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 Front Cover
 Key to 1965 sweet corn helminthosporium...
 Celery seedbed bactericide trial,...
 Celery fungicide trialsl, spring...














Title: Vegetable crops field day.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076929/00003
 Material Information
Title: Vegetable crops field day.
Series Title: Vegetable crops field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1965
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076929
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 166141478

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Key to 1965 sweet corn helminthosporium leaf blight screening nursery
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
    Celery seedbed bactericide trial, fall 1964
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
    Celery fungicide trialsl, spring 1964
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
        Page C-5
        Page C-6
Full Text



4 /1


Everglades Experiment Station

ANNUAL VEGETABLE CROPS FIELD DAY

May 4, 1965

Belle Glade, Florida


PARTICIPATING STAFF


W. Burdine, Associate Soils Chemist
W. Casselman, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
T. Forsee, Jr., Chemist in Charge
G. Genung, Associate Entomologist
L. Guzman, Associate Horticulturist
D. Harris, Jr., Associate Entomologist
R. Iley, Assistant Soils Chemist
R. Orsenigo, Associate Horticulturist
L. Thayer, Assistant Plant Pathologist
Wehlburg, Associate Plant Pathologist
A. Winchester, Assistant Nematologist
A. Wolf, Associate Horticulturist


PROGRAM

John H. Causey, Palm Beach County
.> associate Agricultural Agent, Presiding

9:1511 Ass and Regi-stration


9:2 3 T. i Jr.
9:30 L. Guzman,


A. Wolf
W. Burdine
A. Winchester
L. Thayer
Wehlburg


11:10 J. R. Orsenigo
11:20 W. G. Genung

11:30 E. D. Harris, Jr.


- Welcome
- Vegetable Variety Trials
Spacing with Silver Queen Sweet Corn
Celery Seedbed Studies
Sprouting of Potato Seed Pieces
- Progress in Sweet Corn and Celery Breeding Work
- Vegetable Nutrition
- Nematode Control for Vegetables on Muck Soil
- Celery Disease Control
- Bactericides for the Control of Bacterial Spot
on cabbage
- Herbicides for Vegetable Crops
- Control of Insects Attacking Cabbage and Table
Legumes
- Control of Soil Insects, Sweet Corn Insects and
Celery Insects


Lunch will be served on the grounds, courtesy of The Kilgore Seed
Company, Plant City, Florida and California Chemical Company,
Orlando, Florida.


1:30 Tour of experimental and demonstration plots.

Cold drinks during the field tours are furnished by courtesy of
Agricultural Insecticide Company.


10:00
10:15
10:30
10:40
10:50


P.M.
12:15











Everglades Experiment Station

ANNUAL VEGETABLE CROPS FIELD DAY

May 4, 1965



to Belle Glade


Main Building



Assemble here for morning
and afternoon sessions


// 2
/ 3
/. / 3
$1


1. Sweet corn varieties under unsprayed
conditions.
2. Cabbage varieties
3. Bush bean varieties
4. Bush bean varieties for mechanical
harvesting
5. Insect control on sweet corn
6. Insect control on southern peas
7. Insect control on cabbage
8. Herbicide evaluations
9. Celery fungicide trial
10. Control of Helminthosporium leaf
blight on sweet corn
11. Seedling inoculation trial on celery


'/


'I /'



K'/ //


"K


to W.PB.

,: :^"


9 10




. '


I
--


J
#


- -. 1









Key to 1965 Sweet Corn Helminthosporium Leaf Blight Screening Nursery.

Field 3SE section EES (South of field shed west of main drainage canal). Numbers
1 to 69 planted February 17, 72 to 100 on February 18, numbers 191 to 198 on
March 15. Note: Poor stands due to loss of plants incurred in removing soil
thrown over them for protection from predicted frost on February 27, plus wire-
worm damage. Items 1 to 80 planted in Hort. trials February 10 at Wedgeworth Farms.


Number


Hybrid


Source


104
106
Wintergreen
3373

Golden hybrid 191-1
1131 x 1921/63
1470 x 1921/63
E 3107A
E3570
.F 75/64
Golden Valley
XP205
Gold Cup G1186
Northern Belle L
107
Floribelle
Silverqueen
1C6A
5299
Gavimet
NK 1304
Snow Drift
Bonita
5311
KVF 5L-012
KVF 4L-001
KVF 5L-011
KVF 5L-010
XP 298
XP 299
XP 300
White Lot 182-2
Golden Lot 194-6
White 'Lot 194-7
Improved 31
R-100
E6D7
E4D5
E4D1
E2D1
204 x 1359/64
225 x 222/64
f 15/64
f 30/64
F 36-64


Crookham Co.
FM (Ferry Morse)
ASG (Asgrow)
SRS (Seed Research
Specialists)
A&C (Abbott & Cobb)
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
'NK (Northrup King)
ASG
JH (J. Harris)
JH
FM
SRS
Rog (Rogers Bros.)
FM
NK
NK
NK
NK
NK-
NK
Cor (Corneli)
Cor
Cor
Cor
ASG
ASG
ASG
AC
AC
AC
AC
Rog
SRS
SRS
SRS
SRS
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM


5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45







-2-


Number


Source


Hybrid

F 45/64
F 127/64
F 128/64
1209 x 758/63
1161 x 1921/63
E3106:
E3595
E3596
E3107E
E3107B
E3107D
E3107C
E3575
4206-3 x H-3-B


Lef-2-AX97-12A-C
118-8-CxH-3-B
822-3-AxH-3-B
222-6-AxH-3-B
Northern Belle 7L
Northern Belle
Gold Cup
AV-100
R42474
4206-3xK-A-B
Hybrid Seneca MK18
Seneca MK100 white silk
Seneca MK125 w. silk
Seneca MK125 dark silk
Exp. hybrid Lot. 2441
Exp. hybrid Lot. 2466
Northern Belle
Northern Belle L
Northern Belle 45
Golden Eagle
Exp. hybrid 388-64
104


FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
SVBL


SVBL
SVBL
SVBL
SVBL
JH
JR
JH
R. Vaughn
Rog
SVBL
Rob
Rob
Rob
Rob
0 and G Seed Co.
0 & G
JH
JH
JH
JH
Charter
Cro.


Inbred Section:


2132
Iobelle (104)
2256B
2256B x 64-1333-4

2256B x 64-1333-7

2256B x 64-1333-6

2132 x 64-1303-1

2132 x 64-1305-1


Cro.
Cro.
Cro.
4 bc
Ht
4 be
Ht
4 be
Ht
3 be
Ht
3 be
Ht


to Ill. Single gene
resistance (B source)
to Ill. Single gene
resistance (B source)
to Ill. Single gene
resistance (B source)
to Ill. Single gene
resistance
to Ill. Single gene
resistance


(Southeastern Vege-
table Breeding Labo-
ratory)


60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198


VLG
VLG
VLG
(VLG
(VLG
(VLG
(VLG


74
75
76
77 & 78

79 & 80

81 & 82

83 & 84










Hybrid

64-1305-1
2132 x 64-1305-5
64-1303-1
64-1305-1
2132 x 1305-1
64-1302-11
64-1333-1

64-1339-9

64-1335-1


Source


2 bc Ht to 2132 and 1 self
3 be to Ht
2 be. 2132 to Ht and 1 self
2 be. 2132 to Ht and 1 self
3 be to 2132
2 bc 2132 to Ht and 1 self
3 bc 2256B to Ht and 1
self
3 bc 2256B to Ht and 1
self
3 bc 2256B to Ht and 1
self


NOTE demonstration of hybrid vigor with the two parents of lobelle (104) on either
side and expression of the single gene Ht resistance in both 2132 and 2256 back-
cross lines in rows 77 to 100. Plants in even numbered rows 78 to 100 were grown
in peat pots, inoculated, and transplanted into the field 32 to 40 days after
seeding. With true single gene resistance, 50% of the plants in the backcross
and 25% in the selfed rows should be resistant with an additional 50% in the self-
ed rows showing intermediate resistance. Note variations in amount of necrosis
of resistant plants in the backcross rows.


Number


& 88
& 90


& 94
& 96


97 & 98

99 & 100







Celery Seedbed Bactericide Trial
Fall 1964

Everglades Experiment Station
:Belle Glade, Florida .- si ,

P. L. Thayer.


Celery breeding line EES 328, which is highly resistant to early blight was
sown on September 1, 1964, in.seedbeds approximately 4 feet wide by 150 feet long.
Plots were 4 x 12 feet arranged in a random block design with 4 replications, one
replicate per bed. A fertilizer application of 0-10-20 plus micro-elements was
applied at the rate of 850 lb. per acre prior to seeding. Treatments were applied
with a small plot sprayer using an extension hose and a hand boom. Spray was ap-
plied at approximately 200 Ib. psi at a rate of 350 to 400 gallons per acre. A
blanket application:of Dithane:M-45 at'l 1/2.1b./100 gallons plus basic copper sul-
fate at 4 lb./100 gallons was made September 15. Treatments began'on September 18
and continued at twice weekly intervals until November 16 for a total of 17 appli-
cations. Parathion at 2 lb./100 gallons was used as an insecticide applied along
with the experimental treatments either once or twice a week, as necessary for a
total of 12 applications.

The plants were inoculated with the bacterial blight organism (Pseudomonas
cichoari) on Octbber 9;. This was accomplished by masserating diseased celery
leaves briefly in a waring blender dhd "allowirin them.to -stand, for 2 hours in tap
water to allow the bacteria to flow out. The leaf tissue was strained out with
cheese cloth"an'd the'"esistant suspension sprayed on'"ihe"ce'lery with the plot sprayer

MATERIALS USED


Basic copper -


DAC 2787 -


Difolatan -


Dithane M-45 -


du Ter


Basic copper sulfate Phelps Dodge Co.,-53%
metallic copper

75% tetrachloroisophthalonitrile

80% N-(i, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethylsulfenyl)-
cis-D-4-cyclohexene-1, 2-dicarboximide

80% coordination product of zinc ion.and
manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate.


20% Triphenyltin hydroxide


Dyrene -


Hanzate -

Hanzate D -


50% 2,4-dichloro-6-0-chloranilino-S-triaziin

80% manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate

% manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
plus zinc sulfate ..

80% zinc activated polyethylenethiuram di-
sulfide


Polyram -


Thylate -


65% tetramethylthiuram disulfide.






-2-


Results


Even though the plots received 5.5 inches of rain on October 14 along with the
wind from hurricane Isbell, bacterial blight development was relatively mild. Di-
sease development was too light for effective visual ratings of entire plots; how-
ever a count of the number of leaflets with blight lesions per square foot did
reveal differences in control. Results are presented in the accompanying table.

None of the treatments were phytotoxic as is evidenced by the lack of signifi-
cant difference in stand count or fresh'weight-at transplant time. Treatment No. 9
Thylate plus Manzate D plus basic copper produced a reddish-brown color on the foli-
age which may be objectionable. Apparently, the combination resulted in formation
of copper oxide.

Surprisingly all of the treatments, except du-Ter provided significant reduct-
ion of bacterial blight. 'The copper.containing treatments were most effective.


Bacterial blight control on celery in seedbeds. '


4 i No. leaflets per sq. ft. Yield Nov. 19
Concentration with bacterial lesions No. plants Fresh wt. in
Treatments in lbs./100 gal. Oct. 23 Nov. 10 per sq. ft. gr./sq. ft.


1 Manzate 1 1/2 20 17 103 289
2 Dyrene + Basic 1+4 16 13 98 278
copper
3 Difolatan 1 1/4 18 25 105 274
4 Polyram 1 1/2 24 22 111 319
5 DAC 2787 1 1/2 30 25 101 326
6 du Ter 1 34 31 126 316
7 Manzate D + 1 1/2+4 17 16 93 278
Basic copper
8 Dithane M-45 +- 1 1/2+4 11 10 100 263
Basic copper
9 Thylate +:Manzate D 1+1+4 13 9 103 302
+ Basic -copper
10 Check 39 35 82 215
LSD 5% 6 5 NS NS'
1% 8 7



The combinations with Dithane M-45 and Thylate plus Manzate D showing slightly
better than the other two. Manzate alone was near the copper combinations in
effectiveness followed by Difolatan Polyram and DAC 2787 which were only slightly
better than the check.








CELERY FUNGICIDE TRIALS SPRING 1964


Everglades Experiment Station
Belle Glade, Florida


Fungicide Evaluation Trial


P. L. Thayer


Celery variety Utah 52-70, selection 213 was set in the field February
27 in single row plots 30 feet long. Plants were set at 7 inch intervals
in rows 3 feet apart. Five replications were used in a random block design.

A preplanting application of 0-12-16 fertilizer plus 0.3% MnO, and
0.2% B20, was broadcast over the plot area at'the rate of 3000 lbs. per
acre, as recommended by the soils department. Insecticides were applied
over the entire plot area separately from fungicide treatments on the
following schedule: Parathion, Mar. 16; Diazinon, Mar. 20, 23, 27, 31;
Apr. 3, 7; Guthion, Apr. 10, 14; Diazinon, Apr. 17; Diazinon plus Dibrom,
Apr. 21, 24; Dibrom, Apr. 30;.Toxaphene, May 1, 5, 7, 12, 25; Dibrom,
May 29. Three blanket fungicide applications of Dithane M-45 were made
along with the insecticide applications on March 16, 23 and 27. Treatment
applications began on March 21 and continued at 3 to 4 day intervals until
June 1. Sprays were applied at approximately 200 lbs. p.s.i. at the rate
of 50 gal. per acre on small plants and increased to 150 gal. per acre on
mature plants.

Early blight ratings were made according to the Horsfall-Barratt system
(Phytopathology 35:655) where 1 = no disease and 12 = dead plants. Twenty
plants were harvested and weighed from each plot. The number of harvested
plants with Rhizoctonia lesions after field stripping was recorded.


AMMONIUM POLYSULFIDE
BASIC COPPER
DAC 2787
DIPOLATAN

DITHANE M22
DITHANE M22 SPECIAL

DITHANE M45

DYREME
MAMZATE
MANZATE D

POLYRAM

PLYAC

TPTH


MATERIALS USED
65% Em. Cone.
Basic copper sulfate, 53% metallic copper
Experimental, Diamond Alkali Co.
80o% N-(,1,,2,2, -tetrachloroethylsulfenyl)-
cis-D-4-cyclohexene-1l,2-dicarboximide
80% Manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
80% Manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
plus zinc
80% coordination product of zinc ion and
manganese ethylene bisdithiocaibamate
50% 2,4-dichloro-6-0-chloroanilino-S-triazine
80% manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
80o manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
plus zinc
80% zinc activated polyethylenethiuram
disulfide
Sticker: emulsifiable AC polyethylene,
fatty acid cone., alkyl sulfonate 65%f
20% triphenyltin hydroxide


Disease data and yields for the fungicide trial are presented in
Table 1.






-2-


Dyrene which is used as one of the standards to compare with new
materials for early blight control, was not as effective as usual this
year. Whether this was caused by environmental factors or an inferior
sample of the fungicide is not known.

Five manganese containing dithiocarbamates produced by Rohm and
Haas and DuPont Companies were included in this test. The old manebs,
Manzate and Dithane M22, which are on the recommended list, gave some-
iwhat better control of early blight than the zinc containing Dithane
M22 Special, Dithane M45., and Manzate D. as has been the case with maneb,
none of these materials gave adequate control of Rhizotonia. The addition
of copper to Dithane M22 afforded good control of Rhizoctonia without
reducing control of early blight.

Three materials tested this year, Difolatan, DAC 27817 and TPTH
controlled both early blight and Rhizoctonia. None are approved as yet
for use on celery, but are-potentially valuable fungicides. At present
the only materials approved which control Rhizoctonia se; bsic. iWer
and thiram. Unfortunately neither effectively controls early blight;.
so it is usually necessary to spray with a combination of fungicides.
Use of one material to control both diseases would simplify the spray.
programs and perhaps reduce the cost.

Polyram and ammonium Polysulfide gave poor disease control. .Polyram
has been tested in the past under the experimental designation :of NIA 9102
and was more effective in control of early blight.

Despite a regular insect control program as outlined at the beginning
of this report, there was same insect damage in the celery plots. The
damage was caused by chewing insects. Loopers were present, 'probably a
mixed population of celery and cabbage loopers, and cucumber beetles were
present. A: damage rating was made on some of the plots and is presented
in Table 2. Excellent control was obtained with TPIE, followed by some-"
reduction in the Dyrene and copper treatment and at the high rate of
DAC 278&7.






-3-


Table 1. Celery Fungicide Trial Spring 1964

Concentration No. of
in lbs/100 gal. Plants Yield
unless other- Early Bligt Ratings with Rhi- in
Treatments wise indicated -May' May ."June June -~ zoetonia lbs.
18 25 2 17 lesionas-


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
LSD


3.6 5.0 6.0
2.8 3.6 4.2


Polyram 1 1/2
Dyrene plus Basic Copperl / 4
Amonium Polysulfide
plus Plyac 5 pt.
Manzate 1 1/2
Manzate D 1 1/2
Dithane M22 1 1/2
Dithane M22 Special 1 1/2
Dithane M45 1 1/2
Dithane M22 plus
Basic Copper 1 1/2 / 4
Difolatan .62
Difolatan 1 1/4
Difolatan 2 1/2
DAC 2787 1/2
DAc 2787 1
DAC 2787 2
TPTH 1/2
TFTH 1
TPTH 2
TPTH 4
Check


4.8
2.6
3.4
2.6
3.4
3.6

2.6
4.2
4.0
2.8
2.2
2.6
1.4
2.0
1.2
1.0
1.0
7.0
0.7
0.9


5.4
3.6
4.8
3.8
4.4
4.0

3.6
5.0
4.8
3.6
3.4
3.0
2.0
2.2
1.8
1.4
1.0
7.6
0.9
1.1


9.0 10.8
6.4 .3.0


8.6
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.2
7.2

5.8
8.0
8.0
7.2
7.0
6.4
5.6
5.4.
5.6
4.6
4.0
9.4
1.1
1.3


13.0
11.4
9.0
11.4
12.0
9.2

S0.8
4.2
1..8
0.6
2.0
1. 2
0.8
5.0
1.6
1.6
0.4
15.8
2.6
3. 5


Horsfall and Barratt rating system used:


1 : no disease and 12 = dead plants.


20 plants per plot checked for Rhizoctonia lesions and yield.
The last spray application was made on June 1.


3.8
2.0
2.6
2.0
2.8
2.8

2.4
2.8
2.4
2.0
2.2
2.2
1.2
2.0
1.6
1.0
1.0
5.8
0.5
0.7


31.1
34.4

29.1
40.1
37.4
35.8
35.8
35.8

36.2
33.1
34.4
34.4
35.3
33.1
37.5
34.7
35.6
32.7
23.6
22.9
5. 3
7.0












Table 2. Insect / Damage


on Selected Treatments


s- Loopers, probably a mixed population of celery and cabbage looper, and
cucumber beetle.
3/.1 = no insect damage to 12 = complete defoliation


-4-


Treatment Concentration in Damage
lbws/100 gal. Rating

2. Dyrene /-Basic Copper 1/ 4 2.8
4. Manzate 1/2 3.4
8. Dithane M45 11/2 3.4
12. Difolatan 2 1/2 3.2
14. DAC 2787 1 3.2
15. DAC 2787 2 2.6
16. TPTH 1/2 1.8
17. TP 11.6
18. TPTK 2 1.0
19. TPTH 4 1.0
LSD 51. 0.6
1% .8









SPRAY INTERVAL TRIAL

With the following exceptions methods described for the fungicide
evaluation trial were the same for the spray interval trial. Plants were
set in the field on March 23 In4.4 replications rather than 5. Insecti-
cide sprays began on March 31 and thereafter were the same in both tests.
Fungicide treatments also began on March 31 and continued to June 1. No
data was taken on Rhizoctonia or yields.

RESULTS

As in the fungicide evaluation trial, Dyrene gave poor control of
early blight. Difolation andManzate gave adequate control at the 3 to
4 day spray interval but not when the interval was extended to 7 days.
TPTH gave best control, although its superiority was not marked until
the third disease rating on June 2. At that time it was significantly
better than the others at all spray intervals. TPTH provided adequate
control at 3 to 4 and 7 day spray intervals.

With all four fungicides the difference between spray intervals was
significant. Just how much of the decreased control at longer intervals
can be attributed to breakdown of the fungicide and how much to failure
to cover new growth is not known. The results with TPTH indicate that
both factors are involved. It has a long residual as evidenced by the
slow buildup of early blight after spray applications were stopped. But
there was a significant difference in blight development in the plots
sprayed at 3 to 4 day intervals compared with weekly intervals. This
must be a result of less adequate coverage of new growth at the longer
spray interval.






-6-





Table 3. Effect of Interval Between Spray Applications on Early Blight.

Concentration in Days between -1 Early Blight Ratings
Treatment Ibs/100o gal. spray appli. May May June June
18 25 2 17-


Dyrene
Dyrene
Dyrene
TPF
TPTB
TPITH
Difolatan
Difolatan
Difolatan
Manzate
Manzate
Manzate,


1 1/2 3 to 4
11/2 7
1 1/2 10 to 11
i 3,oto 4
-7
1 10 to 11
1 1/4 3 to 4
1 1/4 7
1 1/4 10 to 11
1 1/2 3 to 4
11/2 7
11/2 o10 to 11
LSD at 5c
.. ..' .* 1%


3.0
4.0
5.0
1.7
S2.0
3.5
2.0
2.7
3.7,
1.7
2.7
4.2
0.7
0.9


3.2 4.0
4.7 5.0
5.2 6.0
1.2 1.7
2.7 3.0
3.5 4.0
1.7 2.7
3.2 4.2
4.2 4.7
1.7 2.5
3.0 4.0
4.2, 5.2
0.7 0.7
0.9 0.9


This schedule was maintained from March
spray was applied.


31 until June 1 when the last


Horsfall and Barratt system used 1 = no disease and 12 = dead plants.


no


6.7
7.0
8.5
4.2
4.5
5.7
5.7
7.0
7.0
6.0
7.0
7.7
0.8
1.1




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