VEGETABLE CROPS FIELD DAY
Everglades Experiment Station '
Belle Glade, Florida
Friday, April 23, 19h8
ASSEMBLY: 1:00 P. 1. At the Experiment Station
A. Introduction of visitors, including:
Dr. B. L. ?Tade, U.S.D.A. Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, Charleston,
South Carolina, who will discuss the Southern snap bean breeding
Dr. Roy Magruder, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Iaryland, will discuss the
lima bean breeding program now being developed for the South.
Dr. H. M. Hunger, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York, will review the celery breeding program in
which the Everglades Station is cooperating with him.
B. Progress of Horticultural investigations during the past year with
summary of records on:
($) lima beans
C. Fertilizer studies with beans, cabbage, celery and sweet corn.
(1) Discussion of disease control work on tomatoes and celery.
(2) Pink rot disease of celery and lettuce.
E. Insect control investigations:
(1) Low-gallonage sprays on truck crops.
(2) Effectiveness of insecticides for the control of insects on:
F. Preliminary report on farm machinery investigations:
(1) Fertilizer placement
(2) Low-gallonage spray equipment
FIELD TOUR: 3:00 P. M.
Agricultural Engineering equipment
Celery spray plots (pathology)
Bean variety plots
Sweet corn and bean fertilizer plots
Tomato spray trials (entomology)
Cabbage spray trials (entomology)
Celery spray trials (entomology)
Soil treatments for wireworm control
Corn budworm control tests
Potato variety plots
Sweet corn spacing & variety tests
Snap bean breeding plots
Celery breeding plots
Tomato STEP trials
Cabbage variety trials
Spraying and dusting beans for
Location Map ................ .......................*........... 3
Bean Breoding, Variety and Strain Testing... ...................****
Bean Spacing Test.............. ...................... .........********* 4
Celery Breeding, Variety and Strain Testing........................ ...
Potato Breeding, Variety and Seedling Testing.......................... 5
Cabbage Variety Trials....... .... ..... .......**************
Lima Beans ................................ 0.......................... 6
Sweet Corn Variety and Hybrid Tests................................ 6
Crisp-Head Lettuce Variety and Strain Trials (Emphasizing Relationship
of Temperature and Date of Planting to Head Formation.............. 6
Hormone Plant Growth Regulators Increase Tomato Yields................. 7
Weeding Celery Seedbeds with Solvent Naphthas.....................* 7
Soil Fertility Investigations
Fertilizer Experiments with Beans ............*...... .................* 8
Fertilizer Experiments with Crisp-Head Lettuce.................*....... 9
Fertilizer Experiments with Celery.................................., 10
Investigations in Plant Pathology
Celery Spraying-Fall Tests 1947...........*.... .. ....************** 10
Celery Spraying--Spring Tests 1948................. ..*****........ *** 11
Tomato Spraying...... ....................**************** **.. .... *** 11
Observations on the Sclerotinia Disease of Vegetable Crops.........*... 12
Insect Control Investigations
The Effect of Soil Treatment with Insecticides on the Germination of
Vegetable Seeds in Everglades Muck Soil.........................** 13
Copenhagen Cabbage Spray Trials Showing Effect of Insecticides Upon the
Amount of Worm and Aphid Damage..........................b...***.. 1l
Control of the Turnip Aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis) on
Chihili (Chinese) Cabbage; data showing number of aphids per 125
mature leaves 13 days after the second insecticide treatment........ 14
Chihili (Chinese) Cabbage Spray Trials, Showing Amount of Worm Damage
on Harvested Crop1.............r.....*.*...........**....******- 15
Effect of Insecticide Treatments on the Control of Fall Arnyworms in the
Buds of Corn......................................****************** 16
Effect of Insecticides on the Amount of Worm-Damaged Fruit and the
Yield of Mature Green Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Fall, 1947............ 17
Effect of Insecticides on the Aphids and Serpentine Leafminers of
Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Spring, 19h8.............................** 17
Pepper Spray Trials, Showing the Effect of Insecticide Treatments on
the Green Peach Aphid, Mysus persicae (Sulzer)..................... 18
Rate of Parathion Treatment for the Control of the Green Peach Aphid
Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Peppers.........***.**.********... ... 18
Recommendations for Field Control of Diseases and Insects of Certain
Cropal s.......n, n.............*****************************... 192
Agricultural Engineering, ............,............********************************, 20
Agricultural Engineering Equipment .
Celery Spray Plots (Pathology) . . .
Bean Variety Plots . . .......
Sweet Corn and Bean Fertilizer Plots . ..
Potato Variety Plots ...... ....
Sweet Corn Spacing and Variety Tests .. ....
Snap Bean Breeding Plots . ....
Celery Breeding Plots .... .. .
Tomato Step Trials .. . .. .
Cabbage Variety Trials . . .
Spraying and Dusting Beans for Manganese;
Deficiency ..... ... .
Tomato Spray Trials (Entomology) .. .... .
Cabbage Spray Trials (Entomology). . .
Celery Spray Trials (Entomology) . .
Corn Earworm Test . . .
Corn Budworm Control Test . .
0 r -a'+I___
,. & ;I
Dr. J. C. Hoffman
Bean Breeding, Variety and Strain Testing
The bean breeding program has been continued in cooperation with Dr. B. L. Wade
of the United States Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory of Charleston, Scuth
Mimeographed Report No. 1, Everglades Experiment Station, gives a description
of breellng progeny as compared with the leading commercial varieties. Progeny
Bi62.-17, a Buff Valentine type, is being introduced as a new variety. This be~n 's
a high yielding valentine type that produces a good crop when Black Valentine )i ten
fails. Buff Valentine generally sets fruit well under extreme climatic conditions
that often prevail during the bean growing season in Southern Florida,
Progeny B125t4--1-2 also is a valentine type that shows good qualities with the
exception of being slightly fibrous.
Logan is an excellent round bean that should replace the variety Tendergreen
and several strains of the Tendergreen type; Logan yields well under Southern Flor-
ida conditions and is resistant to mosaic which has caused the Tendergreen variety
to be very undesirable in quality and generally a low yielding type.
A new variety, Rival, has been introduced by the U& S& Department of Agriculture,
This is a round type that may be of interest to growers in Southern Florida. Rival
is being tested at the present time and information will be available before large
quantities of seed are offered to the grower.
Bean Spacing Test
The varieties Tendergreen, Plentiful, Florida Belle$ Bountiful and Black
Valentine were planted March 1, 1947, at 6 different spacings in rows 28 inches
apart. The spacings of each variety were replicated 5 times in hO-foot randomized
TABLE 1.--AVERAGE BEAN YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM THE FIRST HARVEST AND TOTAL
YIELDS FROM THE FIRST AND SECOND HARVEST OF SIX SPACINGS AND FIVE
VARIETIES, EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION, BELLE GLADE, FLORIDA.
Spacing (inches) 1 2 3 6 L.S.Do6
First Harvest 172 1h5 131 112 118 96 33
Total Harvest 265 261 258 217 227 183 57
* Least significant difference at the 5 percent level between any 2 distances when
comparing average yields.
Celery Breeding, Variety and Strain Testing
The celery breeding project in cooperation with Dr., A. M, Munger of Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York, is being continued. Tih objective of this work is to
develop a desirable commercial variety of celeor. that gro~r well in Southern
Florida and. has resistance to early blight, a disease of celery caused by Ccrcospora
ap.Li Fre s
At the present time 54 breeding progeny, 2 foreign varieties and 35 commercial
varieties and strains are growing in the celery plots.
No 1r'otective fungicides have been applied to the breeding plots or checks.
However, weekly applications have been applied to the commercial planting.
Blight resistance has been established in several of the progeny. Culture
number 1 is very resistant to blight. However, some rogues must be eliminated and
the stock given an extensive test before being released to the seed trade.
The commercial varieties are the same seed stocks that are described in Mimeo-
graphed Report No. 4, Everglades Experiment Station, and the cultural practices are
the same with the exception of Dithane D-14 now being used as a fungicide.
Potato Breeding, Variety and Seedling Testing
The '--iato breeding, variety and seedling tests are in cooperation with Dr.
F. J. Stevenson who conducts the National Potato Breeding program. The test des-
cribed in Mimeographod Report No. 2, Everglades Experiment Station, is the third
of a series of tests conducted during 1947-48.
The seedlings B61-3, B70-5, B73-10, B76-43 and X96-56 are excellent producing
potatoes when grown on the organic soils of the Everglades. These potatoes are all
resistant to late blight, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) Do Bary.
The seedling B70-5 wTill be described and distributed to growers in 1948. This
potato is being increased by the Maine Potato Seed Board. The new white potato has
been named Excel, and is a very proper name for such an outstanding progeny. Excel
is not immune to late blight as grovm under field conditions but very highly resis-
tant. Excel produced 272 bushels per acre in the fall and winter of 19L6-47 with-
out any protective fungicides. Pontiac, Triumph and Katahdin were completely
killed by late blight in the same test.
Cabbage Variety Trials
Three cabbage tests have been completed in 1947-48 as a preliminary study to
a breeding program.
The data from all these tests definitely indicate the possibility of producing
very heavy yields of high grade cabbage on the organic soils of the Everglades.
Firmness or hardness is a characteristic that is most important when producing
cabbage for shipment to a northern market. In Mimeographed Report No. 8, Everglades
Experiment Station, ratings on solidity have been recorded for 36 varieties and
strains. The variety, cabbage "B", is a very solid type somewhat similar to Glory
of Enkhuri'..- out with a smaller head averaging approximately 2,5 pounds. This
cabbage has an unusual short core averaging 2.2 inches. This variety probably will
be of some interest to growers in Southern Florida.
Two breeding stocks, listed as h38 lines, are very outstanding types of cabbage
that matured in 65 days. The solidity of these cabbages is much greater than the
early types of Copenhagen Market, Round Dutch and Golden Acre. After these cabbages
are fixed for type, they will be very excellent early shipping types.
Much interest is being developed at the present time in the production of lima
beans fc,: freezing. One preliminary test has been completed during the spring of
1947? This planting was made March 10, Yields of the Standard Fordhook, Fordhook
#242 and Poerloss are compared from the first and only harvest.
Variety Pounds wt. (Grams
Per Acre 100 Pods *
Fordhook 5508 1239
Fordhook #242 6h04 1211
Peerless 8234 1031
L.S.D. at 5% level 1492 93
*453.6 grams per pound
The variety Peerless appears to be an excellent bean for the Everglades area,
however, additional tests must be completed before definite recommendation can be
Sweet Corn Variety and Hybrid Tests
Three separate sweet corn tests have been completed in 1947-48. The fall and
winter planting is described in Mimeographed Report No. 6, Everglades Experiment
For a first early type, Gold Rush is considered very desirable for Southern
Florida. Carmelcross also has desirable qualities as an early corn. Illinois
Golden No. 10, Oto, Seneca Chief, Golden Security, Erie and Bantam Hybrid No. 57
have proven to be excellent producing sweet corns that are classified as second
Ioana and Golden Cross Bantam have not performed well in any of the tests con-
ducted when compared with the new hybrids. At the present time it is evident that
these standards should no longer be considered as leading varieties for the Everglades
Crisp-Head Lettuce Variety and Strain Trials (Emphasizing
Relationship of Temperature and Date of Planting to Head Formation)
Details of the experiments arc described in Mimeographed Report No: 7, Ever-
glades Expcriment Statione
Observations and experimental data indicate that the critical average daily
temperature is approximately 700 F. for the production of a desirable crop of crisp-
head lettuce. Data are presented which show that bolting of Great Lakes anid Cornell
456 is insignificant under favorable conditions. Imperial 847 is definitely nc~'
adapted to Southern Florida. Imperial 44 forms loose puffy heads at the beginning
and end of the season, therefore, can only be recommended as a variety for mid-
Great Lakes and Corncll 456 have unquestionably performed very well in these 6
preliminary tests. The former generally forms a larger head that is slightly harder
than Cornell h56. If uniformity is considered, Cornell 456 is more desirable with
a smaller number of outstanding ribs. After Great Lakes has been fixed for type,
which should be completed in 1948, this variety should greatly increase crisp-head
production in Southern Florida and be the leading variety of the area.
Hormone Plant Growth Regulators Increase Tomato Yields
Details of the experiment are described in Mimeographed Report No. 5, Everglades
There is a definite trend of increased yields by the application of hormones
when Grothen's Globe and Rutgers are grown under low temperatures on organic soils.
Grothents Globe treated with Dowspray 202 and Rutgers treated with NO-SEED produced
yields significantly higher than the same varieties grown on the check plots.
Feeding Celery Seedbeds with Solvent Naphthas
Recommendations.--Until more research is done only solvent naphthas rith char-
acteristics such as are listed in Table 1 should be used for weeding celery seedbeds
in Southern Florida. Complete coverage of weeds is necessary and should be accom-
plished with the least amount of solvent naphtha possible. It is suggested that 35
gallons should be adequate when applied as a pre-emergence treatment or when the
.seedlings have developed to the stage of 2 to 6 leaves. After this stage of plant
development, if the beds are free of weeds, it is unlikely that additional weeding
will be a serious problem.
Weeding with solvent naphthas is not recommended if an acre of seedbeds can be
hand-weeded with 50 man hours, considering the present price of materials and labor.
The use of a fine nozzle that will deliver a flat, fan-shaped spray is more
desirable than the conventional cone-type Hotwever, the cone-type nozzle has been
used with success,
It is suggested that applications of solvent naphthas only be made in the after-
noon until more information is known concerning time of spraying.
The spraying should be done when the weeds are very small.. Generally, only one
application is necessary if properly timed.
Precautions.--Solvent naphthas are combustible consequently open flames or
smoking should not be allowed near the chemicals.
Continuous contact with the skin should be avoided as slight irritations often
These materials are solvents and have been noted to act very slowly on rubber
hose. However, they are not harmful to synthetic rubber hose. This necessitates
frequent replacement of such hose, where natural rubber is involved, according to
the amount cf its use and its care in storage,
Until more information is available, the application of these solvent naphthas
should be confined to seedbed weeding as there are indications that celery plants
treated in more mature stages of growth develop an incipient terminal bud injury.
Undesirable flavors also have been noted at harvest tine. This incipient terminal
bud injury often develops celery with small undesirable hearts.
TABLE 1.--AVERAGE COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 3 SOLVENT NAPHTHAS,2
Sovasol No. 5 Stanisol Stoddard
Gravity, o API 48.6 l496 4885
Specific Gravity 60/600 F 0.786 0*781 00786
Flash Point (closed)o F 105 108 104
Flash Point (open)o F 115 112
Initial boiling point o F 310 316 312
Final boiling point o F 385 394 394
Aromatics, percent 15.8 10-11 -
2 Data supplied by oil company concerned.
SOIL FERTILITY INVESTIGATIONS
Dr. Vt. T. Forsoe, Jr.
Fertilizer Experiments with Beans
The following tabulations show the effect of soil pH, potash applications and
phosphate applications on the yield of Tendergreen beans, growing on a fibrous
Everglades peat soil with residual levels of phosphorus and potassium of 25 and 100
pounds per acre, respectively. These data are summarized front fertilizer experi-
ments conducted during the spring season of 1947. All fertilizers were applied in
the row at the rate of 500 pounds per acre.
Yield of Beans, Bushels per Acre
Soil pH Yield
* Yield difference necessary for significance = 22
** Averages based on an arbitrary grouping of plots with pH values above and
The tabulations below show the effect of phosphate and potash applications on
the growth and yield of Tendergreen beans growing on a thoroughly decomposed Ever-
glades peat soil with residual levels of phosphorus and potassium of 4 and 120 pounds
per acre, respectively. These data are summarized from a fertilizer experiment con-
ducted during the abnormally wet fall season of 1947, hence the very low over-all
yields. All fertilizers were applied in the row at the rate of 400 pounds per acre.
(A) Potash Effects
(B) Phosphate Effects
difference required for significance
In t Ii t
= 0.9 inches
s 21 bushels
* 31 grams
- 0.17 inches
Fertilizer Experiments with Crisp Head Lettuce
Head lettuce growing on an Okeechobee muck soil with a pH of 6.90 and residual
phosphorus and potassium levels of 4.0 and 135 pounds per acre, respectively, did
not respond to applications of superphosphate with or without potash and sulfur. The
response to potash was negative as follows,
100 Heads, Pounds**
* Broadcast at the rate of 500 pounds per acre.
** Difference required for significance = 1l pounds
Fertilizer Experiments with Celery
Celery growing on Okeolanta peaty muck soil responded to side dressing appli-
cations of nitrogen and mixed fertilizer. The following data are summarized from a
fertilizer experiment conducted during the fall season of 1947. (Celery set on
10/31/47 and harvested 1/26/L8). Mixed fertilizers were applied at the rate of 2000
pounds per acre. Nitrogen side dressing applications were made two times with soda
at the rate of 250 pounds per acre.
Celery Yields, Field Crates per Acre
0-12-16 0-12-16 4-12-16
all broadcast i broadcast and all broadcast
side dressed in two
No nitrogen 763 850 849
Nitrogen side dressing 836 896 901
The above studies were carried out with the aid of a generous grant for the
purpose by the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation of Mulberry, Fla,
INVESTIGATIONS IN PLANT PATHOLOGY
Dr. D. L. Stoddard
1. One experiment has just been concluded and the results are shorm in the
table below* In this test the varieties Kilgoro Pride and Abbott and Cobb 763 were
used. Plants were set in the field in late December and sprayed weekly until har-
vest. Just before cutting, each treatment was visually rated for the amount of early
blight present. 1When cut, each stalk was stripped of all blighted petioles before
packing in field crates.
CELERY FUNGICIDE TEST
Fornula Average Total Yield
Treatment Per 100 Gal. Blight Yield Field Crates
of Water Scorei/ in Pounds Per Acre
(1) Untreated check 9.7 687.2 281,8
(2) Dithano zinc sulfate 2 qt. 1 lb. 2.5 1661.4i- 678.95w
Dithane zinc sulfate / 2 qt. 1 lb. 5.2 1569.-* 662.2**
) Copper A 5 lbs.
(4) Dithane zinc sulfate I/ 2 qt. 1 lb* 7.2 1543.7* 629.9>*
Yellow Cuprocide 2 Ibs.
Dithane zinc sulfate I/ 2 qt. 1 lb.
Tribasic copper sulfate with 6 lbs.2 1 .7 6
(6) Zerlate 2 Ibs. 9,2 1262,2 514.7
(7) Zerlate 2/ 1 lb. 9.2 149.00 470.6
Fermate -1 lb.
Least Significant Difference at 1% point 1.0 257.8 105.h
i/Alternating schedule. Dithane applied twico, then copper once.
/Zorlato and Formate mixed in the same spray,
2/Ratings based on a score of "1" for trace of blight present to "101 for severe
4~ Significantly the best treatment.
Although the treatment which received Dithane alone (2) had the best blight
score and yielded as well as several others, it cannot be recommended since examin-
ation of the plants at harvest time showed more Rhizoc present than in the other
2. Another celery spraying experiment is under way in the field marked "'24 on
the location map. The treatments and rate of application are shown in the table below.
No. Treatment *"nr 0'C'i-'lu ns water
1 Check no treatment
2 Dithane D-14 2 quarts
Zinc sulfate 1 pound
Dithane D-14 2 quarts
3 Zinc sulfate 1/ 1 pound
Copper A 5 pounds
Dithane D-14 2 quarts
4 Zinc sulfate / 1 pound
Tribasic with added zinc 6 pounds
Dithane D-14 2 quarts
5 Zinc sulfatQe 1 1 pound
Yellow Cuprocide 2 pounds
6 Zerlate 2 pounds
Zerlate 1 pound
Format 1 pound
8 Dithano Z-78 2 pounds
9 Parzate 2 pounds
10 HL 275 / 2 pounds
11 Karban TWhite 2 pounds
S Karbam TWhite 1 pound
Karbam Black 1 pound
then copper once,
Dithane-zinc sulfate applied twice,
2/Zinc carbamate fungicide of California Spray.
The plants wore set in the field on the 3rd of March and have been sprayed week-
ly since the 11th of March. Included in each spray is 25 percent DDT emulsion for
This experiment was conducted on sandy soil at the Experiment Station plots near
Indiantown. The only disease present during the course 6f the experiment was late
blight. Results are shown in the table bolovw
TOMATO FUNGICIDE TEST
Blight Sound Blighted
Score Fruit.s ,w* Fruits'~Ms
Parzate (2-100) 5.3 367,0 9,50
Parzate (2-100) 5.9 433-0o 9,50
D-14 (2 qt.-l-) 4l6 360,0 9,00
D-14 (do.) 5.5 337.5 8.50
D-14 (do.) 5.6 380.5 6.75
Z-78 (2-100) 14.6 97.5 102.00
2-78 (2-100) 15,4 98,5 89.00
Check 21,0 30,25 73.00
LSD at 1% point 2,5 11009 2h~79
Average of 8 ratings. Rating based on a score of "I" for
trace of blight to "251" for plant dead from blight.
w- Total in pounds of 8 plots
*H,* Total in pounds of 8 plots. All of blight was late blight.
Another spraying experiment is currently in progress at Indiantown but at the
present time there is insufficient disease present to provide accurate disease ratings,
OBSERVATIONS ON THE SCLEROTINIA DISEASE OF VEGETABLE CROPS
For some years pathologists have been puzzled at the behavior of the fungus
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum which causes pink rot of celery, lettuce drop, white mold
on bans, and the sclorotiniose diseases of tomatoes and potatoes These diseases
have been prevalent and destructive in the growing areas of Sanford, the East Coast
particularly in the Fort Laudordalo-Pompano section, and around Homestead. The
organism is spread from field to field by wind-blown spores and theoretically should
have had ample opportunity to infest the Lake area. However, very little infection
has been observed up to the present seasons Small outbreaks of the disease were
noted in the 1944-199 season on a few peppers at Canal Point, in the 1945-1946
season on celery and carrots in the Belle Glade area and again on celery in the 1946-
1947 season. A report that a field of beans on Route 25 was heavily attacked by the
fungus in the 1946-197 season was not officially confirmed.
This year the same field of celery near Belle Glade had an appreciable amount
of pink rot during the month of February. At the same time a considerable acreage
of lettuce near Moore Haven was found to be infested and the owner of the farm
suffered a substantial loss. When pink rot was found on another celery farm near
Bello Glade, the situation took on a more serious aspect and it was decided to make
a survey of the entire Glades to determine the extent of the infestation The re-
sults of this survey show that the disease is widespread. Fourteen farms were in-
spected and the fungus was found attacking either celery or lettuce on every farm.
This raises a serious threat for the years to doneo It is not anticipated that the
disease will become serious every year but undoubtedly there will be seasons when,
weather conditions being favorable, it will be a limiting factor on many farms.
Unfortunately, there are few measures of control which can be recommended at
the present time. There are no fungicides which can be effectively used and we
have no resistant varieties. The fungus forms large, tough, resting bodies known
as sclerotia which can live over in the soil for 20 years or more. These can be
destroyed by flooding the soil for at least three weeks according to our present
knowledge. Experiments will be conducted this summer to further check on this point.
As the disease also attacks numerous woods, the common ragweed is one of the most
susceptible, ditch banks should be kept as clean as possible.
The Experiment Station is fully aware of the potential menace of this disease
and a program of research will be initiated this summer with the view of finding
improved methods of control. As new information is available it will be passed
on to all growers. In the meantime the cooperation of all who are interested in the
control of the disease is solicited in reporting immediately to the plant pathologist
outbreaks of it in their crops. This will provide valuable information on tempera-
ture and moisture relationships required by the organism for growth and infection,
INSECT CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS
Mr. Norman C. Hayslip
The following tables were prepared as summary sheets of experiments conducted
during the past year. The rapid advances in insect control, and the introduction of
so manrf new insecticides upon the market make it desirab'Lo to release these research
findings to growers as early as possible. However, they should not be regarded as
recommendations, but rather as a guide or aid in the selection of a more effective
method for the control of insect pests.
With the sudden appearance of new chemicals it is not possible to make unquali-
fied recommendations. All of these newer insecticides need several more years of
careful study before their possibilities and limitations can definitely be known.
In addition to knowing whether or not a chemical will kill the bugs other questions
arise: (1) Can this chemical be used without undue hazard to the operator? (2) Does
it leave a dangerous poison residue on vegetables? (3) Does it reduce the yield or
quality of the crop? (4) Does it kill parasites and predators thus increasing or
creating another insect problem? (5) Is it compatible with fungicides, nutritional
sprays and other insecticides? (6) WThich is the most effective formulation, rate
and method of application? (7) Does the increased harvest more than over-balance the
cost of the control? There are many more questions which could be listed, but those
give an idea of the complexity of evaluating a new material.
In the light of the above, the farmer assumes the role of an experimenter when
he uses a new insecticide since none have received adequate study. With this in
mind the producers of vegetables should use new chemicals with caution and watch
carefully the reaction of his crop to treatment. The combined efforts of the com-
mercial, federal and state workers have made much progress in supplying certain
basic information but the final test cones when the grower uses the chemical. He
assumes the responsibility in using a new control and some of the limitations will
undoubtedly be learned the hard way,
THE EFFECT OF SOIL TREATMENT WITH INSECTICIDES ON THE GERMINATION
OF VEGETABLE SEEDS IN EVERGLADES MUCK SOIL.*
Ant, of B E A N S Pe'ceft Germination
Material Used Active % Germi- % Ball- ---
ngro i nation headed Cabbage Peppers Tomatoer
1. DDT dust 30 lbs. 90 5,5 67 66 77
2. Chlordane dust 15 lbs. 85 7.0 63 65 77
3. Chlordane dust. 5 lbs. 87 5.7 62 69 85
4. Chlordane dust 2 lbs. 88 4.5 67 58 84
5. Chlordano emulsion 16 Ibs. 89 2.8 58 76 79
6. Chlordano emulsion 2.4,lbs. 90 5,0 67 68 76
7. HCH-6% gamma isomer* 8 Ibs, 94 1,6 65 66 81
8. HCH-6% gamma isomer 4 Ibs. 90 3M9 62 67 76
9. HCH-6% SgPa isomer 2 lbs. 92 2,2 61 71 83
10. HCH-6% gamma isomer 1 lb. 88 9.1 71 0
11. Chlorinated camphene 30 Ibs. 86 6377
12. Chlorinated camphone 15 Ibs. 92 54 66 52 76
3. Chlorinated camphene 5 lbs. 94 3.2 68 60 73
HCH-25 gamma isomer 8 bs 88 1.7 60 66
1. HCH-25% gamma isomer 4 Ibs. 88 2.3 60 67 75
16. HCH-25% gamma isomer 2 lbs. 93 3 60 62 77
I'. Parathion 12 lbs. 91 :5 65 65
1. Parathion 4 Ibs. 89 5.0 63 64 75
19, Parathion 1 Ib. 93 4,8 64 66 74
20. Chock, Fertilizer alone 92 2,7 68 54 74
Percent germination in potri dish 96 --- 68 94 9?
SEactn material was mixed with fortilizcr, broadcast, and raked int o ~hc scocbod
Sz ~ds were planted one week after the materials wore appJliedd. Freoqaent print ,
ling was necessary to provide proper moisture for germination,
Copenhagen Cabbage Spray Trials Showing Effect
of Insecticides upon the Amount of Worm and Aphid Damage
Amount per Plants Damaged Plants Severely
100 gallons by Worms* Stunted by Aphids
water (percent) (percent)
DDT 50% wettable
DDT 25% emulsion
DDT 2.7% oil based
HCH 6% gamma isomer -,4-
HCH 25% gamma isomer
Parathi'on 15% wettable
Parathion 15% wettable
Chlordene 40% emulsion
DDD 50% wettable
Chlorinated camphene, 25% wettable
Check, not treated
1 pt. per 2
* Most of the worm damage was due to fall armyworms
infestation of cabbage plutella was present.
The counts were made two days following the third
treatments were spaced 10 days apart.
*5 Benzene hexachloride.
insecticide treatment. The
Control of the Turnip Aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis)
Chihili (Chinese) Cabbage; Data Showing Number of Aphids per 125 Mature
13 Days After the Second Insecticide Treatment
1. 25 percent DDT emulsion 1 quart per 100 gallons water . .
2. 50 percent wettable benzene hexachloride containing 6 percent
gamma isomer 3 pounds per 100 gallons water . .
3. 1.5 percent gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride dust, carrier
inert ....... . . . .....
4. 25 percent gamma isomer concentrate wettpble powder 1 pound
per 100 gallons water . ..............
5. 50 percent hexaethyl tetraphosphate 1 pint per 100 gallons water
6. 15 percent wettable parathion 1 pound per 100 gallons water .
7. 1 percent parathion dust, carrier inert . . . .
8. 40 percent nicotine sulfate l1 pints per 100 gallons water
9. 80 percent nicotine alkaloid 1 pint per 5 gallons refined
petroleum oil base . . . . . .
10. Pyrethrum (0.4 percent pyrethrins) plus rotenone (2.5 percent)
extract 1 pint per 100 gallons water . . .
11. Check, not treated . . ... .. .....
per 125 Leaves
Chihili (Chinese) Cabbage Spray Trials
Showing Amount of Worm Damage on Harvested Crop
Treatment Total Score"'
1. 25 percent DDT emulsion 1 quart per 100 gallons water . .. 1
2. 50 percent wettable benzene hexachloride containing 6 percent
gamma isomer 3 pounds per 100 gallons water ......... .
3. 1.5 percent gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride dust,
carrier inert . . . . . .
4. 25 percent gamma isomer concentrate wettable powder -
1 pound per 100 gallons water . . . . 8
5. 50 percent hexaethyl tetraphosphate 1 pint per 100 gallons water 56
6. 15 percent wettable parathion 1 pound per 100 gallons water .. 2
7. 1 percent parathion dust, carrier inert . . . 2
8. 40 percent nicotine sulfate 11 pints per 100 gallons water 32
9. 80 percent nicotine alkaloid 1 pint per 5 gallons refined
petroleum oil base . .. . . . 39
10. Pyrethrum (0.4 percent pyrethrins) plus rotenone (2.5 percent)
extract 1 pint per 100 gallons water . . . 39
11. Check, not treated . . . . . . 52
Each cabbage was scored as follows:
0 no worm damage
1 slight worm damage
2 moderate worm damage
3 severe worm damage
(A low score means good worm control and a high score means poor worm control.)
40 heads of cabbage per treatment were taken for the above scoring. Worms
responsible for damage included cutworms, fall armyworm, and cabbage looper.
Three insecticide applications were made as follows:
1st. 49 days before harvest
2nd. 42 days before harvest
3rd. 28 days before harvest.
EFFECT OF INSECTICIDE TREATMENTS ON THE CONTROL OF FALL
ARIJYWORMS IN THE BUDS OF CORN
Percent of Buds Infested
Material Amnunt Days After 4 Days After
1. 50 percent wettable DDT 2 lb. per 100 Gal. 29.7 4.5
2. 50 percent wettable ncthoxy 2
DDT 2 lb. per 100 Gal, 40.2 9.4
3. 50 percent wettable DDD 2 lb. per 100 Gal. 32.7 9.6
4. 15 percent wettable parathion 1 lb. per 100 Gal. 36,3 9.7
5. HCH-wottable-6 percent gamma b per 00 Gal 336
6. 25 percent chlorinated. pr 1 285 7
camphene wettable lb. per 100 Gal 28 7
7. 50 percent wettable chlordane 2 lb. per 100 Gal. 22,9 7.5
8. 15 percent wettable parathion lb. per 100 Gal. 39.7 11.3
9. DDT-wheat bran bait 5 percent DDT 35.5 6,6
10. Chlordano-wheat bran bait 5 percent chlordane 19.0 2,8
11. Parathion-wheat bran bait 1.5 percent parathion 13.4 0.0
12. Check, untreated 95.3 85,2
Sprays were applied with a three nozzle boom at 200 pounds pressure.
Baits were applied by hand, throwing a small pinch in each whorl.
Corn was first treated when about 16 inches tall, and almost 100
percent of the buds were infested with fall armnyorms at this time.
Effect of Insecticides on the Amount of Worm-damaged Fruit
and the Yield of Mature Green Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Fall, 1947.
Percent of Total
Amount of Insecticide Percent of Total
Amount of Insecticide Fungicide Used Fruit Damaged Harvest
per 100 gallons water by Worms (pounds)
1. 1 quart 25 percent DDT Dithane D-14 (2 qts.),
emulsion Zinc (1 lb.), lime ( lb.)
per 100 gallons water 0.3 641.2
2. 1 quart 40 percent
Chlordane emulsion Same as above 0.2 729.5
3. 3 pounds 6 percent
benzene hexachloride Same as above 10 578.6
4. 2 pounds 15 percent
wettable parathion Same as above 0.1 624.1
5. 1 quart 25 percent Copper Compound A
DDT emulsion h lbs. per 100 gal. water 0.7 157.2 *
6. Check, no insecticide Dithane, zinc, lime 6.8 683.5
* Treatment number 5 did not control late blight, Phytophthora infestans (Monti) and
the low yield of tomatoes was due to destruction by this disease.
Most of the worm damage was due to a light infestation of armyworms and cutwormsn
Plots received 7 applications of insecticides. Plants sprayed with benzene hexa-
chloride displayed definite foliage injury. DDT used in combination with Dithane
produced slight injury to the foliage, but DDT with Copper Compound A gave no
visible injury to the foliage.
Effect of Insecticides on the Aphids
and Serpentine Leafminers of Tomatoes, Spray Trials, Spring, 1948. *
Amount per Number of Percent of Mature
Material 100 gallons Aphids per Leaflets with
water 50 Leaves Leafminer Damage
1. DDT 25 percent emulsion 1 quart 132 73
2. DDT 40 percent colloidal 2% pints 157 73
3. Rhothane 50 percent wettable 2 pounds 201 66
4. HCH 6 percent gamma isomer 4 pounds 108 25
5. Chlordane 50 percent wettable 2 pounds 219 26
6. Parathion 15 percent wettable 1 pound 76 3
7. Chlorinated camphene 25 percent
wettable 4 pounds 91 9
8. Check, fungicide alone -- 314 81
* Aphid and leafminer counts were made three days after the third weekly insecticide
A11 insecticides were used in combination with Dithane D lh, zinc sulfate
Pepper Spray Trials, Showing the Effect of Insecticide
Treatments on the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
Number of Aphids per 80 Leaves
Treatment 1 day before 1 day after 3 days after
7th treatment 7th treatment 7th treatment
1. 25 percent DDT emulsion
1 qt. per'100 gallons water 2365 902 1049
2. 50 percent hexaethyl tetraphosphatq
1 pint per 100 gallons water 1980 1192 1610
3. Benzene hexachloride 6 percent
gamma isomer, 4 pounds per 100
gallons water 23 7 1461 1338
4. 15 percent wettable parathion
2 pounds per 100 gallons water 1555 53 7
5. Check, copper fungicide alone 2505 3840 5510
Rate of Parathion Treatment for the Control of the
Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Peppers.
Amot of 15 percent Parathion Number of Aphids per 40 Leaves
per 100 gallons water Just prior 1 day after 3 days after
to treatment treatment treatment
1. 1 pound 3590 41 0
2. pound 3950 48 7
3. pound 3200 81 28
4. Check, not treated 4650 4190 2840
PARATHION IS A NEW INSECTICIDE WHICH IS EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE AGAINST SEVERAL SPECIES
OF APHIDS, BUT IT IS ALSO A DEADLY POISON TO WARM BLOODED ANIMALS. IT IS NOT KNOWN
AT THIS TIE WHETHER OR NOT PARATHION WILL BE RELEASED FOR USE ON VEGETABLES. THIS
STATION DOES NOT RECOMMEND THE USE OF PARATHION DUE TO THE DANGEROUS NATURE OF THE
MATERIAL. IF FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS PROVE IT SAFE FOR USE ON VEGETABLES IT WILL BE
RECOMMENDED SINCE IT IS VERY EFFICIENT IN ITS EFFECT UPON SEVERAL OTHER INSECT PESTS.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FIELD CONTROL OF DISEASES AND INSECTS OF CERTAIN CROPS
Crop FUNGICIDES INSECTICIDES
Disease Treatment Insect Treatment
Early Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 1 qt 25% DDT emulsion per
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. 100 gallons water
Neutral copper Worms Above will control most worms
Celery Spray 4-5 day schedule, "Green DDT resistant;4 lbs 6% G.I.**
twice with Dithane then cutworm" per 100 gal.on young plants
once with copper, etc. or 3 Ibs 40% chlorinated
camphene per 100 gal.*
Rust and Sulfur dust Leafhopper 3% DDT-Sulfur dust,or 2 lbs
Mildew Wettable sulfur (spray) Leafroller 50% Wettable DDT 100 gal.
Beans Thrips 5% DDT dust;(10% chlorinated
camphene dust *)
Leafminer Chlorinated camphene *
Downy Wettable Spergon (spray) Aphids 1 qt.25% DDT emulsion, or 4
Mildew lbs 6% G.I. per 100 gal., or
1.5% gamma isomer dust.
Cabbage 3% DDT dust, or 2 lbs. 50%
Cabbage looper wettable DDT or 1 qt.25% DDT
Cabbage emulsion per 100 gal. water
Armyworms 5% DDT dust; poisoned wheat
Cutworms bran bait
Late Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 1 qt DDT emulsion per 100 gal.
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-10O gal. Armyworms water used regularly (every
potatoes arly Parzate 2 lbs 100 gal. Cutworms 10 days to 2 weeks)
Blight Spray 4-5 day schedule
Frog-eye Zerlate 2 lbs. 100 gal. Aphids 1 qt..DDT emulsion per 100
spot gal.,or 4 lbs.6% G.I. per
Peppers Bacterial Neutral copper 100 gal.,or 1% gamma isomer
spot Spray weekly dust
Armyworms 1 qt. 25% DDT emulsion per
100 gal. water
Late Dithane D-14 + zinc sul- Aphids 3% nicotine dust or spray
Blight fate 2 qts-1 lb-100 gal. nicotine sulfate 40%-1:600.
Parzate 2 Ibs 100 gal. Apply when warm and still.
Cutworms Growers reported good control
with 1i qts 25% DDT emulsion
per 100 gallons water. Kill
General cutworms with poisoned bait
Crops before planting.
Wireworms Chlordane shows promise in
controlling wireworms either
broadcast or drilled with
* Results have been promising, but not thoroughly tested,
*- Gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride -- should not be applied later than 4 weeks
1,n Cn..n 1,r rfl 4o+
by Mr. John W. Randolph
This Station's Agricultural Engineering Department was organized on
November 1, 1947. Since that date considerable attention has been given to the
acquirement of needed shop tools and to the development of experimental equip-
ment. Two major lines of test equipment have been developed to date:
(1) A combination four row bean planter for use in fertilizer
placement and rate studies needed for cooperative investigations
with the Agronorm, Soil Fertility and Horticulture Departments.
(2) Low gallonage spray applicators for use in cooperative
weed control and insect studies.
Special reference is made to the displayed experimental equipment developed
for specific conditions of low gallonage applications of "2,4-D". One of the
objectives; of this display is to ohov how relatively low cost commercial parts
can be assembled into highly effective applicators for materials of this type.
PEA VARIETY AND STRAIN TEST
1 9 4 8
James C. Hoffman
Two variety and strain tests were completed during the 1948 season. The objec-
tive has been to compare new V.B.L. progeny with the standard variety of the area,
namely Little Marvel. Freezonian and Victory Freezer were included in an observa-
In the winter test, each variety or strain was replicated 5 times in single rows
40 feet in length and planted December 3, 1947. The observation test was planted in
50 linear feet of row February 2, 1948. The rows were spaced 20 inches apart and the
peas seeded with an Equa-Space seeding mechanism at an average rate of 6 seed per foot.
The fertilizer was applied at the time of planting at the rate of 400 pounds of
0-16-16, 6 pounds manganese sulphate, 6 pounds copper culphate, 6 pounds zinc sulphate
and 3 pounds borax per acre, in 2 bands 3 inches on each side of the seedbed and 3
inches in depth. The seed were covered approximately 2 inches in depth with a planet
Jr. hand plow.
Table 1. Average Temperature (degrees F.) for the Pea Growing Seascn on Block 7 of the
Everk -s Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida, 1947-1948.
Day Period Night Period General Average Average
Period (6:00 A.Mto 6:00 P. )..(6OQ'OPZr o 6:00 AM.) Average Maximum Minimum
Winter Test 68.8 60.8 64.8 75.3 55.4
Spring Test 77.2 64.0 70.6 84.9 57.2
The winter crop grew extremely well but the average day temperature was too high
for a maximum spring crop. The progeny P17-B-5-M and P39-4-M are very promising peas
for the organic soils of Southern Florida. The progeny P17-B-S-M has been included
in 4 separate tests during the last 2 seasons and has been very outstanding when com-
pared with Little Marvel. This new pea is very hardy when compared with Little MIarvel
The pods are significantly larger than Little Larvel, and yield more shelled peas from
a 100 pod sample. The vines are of the Little Marvel type, however, do not grow quite
as tall. The 2 mentioned V.B.L. progeny should be more widely tested and if found to:
be excellent yielders of good quality peas, as in the Belle Glade area, either 1 or
both should be introduced to the seed trade.
A description of each numbered column is outlined as follows:
Table 2. Seed Source: 1. B. L. Wade, U.S.D.A.
2. Kilgore Seed Company
3. Rogers Brothers Seed Company
(2) Number of days until approximately 50 percent of the peas had reached
(3) Measured from soil to tip of longest lateral.
(4) Average number of plants per foot in all replications or observations.
(5) Refers to percent double pods.
(6) Average number of pods per vine. r 7Eu"
(7) Mean length of 100 pods.
(8) Mean thickness of 10 pods.
(9) Mean width of 10 pods.
(10) Calculated from data in columns 8 and 9. ( \A
(11) Sample taken at random. i0
(12) Same sample as 11.
(13) Same sample as 11, and calculated from columns 11 and 12.
(14) Average number of peas in a 10 pod sample taken at random. us
(15) Calculated on basis of 2 pickings.
(16) Total calculated yield from 2 pickings.
TABLE 2. PEA VARIETY AND STRAIN TEST, EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION, BELIE GLADE, FLORIDA, WINTER, 1948.
Variety Seed Days Height Plants Doubles No. Mean Thick- Width Thick- Wt. Weight Shelled Peas Per- Mean
0o. or Source To (inches) Per (percent) Per Length ness (0M) ness 100 Shelled Peas Per cent Yield
Strain First Foot Vine (M) -- Pods Peas (percent) Pod First (Ibs.
Har- c/ Width (grams) (grams) Har- per
vest vest Acre)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16)
2 62 17 7.0
5 5.2 2.98 1.25 1.56 0.80 h97
197 39.64 4.3 80.00 31145.
Least significant difference at 5% point 54 24 960
Least significant difference at 1% point 73 32 1298
OBSERVATION TEST, SPRING, 1948.
9. P17-B-5-M 1 47 6.0 2.70 1.15 1.40 0.82 426 210 49.50 3.9
.0. Freezonian- 3 50 6.0 3.25 1.22 1.71 0.71 520 195 37.50 4.6
Marvel 2 49 6.0 5.0 2.50 1.14 1.18 0.77 U19 193 46.06 4.7
Freezer 3 63 6.0 30 7.0 3.20 1.07 1.54 0.69 120 196 46.67 5.0
Two sweet corn spacing tests have been completed. The first test described
in Table 1 was planted February 16, 1948, with a single progeny, namely Golden Hybrid
:50. The test consists of 4 randomized blocks, each replicate having 7 rows 25 feet
in length. These plots were located on well mature sawgrass peat with an average pH
The second test as described in Table 2 was planted March 30, 1948, with 13
7-rieties and hybrids as listed under the description of the spacing column. Each
s xing was randomized in b locks 32 feet in length; each variety and hybrid was ran-
dnli:,zd in split plots within each spacing block. These plots were located on well
mature sawgrass peat with an average pH of 6.00.
All rows in the experiment were spaced 36 inches apart. The cultural prac-
tices were the same as those described in Sweet Corn Variety and Hybrid Test, Spring
1948 and June 1948 respectively.
The data as presented
proximate 12-inch spacing would
desirable marketable size ears.
of ears; however, this corn was
next wider spacing.
in Table 1 for a single variety indicate that an ap-
be most economical in producing the largest number of
The spacing 5.81 inches produced the largest number
significantly smaller than those ears produced in the
The data as presented in Table 2 for an average of 13 varieties and hybrids
indicate the same trend as the first experiment. The 12.82 inch spacing would be most
economical in producing the largest number of desirable marketable size ears. Again
the close spacing, in this test, 10.55 inches, produced the largest number of ears;
however, these ears were significantly shorter in length and smaller in weight. No
significant variations were found between diameter of ear and depth of kernels in
In concluding this experiment the recommendations for spacing sweet corn in
rows 36 inches apart, as grown in these tests, would be 12 to 13 inches apart in the
Data in Tables 1 and 2 are presented as averages taken from 4 replications.
A description of each numbered column is outlined as follows:
(1) Average spacing calculated from stand count of all replications
at time of harvest. Each spacing in Table 2 had included the
following varieties in split plots within each randomized block:
Field No. Variety Stock No. Seed Source
Ill. Golden #10
Corneli's Gold Rush
Bantam Hybrid #57
Golden Hybrid #50
Golden Hybrid #54
Kilgore Seed Company
Corneli Seed Company
Corneli Seed Company
Corneli Seed Company ..
Robson Seed Farm
A.S.G. *' /
Ferry-Morse Seed Co.
Ferry-Morse Seed Co.
Ferry-Morse Seed Co.
SWEET CORN SPACING TEST
James C. Hoffman
(2) Average of 25 ears.
(3) Average weight as calculated from each replication, and not
directly associated with columns 4 and 5.
(U) Calculated from all replications of randomized and split plots.
(5) Calculated same as (4)..
Table 1. Corn Spacing Test with Golden Hybrid
Corn, Everglades Experiment Station,
Spacing Length Ear Weight No. Ears Weight Ears
(inches) (inches) (Pounds) Per Acre Per Acre
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
5.81 5.93 O.hl 18,900 7,728
11.72 6.42 0.56 13,776 7,812
14.46 6.63 0.56 11,928 6,636
21.3 6.91 0.62 8,820 5,544
L.S.D. 5% 0.03 4,788 -
L.S.D. 1% 0.04 6,804 -
Table 2. Corn Spacing Test with 13 Varieties and Hybrids
of Sweet Corn, Evarglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade, Florida. 1948.
Spacing Length Ear Weight No. Ears Weight Ears
(inches) (inches) (Pounds) Per Acre Per Acre
(1 (2) (3) () (5)
1055 6.03 0.39 13,440 5,120
12.82 6.31 0.43 11,760 5,023
14.63 6.42 0.44 10,920 4,885
20.82 6.45 0.43 10,500 4,507
L.S.D. 5% 0.16 0.02 399 -
L.S.D. 1% 0.22 0.03 529 -