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Title: Herbicidal controls of weeds in sugarcane on organic soils
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Title: Herbicidal controls of weeds in sugarcane on organic soils
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Guzman, V. L.
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1955
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076930
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Agenda
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
Full Text


,f


HERBICIDAL CONTROLS OF WEEDS IN SUGARCANE
ON ORGANIC SOILS


By


V. L. Guzman


This is a Mimeographed Reprint from the Pro-
ceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the
Southern Weed Control Conference held in St.
Petersburg, Florida on January 17, 18 and 19,
1955.


.C4,




I
r-


<~ >


Assembly: 2:00 P. M. at the Seminole Inn, Indiantown

A. Opening remarks by Martin County Agent, L. M. Johnson

B. Plant disease investigations: David L. Stoddard, Plant Pathologist

(1) Diseases of tomatoes, squash and peppers.

(2) Spray experiments for the control of late
blight, early blight and stemphylium on
tomatoes.

C. Insect control investigations: Norman C. Hayslip, Entomologist

(1) Effectiveness of insecticides for the control
of insects on tomatoes, peppers and squash.
(2) Mole cricket control.

D. Progress of horticultural investigations during the
past year with tomatoes: J. C. Hoffman, Horticulturist

E. Fertilizer studies: W. T. Forsee, Jr., Soil Chemist

(1) Progress during the past year.
(2) Experiments with tomatoes and squash.
(3) Effect of soil applications of dolomite and
gypsum on various vegetable crops.


Field Tour: 3:30 P. M.

(1) Tomato spray plots.

(2) Tomato and squash fertilizer plots.

(3) Vegetable trials with gypsum.

(4) Tomato transplanting plots.

(5) Spraying and dusting tomatoes with manganese
and zinc compounds.

(6) Potato varieties.


Evervlades Exoeriment Station


Vegetable Crops Field Day

Indiantown, Florida

Thursday, April 29, 1948

2:00 P. M.






Page 2.
PLANT DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS
David L, Stoddard

Tomatoes

Fusarjia Wilt,.-This is the most important disease in the Martin and St. Lucie
counties sT`c;eT without resistant varieties, the farmer is forced either to move to
new land each year or get out of the tomato business. Neither practice is desirable,
At the present time, there are no varieties of tomatoes which are both resistant to
the disease and acceptable for the green-wrap trade, Intensive research on this
problem is now being carried out by most of the experiment stations in the South and
at present there are 30 highly resistant lines of tomatoes in test. From these there
should come in the near future a variety which will solve the problem, This year
one of these lines (1724-1-2 from the U. S. D, A, Station at Charleston, So C.) ha:
been used in the plot work at Indiantownt

Late Blight,--Late blight ranks a close second to Fusarium wilt in importance:
AlthougTh i'~s generally considered to be a cool weather disease, attacks have
occurred around Belle Glade as late as July. Consequently it must be considered a
constant threat all through the growing season, There are no resistant varieties to
this disease. Breeding work is in progress in several parts'of the country but the
final results of this program will probably not reach the farmer for another 8 to 10
years at best,

The disease can be controlled with the right fungicides if they are applied
correctly at the proper time, Dithane-zinc sulfate or Parzate are the best fung. -
cides at present. Good control may also be obtained with the so-called "inert"
coppers such as Copper A particularly when the grower does not have adequate appli-
cation equipment. The organic fungicides such as Dithane and Parzate lose their
effectiveness about 7 days after application whereas the copper materials are effect-
ive as long as they remain on the plant. Thus, it is possible to build up a residue
of copper over a period of time and complete coverage is not initially important
unless blight is present, Fungicide application should start BEFORE late blight
appears and continue on a 4 to 7 day schedule until harvest is complete. Pressures
of 350 to 400 pounds are recommended and care must be taken to cover the plants
thoroughly,

Gray Leaf Spot.-The gray leaf spot disease is another important factor in
tomato pro-uction, It apparently attacks the plants when the fruit begins to ripen
and unless checked will result in rapid defoliation? There are no resistant
varieties available and we know little about fungicidal control, Zerlate will give
some control according to preliminary evidence on hand, The experiment now in
progress at Indiantown should give more adequate information,


Tomato Spra Experiments

This experiment was conducted on sandy soil at the Experiment Station plots
near Indiantmon, The only disease present during the course of the experiment was
late blight? Sprays were applied once a week, Results are shown in the table belowr





Page 3.


TOILMATO FUNGICIDE TEST


Blight Sound Blighted
Score F Fruits Fruits *.H:-
Parzate (2-100) 5,3 367,0 9o50
Part.e (2-100) 5.9 433.0 9c50
D-14 (2 qt,-l-6) 6,6 360,0 9o00
D-1L (do.) 5 337.5 8,50
D-14 (do.) 56 380.5 6 75
2-78 (2-100) 14,6 97.5 102,00
Z-78 (2-100) 15.4 98.5 89,00
Check 21,0 30,25 73,00
Least significant difference 2. 110.9 26179
at 1% point
Average of 8 ratings. Rating based on a score of "1" for trace of blight
to "25" for plant dead from blight.
3- Total in pounds of 8 plots
wie Total in pounds of 8 plots. All of blight was late blight.
The current spray experiment was designed to furnish information on the control
of Stemphyllium or gray leaf spot and late blight. The treatments are being applied
as sprays at weekly intervals. Plot numbers in the field correspond to the treat-
ments as listed in the table below:

TOMATO SPRAY TRIALS, PIDIANT01N--SPRING 1948

Plot F ormula
Plo* Treatment
No* amount per 100 gallons of wato:..
1. Check (no spray)
2. Dithane 14 zinc sulfate 2 qts. 1 lb.
3. Z-78 2 lbs.
U. Parzate 2 lbs.
5. Copper A 4 lbs.
6. Tribasic micronizedd) 4 lbso
7. Zerlate 2 lbs.
8. Z-78/Zerlate 1 lb, of each
9. Parzate/Zerlate 1 lb. of each
10. Dithane 14-zinc sulfate/Zerlate 2 qts. 1 lb. 1 lb.
POTATOES
A demonstration plot of some late blight-resistant lines may be seen at the
Indiantown experimental plots. These potatoes were planted on the 10th of March,
The table below shows the seedlings and plot numbers as they appear in the field.

Plot N'umber Seedling or Variety Plot Number Seedling or Variety
1 Bliss Triumph (Check variety) 5 B 61-3
2 B 69-16 6 B 70-5
3 ECU-2
4 B 89-2 7 B 87-1
All of the above seedlings are resistant to late blight and one of them, B 70-5,
will be available for distribution to growers in 1948 or 19L9 as the "Excel" variety.


INSECT CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS
Norman C. Hayslip










Pepper Spray Trials, Showing the Effect of Insecticide
Treatments on the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

Number of Aphids per 80 Leaves
Treatment 1 day before 1 day after 3 days after
7th treatment 7th treatment 7th treatment

1. 25 percent DDT emulsion
1 qt. per 100 gallons water 2365 902 10h9
2. 50 percent hexaethyl tetraphosphate
1 pint per 100 gallons water 1980 1192 1610
3. Benzene hbxachloride 6 percent
gamma isomer, 4 pounds per 100
gallons water 2374 1461 1338
4. 15 percent wettable parathion
2 pounds per 100 gallons water 1555 53 7
5. Check, copper fungicide alone 2505 3840 5510



Rate of Parathion Treatment for the Control of the
Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Peppers.

Number of Aphids per 8O Leaves
Amount of 15 percent Parathion Number of Aphids er
per 100 gallons water Just prior 1 day after 3 da.-s -fter
to treatment treatment treitr: ~!T

1. 1 pound 3590 41 0
2. 2 pound 3950 48 7
3. 1 pound 3200 81 28
4b. Check, not treated 4650 4190 2840

* PARATHION IS A NEW INSECTICIDE WHICH IS EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE AGAINST SEVERAL SP-FCTS
OF APHIDS, BUT IT IS ALSO A DEADLY POISON TO WARM BLOODED ANIMALS. IT IS NOT KN'N
AT THIS TIE WHETHER OR NOT PARATHION WILL BE RELEASED FOR USE ON VEGETABLES. TI2TS
STATION "C:,:i NOT RECOCPITELD THE USE OF FARATHION DUE TO THE DANGEROUS NATURFI OF TE
MATEk.iAL. IF FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS PROVE IT SAFE FOR USE ON VEGETABLES IT 'TLL BE
RECOMMENDED SINCE IT IS VERY EFFICIENT IN ITS EFFECT UPON SEVERAL OTHER INSECT FESTS3







Effect of Insecticides on the Amount of Worm-damaged Fruit
and the Yield of Mature Green Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Fall, 1947.


Percent of Total
Amount of Insecticide Fungicide Used Fruit Damaged Harvest
per 100 gallons water by Worms (pounds)

1. 1 quart 25 percent DDT Dithane D-14 (2 qts.,
emulsion Zinc (1 lb.), lime (- lb.)
per 100 gallons water 0.3 641.2
2. 1 quart 41 percent
Chlordane emulsion Same as above 0.2 729.5
3. 3 pounds 6 percent
gamma isomer wettable
benzene hexachloride Same as above 1.0 578.6
4. 2 pounds 15 percent
wettable Darathion Same as above 0.1 624.1
5. 1 quart 25 percent Copper Compound A
DDT emulsion 4 Ibs. per 100 gal. water 0.7 157.2 *
6. Check, no insecticide Dithane, zinc, lime 6.8 683.5

' Treatment number 5 did not control late blight, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) and
the low yield of tomatoes was due to destruction by this disease.
Most of the worm damage was due to a light infestation of armyworms and cutworms.
Plots received 7 applications of insecticides. Plants sprayed with benzene hexa-
chloride displayed definite foliage injury. DDT used in combination with Dithane
produced slight injury to the foliage, but DDT with Copper Compound A gave no
visible injury to the foliage.

Effect of Insecticides on the Aphids
and Serpentine Leafminers of Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Spring, 1948. *

Amount per Number of Percent of Mature
Material 100 gallons Aphids per Leaflets with
water 50 Leaves Leafminer Damage

1. DDT 25 percent emulsion 1 quart 132 73
2. DDT O0 percent colloidal 2X pints 157 73
3. Rhothane 50 percent wettable 2 pounds 201 66
4. HCH 6 percent gamma isomer 4 pounds 108 25
5. Chlordane 50 percent wettable 2 pounds 219 26
6. Parathion 15 percent wettable 1 pound 76 3
7. Chlorinated camphene 25 percent
wettable pounds 91 9
8. Check, fungicide alone -- 314 81

* Aphid and leafminer counts were made three days after the third weekly insecticide
applicz tion.
All insecticides were used in combination with Dithane D 14, zinc sulfate
fungicide.




c;ga 6o
Mole Cricket Control
Discussion.--In spite of the appearance of more effective chemicals for killing mole
crickets, these pests remain one of the most destructive insects of seedbeds, and
treatment will be necessary in many of the vegetable crops areas. The following
pointers in mole cricket control are included to serve as a guide in combating this
insect.

1. Mole crickets are most destructive in the early fall when seedbeds and field
plantings are seeded. They are not so destructive after the plants are well estab-
lished.
2. These pests are very sensitive to soil moisture and temperature fluctuations.
During dry periods mole crickets are not active at the soil surface, but remain where
the moist-re level is suitable, During cold periods mole crickets go deep into the
soil and are not active until the soil warms up.
3. Seedbed treatment: Prepare beds for seeding. Mix pound of 50 percent
wettable chlordane per 100 gallons water and apply to beds and alleys with sprinkling
cans at the rate of 100 gallons per 1000 square feet. Plant seed 2 to 3 days after
treatment.
Field treatment: (A) Mix 2 to 4 pounds of 50 percent wettable chlordane
per 100 gll.ons of water and apply this to one acre, using a power sprayer.
(B) Mix 4 pounds of 50 percent chlordane with 100 pounds
of wheat bran; slightly moisten with water and broadcast while fresh in the late after-
noon when the soil is warm and moist. Apply 25 to 50 pounds per acre.. Do not bait
during cold periods nor when the soil surface is dry.
.4. Further study with the newer chemicals will be necessary before definite
rates, formulations and methods of applications can be established. However, the
above suggestions may be tried by the grwver and adjusted to fit individual needs.

The data contained in the following tables are summary sheets of preliminary
tests. The dosages used are not always within economic reason, and may be far more
than the amount necessary to secure satisfactory control. The use of benzene hexa-
chloride is not recommended for soil treatment since in some cases it imparts a
disagreeable taste to the crop and has been reported to affect the germination of
some vegetable seeds.

MOLE CRICKET CONTROL STUDIES

(A) Table Showing Effectiveness of Soil Treatment with Insecticides in Controlling the
Southern Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus acletus.

Amount per PERCENT MORTALITY
Material 50 Gallons (Days After Treatment)
water
2 4 8
Parathion, 15 percent wettable 4 pounds 90 100 100
Chlordane, 50 percent wettable 1 pound 65 100 100
Chlordane, 50 percent wettable i pound 30 75 100
Chlordane, 50 percent wettable 1/8 pound 5 45 95
HCH 6 percent gamma isomer 2 pounds 60 95 100
HCH 6 percent gamma isomer 1 pound 40 95 100
HCH 6 percent gamma isomer 2 pound 35 70 100
Chlorinated camphene, 25 percent 4 pounds 25 75 100
Check, not treated 5 5 15

These trials were conducted in the laboratory. A total of five pots each con-
taining four mole crickets made up each treatment and check. The insecticides were
mixed with water and applied to the surface of the soil at the rate of 1 gallon per
10 nounar fea-.t__




Page 7o.
(B) Tabl :....jnri Effectiveness of Insecticides Mixed with Commercial Fertilizer and
Applied to the Upper Two Inches of Soil in Controlling the Southern Mole Cricket,
Scapertiscus acletus.

PERCENT MORTALITY
Insecticide Pe (Days After Treatment)
Per
Acre 3 6 10
Chlordane 5% dust 30 lbs. 5 15 50
Chlordane 5% dust 60 Ibs. 40 65 95
Chlordane 5% dust 120 lbs. 60 85 100
HCH 1.5% gamma isomer dust 100 lbs. 20 25 100
HCH 1.5% gamma isomer dust 200 lbs. 30 70 100
HCH 1,5% gamma isomer dust 400 Ibs. 35 90 100
Parathion 15% wettable 120 lbs. 70 100 100
Parathion 15% wettable 40 lbs. 50 90 100
HCH 25% gamma isomer concentrate 12 lbs. 40 60 95
Check, fertilizer alone 0 0 0
Fertilizer-insecticide mixtures applied at rate of 2,000 pounds per acre. Five pots,
each containing 4 mole crickets made up each treatment.
(C) Table Showing Effect of Various Poisoned Baits in Controlling the Short Winged
Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus.

Percent PERCENT MORTALITY
Material Used, of Active (Days After Trcatment)
Ingredient 10
Chlordane, 50% wttable .25 10 50 80
Chlordane, 50% wettable 1,00 15 40 100
Chlordane, 50% wettable 4.00 40 70 95
Chlorinated camphene, 40% .80 5 20 45
Chlorinated camphene, 40% 3.20 5 25 60
Chlorinated camphene, 40% 6.40 10 25 50
Sodium fluosilicate 10,00 15 55 80
HCH 6% gamma isomer .24 G.I. 5 35 80
HCH 6% gamma isomer .28 G.I. 30 70 90
Check, bran alone --- 5 10
All materials were mixed with wheat bran bait; enough water was added to the bait to
slightly moisten* The baits were sprinkled on top of the soil in pots. Five pots,
each containing 4 mole crickets made up each treatment and check.
TREATMENT OF SEEDBEDS FOR MOLE CRICKET CONTROL
Table Showing the Effectiveness of Soil Treatment with Insecticides in Controlling
the Southern Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus pcletus.
nount Per' PERCENT SURFACE BURROTTING f Dead
Amount Per 1 Day 2 Days 6 Days Cricket
Material 50 Gallons Before After After On Soil
Water Treatment Treatment Treatment Surface
25% DDT emulsion 1 qto 17.4 10.6 11.5 1
HCH 6% gamma isomer 2 Ibs. 12.5 ,54 2,0 19
50% chlordane wettable 2 Ibs. 13.5 2,6 1,. 59
Check, w_ .r alone 14,4 26.6 40.9 5
All ma.t:.rials applied at the rate of 1 gallon diluted spray per 10 square feet of
seedbed area with sprinkling cans.







RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FIELD CONTROL OF DISEASES AID INSECTS OF CERTAIN CROPS

Cp FUNG I C IDES INSECTICIDES
Disease Treatment Insect Treatment
Early Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 1 qt 25% DDT emulsion per
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. 100.gallons water
Neutral copper Worms Above will control most worms
Celery Spray 4-5 day schedule, "Green DDT resistant;4 Ibs 6% G.I.**
twice with Dithane then cutworm" per 100 gal.on young plants
once with copper, etc. or 3 lbs 40% chlorinated
camphene per 100 gal.*

Rust and Sulfur dust Leafhopper 3% DDT-Sulfur dust,or 2 lbs
Mildew Wettable sulfur (spray) Leafroller 50% Wettable DDT 100 gal.
Beans Thrips 5% DDT dust; (10 chlorinated
camphene dust *)
Leafminer Chlorinated camphene *

Downy Wettable Spergon (spray) Aphids 1 qt.25% DDT emulsion, or 4
Mildew lbs 6% G.I. per 100 gal., or
1.5% gamma isomer dust.
Cabbage 3% DDT dust, or 2 lbs. 50%
Cabbage looper wettable DDT or 1 qt.25% DDT
Cabbage emulsion per 100 gal. water
plutella
Armyworms 5% DDT dust; poisoned wheat
Cutworms bran bait

Late Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 1 qt DDT emulsion per 100 gal
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. Armyworms water used regularly (every
Potatoes Early Parzate 2 lbs 100 gal. Cutworms 10 days to 2 weeks)
Blight Spray 4-S day schedule

Frog-eye Zerlate 2 lbs. 100 gal. Aphids 1 qt. DDT emulsion per 100
spot gal.,or h lbs.6% G.I. per
Peppers Bacterial Neutral copper 100 gal,,or 1% gamma isomer
spot Spray weekly dust
Armyworms 1 qt. 25% DDT emulsion per
100 gal. water
Late Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 3% nicotine dust or spray
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. nicotine sulfate 40t-1:600.
Parzate 2 lbs 100 gal. Apply when warm and still.
Early Zerlate 2 lbs 100 gal. 1.5% G.I. dust effective.
Tomatoes Blight Spray 4-5 day schedule Fruit 2 lbs 50% wettable DDT 100
Gray Leaf where late blight is a Worms gal. or 3% DDT dust
Spot problem otherwise use 30%-50% cryolite dust, or
7-day schedule spray, 4 lbs per 100 gal.
Budworm 1 qt 25% DDT emulsion per 100
gal.,or 2 lbs 50% DDT or DDD
per 100 gallons water
Corn Earworms 5% DDT dust; 5% DDD dust; 3%
methoxychlor every 3rd day
begin when 1st silks appear,
4-6 applications necessary.
Downy and Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Worms 30%-50% cryolite dust
Squash Powdery fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. Cucumber Apply at first signs and
Cucumbers Mildew Parzate 2 lbs 100 gal. beetles maintain regular (weekly)
Zerlate 2 lbs 100 gal. treatments.

Cutworms Growers reported good control
with 1 qts 25% DDT emulsion
per 100 gallons water. Kill
General cutworms with poisoned bait
Crops before planting.
Wireworms Chlordane shows promise in
controlling wireworms either
broadcast or drilled with
fertilizer *


* Results have been promising, but not thoroughly tested.
** Gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride -- should not be applied later than 4 weeks
before harvest.





Page 9.
HOhRTICLfLiORAL IiVESTIGITIONS

James C. Hoffman

Tomato Breeding, Variety and Strain Test.--Six varieties and strains were in-
cluded in the replicated and two in observational tests.

The variety Pearsons Improved, with large puffy fruit, as well as the two Rutgers
strains and the open type strain are in the low yielding class.

The wilt resistant progeny T1724-1-2 significantly outyielded all lines other
than number 6. The strain W186-6-2 is in the same yielding class as T1724-1-2 but the
fruit are somewhat small for market purposes.

It can definitely be concluded that the progeny T1724-1-2 is the outstanding
tomato as described in Mimeographed Report No. 9, Everglades Experiment Station. The
tomato T1724-1-2 is from a cross of (Victor x Dobbies Champion) x Pan America, back-
croesed twice to Rutgers. The fruit and plant types are not fixed uniformed characters,
so additional selection is necessary before the tomato will be introduced as a variety.

A second important conclusion can be drawn from this test, that is, an excellent
crop of tomatoes has been produced on old land located in the East Coast area that has
been cultivated and planted to vegetables including tomatoes for 17 years.


TABLE 1.--TOMATO BREEDING, VARIETY AND STRAIN TEST, EAST COAST AREA,
1948.


BOYNTON, FLORIDA.


Seed Field Crates
Field Variety or Strain t Source Per Acre
No. No. (1) (2)

1. Pearsons Improved 19656 1 232
2. Rutgers Wilt Resistant 2 262
3. Rutgers W149-2 3 241
4. Open Type W185-59-1 3 253
5. Wilt Resistant T1724-1-2 4 356
6. Small Fruit W186-6-2 3 312


(1) Seed Source:


1. Ferry-Morse Seed Company
2. Corneli Seed Company
3. Florida Vegetable Breeding Laboratory
4. U. S. Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory


(2) Calculated on average of 50 pounds per field crate, any difference of
per acre between any 2 mean yields is considered significant at the 5
level and 79 crates at the 1 percent level.


59 crates
percent


Fertilizer Placement Test on Tomatoes.-Pearsons Improved and Rutgers wilt re-
sistant were transplanted to- randomized blocks 40 feet in length October 23, 1947.
The test was established on a gray sand mixed with marl, the pH averaging approximately
8.00.

The fertilizer was applied in 6 applications at the base rate of 400 pounds per
acre of 1-8-8, 0.3 copper, 0.4 manganese, 0.2 zinc, 0.12 borax, 0.3 iron and 2.0 mag-
nesium e:xnrssed as the percent oxide. Sulfur was added to the "S" plots at the rate
of 400 pounds per acre in addition to the fertilizer application.





TABLE l.--Tomato Fertilizer Placement Test, East Coast Area, Boynton, Florida, 1948.


Treatment
No.


Variation of Yield with
Fertilizer Placement and Treatment


--


Field
Per
(5)
165
132
149
134
168
154

131
120

128
138
184
141


Crates
Acre
(6)
149

142

161


126


133

164


Least significant difference at 5 percent t4 40
Least significant difference at 1 percent 59
Note: (1) Last 5 applications placed in 2 bands, 3 inches to each side and 2 inches
in depth.
(2) Last 5 applications applied as 1/2 in a band, 3 inches to each side and
1/2 on edge of bed.
(3) Applications alternated from left to right side.
(4) Starter solution was applied at the rate of 1/2 pint per plant at weekly
intervals for 4 weeks and mixed as follows: 20 ounces sodium nitrate,
20 ounces triple-superphosphate, 20 ounces 62.5 potassium chloride,
50 gallons water.
(5) Variation of yield with fertilizer placement and treatment, 50 pounds per
crate.
(6) Variation of yield with fertilizer placement, 50 pounds per crate.

Averages based on an arbitrary grouping of non-sulfured and sulfur plots.

Treatment Crated per Acre
Fertilizer plus sulfur 127
Fertilizer no sulfur 141
Least significant difference at 5% 12

Hormone Plant Growth Regulators Increase Tomato Yields.--Details of the experi-
ment arc described in Mimeographed Report No. 5, Everglades Experiment Station.
There is a definite trend of increased yields by the application of hormones
when Grothents Globe and Rutgers are grow under low temperatures on organic soils,
The same is perhaps true for sandy soils. Grothen's Globe treated with Dowspray 202
and Rutgers treated with NO-SEED produced yields significantly higher than the same
varieties grown on the check plots.
Potato Breeding, Variety and Seedling Testing.--The potato breeding, variety and
seedli"'ETests are in cooperation with Dr. F3.J. Stevenson who conducts the Natitonal
Potato Breeding program. The test described in Mimeographed Report No. 2, Everglades
ExpeLriment Station, is the third of a series of tests conducted during 1947-48.
The seedlings B61-3, B70-5, B73-10, B76-43 and X96-56 are excellent producing
potatoes when grown on the organic soils of the Everglades. These potatoes are aL
aiPn.+.nn+ t+ late blight. Phvtoohthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary.


1
1-S
2
2-S
3
3-s
4

4-S



6
6-s
7
7-S


Two inches belor planting bed (1)
Sulfur added
Broadcasted in 12-inch band on center of bed and raked
Sulfur added
One-half as No. 1 and 1/2 as No. 2 (2)
Sulfur added
Band on 1 side, 3 inches from planting area and 2 inches
in depth (3)
Sulfur added
":... on 2 sides, 3 inches from planting area and 2 inches
in depth
Sulfur added
Same as 5 plus starter solution (4)
Sulfur added
No fertilizer
Sulfur







Page 11.

The seerlirg rT70-- vrill be described and distributed to growers in 1948. This
potato is be*in. increased by the Maine Potato Seed Board. The new white potato has
been named IC-" 1, and is a very proper name for such an outstanding progeny. Excel
is not irmrune to late blight as grown under field conditions but very highly resis-
tant. Excel produced 272 bushels per acre in the fall and winter of 1946-47 without
any protective fungicides. Pontiac, Triumph and Katahdin were completely killed by
late blight in the same test.

Sweet Corn Variety and Hybrid Tests.--Three separate sweet corn tests have been
completed in x1-7-8. The fall and winter planting is described in Mimeographed
Report No. 6, Everglades Experiment Station.

For a first early type, Gold Rush is considered very desirable for Southern
Florida. Carmelcross also has desirable qualities as an early corn. Illinois Golden
No. 10, Oto, Srnca Chief, Golden Security, Erie and Bantam Hybrid No. 57 have proven
to be excelient producing sweet corns that are classified as second early.
Ioana and Golden Cross Bantam have not performed well in any of the tests con-
ducted when compared with the new hybrids. At the present time it is evident that
these standards should no longer be considered as leading varieties for the Everglades.

SOIL FERTILITY INVESTIGATIONS

W. T. Forsee, Jr.

The area on which these tests are conducted in the Indiantown Area is a light
sandy soil tentatively classified as Sunnyland. Most of the area has a pH of about
5.90 with calcium and magnesium levels of approximately 350 and 25 pounds per acre,
respectively. There are several small spots within the area where there is a thin
layer of marl at depths of 6 to 24 inches. At such spots the pH is quite high and the
calcium and magnesium levels are correspondingly higher than average.
Beds are eight feet apart. Tomatoes during the fall were set 26 inches apart in
the row. For the spring crop the tomatoes are set 36 inches apart in the row. All
tomato fertilizer has been applied at the rate of 750 pounds per acre in the bed before
transplanting and 1500 pounds side dressed on either side in two equal applications.
Squash was planted two rows to the bed with the seeds dropped at 12-inch intervals in
the row. Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 1500 pounds per acre, 750 pounds before
seeding and 750 pounds side dressed. All soil amendments were applied broadcast and
disced in prior to bedding.
The effect of the fertilizer treatments on the yields of tomatoes and yellow crook!
neck squash for the 1947 fall season are shown in the following tables. The tomato
variety used in these experiments is T1724-1-2, a wilt resistant variety from the
U.S.D.A. Vegetnbl Breeding Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. Since the tomatoes
were sever-, damaged by a freeze just prior to the first picking, yields were taken by
picking all fruit from marble size up and recording the total yields of green fruit.






Page 12.


Effect of Soil Amendment Treatments on the Yield of Early Yellow Crookneck Squash


Treatment 1


SQUASH YIELDS, BU. PER ACF ___
Individual Treatment Main Trea ment
Average Average


L-8-8
4-8-8

4-8-8
4-8-8


+ r4':-r elements 2

+ 2 percent MgO
+1 2 percent MgO + minor elements 2


4-8-8 + Gypsum
-l8-8 + Gypsum + minor elements 2

4-8-8 + Dolomite
4-8-8 + Dolomite + minor elements 2

4-8-8 + Basic Slag
4-8-8 + Basic Slag + minor elements 2


1. Gypsum,
acre.


dolomite and basic slag applied broadcast at the rate of 1000 pounds per


2. All treatments without minor elements gave an average yield of 146 bushels per acre
with 159 "

3. The minor element mixture consisted of 0.3, 0.4, 0.2, 0.12 and 0.3 percent CuO,
MnO, ZnO, B203 and Fe203 respectively in the mixed fertilizer. Sources for these
materials were copper sulfate, manganese sulfate, zinc sulfate, borax and iron
sulfate.


Total Yield of Tomatoes in Pounds from Each of the Main Soil Amendment Treatments


Treatment Yield
(A) Check 637
(B) Soluble MgO 672
(C) Gypsum 608
(D) Dolomite 676
(E) Basic Slag 619


168
178

136
152

160
166

127
149

140
151


173


144


163


138


146





F.ELD TOUR
Everglades Experiment Station


Stations


43n rI'~


I .I I I


Field Locations


1. Starting Point.
(3 Staked Body Trucks)
2. Excavation for Pumphouse
3. Potato Variety Plots --
Sweet Corn Spacing and Variei
Tests
4. Snap Bean Breeding Plots, Celei
Breeding Plots, Tomato Step
Trials
$. Cabbage Variety Trials,
Elanganese Deficiency.of Bean
(Spraying & Dusting Tests)
6. Ramie Seed Plot
7. Introduction Garden-Fiber Plani


and


Chiefs of Bureaus
U.S.D.A.


- /0


T .^ - -L J









Page 2.


8. Insect Control Investigations
(Celery, Cabbage, Sweet Corn, Tomatoes)
9. Animal Nutrition Studies
10. Sugar Cane Investigations
11. Green Lot Feeding Trials (I-V)


Average Total Average
Ration Weight Gain Daily Gain

Self-fed molasses 6 to 7 pounds
Lot I each plus cottonseed pellets 813.0 1l.5 1.68
2 pounds each daily

Lot II Self-fed LMolasses 6 to 7 pounds 808.0 130. 1.
Lot II each

t II -nd Snapped Corn 5 pounds 836.5 168.5 2.01
Lot IIJI each daily

Lot IV Cottonseed pellets 2 pounds 807.5 134.5 1.60
each daily

Lot V No concentrate supplement 794.0 106.5 1,27


Each lot of 10 steers on 4 acres St. Augustine grass.
(84 days of a standard feeding trial of


Weights taken
120 days).


12. Breeds and Breeding (Cattle)
13. Pasture Grasses -- Increase Plots
14. Grass Garden
15. Legume Garden
16, Turf Trials
17. Spray Trials with Celery
18. Sweet Corn and Bean Fertilizer Plots
Bean Variety Tests
19. Corn Fertility Levels and Placement
20. Corn Breeding
21. Agricultural Auditorium and Pavilion (and Parking Lot)
22. Agricultural Engineering (Exhibit and Discussion)
(Low Gallonage Spray Equipment, Bean Planter and
Fertilizer Distributor)
23. Fiber Crop Investigations -- Ramie
1. Harvesting Equipment
2. Decorticating Equipment
3. Degumming Studies
4. Fiber Testing
24. Snack


April 19
















SO~E

CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF


FORAGE, PASTURE AND GRAIN CROPS, /S "TELL AS

A NUMBER OF VEGETABLE, WASTES, PRODUCED

ON THE ORGANIC SOILS OF THE

EVR GLADES


*SHHHHhWW




All samples were collected and analyzed by
Dr. U.T. Forsee, Jr., with the exception of the vegetable
wastes listed in Table VI. These materials were collected
by Dr. Forsee and sent to the Eastern Regional Laboratory
of the Buteau of Industrial and Agricultural Chemistry,U.S.
Department of Agriculture, where the analyses were made as
reported in the table.


-H5NHHRHHES-i

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION
BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA


December 12, 1950











TABLE I. ASCORBPT ACIZ CONTENT OF SOLE PASTURE GRASSES
AND OATS GROJN ON EVERGLADES PEAT


SOven-.ry a.atFtr M gm. Ascorbic Acid per
Sample (Percent o f 100 r'ms fLfaterial
S.wei. ht) l 'esh sn-Dr


Carib from Acre Pasture 18.4 122 640

St. Augustine from Acre Pasture 18.2 88 580


Pangola from Acre Pasture 37.7 57 150

Para from Acre Pasture 17.8 111 620


Cheat Grass from Acre Pasture 17.8 29 160

Dwarf Napier from Acre Pasture 22.3 92 410

Bermuda, Tifton "35", from Acre
Pasture 1t.6 142 970

Pasture Oats, 50 b s. / 1A. Cu.
treated 17.1 158 920
Pasture Oats, 25 lbs. / 1A. Cu
treated 20.1 145 720

Pasture Oats, 12.5 Ibs. / lA. Cu
treated 18.1 158 870

Pasture Oats, no Cu 24.6 139 $70


- S -_ _~ I_ __~_


----- ~







TABLE II. FEED ANALYSES OF GRASSES AND FIELD CROPS


... .;--.-.-.-.-- -. aProfe-in Fat+. lFi't Ash N.F.E -
Description of Date (Percent of (Percent) (Peicentis:ercnt) Percent)(Perce
Mate riel eHarvested green weight) I* ..
________________________________________________________________________ i~i'


Grass, Para
I II


Grass, Carib
II II
11 i


3rass, St. Augustine
II II


Grass, Guinea
II It

Grass, Bermuda, Coastal
it it 11


Grass, Napier, Giant
In ii I

Grass, Dallis & Clover Mixture
It It ii Ii it

Peanut, green vines
Peanuts, cured whole nuts

eet potato, field cured vines
green vines
dried chips

Aoonvine
Around Shallu Heads (3 samples)


66/642
7/30/42
4/23/43
6/6/142
7/30/142
4/23/43
6/6/42
8/7/L42
4/23/43
7/30/42
4/23/43

7/30/12
8/7/l42
4/23/43
8A14/42
4/23143

7/30/42
4/23/43
8/14/42
8/14/42

8/14/42
8/14/L42
8/11/42
8/14/42


191.47
17.39
16.23

15.07
15.58
12.18
18.22
21.21
20,06
28. 48
16.93

43.15
30.81
30.55
22.12
13.57

23.45

26.05



8.85

17.20


.1J


8.41
10.13
14.06

10.06
11.19
18.-4
12.00
7.90
11.69
6.38
9.85

7.28
10132
15.94
12.81
16.37

13.25
20.98
13.06
23.47

19.37
18.53
10.19
18.07
114.00


2.98
2.60
0.89


2.30
2.52
1.98
2.140
3.22
1.51
1.27
1.24

1.98
2.32
1.74
1.36
1.57

1.914
1,94
1.38
2.72
25.85

2.52
2.;1
1.30
2.36
3.8r


*Percentages calculated on basis of oven-dry material.


35.20
35.28
32.19

31.32
30.92
27.88

31.19
32.12
29.50

11.37
35.64

33.15
32.90
30.64
29.54
31.96

32.06
25.95
23.66
23.07

21.09
21.08
3&91
22.45
10.21


900o
10.041
9.43

11.50
12.32
13.50
9.37
9.57
10.74
6,59
9.61

4. 1
5.35
6.06
10.11
11.23

7.70
8.53
9.02
2.98

12.25
17.12
3.95
10.92
3.~h


44.37
o1.58
43.43

44.82
43.05
38.20

45.04
47.19
43.56
44.39
43.66

53.18
49.11
45.62
46.18
38.87

45.05
43.16
51.54
24.63

14.77
40.76
80.65
46.20
68. 40


Nitrogen f re extras t.


m


Y- ___ --


_~_ .---. -r ----- -.u







FEED ANALYSES OF GRASSES CUT 10/27/11 EROM ACRE PASTURES


I- -'l- I --- U I -


Height*
(Inches)


Uar wy
(Percent
of green
weitht)


(Bercent)



(Percent)
**


IFewen


- -.- d d --- 4- It ---


St. Augustine
'I

tl
It
'I



PIa

II
II




Napier
It
'I
tI


16-20
11-15
8-10
5-8
4-5
3-4


48-60
30-36
21 30
16-20
10-14


78-84
66-78
54-60
36-42
18-24


17.8
19.4
17.3
19.5
18.2
19.6


30.4
25.2
22.2
18.5
18.1


19.91
21.57
21.89
12.31
11.18


14.5o
12.81
14.75
16.63
17.75
16.97


6.81
11.69
14.22
19.19
20.93


9.00
8.90
9.82
15.37
18.63


1.47
1.73
2.36
2.29
1.86
1.93


1.20
1.33
1.83
1.12
1.07


1.89
1.03
1.73
2.03
2.06


28.84
27.93
26.83
27.00
26.46
24.89


35.88
36.20
32.64
30.90
28.89


33.95
31.48
32,12
27.41l
26.50


9.94
9;64
L0.06
9.77
L0.32
9.87


4.74
5.50
6.66
8.26
8.33


6.42
6.10
9.00
10.86
12.36


Yarieby


* Grasses so "staged" or cut prior to time of harvest as to give the heights
indicated on the designated date.
9* Percentages calculated on the basis of oven-dry material.
*** Nitrogen free extract.


A 4
(Ire 1


TABLE III.


I
(Percent)




45.25
47.89
46.00
44.31
43.61
46.34


51.37
45.28
14.65
140.53
40.78


48.74
52.49
47.33
.4.33
40.45









TABLE IV. ANALYSES OF GRASSES CUT 6/17/l1 FRdkl ACRE PASTURES


- I- -.- I 9 1 -


Grass
Variety


Approx.
Height*
(Inches)


uven-ury
Matter
(Percent
of green
weight)


Protein
(Percent)
1E


Fat
(Percent)


Fiber
(Percent)
k -


Ash
percent )
J13


_____________________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 1. I I -
T p 4-4.-, -


St. Augustine
it

It



Vasey
if

It


Para
tf
II
It
11



Napier
It


22-26
15-18
12rl$
8-11
3-6


80-100
70-80
36-42
18-24
12-15


60-70
48-60
36-42
24-30
10-12


96-116
66-78
50-66
18-30
10-15


16.2

16.5
15.4
16,6


21,6
22.7
18.8
14.5
17.0

21,2
19.4
20.6
17.3
17.1


18.9
13.0
12.3
8.8
10.0


9.75
10.32
11.066
12.88
17.60


6.38
7.45
9.47
16.91
19.22


8.26
9.85
11.35
13.78
13.44


8.65
10.53
11.87
19.06
17.53


1.87
1.80
1.63
1.82
2.11


1.19
.98
.80
1.04
.85


.94
1.30
.95
1.48
1.07


1.58
1,16
l.WO
1.44
2.01


V .


31.18
32.00
30.33
30.95
29.67



37.83
38.54
35.95
32.12
33.20


34.45
33.70
33.58
32.48
31.53


36.35
34.00
32.75
28.85
30.19


10. li
10.20
9.048
10.08
10.32


5.69
6.35
7.94
8.86
10.19


5.94
6.10
6. la
9.93
8.80



5.97
9.61
9.67
14. 0
13.66


46.79
45.68
47.50
44.27
40.30


48.91
46.68
5. 84
L1.07
36.54


52.1h
49.05
47.71
42.33
45.16


47.45
14.70
44.31
36.25
36.61


* Grasses so "staged" or cut prior
indicated on the desiganted date.


to time of harvest as to give the heights


** PBrcentages calculated on the basis of oven-dry material.
*fw* Nitrogen free extract.


I I


_-


IM.EE.eMM
|

trcsent
JC '









TABLE V. ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF 1ISCELLANEQUS VEGETABLES
GROT1NG ON EVERGLADES PEAT

Oven-Dry IMtter Ygm. Ascorbic Acid per
Sample (Pe:rcent of 00 rams Mater1ial
n_____________ 'wigh) oFrsh Ge:Sr-ui.gF


-I a. i


Broccoli, Green Sprouting, Ferry
Mor:;e 11.33 99.0 870

Spinach, Long Stem Bloomsdale 9.97 62.0 620

Lettuce, Burpee Improved 847 3.5 6.0 170

Lettuce, Burpee Improved 847 ).11 8.0 190

Lettuce, Burpee Improved 44k .35 11.0 290

Lettuce, Burpee Improved k4 5.11 11.0 220

Beets, Detroit Dark Red, Ferry
Morse 7.71 33.0 30

Carrots, Kilgore Red Cored
Chantengy 11.31 9.0 80

Carrots, Kilgore Imperator 11.63 7.7 66

Celery, Utah 15, Ferry Morse 6.91 17.0 250

Celery, Summer Pascal, Ferry iMorse 8.99 22.0 250

Celery, Florida Pascal, Kilgore 7.49 18.0 240







TABLE VI. FEED ANALYSIS OF VEGETABLE WASTE MATERIALS GRO N'ON ORGANIC SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES*


J eight in Grams IOven-iry Matter Protein Crude I"ibor Fat Mirogr- m ;iT cgran
Sanmp (Percant of (Percent) (Percent) (Percent)! Riboflav in jCarotene
Fresh Dr green weight) 3-*- per gram per gram


CelerygLeaes, Field
Stripping 632 81 12,8 27.2 3,51 6.82 16.35 313,0

Celegr ST al;, Field
Strippings 1124 66 5.9 12.6 14.36 3.15 5.13 10.4

Celery L axvesn Packing
H'Hcse ase h30 I6 10.7 28.8 10.70 6.75 13.85 256.0

Celery Stal5s, Pacldng
Hcuse WTasts 1596 91 5.7 11.8 1l.85 3.75 6.83 9.2

Celery, Field Crate
Clippings 725 87 12.0 29.6 9.90 6.69 17.76 282.0

Carrot Tops, Leaves 585 123 21.0 27.9 10.12 5.59 1.I0 271.0

C=aro Topa, Stems 556 66 11.9 11.1 19.28 5.35 7.26 36.9

Broecoji, Leaves 834 109 13.1 34.2 5.59 7.78 21.50 45i.0

Collards, Leaves 1030 119 11.5 27.3 8.71 7.53 20.10 450.0

Beans, Canning Plant
L" faste 1000 94 9. 23.3 13.39 2.97 18.00 250
m ...-. ~


* Analyses by Eastern Regional Laboratory, U
* Calculated on basis of oven-dry material.
. .s.-


.3.D.A., Philadelphia.




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