouses, 1950-51.1/


(a) Oranges: Cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushel in
S35 1r 35 4/5 1/2 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
Bruce Venco Bruce Mesh Mesh Mesh
Box Box Box Bag Bag g Lag
Packinghouses, Number 11 3 8 11 11 0
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 40,380 15,933 997 1,392 5,681 iT.6,7T
Costs per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3795 $0.4021 $0.5739 $0.3244 $0.6170 00.7896
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0287 .0431 .0262 .0372 .0278 .0292
Crate making & labeling .0165 .0142 .0296 -
Foreman, graders, others .0544 .0792 .0509 .0717 .0682 .0770
Wrap and pack .0578 .0607 .0704 .0556 .0954 .1352
Truck, check, load .0725 .0796 .0612 .0944 .0884 .0959
Payroll taxes .0023 .0029 .0022 .0021 .0026 .0023
Total labor .2322 .2797 .210 .2610 .282 .3396
Other direct operating .0588 .0627 .0511 .0730 .0688 .0798
Indirect operating .0742 .0826 .0865 .0679 .0766 .0770
Total packing .7447 .8271 .950 .7263 1 28 1.2860
Administrative & selling .1678 .1831 .2072 .1944 .1392 .1616
Adv., inspection, other .1062 .1063 .1075 .1171 .1013 .1050
Total packing & selling $1.0187 ,1.1165 $1.2667 $1.0378 1.2833 $1.552


(b) Grapefruit: Cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushel in
1 3 1 3/5 1 3/5 1/2 Box 8-lb. -lb.
Bruce Std.Box Venco Mesh Menh Mesh
Box Wrapped Box Bag BaF Bag
Packinghouses, Number 12 9 3 11 12 11
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 9,327 5,026 2,677 784 7,980 6,033
Costs per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3835 $0.6129 $0.4026 $0.3225 $0.5616 $0.7360
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0297 .0370 .0271 .0373 .0281 .0273
Crate making & labeling .0187 .0194 .0127 -
Foreman, graders, others .0374 .0706 .0467 .0462 .0599 .0573
Wrap and pack .0358 .0726 .0351 .0452 .0832 .1231
Truck, check, load .0457 .0754 .0588 .0654 .0768 .0709
Payroll taxes .0023 .0027 .0030 .0016 .0029 .0024
Total labor .1696 .2777 .1834 .1957 .2509 .2810
Other direct operating .0422 .0821 .0423 .0524 .0591 .0575
Indirect operating .0719 .0655 .0882 .0710 .0673 .0782
Total packing .6672 1.0382 .7165 .6416 .9389 1.1527
Administrative & selling .1527 .1294 .1373 .1932 .1509 .1511
Adv., inspection, other .0744 .0771 .0753 .0792 .0730 .0773
Total packing& selling $0.8943 $1.22447 $0.9291 $0.9140 $1.1628 $1.3814
I I I I. I. I I . a ..


of Handcling T~uas
AgricuLtural


I/ Data for Texas in this and following tabl-s arc from, "Cost
Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form, 1950-51 Season,"
Experiment Station, College Station, Texas.











1950-51 Costs of Packing

The 1950-51 cost of packing 1 3/5 bushels of Florida oranges wvas

$0.57 in 1/2 box bags. This was CO.lh less than '0.71, the cost in 1 3/5

bruce boxes. In 1/h box bags the cost -was three cents more than in the

1 3/5 bruce containers; in 8-pound bags $0.2h more; in 1 3/5 standard

wrapped boxes .0'28 more; and in 5-pound bags $0.51 more.

Packing grapefruit cost $0.h6 per 1 3/5 bushel in 1/2 box bags,

and O0.65 in 1 3/5 bruce boxes, the 1/2 box bags thus costing 0.19

less than the bruce. In 1/h box bags the cost was "0.71 or six cents

more than the cost in 1 3/5 bruce boxes. In 8-pound bags the cost

averaged "0.90 or ',0.25 more; in 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes .'0.91 or

$0.26 more; and in 5-pound bags 1.16 or :;0.51 :.ore.

The cost of packing tangerines was 1l.l1 per 1 3/i bushel in h/5

bruce boxes, ,1.13 in h/5 bruce flat containers and ,1.22 in h/5 stan-

dard boxes.

Materials and labor are the two major items of cost. Much of the

difference in the costs of packing oranges and grapefruit in the various

kinds of containers is due to the price of the specific container and

the labor required to handle and pack the fruit in that container. '.ith

tangerines the price of the container and variation in costs other than

labor account for most of the differences. The exception is that the

12 firms packing tangerines in 4/5 standard bones had higher labor costs

than the firms packing in h/5 bruce flat and in 4/5 bruce boxes.










Containers and Packing and Sellin Costs

The cost of packing and selling oranges varied from less than $0.65

per 1 3/5 bushel at seven firms for oranges in 1/2 box bags to $1.50 and

over at 15 firms for oranges in 5-pound bags. The cost of packing and

selling grapefruit ranged from less than ,0.60 at seven firms for grape-

fruit in 1/2 box bags to $1.30 and over at three firms for grapefruit in

8-pound bags and at 20 firms for grapefruit in 5-pound bags. The cost

for tangerines varied from less than $1.15 per 1 3/5 bushel at four firms

for tangerines in h/5 bruce boxes to $1.60 or more at five firms for tan-

gerines in h/5 bruce boxes, at four firms for tangerines in 4/5 bruce flats

and at two firms for tangerines in 4/. standard boxes, Table .,

Oranges,-- ihe cost of packing and selling oranges in 1 3/5 bruce

boxes varied from $0.70 at three firms to $'.39 at one firm with 38 of

71 firms having costs between $0.85 and W1.00. In 1 3/5 standard unwrapped

boxes the cost ranged from $0.80 to $1.25, with nine of 15 firms having

costs between $1.00 and $1.15. In 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes, the cost

varied from $1.00 to $1.hO with 11 of 22 firms having costs between $1.15

and $1.30.

The costs for oranges were lowest in 1/2 box bags and varied from

under $0.65 to $1.05 per 1 3/5 bushel with 17 of 39 firms having costs

between $0.75 and $0.90. In 1/h box bags the cost ranged from $0.65 to

$1.30 with 24 of hO firms having costs from $0.90 to $1.05. In 8-pound

bags the cost varied from $0.90 to $1.-5 with 27 of 46 firms having costs

from $1.10 to $1.25. In 5-pound bags the costs were from $1.15 to over

$1.h5 with 31 of 40 firms having costs above $1.35 per 1 3/5 bushel.
Grapefruit,-- In 1 3/5 bruce boxes, the costs for packing and selling












grapefruit ranged from $0.65 per 1 3/5 bushel to $1.30 with L4 of 67 firms

having costs between $0.75 and '0.90. The costs in 1 3/5 standard unwrapped

boxes were from $0.75 to $1.15 with costs between $0.95 and $1.10 for 10

of 16 firms. In 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes the costs varied from $0.85

to $1.30 with 11 of 20 firms having costs between $1.05 and $1.20.

The costs were lowest for grapefruit in 1/2 box bags ranging from

less than $0.60 per 1 3/5 bushel to $1.00, with costs below $0.65 for 10

of 21 firms. Six firms packed some grapefruit in 10-pound bags .ith the

costs ranging from $0,80 to $1.25. In 8-pound bags the costs varied from

$0.80 to over $1.30 with 211 of 38 firms having costs between $0.95 and $1.10

per 1 3/5 bushel. In 5-pound bags the cost varied from $1.05 to over $1.30

with 25 of 3h firms having costs above $1.25q.

Tangerines.-- The cost of packing and selling 1 3/5 bushels of tan-

gerines in h/5 bruce boxes varied from $1.10 to over $1.60 with 23 of L9

firms having costs from $1.30 to $1.h5. In 4/5 bruce flat containers the

cost for 12 firms ranged from $1.15 to over $1.60. In h/) standard boxes

the cost for 12 firms was from $1.30 to over $1.60.









Table 4.-Containers


and Variations in the Costs of Packing and Selling Florida
Citrus Fruit, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


Cost (a) Oranges in
per : 1 3/5 1 3/5 1 3/5 1/2 Box 1/4 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Std.Box Std.Box Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh
: Box Unwrapped Wrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under $0.6500 0 0 0 7 0 0 0
$0.65 .6999 0 0 0 3 1 0 0
.70 .7499 3 0 0 5 1 0 0
.75 .7999 6 0 0 7 3 0 0
.80 .8499 6 1 0 4 3 0 0
.85 .8999 13 1 0 6 5 0 0
.90 .9499 16 0 0 4 7 2 0
.95 .9999 9 1 0 2 10 1 0
1.00 1.0499 6 4 1 1 7 3 0
1.05 1.0999 5 2 2 0 2 4 0
1.10 1.1499 4 3 2 0 0 9 0
1.15 1.1999 2 2 3 0 0 8 1
1.20 1.2499 0 1 6 0 0 10 2
1.25 1.2999 0 0 2 0 1 6 1
1.30 1.3499 0 0 4 0 0 1 5
1.31.3-.3999 1 0 2 0 0 1 8
1.40 1.4499 0 0 0 0 0 1 8
1.45 and over 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Total number of firms 71 15 22 39 40 46 40

Cost :(b) Grapefruit in
er : 1 3/ 1 3/ 1 3 /5 3 1/2 Box 1/ Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/ bushel : Bruce Std.Box Std.Box Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh
: Box Unwrapped Wrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under $0.6000 0 0 0 7 0 0 0
$0.60 .6499 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
.65 .6999 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
.70 .7499 7 0 0 2 0 0 0
.75 .7999 16 1 0 2 0 0 0
.80 .8499 13 0 0 2 1 1 0
.85 .8999 15 1 1 3 1 0 0
.90 .9499 5 3 0 0 0 2 0
.95 .9999 4 2 2 1 0 5 0
1.00 1.0499 4 3 2 0 0 9 0
1.05 1.0999 2 5 8 0 2 10 1
1.10 1.1499 0 1 1 0 1 4 0
1.15 1.1999 0 0 3 0 0 3 1
1.20 1.2499 0 0 2 0 1 1 7
1.25 1.2999 1 0 2 0 0 0 5
1.30 and over 0 0 0 0 0 3 20
Total number of firms 68 16 21 20 6 38 34















Table 4.-Containers and Variations in the Costs of Packing and Selling Florida
Citrus Fruit, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Concluded).


Cost (c) Tangerines in
per
1 3/5 bushel : 4/5 Bruce 4/5 Bruce Flat 4/5 Standard
Number of firms
Under $1.0000 0 0 0
$1.00 1.0499 0 0 0
1.05 1.0999 0 0 0
1.10 1.1499 4 0 0
1.15 1.1999 4 1 0
1.20 1.2499 5 0 0
1.25 1.2999 3 2 0
1.30 1.3499 13 2 1
1.35 1.3999 4 1 1
1.40 1.4499 6 0 1
1.45 1.4999 1 1 5
1.50 1.5499 3 1 1
1.55 1.5999 2 0 1
1.60 and over 5 4 2
Total number of firms 50 12 12









Table 5.-Containers and Variations in the Costs of Packing
Citrus Fruit, 12 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


and Selling Texas


Cost : (a) Oranges in
per : 1 3/5 1 3/ /S / 1/2 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Venco Bruce Mesh Mesh Mesh
: Box Box Box Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under $0.9000 1 0 0 3 0 0
$0.90 .9499 1 0 0 0 0 0
.95 .9999 1 1 0 0 0 0
1.00 1.0499 1 0 0 4 0 0
1.05 1.0999 2 0 0 1 0 0
1.10 1.1499 2 1 2 2 0 0
1.15 1.1999 1 0 0 1 1 0
1.20 1.2499 2 1 0 0 1 0
1.25 1.2999 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.30 1.3499 0 0 2 0 1 0
1.35 1.3999 0 0 3 0 2 1
1.40 1.4499 0 0 1 0 1 0
1.45 1.4999 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.50 1.5499 0 0 0 0 3 0
1.55 1.5999 0 0 0 0 1 1
1.60 1.6499 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.65 1.6999 0 0 0 0 1 1
1.70 1.7499 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.75 and over 0 0 0 0 0 3
Total number of firms 11 3 o 11 11 10

Cost : (b) Grapefruit in
per : 1 3/5 1 3/5 1 3/5 1/2 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel 2 Bruce Std. Box Venco Mesh Mesh Iiesh
: Box Wrapped Box Bag Bag Bag
Number of fiims
Under $0.8000 1 0 0 3 0 0
$0.80 .8499 1 0 0 1 0 0
.85 .8999 3 0 0 0 0 0
.90 .9499 2 0 1 2 0 0
.95 .9999 2 0 1 3 0 0
1.00 1.0499 1 0 1 1 1 0
1.05 1.0999 2 0 0 1 1 0
1.10 1.1499 0 1 0 0 1 0
1.15 1.1999 0 3 0 0 4 0
1.20 1.2499 0 2 0 0 1 0
1.25 1.2999 0 0 0 0 2 1
1.30 1.3499 0 1 0 0 0 2
1.35 1.3999 0 1 0 0 1 0
1.40 1.4499 0 1 0 0 1 1
1.45 1.4999 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.50 1.5499 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.55 and over 0 0 0 0 0 3
Total number of firms 12 9 3 11 12 11









Containers and Packing Costs
The costs of packing oranges ranged from under $0.45 per 1 3/5 bushel

in 1/2 box bags at three firms to over $1.20 for oranges in 5-pound bags
at 21 firms. The packing costs for grapefruit varied from less than $0.60

per 1 3/5 bushel at nine firms for fruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes, at 15 firms
for fruit in 1/2 box bags and at two firms for fruit in 1/4 box bags, to
over $1.40 at one firm for fruit in 5-pound bags. The cost of packing
tangerines per 1 3/5 bushel varied from under $1.00 at five firms for
fruit in 4/5 bruce boxes and at one firm for fruit in 4/S bruce flats, to

$1.60 and over at one firm for fruit in 4/5 bruce boxes and at one firm
for fruit in 4/5 bruce flats, Table 6.

Oranges.-- The cost of packing oranges in 1 3/5 bruce boxes ranged

from $0.60 per 1 3/5 bushel at 11 firms to $1.00 at one firm, with 46 of

71 firms having costs between $0.65 and $0.80. In 1 3/5 standard un-
wrapped boxes the cost varied from $0.70 at one firm to $1.00 at one
firm with 10 of 15 firms having costs from $0.80 to $0.95. The cost of
packing in 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes was between $0.85 at one firm to
.$1.19 at one firm with 14 of 22 firms having costs between $0.95 and $1.10.

In 1/2 box bags the cost of packing varied from less than $0.45 per

1 3/5 bushel at three firms to $0.85 at one firm with 21 of 39 firms
having costs from $0.50 to $0.65. In 1/4 box bags the cost varied from

$0.50 to $0.90 with 26 of 40 firms having costs from $0.65 to $0.80. In
8-pound bags the range was from $0.75 to $1.20 with 34 of 46 firms having
costs between $0.90 and $1.05. The cost for 5-pound bags was from $1.00
to over $1.20 with 35 of 40 firms having costs above $1.15.









Grapefruit.-- The cost of packing grapefruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes
varied from under $0.60 per 1 3/5 bushel at nine firms to $0.95 at one
firm with 49 of 67 firms having costs between $0.60 and $0.75. In 1 3/5

standard unwrapped boxes it varied from $0.65 at one firm to $0.95 at

four firms. In 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes the cost was from $0.70 at
one firm to $1.10 at one firm with 13 of 20 firms having costs between
$0.85 and $1.00
In 1/2 box bags 15 of 21 firms had costs below $0.60 per 1 3/5

bushel, and one firm had a cost of $0.75. In 1/4 box bags the range
was from $0.60 at two firms to $0.85 at one firm. In 8-pound bags the

cost varied from $0.70 at two firms to $1.15 at two firms with 27 of

38 firms having costs from $0.80 to $0.95. The cost of packing in 5-pound
bags ranged from $0.95 per 1 3/5 bushel at two firms to over $1.40 at one

firm with 25 of 34 firms having costs from $1.05 to $1.20.

Tangerines.-- The cost of packing tangerines in 4/5 bruce boxes was
from less than $1.00 per 1 3/5 bushel at five firms to over $1.60 at one
firm, with 24 of 49 firms having costs from $1.00 to $1.15. In 4/5 bruce

flats the cost for 12 firms varied from less than $1.00 at one firm to

over $1.60 at another. In 4/5 standard boxes the cost per 1 3/5 bushel
for 12 firms ranged from $1.15 at three firms to $1.40 at one firm.









Table 6.-Containers and Variations in the Costs of Pac'ing Florida Citrus Fruit,
77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


Cost : __(a) Oranges in
per : 1 3/5 1 3/5 1 3/ 1/2 Box 1/h Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Std. Box Std. Box Mesh Mesh Ulesh Mesh
: Box Unwrapped WJrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under 0..0o00 0 0 0 0 00 0
lo.4o .l9a9 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
.5 .999 0 0 0 7 0 0 o
.50 .5499 0 0 0 6 1 0 0
.55- .5999 0 0 0 7 2 0 0
.60 .6499 11 0 0 8 4 0 0
.65 .6999 21 0 0 5 6 0 0
.70 .7499 14 1 0 2 11 0 0
.75 .7999 11 3 0 0 9 1 0
.80 .8499 8 2 0 1 5 2 0
.85 .8999 3 4 1 0 2 6 0
.90 .9499 2 4 4 0 0 11 0
95 .9999 1 1 2 0 0 12 0
1.00 1.0499 0 0 8 0 0 11 1
1.05 1.0999 0 0 4 0 0 2 2
1.1 1.1499 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
1.15 1.1999 0 0 2 0 0 1 14
1.20 and over 0 0 0 0 0 0 21
Total number of firms 71 15 22 39 40 46 40

Cost :(b) Grapefruit in
per : 1 3 /5 1 3/3/ 1/2 Box 1/4 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Std. Box Std. Box Mesh Mesh Mesh iesh
: Box Unwrapped Wrapped Bag Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under 30.6000 9 O 0 14 2 0 0
30.60 .6499 28 0 0 3 O 0 0
.65 .6999 14 1 0 2 2 0 0
.70 .7499 7 3 1 1 3 2 0
.75 .7999 5 1 0 0 1 2 0
.80 .8499 2 5 4 0 1 9 o
.85 .8999 1 2 4 o o 13 0
.90 .9499 1 4 6 0 0 5 0
.95 .9999 0 0 4 0 0 4 2
1.00 1.0499 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
1.05 1.0999 0 0 1 0 0 1 7
1.10 1.1499 0 0 0 0 0 2 8
1.15 1.1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
1.20 1.2499 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1.25 1.2999 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.30 1.3499 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.35 1.3999 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1.40 and over 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total number of firms 67 16 21 20 9 3. 34















Table 6.-Containers


and Variations in the Costs of Packing Florida Citrus Fruit,
77 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Concluded).


Cost: (c) Tangerines in
per
1 3/5 bushel : 4/5 Bruce 4/5 Bruce Flat 4/5 Standard
Number of firms
Under $1.0000 5 1 0
q1.00 1.0o99 9 1 0
1.05 1.0999 9 2 0
1.10 1.1499 6 2 0
1.15 1.1999 5 0 3
1.20 1.2499 4 0 2
1.25 1.2999 3 1 2
1.30 1.3499 2 1
1.35 1.3999 2 0 1
1.40 1.4499 2 2 0
1.45 1.4999 0 1 0
1.50 1.5499 1 0 0
1.55 1.5999 0 0 0
1,60 and over 1 1 0
Total number of firms 49 12 12







Table 7.-Containers


and Variations in the Costs of Packing Texas Citrus Fruit,
12 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Concluded).


Cost (a) Oranges in
per 1 3/5 1 3/5 4/5 1/2 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Venco Bruce Mesh Hesh Mesh
: Box Box Box Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under 30.6000 0 0 0 1 0 0
$0.60 .6499 1 0 0 3 0 0
.65 .6999 1 0 0 0 0 0
.70 .7499 3 0 0 2 0 0
.75 .7999 2 2 0 5 0 0
.80 .8499 2 0 1 0 0 0
.85 .8999 2 1 0 0 0 0
.90 .9499 0 0 2 0 0 0
.95 .9999 0 0 1 0 2 0
1.00 1.0499 0 0 1 0 0 0
1.05 1.0999 0 0 1 0 2 0
0 1.1 .1499 0 0 2 0 3 0
1.15 1.1999 0 0 0 0 2 1
1.20 1.2499 0 0 0 0 2 1
1.25 1.2999 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.30 1.3499 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.35 1.3999 0 0 0 0 0 3
1.40 1.4499 0 0 0 0 0 2
1.45 1.4999 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.50 and over 0 0 0 0 0 1
Total number of firms 11 3 8 11 11 10

Cost (b) Grapefruit in
per : 1 3/5 1 3/5 1 /5 1/2 Box 8-lb. 5-lb.
1 3/5 bushel : Bruce Std. Box Venco Mesh Mesh Mesh
: Box Wrapped Box Bag Bag Bag
Number of firms
Under $0.5000 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.50 .5499 0 0 0 1 0 0
.55 .5999 1 0 0 4 0 0
.60 .6499 4 0 0 1 0 0
.65 .6999 3 0 0 1 0 0
.70 .7499 3 0 3 4 0 0
.75 .7999 1 0 0 0 0 0
.80 .8499 0 0 0 0 0 0
.85 .8999 o 1 0 0 3 0
.90 .9499 0 2 0 0 2 0
.95 .9999 0 2 0 0 5 0
1.00 1.0499 0 2 0 0 2 0
1.05 1.0999 0 1 0 0 0 1
1.10 1.1499 0 1 0 0 0 2
1.15 1.1999 0 0 0 0 0 3
1.20 1.2499 0 0 0 0 0 3
1.25 1.2999 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.30 and over 0 0 0 0 0 2
Total number of firms 12 9 3 11 12 11I











Changes in Containers Used

Since 1945-46 the two shifts in container use are a small decline

in bruce boxes and an increase in bulk shipments. About 78.7 percent

of the fresh fruit sales in 1945-46 was packed in bruce boxes and 77-4

percent in 1946-47. In 1949-50 it was 76.0 percent, and in 1950-51 it

was 75.6 percent. Shipments in bulk were 0.3 percent of the fresh fruit

sales in 1945-46 and 1946-47, 1.6 percent in 1949-50, and 1.8 percent in

1950-51, Table 8.



Table 8.-Containers Used for Shipping Florida Fresh Citrus Fruit, 1945-46,
1946-47, 1949-50, 1950-51.

Note.-From Annual Reports: Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Winter Haven, Florida.


Kind of 1945-46 1946-47 1949-50 1950-51
Kind of
Container (a) Percent of seasons' fresh fruit shipments
Percent Percent Percent Percent
Standard or
Nailed Box 12.6 12.7 11.5 13.7

Bruce or
Wirebound Box 78.7 77.4 76.0 75.6

Mesh Bags 8.4 9.6 10.8 8.1

Baskets, Card-
board Boxes, etc. a few a few 0.1 0.2


Paper Bags none a few a few 0.6

Bulk 0.3 0.3 1.6 1.8

(b) Certified fresh fruit shipments, 1 3/5 bushel boxes

39,656,829 41,589,859 32,546,124 37,917,948











Volume and Costs

Firms handling a large quantity of fruit tended to have lower packing

and selling costs for oranges and grapefruit in 1 3/5 bushel bruce boxes

than firms handling a relatively small quantity. With tangerines in 4/5

bushel bruce boxes, the advantage of volume was less, Tables 9 and 11;

Figs. 2 and 3.

In any volume group some packinghouses have costs above the average

and others below. The quantity of fruit handled in relation to the capa-

city of the packing plant, and the degree to which the several packing

operations are co-ordinated, have an important bearing on costs. Some

factors outside the control of management which influence costs between

seasons and between locations in the same season are: (1) Production in

the area which the plant serves; (2) The uniformity of ripening; (3) The

size and condition of the fruit; and, (4) The market demand.

Outlays for labor, direct operating costs, indirect operating costs,

and administrative and selling costs tended to be lower at the firms with

large volume than at the firms having less than 400,000 boxes of fruit.

An exception is the relatively high direct operating, indirect operating,

and administrative and selling costs for tangerines at the 13 firms in the

700,000 boxes and over group.

Oranges.-- The average cost of packing and selling oranges in 1 3/5

bruce boxes at 16 firms handling 400,000 to 699,999 boxes of citrus was

$0.88 per box. The cost at 19 firms with 700,000 or more boxes was three

percent higher at $0.91. The cost at 20 firms in the 200,000 to 399,999

box range was $0-95 or eight percent higher, and at nine firms in the

100,000 to 199,999 box group was $0.98 or 11 percent higher.











The cost was under $1.00 for 32 of the 35 firms handling over 400,000

boxes of citrus fruit and for 21 of the 36 firms handling less than 400,000

boxes. About one-half or 17 of the firms handling 400,000 boxes or more

had costs below $0.90 per 1 3/5 bruce box, and less than one-third or 11

of the firms handling less than 400,000 boxes had costs below $0.90.

The cost of packing oranges in 1 3/5 bruce boxes at 16 firms handling

400,000 to 699,999 boxes of fruit was W0.68 per box. At 19 firms with

700,000 or more boxes it was two percent more; at 25 firms with 300,000 to

499,999 boxes it was nine percent more; and at nine firms handling 100,000

to 199,999 boxes it was 12 percent more.

Grapefruit.-- The 1950-51 average cost of packing and selling grape-

fruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes at 16 firms in the 400,000 to 699,999 box

range was $0.80 per box. The cost at 19 firms handling 700,000 boxes or

more was $0.81 or one percent higher. At 23 firms handling 200,000 to

399,999 boxes it was $0.86 or seven percent more, and at eight firms with

a 100,000 to 199,999 box volume it was $0.94 or 18 percent higher.

The cost of packing and selling grapefruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes was

less than $0.90 per box at 32 of 35 firms handling 400,000 boxes or more

of citrus fruit, and for 20 of the 33 firms handling under i00,000 boxes.

Fourteen of the firms with the larger volume and 10 with the lower volume

had costs under $0.80 per 1 3/5 bruce box.

The cost of packing grapefruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes at 16 firms hand-

ling 00,000 to 699,999 boxes of fruit averaged $0.64 per box. At 19

firms handling 700,000 or more boxes it was slightly higher. At 23 firms

with 200,000 to 399,999 boxes it was five percent more; and at eight firms

with 100,000 to 199,999 boxes it was 15 percent higher.










Tangerines.-- The cost of packing and selling tangerines in 4/5 bruce

boxes at 12 firms handling from 400,000 to 699,999 boxes of citrus fruit

averaged $1.32 per 1 3/5 bushel. At 13 firms with 700,000 or more boxes

it was $.149 or 13 percent higher. At 16 firms with 200,000 to 399,999

boxes it was $1.34 or two percent higher, and at eight firms with 100,000

to 199,999 boxes it was $1.39 or six percent higher.

The cost of packing and selling tangerines was less than $1.30 per

1 3/5 bushel at nine of the 25 firms handling 400,000 boxes or more of

citrus and at six of the 25 firms handling under 400,000 boxes. It was

$1.50 or more at three of the firms with the larger volume and at eight

of the firms with the smaller volume.

The cost of packing in 4/5 bruce boxes averaged $1.11 per 1 3/5

bushel at 12 firms handling 400,000 to 699,999 boxes. At 13 firms hand-

ling 700,000 or more boxes it was four percent higher; at 16 firms with

200,000 to 399,999 it was one percent lower; and at eight firms with

100,000 to 199,999 boxes it was six percent more.

The costs for tangerines tended to be high and were not related very

closely to the volume of fruit handled. The smaller size and the softer

texture, compared to oranges and grapefruit, and the use of the 4/5 bruce

container account for part of the higher cost of packing and selling tan-

gerines. Another reason is that several packinghouses, irrespective of

volume, pack tangerines with equipment which was installed for handling

oranges and grapefruit.

Fruit in standard boxes.-- The cost of packing and selling oranges

in 1 3/5 standard wrapped boxes averaged $1.19 at four firms handling

o00,000 to 699,999 boxes of fruit, and $1.17 at nine firms handling 200,000










Table 9.-Volume and the Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit in
Bruce and Standard Boxes, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.

Citrus fruit handled Under 100,000- 200,000- 400,000- 700,000 All
100,000 199,999 399,999 699,999 & Over Volumes
(a) Oranges in 1 3/5 bushel bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 2 9 25 16 19 71
Average pack oranges
1 3/5 boxes 20,719 45,901 61,930 117,035 203,539 109,051
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3960 -O0.4024 $0.3946 00.3958 ?0.3962 0.3961
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0450 .0372 .0505 .0291 .0278 .0332
Crate making & labeling .0377 .0372 .0346 .0249 .0321 .0312
Foreman,graders,others .0676 .0694 .0593 .0481 .0472 .0511
Wrap and pack .0633 .0602 .0584 .0610 .0647 .0623
Truck, check, load .0471 .0370 .0347 .03h0 .0360 .0354
Payroll taxes .0282 .0134 .0123 .0103 .0092 .010o
Total labor .2889 .2544 28 .2074 .2170 .2236
Other direct operating .0807 .0580 .0600 .0534 .0552 .0560
Indirect operating .1212 .0498 .0445 .0282 .0321 .0351
Total packing .8868 .7646 .7459 .6848 .7005 .7108
Administrative & selling .1985 .1349 .1057 .0966 .0920 .0987
Other items .1064 .0812 .0944 .0995 .1185 .1071
Packing & selling $1.1917 $0.9807 10.9490 -0.08869 "0.9110 o0.9166

(b) Grapefruit in 1 3/5 bushel bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 2 8 23 16 19 66
Average pack of grft.
1 3/5 boxes 15,000 11,604 40,751 95,290 154,177 81,090
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3857 O0.4030 0.3955 $0.3986 "0.3966 $0.3970
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0504 .0405 .0324 .0226 .0231 .0250
Crate making & labeling .0379 .0350 .0385 .0242 .0303 .0301
Foreman,graders,others .0461 .0570 .0396 .0288 .0342 .0341
Wrap and pack .0494 .0452 .0433 .0474 .0466 .0462
Truck, check, load .0399 .0284 .0324 .0297 .0308 .0308
Payroll taxes .0204 .0131 .0117 .0082 .0068 .0082
Total labor .2,. .2192 .1979 .1609 .1718 '.17K
Other direct operating .0635 .0658 .0393 .0446 .0445 .0441
Indirect operating .1021 .0459 .0363 .0312 .0270 .0305
Total packing .7953 .7339 .6690 .6353 .6399 .6460
Administrative & selling .1562 .1480 .0979 .0788 .0809 .0848
Other items .0945 .0615 .0886 .0868 .0907 .0888
Packing & selling n1.O061 "0.9434 10.8555 30.8009 0.81.15 00.8196
I II I I I









Table 9.-Volume and the Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit in
Bruce and Standard Boxes, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Continued).

Citrus fruit handled Under 100,000- 200,000- 00,000- 700,000 All
100,000 199,999 399,999 699,999 & Over Volumes
(c) Oranges, wrapped, in 1 3/5 bushel standard boxes
Packinghouses, Number 1 3 9 4 5 22
Average pack of oranges
1 3/5 boxes 30,755 1k, 927 6,91 48,491 67,864 50,957
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.5703 $0.5685 $0.5909 $0.5886 $0.5940 $0.5881
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0706 .0345 .0376 .0338 .0222 .0328
Crate making & labeling .0335 .0345 .0392 .0365 .0351 .0368
Foreman,graders,others .1141 .0754 .0706 .0668 .0686 .0711
Wrap and pack .0993 .0970 .l00o .1195 .1166 .1082
Truck,check,load .0750 .0279 .0349 .0651 .0141 .0340
Payroll taxes .0128 .0209 .0128 .0111 .0133 .0137
Total labor .4053 .2902 .2955 .3328 .2699 .2966
Other direct operating .0550 .0919 .0688 .0615 .0260 .0570
Indirect operating .0237 .0$27 .0388 .0558 .0488 .0460
Total packing 1.0543 1-0033 .9940 1.0387 .9387 .9677
Administrative & selling .1868 .1575 .1041 .0836 .1012 .1084
Other items .0667 .0590 .0746 .0655 .2039 .1101
Packing & selling $1.3078 $l.2198 1.1727 $1.1878 81.2358 1.20L2

(d) Grapefruit, wrapped, in 1 3/5 bushel standard boxes
Packinghouses, Number 2 5 8 2 20
Average pack of grft.
1 3/5 boxes 1U,522 36,081 64, 896 164,116 15,984 55,963
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.5596 $0.5729 $0.5822 $0.5649 $0.5974 $0.5759
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0479 .0354 .0252 .0345 .0111 .0294
Crate making & labeling .0339 .0384 .0366 .0542 .0172 .0409
Foreman,graders, others .0748 .0603 .0475 .0705 .0650 .0580
Wrap and pack .0699 .0695 .0711 .1320 .0703 .0886
Truck,check,load .0503 .0241 .0216 .0220 .0570 .0249
Payroll taxes .0127 .01o3 .0096 .0108 .0149 .0110
Total labor .2895 .2420 .2116 .3240 2355 .2528
Other direct operating .0403 .0669 .0408 .0561 .0522 .0501
Indirect operating .0290 .0351 .0304 .o010 .0387 .0347
Total packing .91y84 9169 .8650 .9860 .9238 .9135
Administrative & selling .1803 .1248 .1064 .0981 .0737 .1070
Other items .0801 .0701 .0677 .0820 .0921 .0740
Packing & selling 51.1788 $1.1118 61.0391 91.1661 $1.0896 .1.0945











Table 9.-Volume and the Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit
in Bruce Boxes, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-I1 (Concluded).

Under 100,000- 200,000- 400,000- 700,000 All
Citrus fruit handled 100,000 199,999 399,999 699,999 & Over Volumes

(e) Tangerines in 4/5 bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 1 8 16 12 13 50
Average pack of tangs.
1 3/5 boxes 28,250 82,071 18,)09 13,518 48,405 23,599
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.6953 $0.6314 $0.5972 $0.6025 $0.6179 $0.6132
Labor:
Receive, truck,dump .0560 .0429 .0317 .0474 *0392 .0391
Crate making & labeling .0763 .0635 .0606 .0547 .0594 .0597
Foreman,graders,others .0982 .0995 .0762 .0803 .0776 .0793
Wrap and pack .1217 .1241 .1098 .1090 .1160 .lll
Truck,check,load .0861 .0738 .0561 .0807 .0635 .0651
Payroll taxes .0123 .0084 .0163 .0151 .0135 .0141
Total labor .4506 .125 .3507 .3872 .3692 .371
Other direct operating .0731 .0854 .0302 .0856 .1102 .0971
Indirect operating .0828 .0534 .0711 .0345 .0603 .0596
Total packing 1.3018 1.827 1.0992 1.1098 1.1576 1.1413
Administrative & selling .1135 .1036 .1087 .0975 .2126 .1624
Other items .1456 .1063 .1337 .1107 .1186 .1213
Packing & selling $1.5609 $1.3926 $1.3416 $1.3180 $1.4888 $1.4250


to 399,999 boxes. They were slightly higher at the finns in the other
volume groups, Table 9.

The costs of packing and selling grapefruit in 1 3/5 standard wrapped

boxes averaged $1.17 at two firms handling 400,000 to 699,999 boxes; $1.04

at eight firms with 200,000 to 399,999 boxes; $1.09 at three firms vrith

700,000 or more boxes; $111 at five firms with 100,000 to 199,999 boxes;

and $1.18 at two firms handling less than 100,000 boxes of fruit, Table 9.









Table 10.-Volume and the Cost of Packing and Selling Texas Citrus Fruit in
Bruce Boxes, 1950-51.

Citrus fruit handled Under 150,000 Over All
150,000 299,999 300,000 Volumes
(a) Oranges in 1 3/5 bushel bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 3' 4 11
Average pack of oranges
1 3/5 boxes 30,895 10,738 77,136 40, 380
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $O.3667 0.3775 $0.3837 $0.3795
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0401 .0349 .0243 .0287
Crate making & labeling .0218 .0180 .0147 .0165
Foreman, graders, others .0455 .0698 .0549 .05U4
Wrap and pack .0621 .0534 .0572 .0578
Truck, check, load .0566 .0727 .0773 .0725
Payroll taxes .0013 .0029 .0026 .0023
Total labor .2274 .2517 .2310 .2322
Other direct operating .0690 .0909 .0511 .0588
Indirect operating .0908 .0480 .0730 .07U2
Total packing .7539 .7681 .7388 .7447
Administrative & selling .2809 .1685 .1337 .1678
Other items .1275 .1133 .0988 .1062
Packing & selling $1.1623 $1.0499 $0.9713 $1.0187

(b) Grapefruit in 1 3/5 bushel bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 3 5 4 12
Average pack of grft.
1 3/5 boxes 51,833 71,738 11.250 93.266
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3776 40.3839 $o.3849 $0.3835
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0367 .0355 .0244 .0297
Crate making & labeling .0202 .0242 .0151 .0187
Foreman, graders, others .0421 .0353 .0375 .0374
Wrap and pack .0366 .0367 .0351 .0358
Truck, check, load .0459 .0346 .0512 .0457
Payroll taxes .0026 .0015 .0036 .0023
Total labor .1861 .1678 .1669 .1696
Other direct operating .088 .021 .0405 .0o22
Indirect operating .0887 .06M0 .0717 .0719
Total packing .6992 .6588 .6640 .6672
Administrative & selling .2212 .1537 .1345 .1527
Other items .0765 .0671 .0782 .07h4
Packing & selling $0.9969 $0.8796 $0.8767 $0.8943















Table 11.-Volume of Fruit Handled and Variation in the Cost of Packing and
Selling Florida Fruit in Bruce Boxes, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


1 3/5 bushel box equivalent handled

Cost per Under 100,000- 200,000- 400,000- 700,000 All
1 3/5 bushel 100,000 199,999 399,999 699,999 & Over Volumes
(a) Oranges in 1 3/5 bruce boxes
Number of firms
Under t0.8000 0 1 3 2 3 9
$0.80 .8999 0 1 6 8 4 19
.90 .9999 0 2 8 5 10 25
1.00 1.0999 1 3 4 1 2 11
1.10 and over 1 2 4 O 0 7

(b) Grapefruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes

Under $0.8000 0 1 9 6 8 24
$0.80 .8999 0 2 8 9 9 28
.90 .9999 1 3 3 1 1 9
1.00 1.0999 0 2 3 0 1 6
1.10 and over 1 0 0 0 0 1

(c) Tangerines in 4/5 bruce boxes

$1.10 1.1999 0 1 2 4 0 7
1.20 1.2999 0 1 2 2 3 8
1.30 1.3999 0 1 7 4 5 17
1.40 1.4999 0 1 2 1 3 7
1.50 1.5999 1 1 2 1 0 5
1.60 and over 0 3 1 0 2 6














Cost per
1 3/5 bushel
$ Under .8000
.80- .8999
.90- .999
1.00-1.0999
1.10 & Over


Fruit Handled


6 io
No. firms

(a) Under 400,000
1 3/5 boxes


.... .. ....



0 10 1
No. firms

(b) 400,000 boxes
and over


Fig. 2.-Range
Bruce
Fruit


in the Costs of Packing and Selling Florida Oranges in 1 3/5
Boxes for 36 Firms Handling Under OO,000 Boxes of Citrus
and for 35 Finrs !Hndling 00,000C Bo:xes and Over, 1950-51,


Cost per
1 3/5 Bushel

$ Under .8000
.80- ,3999
.90- .9999
1.00-1.0999
1.10-& Over



Fruit Handled


0 10
No. firms

(a) Under 400,000
1 3/5 boxes


0 5 10 15
No. firms

(b) 400,000 boxes
and over


Fig. 3.-Range in the Costs of Packing and Selling Florida Grapefruit in
1 3/5 Bruce Boxes for 33 Firms Handling Under 400,000 Boxes of
Citrus Fruit and for 35 Firms Handling 400,000 Boxes and Over,
1950-51.


















Table 12.-Volume of Fruit Handled and Variation in the Cost of Packing and
Selling Texas Citrus Fruit in Bruce Boxes, 12 Packinghouses, 1950-51.


Under 190,000- 300,000
Volume 150,000 299,999 & Over

Cost group Number of firms

Oranges in 1 3/5 bruce boxes
Under W0.9000 0 1 0
$0.90 .9999 0 0 2
1.00 1.0999 1 1 1
1.10 1.1999 1 1 1
1.20 and over 1 1 0
Total number of firms 3






Under 150,000- 300,000
Volume 150,000 299,999 & Over

Cost group Number of firms

Grapefruit in 1 3/5 bruce boxes
Under $0.9000 0 0 0
$0.70 .7999 0 1 0
.80 .8999 0 1 3
.90 .9999 1 2 1
1.00 1.0999 2 1 0
1.10 and over 0 0 0
Total number of firms 3 5 4-
1; _- L- ii ,! ,










Type of Firm and Costs

The 1950-51 cost of packing and selling citrus fruit in bruce boxes

was lowest for integrated firms, or firms where fresh fruit packing and

processing were under one management and ownership. Affiliated firms, or

firms that had an agreement with a processor to handle all fruit not sold

fresh, had the next lowest cost. The specialized firms, or firms which

had no pre-season arrangement or agreement for the handling of fruit for

processing, had the highest average cost, Table 13.

The integrated firms packed nearly twice as many boxes of oranges

and over twice as many boxes of grapefruit per firm as the specialized

firms. The affiliated firms packed over twice as many boxes of oranges

and of grapefruit as the specialized firms. The integrated firms averaged

seven percent more boxes of tangerines, and the affiliated firms five

percent fewer boxes than the specialized finns.

Oranges.-- The average cost of packing and selling oranges in 1 3/5

bruce boxes at h4 specialized firms was $0.94 per box; at 17 affiliated

firms, $0.92; and at 10 integrated firms, $0.86. The 1950-51 cost of

the affiliated firms was two cents less than that of the specialized firms.

The cost of the integrated firms was six cents below that of the affiliated

finns, and eight cents less than that of the specialized firms.

The cost of packing for the affiliated firms and for the integrated

firms was about three cents below that of the specialized firms. The

affiliated and integrated firms had lower average costs for containers

and for labor. Other direct operating costs power, water, repairs to

buildings and equipment, small tools, and miscellaneous supplies of the

affiliated firms were one-half cent less, and of the integrated firms one-

half cent higher than those of the specialized firms. Indirect operating









costs fire insurance, taxes, royalties, depreciation, licenses for the

affiliated firms and for the integrated firms were one and one-half cents

lower than those of the specialized firms.

Administrative and selling costs of the affiliated firms were two

cents lower, and of the integrated firms four cents less than those of

the specialized firms. Other items-- gas coloring, color add and wax,

Florida Citrus Commission, Growers' Administrative Committee, inspection,

and membership dues for the affiliated firms were three cents higher

per 1 3/5 bushel, and for the integrated firms were one cent less than

those of the specialized firms.

The lower costs of the affiliated and integrated firms for con-

tainers, labor and indirect operating costs probably are the result in

part of the larger volume of oranges handled compared with the specialized

firms. The agreements or arrangements for handling fruit for processing

account in large measure for the difference in administrative and selling

costs. Variation in the other items results principally from the extent

to which coloring and waxing are done and dues are paid to organizations

where membership is voluntary. Several of these other items are a fixed

assessment per box packed.

Grapefruit.-- The average 1950-51 cost of packing and selling grape-

fruit in 1 3/ bruce boxes at 41 specialized firms was $0.85 per box. At

17 affiliated firms it was $0.80; at 10 integrated firms, $0.78. The

cost of the affiliated firms was five cents under, and the cost of the

integrated firms seven cents under the cost of the specialized firms.

The average cost of packing at the specialized firms was $0.67 per

1 3/5 bruce box; at the affiliated firms $0.62 and at the integrated firms










$0.6. The packing cost of the affiliated firms was five cents, and of

the integrated firms three cents less than that of the specialized firms.

The affiliated and integrated firms had lower average costs for con-

tainers and labor. Labor per 1 3/5 bushel at the affiliated firms was

two cents below, and at the integrated firms one cent below that at the

specialized firms. Other direct operating costs and indirect operating

costs were about the same for the specialized and integrated firms with

direct and indirect operating costs at the affiliated firms about one

cent lower.

Administrative and selling costs of the affiliated firms were one

cent under and of the integrated firms three cents under those of the

specialized firms. Other items of the affiliated firms were one cent

higher and of the integrated firms two cents lower than those of the

specialized firms.

Tangerines.-- The average cost of packing and selling tangerines in

h/5 bruce boxes was $1.50 per 1 3/5 bushel at 28 specialized finns; $1.36

at 13 affiliated firms; and $1*29 at nine integrated firms. The affiliated

firms were $0.1 and the integrated firms $0.20 under the specialized firms.

Packing costs averaged $1.15 at the specialized firms; $1.12 or three

cents less at the affiliated firms; and $1.13 or two cents less at the

integrated firms. The affiliated and integrated firms paid more for con-

tainers than the specialized firms, which was offset partly by lower labor

costs. The indirect operating costs for the affiliated firms was three

cents, and for the integrated firms four cents less than those of the

specialized firms.

The administrative and selling costs of the affiliated firms were

$0.10 below and of the integrated firms were $0.lh below those of the

specialized firms.









Table 13.-Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit in Bruce Boxes
and Type of Firm, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51.

Note: Specialized fruit for processing is sold during the season
without prior commitment to a specific outlet.
Affiliated fruit for processing is handled either through
investment in or a pre-season arrangement with a processing
plant.
Integrated fresh fruit packing and processing are under one
ownership and management.


Type of firm Specialized Affiliated Integrated
(a) Oranges in 1 3/5 bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 4L 17 10
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 78,593 165,232 1475558
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.3975 $0.3966 $0.3921
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0395 .0279 .0287
Crate making & labeling .0302 .0338 .0285
Foreman, graders, others .0501 .0518 .0522
Wrap and pack .0616 .0642 .0602
Truck, check, load .0348 .0330 .0412
Payroll taxes .0103 .0128 .0061
Total labor .2265 .2235 .2169
Other direct operating .0576 .0512 .0614
Indirect operating .0439 .0278 .0282
Total packing .7255 .6991 .6986
Administrative & selling .1144 .094l .0702
Other items .0968 .1306 .0863
Total packing & selling $0.9367 $0.9241 $0.8551.

(b) Grapefruit in 1 3/$ bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 1 17 10
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 55,303 14,625 129,505
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material $0.4012 $0.3951 $0.3926
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0268 .0231 .0246
Crate making & labeling .0319 .0304 .0267
Foreman, graders, others .0331 .0318 .0393
Wrap and pack .0489 .0456 .0427
Truck, check, load .0326 .0283 .0314
Payroll taxes .0093 .0082 .0061
Total labor .1826 .1674 .1708
Other direct operating .0485 .0391 .0440
Indirect operating .0356 .0212 .0354
Total packing .-6679 .6228 .6428
Administrative & selling .0963 .0822 .0683
Other items .0885 .1002 .0718
Total packing & selling .0.8527 $0.5805 50.7829
















Table 13.-Cost of Packing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit in Bruce Boxes
and Type of Firm, 77 Packinghouses, 1950-51 (Concluded).


Type of Firm Specialized Affiliated Integrated
(c) Tangerines in 4/5 bruce boxes
Packinghouses, Number 28 13 9
1 3/5 Boxes per firm 23,626 22.375 25,283
Cost per 1 3/5 bushel:
Material n0.6026 $0.6233 $0.6313
Labor:
Receive, truck, dump .0427 .0379 .0299
Crate making & labeling .0569 .0663 .0594
Foreman, graders, others .0812 .0757 .0785
Wrap and pack .1195 .1102 .1036
Truck, check, load .0640 .0609 .0736
Payroll taxes .0117 .0222 .0108
Total labor .3760 3732 .3558
Other direct operating .0992 .0838 .1078
Indirect operating .0757 .014 .0361
Total packing 1.1535 1.1217 1.1310
Administrative & selling .2143 .1103 .0782
Other items .1305 .1294 .0840
Total packing & selling $1.4983 $1.3614 71.2932












PROCESSED CITRUS PRODUCTS

Cost of Processing, Warehousing, and Selling Citrus Juices and Sections

The cost of processing single strength citrus juice in Florida has risen

steadily since the 1946-47 season. The total increase for orange and blended

juices was $0.18 per 12/140 case, and $0.17 for grapefruit juice, Table 14.

The rise in costs in 1950-51 over 1949-50 was about three cents for orange

juice and four cents for grapefruit and blended juices. These changes in

costs resulted from an increase of more than six cents for processing ma-

terials although administrative and selling costs were reduced three cents.

The cost of processing citrus juice in Texas rose slightly in 1950-51.

The 1950-51 cost of processing and selling grapefruit juice was $1.33 per

12/h40 case, $0.25 higher than in 1946-47. Citrus processing costs in

Texas advanced sharply in 1948-49 as a result of the loss in volume after

the freeze of January 1949. Another freeze in January 1.951 kept the

volume low.


Table 14.-Average Cost of Processing, Warehousing, and Selling
Florida and Texas Citrus Fruit Juices, Excluding Sugar Costs, in
12/404 Cases, 1946-47 Through 1950-51 Seasons.


Season 1950-51 1949-50 1948-49 1947-48 1946-47
Florida
Orange juice $1.2358 $1.2098 $1.1672 $1.0920 $1.0558
Grapefruit juice 1.2273 1.1893 1.1685 1.0909 1.0574
Blended juice 1.2335 1.1929 1.1488 1.0930 1.0498
Texas
Orange juice $1.3657 $1.2559 $0.9962 $1.0028
Grapefruit juice 1.3321 $1.3287 1.3463 1.0402 1.0815
Blended juice 1.3493 1.1926 0.9925 0.9650











The processing costs for grapefruit juice in Texas in 1950-51 averaged

$0.10 higher than in Florida. This is a reversal of the situation in 1947-

.8 when costs in Florida were five cents higher than in Texas. materiala l

costs for grapefruit juice per 12/hOb case in Texas in 1950-51 were five

cents higher, other manufacturing costs four cents higher, administrative

and selling costs two cents higher, and other costs one cent lower than they

were in Florida.

The itemized costs in Florida and Texas of processing and selling the

principal citrus juices and sections in the three commonly used containers

are shown in tables 15, 16, and 17.

The aosts in Florida of processing and selling orange, grapefruit and

blended juices differed only slightly. Other manufacturing costs for

grapefruit juice were lower than those for orange and blended juices, and

other costs were higher.

Other manufacturing costs for tangerine juice in 12/hOh cases for 12

firms in Florida averaged one and one-half cents lower, adininstrative and

selling costs one and one-half cents lower, and other costs-- meosl-.y adver-

tising taxes-- three cents higher than those for orange juice.

In Florida the costs of processing and selling citrus juices in 12/lOh

cases ranged from three and one-half cents to five cents higher than in

2h/2 cases. Orange juice in 2h/2 cases cost $1.19 per case and in 12/h0O

cases $1.24 or five cents more. Grapefruit juice in 12/01ht cases was

three and one-half cents than in 24/2 cases.

The average cost of processing and selling grapefruit sections in 2h/2

cases was $2.3h, while salad sections and orange sections cost $2.60 or

$0.26 more per case. Most of this higher cost was due to the difference












in labor requirements between grapefruit and orange sections. The increase

in costs in 1950-51 over 1949-50 was six cents per 2h/2 case for grapefruit

sections, $0.24 for salad, and $0.16 for orange sections,

The administrative and selling costs were reported separately for 14

of the firms processing orange juice and all of the 12 firms processing

grapefruit sections. The average costs per case for these Florida firms

were:


Orange juice 24/2

Orange juice 12/hO0

Grapefruit sections 24/2


Administrative

$o.oh41

.0513

*0$13


Selling Administrative & selling

$0.0279 $0.0720

038 .0899

.0326 .0839









Table 1S.-Type of Container and Cost Per Case of Processing, Warehousing and
Selling Florida Citrus Fruit Juices, 18 Canneries, 1950-51.


Orange Juice


Type of container
Number of firms
Cases per firm


Cost per case:
Material
Labor:
Direct
Indirect
Warehousing and shipping
Total labor
Other manufacturing
Total processing and warehousing
Administrative and selling
Other cost
Cost unsweetened


21/2


1R


i1 A RIA


o0.8233


.0729
.0203
.0370
.1302
.1399
1.0937
.0693
.0234
$1.1861


12/1o0


1R


8 8RO


6/10


1L


I, IR1


10.8058


.0722
.0229
.0433
.1348
.1764
1.1206
.0859
.0293
AT1.2358


o0.7557


.1429
.0199
.0423
.2051
.1823
1.131
.1008
.0287
$1.2726


Cost of sugar
Number of firms 18 18 4
Sweetened cases per firm 113,941 250,606 2,660
Sugar $0.0426 $ .0549 $0.0349
Total cost .1.2287 $1.2907 $1.3075


Grapefruit Juice
Type of container 24/2 .12/h40L 6/10
Number of firms 18 18 5
Cases per firm 100,433 313,310 12,227

Cost per case:
Material $0.8245 $0.8037 $0.7661
Labor:
Direct .0713 .0713 .1529
Indirect .0209 .0233 .0188
Warehousing and shipping .0364 .0414 .0461
Total labor .1286 .1360 .2178
Other manufacturing .1349 .1604 .1626
Total processing and warehousing 1.0880 1.1001 1.1U65
Administrative and selling .0702 .0840 .1036
Other cost .0345 .0432 .Ol45
Cost unsweetened .$1.1927 $1.2273 $1.2946"

Cost of sugar
Number of firms 18 18 5
Sweetened cases per firm 52,342 192.538 3,128
Sugar 30.0709 $0.1023 $0.0970
Total cost $1.2636 $1.3296 $1.3916


21L/2... .1 ,-" i ---l I '


,_ __


*. % I


~----,- ~---c ---


I








44


Table 15.-Type of Container and Cost Per Case of Processing, Warehousing and
Selling Florida Citrus Fruit Juices, 18 Canneri-s, 1950-51 (Concluded).

Blended Juice
Type of container 24/2 12/h04 6/10
Number of firms 18 18 3
Cases per firm 63167 180,816 4,249
Cost per case:
Material $0.8227 $0.8013 $0.7592
Labor:
Direct .0683 .0717 .1410
Indirect .0224 .0255 .0163
Warehousing and shipping .0363 .0401 .0o60
Total Labor .1270 .1373 .2033
Other manufacturing .1386 .1709 .1683
Total processing and warehousing 1.0863 1.1095 1.1308
Administrative and selling .0704 .0872 .0962
Other cost .0296 .0368 .0358
Cost unsweetened $.1883 $1.2335 $1.2628
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 18 18 3
Sweetened cases per firm 43,260 125,70 3,002
Sugar 0.05 3 0.06h2 0.0o432
Total cost $1.2386 81.2977 1.3060

Tangerine Juice
Type of container 24/2 12/04o
Number of firms 12 12
Cases per firm 19,244 6.0,001

Cost per case:
Material $0.8270 o0.8070
Labor:
Direct .0719 .0750
Indirect .0180 .0217
Warehousing and shipping .0400 .58
Total labor .129 .1425
Other manufacturing .1396 .1616
Total processing and warehousing 1.0965 1.1111
Administrative and selling .0637 .0709
Other cost .0o85 .0625
Cost unsweetened $71.2087 $1.27 5
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 12 12
Sweetened cases per firm 19,235 60,o00
Sugar $0.0391 $0.0602
Total cost ~.1.2L78 1.3047











Table 16.-Type of Container and Cost Per Case of Processing, Warehousing and
Selling Texas Unsweetened Grapefruit Juice, 8 Canneries, 1950-51.



Type of container 24/2 12/404
Number of firms 6 8
Cases per firm 65,489 178,795

Cost per case:
Material $0.8806 $0.8536
Labor:
Direct .0439 .0541
Indirect .0330 .0407
Warehousing and shipping .0345 .0344
Total labor .1114 .1292
Other manufacturing .1659 .2080
Total processing and warehousing 1.1579 1.1908
Administrative and selling .0874 .1077
Other cost .0279 .0336
Total cost $1.2732 $1.3321


Table 17.-Cost Per 24/2 Case of Processing, Warehousing and Selling Florida
Citrus Sections, 13 Canneries, 1950-51.


Type of container
Number of firms
Cases oer firm


Cost per case:
Material
Labor:
Direct
Indirect
Warehousing and shipping
Total labor
Other manufacturing
Total processing and warehousing
Administrative and selling
Other cost
Sugar
Total cost


Grapefruit
Sections
24/2
13
Z17,548


2o.8112


.8885
.0585
.0368
.9838
.2058
2.0008
.0828
.0307
.2303


S2. 3hh6


Salad
Sections

.12
3h. 547


to .8116


1.0741
.0649
.0393
1.1783
.2538
2.2437
.0870
.0288
.2383


S2.5970


Orange
Sections
24/2
7
1,912


$0.7941


1.0467
.0779
.0387
1.1633
.3413
2.2987
.0766
.0256
.2042
$2.6051


,... 811 2


L


_ -.,-S .


Total- -cs t- rI










Variation in Processing, Warehousing and Selling Costs

The cost of processing, warehousing and selling un weetoned orange,

grapefruit and blended juices for 18 firms averaged $1.26 per 12/ihL case.

At 12 of these firms it was between $1.10 and $1.30 per case. In 24/2

cases the average cost was $1.19 per case, Table 18.

At 12 firms the cost for unsweetened tangerine juice averaged $1.28

per 12/404 case. Seven firms had costs between $1.20 and $1.30, two firms

less than $1.20 and three firms $1.30 or more. The average cost for 2h/2

cases was $1.21.

The average cost excluding sugar of processing and warehousing orange

and blended juices at 18 firms and tangerine juice at 12 firms was $1.1l

per 12/404 case. For unsweetened grapefruit juice in 12/404 cases the

average at 18 firms was $1.13 or one cent less, and in 24/2 cases the cost

was $1.09 per case, Table 19.

The cost of processing and warehousing unsweetened orange, grapefruit

and blended juices was between $1.00 and $1.20 per 12/404 case at lb of

the 18 firms. One firm had a cost under $1.00, and three firms $1.20 or

more. For tangerine juice in this size case the cost was from $1.00 to

$1.20 for nine of the 12 firms. In 2h/2 cases the range in costs was

similar at slightly lower levels.

The range in 1950-51 costs tended to be narrower than in 19h9-50.

For example, with orange juice in 12/h0O cases the cost in 1950-51 was

under $1.00 at one firm, from $1.00 to $1.20 at l1 firms, and over $1.20

at three firms. In 1949-50 the cost v:-s less than $1.00 at three firms

from $1.00 to $1.20 at eight firms, and over $1.20 at four firms.











Table 18.-Containers and Variations in the Cost Per Case of Processing,
Warehousing and Selling Florida Citrus Fruit Juices, 18 Canneries,
1950-51.

Unsweetened Soweetened
Type of container 24/2 12/014 24/2 12/404

(a) Orange Juice
Cost per case Number of firms
Under '1.1000 3 1 1 0
$1.10 1.1999 8 5 5 1
1.20 1.2999 4 7 8 9
1.30 1.3999 2 2 1
1.40 1.4999 1 2 2 1
1.50 and over 0 1 1 2
Total number of firms 18 18 18 18

(b) Grapefruit Juice
Cost per case
Under $1.0000 2 1 1 0
$1.10 1.1999 9 5 2 1
1.20 1.2999 4 7 10 6
1.30 1.3999 3 2 2 6
1.40 1.4999 0 3 2 2
1.50 and over 0 0 1 3
Total number of firms 18 18 18 18

(c) Blended Juice
Cost per case
Under '1.1000 2 1 1 0
$1.10 1.1999 9 5 5 1
1.20 1.2999 4 7 6 8
1.30 1.3999 3 2 3 4
1.40 1.4999 0 2 3 2
1.50 and over 0 1 0 3
Total number of firms 18 18 18 18

(d) Tangerine Juice
Cost per case
Under $1.1000 1 1 1 0
$1.10 1.1999 6 1 2 1
1.20 1.2999 2 7 6 3
1.30 1.3999 2 1 1 6
1.40 1.4999 1 1 2 0
1.50 and over 0 1 0 2
Total number of firms 12 12 12 12

















Table 19.-Containers and Variations in the Cost Per Case of Processing and
Warehousing Florida Citrus Fruit Juices, Excluding Sugar,
18 Canneries, 1950-51.


Type of container 24/2 12/l40 24/2 12/404
Orange Juice Grapefruit Juice
Number of firms
Cost per case
Under $1.0000 3 1 3 1
$1.00 1.Q999 7 6 7 6
1.10 1.1999 5 8 5 8
1.20 1.2999 3 1 3 2
1.30 and over 0 2 0 1
Total number of firms 18 18 18 18

Blended Juice Tangerine Juice
Number of firms
Cost per case
Under $1.0000 3 1 2 1
$1.00 1.0999 7 6 6 3
1.10 1.1999 5 8 2 6
1.20 1.2999 3 1 2 1
1.30 and over 0 2 0 1
Total number of firms 18 18 12 12














Volume and Cost of Processing, '.:reh using and Selling

The 18 Florida canning firms in the sample ',ere arranged in three

groups according to the total volume of single strength juice and sec-

tions processed. The cost of processing, warehousing and selling un-

sweetened orange juice in 12/404 cases for seven firms with less than

700,000 cases each averaged $1.31 per case; for five firms with 700,000

to 1,1O0,000 cases $1.21 or ten cents less; and for six firms with ov'r

1,10,000 cases each $1.23 or eight cents less, Table 20.

The average costs for each volume group per 12/h0O case unsweetened

were:

Under 700,000- Over
Cases, Number 700,000 1,1O0,000 l,lO0,000

Orange juice $1.31 $1.21 $1.23
Grapefruit juice 1.35 1.21 1.22
Blended juice 1.36 1.22 1.22
Tangerine juice 1.33 1.25 1.2h


The higher outlay of the small volume group was due to higher labor,

administrative, and selling costs. Other manufacturing costs w-ere slightly

lower than for the medium volume group. ahe large volume group had higher

labor and administrative costs and lower other manufacturing costs than

the medium volume group. Materials and other costs, although slightly

higher for small volume firms, did not affect the total cost significantly.












Table 20.-Volume


and the Cost of Processing, Warehousing and Selling Florida
Citrus Juices in 12/404 Cases, 1950-51.


Volume, Cases Under 700,000- Over
700,000 1,400,000 1,00, 000
Orange Juice
Number of firms 5
Cases per firm 100,343 184,033 884,04

Cost per case:
Material $0.8100 $0.8061 $0.8051
Labor:
Direct .0837 .0$51 .0754
Indirect .0317 .0264 .0211
Warehousing and shipping .0741 .0457 .0388
Total labor .1895 .1172 .1353
Other manufacturing .1895 .1959 .1713
Total processing and warehousing 1.1890 1.1192 1.1117
Administrative and selling .0908 .0630 .0892
Other cost .0352 .0313 .0281
Cost unsweetened $1.3150 $1.210o $1.2290
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 7 5 6
Sweetened cases per firm 60,115 95 229 602,327
Sugar 0.054 $0.0799 P0.0 517
Total cost $1.3694 $1.2939 1.2807
Grapefruit Juice
Number of firms 7 5 6
Cases per firm 64,771 175,-802 717, 62

Cost per case:
Material $0.803h $0.8146 '0.8015
Labor:
Direct .0739 .0501 .0754
Indirect .0327 .0278 .0214
Warehousing and shipping .0586 .0478 .0382
Total labor .1652 .12'7 .1350
Other manufacturing .22_19 .1703 .1519
Total processing and warehousing T.-T905 1.1106 1.t93L
Administrative and selling .1033 .0565 .0876
Other cost .0530 .04139 .021
Cost unsweetened 38 1.210 $1.2181
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 7 5 6
Sweetened cases per firm 35,839 49198' 4590290
Sug-ar 0.1160 0.i6049 "0.0999
Total cost $1.628 ?].L32043 .. $ 1. 31U0-











Table 20.-Volume and the Cost of Processing, Warehousing and Selling Florida
Citrus Juices in 12/404 Cases, 1950-51 (Concluded).

Volume, Cases Under 700,000- Over
700,000 1,1o00,000 1, OO,000
Blended Juice
Number of firms 7 56
Cases per firm 40,285 84,866 424,727

Cost per case:
Material $0.8141 o0.8048 00.7994
Labor:
Direct .0838 .0461 .0746
Indirect .0l01 .0265 .0237
Warehousing and shipping .0634 .0453 .0367
Total labor .1873 .1179 .1350
Other manufacturing .2033 .1903 .1641
Total processing and warehousing 1.2047 1.1130 1.0985
Administrative and selling .1134 .0640 .0881
Other cost .0418 .0387 .0359
Cost unsweetened $1.3599 1.2157 3.2225
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 7 5 6
Sweetened cases per firm 21,382 51, 73 309,43b
Sugar 80.0829 0o.0828 0,.0600
Total cost $l.4b26 $1.2985 $1. 2825
Tangerine Juice
Number of firms 4 4 h
Cases per firm 9,477 47,10 123,7424

Cost per case:
Material ?O0.8192 0O. 81081 O. 8019
Labor:
Direct .0526 .1067 .0646
Indirect .0307 .0295 .0180
Warehousing and shipping .0715 .0537 .0409
Total labor .1548 .199 .1235
Other manufacturing .1761 .1408 .1683
Total processing and warehousing 1.1501 1.1488 1.0937
Administrative and selling .1038 .0394 .0803
Other cost .0779 .0607 .0620
Cost unsweetened $1.3318 31.2489 $1.2360
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 14 4 4
Sweetened cases per firm 9,477 47,104 123,1424"
Sugar $0.0570 $0.0922 O0.01482
Total cost $1.36888 ?1.34l11 1.2242














Type of Firm and Costs of Processing, Warehousing and Selling

The 1950-51 costs of processing, wrrehous ng and selling unsweetened

Florida citrus fruit juices for nine integrated firms, o: canning plants

that also pack fresh fruit, and for nine specialized finis, or canning

plants that process only, were:


Cost per 12/hO4 case unsweetened
Orange Grapefruit Blended Tangeriir
Juice Juice Ju ce Juice

Nine integrated firms $1.20 $1.20 $1.20 $1.23

Nine specialized firms 1.26 1.2h 1.26 1.27


The integrated firms, as in previous seascis, had somewhat lower

costs than the specialized firms. For orange l-id blended juices the

difference was six cents and for grapefruit and tanger-,.ne juices it

was four cents per case, Table 21 As indicated previctsly, the inte-

grated firms had lower costs for packing fresh frnib.

Smaller labor and administrative and selling outlays accounted for

the lower costs at integrated firms while slightly lower material costs

were balanced by slightly higher other manufacturing costs. Data in

previous seasons also show a lower labor cost for integrated firms,

Generally, this type of' irm, having both can.'ing and ,ack~ng operations,

is more flexible in the use of labor *nd man;e.neont personnel than the

specialized firm.










Table 21.-Type of Firm and the Cost of Processing, Warehousing and Selling
Florida Citrus Fruit Juices in 12/404 Cases, 18 Canneries, 1950-51.


Type of firm Integrated Specializod Integrated Specialized
Orange Juice Grapefruit Juice
Number of firms 9 9 9 9
Cases per firm 323,295 446,353 235,944 390,677
Cost per case:
Material 0.80314 50.8075 00.7964 0o.8080
Labor:
Direct .0553 .0845 .0550 .0812
Indirect .0200 .0249 .021 .0245
Warehousing and shipping .0159 .015 .0471 .0379
Total labor .1212 .1509 .1235 .1436
Other manufacturing .1815 .1727 .1732 .1526
Processing & warehousing 1.1061 1.1311 1.0931 1.1042
Administrative & selling .0685 .0985 .0669 .0944
Other cost .0296 .0291 .0O30 .04U3
Cost unsweetened .1.2042 $1.2587 $1.2030 $1.2U20
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 9 9 9 9
Sweetened cases per firm 180,10U 321,109 109,7U7 275,329
Sugar $0.057B 0-.0533 o0.0953 $0.l051
Total cos 1.2620 1.3120 51.2963 1.3 71

Blended Juice Tangerine Juice
Number of firms 9 9 8 4
Cases per firm 139,224 222,40o8- 8,Oh o 83,917
Cost per case:
Material O0.7897 $0.8087 30.8012 )0.8136
Labor:
Direct .0550 .0821 .0732 .0771
Indirect .0201 .0289 .0215 .0219
Warehousing and shipping .0457 .0366 .05 .0406
Total labor .1208 .176 .1452 .1396
Other manufacturing .1800 .1652 .1628 .1602
Processing & warehousing 1.0905 1.1215 1.1092 1.1134
Administrative & selling .0691 .0985 .0583 .0852
Other cost .0365 .0369 .0589 .0666
Cost unsweetened $1.1961 $1.2569 $1.2264U 1.2652
Cost of sugar
Number of firms 9 9 8 4
Sweetened cases per firm 886863 162,8768 U48,0 83 917
Sugar $0.0732 $0.0592 S0.0768 0.0412
Total cost .1.2693 l.3161 $1.3032 $1.3064














Cost of Processing, Warehousing and Selling Frozen Orange Concentrate

The 1950-51 cost of frozen orange concr"ntr .te at. nrine fI.r:is in

Florida for labor, manufacturing, administration, advertising, testing

and inspection was $0.35 per gallon, Table 22. This is $0.10 less than

the 1949-50 average cost at six firms. Labor per gallon declined thr,-e

cents, other manufacturing two cents, and administration five cents.

The average cost for orange concentrate in l8/6 cases was $1.76

per case, and in 12/32 cases was $1.82. The cost of cans and cartons

is the average for four firms only. The cost in 5$-gallon drums, omitting

the price of the drum, was $10.78 per drum, Table 23.

Costs for the 1950-51 season represent the first season of full

production by all the concentrate firms from uihich data were obtained.

These figures reflect the efficiency of these firms and forn a basis

for the analysis of individual plant operating costs.










Table 22.-Cost Per Gallon of Processing and Warehousing Frozen Orange
Concentrate, Excluding the Cost of Cans, Cartons and Selling,
Nine Florida Firms, 1950-51.


Frozen Orange Concentrate


Gallons ner firm


Cost per gallon
Labor:
Direct
Indirect
Warehousing and shipping
Total labor


Other manufacturing:
Power, lights, water
Maintenance building and equipment
Royalties
Depreciation
Taxes, licenses and insurance
Miscellaneous
Total other manufacturing
Administration
Advertising stamps, testing and inspection
T+.nal rcos+.


891,702,2


$0.0715
.0183
.0125
.1023


.0o52
.0390
.0282
.04149
.0090
*009U
41757
.0434
.0248
'S0.3462'


Table 23.-Type of Container and Cost of Processing and Warehousing
Frozen Orange Concentrate, Nine Florida Firms, 1950-51.


Note: All operating and overhead costs except selling are
m= included. The cost of cans and cartons for the 48/16
and the 12/32 cases are the averages for four firms
only.

Frozen Orange Concentrate
48/6 12/32 55-gallon
Type of container case case drum
Number of firms 9 6
Cost per container:
Materials
Cans $0.8950 $0.5895
Cartons .0751 .1226
Total material .9701 .7121
Labor .2318 .3465 $3.1799
Other manufacturing .4022 .5531 5.7223
Total processing and warehousing 1.60O1. 1.6117 8.9022
Administration .0996 .1384 1.1620
Adv. stamps, testing and inspection .0581 .0689 .7127
Total cost 51.761 1.8190 .


Galn e r 0,9











Definition of Terms

COST PER FIRM
The cost per firm or per container is a weighted average obtained by
dividing the sum of all the dollar costs for the specific container
by the total number of containers to which those costs apply.

TYPE OF FIRM
Specialized firm: A fresh fruit packing plant which has no processing
facilities or arrangements; or a processing plant which has no facilities
or arrangements for packing fresh fruit.
Affiliated firm: A fresh fruit packing plant which has a pre-season
arrangement for handling fruit for processing, either through part owner-
ship in or an arrangement with a processor.
Integrated firm: A plant where fresh fruit packing and processing are
under one ownership and management.

VOLUME
With packinghouses it is the number of 1 3/5 boxes of citrus fruit
packed and bulk handled through the packinghouse.
With processors it is the number of cases of citrus fruit products
canned.

PACKING OPERA. TIONS
Boxes per packinghouse: Average volume, 1 3/5 bushel equivalent.
Containers: Measured by the equivalent number of 1 3/5 bushels.
Boxes-- 1 3/5 bruce, 1 3/5 standard wrapped, 1 3/5 standard unwrapped,
1 3/5 venco (a flat pack used in Texas), h/5 bruce, h/5 bruce flat,
h/5 standard.
Bags 1/2 box or hO-pound, 1/ box or 20 pound, 10-pound, 8-pound,
5-pound, 8- and 5-pound bags in a master container.

Cost items:
Materials: Crates, bags, fruit wraps, labels and paste, nails,
strips and straps, end guards, paper.
Labor: Receive,truck,dump; crate making and labeling; foreman,
graders,others; vrap and pack; truck,check,load; and social security
and compensation insurance payroll taxes.
Other direct operating: Power,lights,water; building and equip-
ment repairs; miscellaneous supplies.
Indirect operating: Insurance, taxes, licenses, depreciation.
Total Packing: Includes materials, labor, other direct operating,
indirect operating.
Administrative and selling: ;xanagemert and office salaries; office
supplies and expense; auto and travel; telephone and telegraph;
miscellaneous office expense; sales department costs or charges
for selling. Does not include brokerage or terminal market charges.
Other cost: Florida and Texas gas coloring, color add and wax,
precooling, inspection. Florida only- advertising taxes, marketing
agreement assessments, tangerine cooperative.













PROCESS ING OPERATIONS
Blended juice: A mixture of orange and grapefruit juices, with the
proportion of each varying from 60-40 to 4O-60 percent.
Cases per firm: Number of cases processed.
Containers:
Kind Cans per case Size of can
2272 2LT -8-ounce
12/32 12 32-ounce
12/ho0 or 12/h6 12 h6-ounce
6/10 6 108-ounce
72/6 72 6-ounce
24/6 2h 6-ounce
18/6 l8 6-ounce

Cost items:
Material: Cans, cartons, labels, freight on materials.
Labor: Plant and warehouse labor, supervision, mechanic,
watchman, payroll taxes.
Other manufacturing: Depreciation, repairs and maintenance of
building and machinery, power, lights, water, fuel, royalties,
insurance, taxes, miscellaneous supplies, other operating expense,
warehouse expense other than labor.
Administrative: Management and office salaries, office supplies
and expenses, auto and travel, operating interest, telephone and
telegraph, legal and audit, dues, subscriptions, and other adminis-
trative expense.
Selling: Salaries of salesmen andothers, advertising, other
plant selling costs. Brokerage discounts and allowances are
omitted.
Total cost; The cost excluding sugar of processing, adnit.nistration,
and selling. ":hen given, the cost of sugar is the aver: -e for
those firms that produced sweetened juices, sections and salads.









Other Publications Available


Fugett, K.A. and Samuels, J.K., Cost of Handling Texas Citrus, Fresh and Pro-
cessed, 1946-47. Texas Agricultural Experiment -.'ttion Bulletin 709, 1949.

Fugett, K.A., Baker, C.K., and Mayes, H.iM., S3chedule for pricing Texas Citrus
According to Containers. Texas Agricultural Experiment station, Progress
Report 1290, 1950.

Capel, G.L., Coryell, Jay, and Samuels, J.K., Analysis of Packinghouse Cost
for 31 Southern California Citrus Associations, 1946-47 and 19h7-h8 Seasons.
Farm Credit Administration Special Report 214, 1950.

Cochran, L. uayne, wholesale Margins for Fresh Citrus Fruits in the Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania W'holesale Fruit and Vegetable Market. Production and Marketing
Administration, Fruit and Vegetable Branch, Unnumbered Report, 1950.

MarketingDesert Grapefruit, Arizona Agricultural Experiment station Bulletin
221, 1949.

Bulk Handling Compared with the Use of Field Boxes in the harvesting of Desert
Grapefruit. Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 89, 1949.

Tree to Car Costs of Marketing Desert Citrus Fruit, Arizona Agricultural Exper-
iment Station Report No. 92, 1949.

Lilieholm, U.C., Grove to Retail Margins for Florida Valencia Oranges Marketed
in Fresh Form in Selected Cities, 19h0-48. Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Unnumbered Report, 1950.

Samuels, J.K., and Goldsborough, G.H., wholesalee Distribution of Citrus Fruits
in Five Terminal Markets, December 19h6-- March 1947. Farm Credit Admini-
stration Miscellaneous Report 139, 1950.

Retailing Grapefruit and Grapefruit Products in Los Angeles. Arizona Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Bulletin 96, 1950.

Cost of Handling Florida Citrus Fruit in Processed and Fresh Form, 1944-45
Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, 1946.

Cost and Miethods of Operation of Dealers Supplying Canners i-.th Citrus Fruit,
1944-45 Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural experiment Station,196.

Cost of Handling Florida and Texas Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form,
1946-47 Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural E~xperiment Station,1948*

Cost of Handling Florida and Texas Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form,
1947-48 Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stntion,1949.

Cost of Handling Florida and Texas Citrus Fruit in Fresh and Processed Form,
1948-49 Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural Eperiment Station,1950.

Cost of Handling Florida and Texas Citrus Fruit in Fresh and Processed Form,
1949-50 Season. Special Report, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,1951*











Estimated Cost of Handling Florida Citrus Fruits in Fresh and Processed Form
from the Tree to the Chicago wholesale e iMarket, 19i6-h7 Throug.h 19.9-50 Seasons.
Special Report, Florida Agricultural Experiment L!.iaticn, 19 1.

Cost of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, 1950-.1 S;eison. Agricultural
Economics Series 52-1, Florida Agricultural Experiment St.otion, 1952.













































Ag. Exp. Sta., Ag, Ec.
JLT: bk: mg
1,200 copies




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