Cattleman's Field Day, Everglades Experiment Station
April 3, 1959
Morning Session Kent Price, Moderator
Introduction and welcoming remarks W.
Mechanical dewaterrig of forages
a. Engineering aspects J.
b. Significance to cattlemen H.
Silos and silage production R.
Feeding value of tomato pulp and
dried celery tops C.
Sorghums and corn for grain and silage
Sugarcane for beef cattle R.
Hormones, Antibiotics and tranqui-
lizers for beef cattle H.
Antibiotics for beef calves C.
Panel-morning speakers M.t
LUNCH- Barbecue -late lunch served
by Palm Beach County Cattleman a
Association for $1.50 Der plate.
Afternoon Session H. L. Chavman, Jr., Mo
Future of Cattle Industry in Florida T.
Progress report of crossbreeding at
Everglades Station R.
Artificial insemination for beef cattle.
a. Advantages and disadvantages A.
b. Cattleman using artificial
c. Representative of inseminating
T. Forsee, Jr.
L. Chapman, Jr.
J. Allen, Jr.
L. Chapman, Jr.
Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-16
3!10-3:30 Discussion of grades and grading of
beef cattle G. N. Rhodes
3:30-3:40 Pasture weed control J.R. Orsenigo
3:40-3:50 Systemic insecticidal grub control E. D. Harris
3:50-4I10 Progress of screwworm control program M. E. Meadows
4 10-o425 Panel-afternoon speakers M. U. Mounts,
Everglades Experiment Station participants!
W. T. Forsee, Jr.. Chemist in Charge
R. J. Allen, Jr., Assistant Agronomiist
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Assodiate Animal Nutritionist
V. E. GVeen, Jr., Associate Agronomist
C. E. Hdines, Assistant Animal Husbandman
E. D. Harris, Assistant Entomdlogist
R. W. Ridder, Animal Hisbandman
J. R. Orsenigo, Assistant Horticulturist
J. W. Randolph, Agricultural Engineer
James Chridtian'- Lake Placid, Florida'
T. J. Cunha, Head,' Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Florida
Scott French; Maneger, M & M Angus Ranch, Loxahatchee
M. R. Meadows, State Director, Screw Worm Eradication Program
M. U. Mounts,'Agricultural Agent, West Palm Beach
Kent Price, Assistant County Agent, West Palm Beach
G. N. Rhodes, Livestock Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville
A. C. Warnick, Associate Animal Physiologist, University of Florida
Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-14 .. .
Belle Glade, Florida, February 10, 1959
SUMMARY PROGRESS REPORT of "Mechanical
Dewatering, A Phase of Feed Processing"
J.W. Randolph, V.E. Green, Jr., and J.P. Winfree
Preliminary results and their subsequent.
application in the form of calculated data ....
indicate that mechanical dewatering of forage
materials as a supplemental process in soilage..
feeding, making silage, and thermal dehydra- / ..
tion, may enable South Florida livestock .
producers to overcome a severe handicap,
"Too-much-water" in luxuriant and
succulent forage crops, and should
help to provide an abundance of
livestock feeds, high in quality
and low in cost.
S." In Ratio: Units of
water per unit of
Original dry matter.
.. .Press Cake
Residual water in press cake
Percentage Moisture in.Original Fresh Chop Forage
75 8i 85 87 9i0 9 2 9-4 96
o' ...One Unit Dry Matter
SUMMARY AND APPLICATION DATA FROM FIGURE SHOWING AVERAGE RESULTS:
PERCENTAGE Unitsof Water
Moisture DRY MATTER Per Unit
In Orig- Press Incr- Dry Matter
Original final cake ease Orig. P.C.
Calculated Dehydration Data, Basis
One ton Dry Feed (including 10% M)
Gallons Fuel Oil Output Tons/H.10 unit
Orig. P.C. Orig. P.C.
53 35 1.88 2.85
71 39 1.40 2.56
101 45 .99 2.22
119 48 .84 2.08
162 55 .61 1.81
207 64 .48 1.56
283 76 .35 1.31
434 108 .23 .92
/ Results include 187 tests of Everglades forages and potential forages.
significance of mechanical dewatering
to the cattlemen
H. L. Chapman. Jr.
Associate Animal Nutritionist
Following processing with the mechanical press, the
material may be handled in one of several ways:
1. Fed as fresh material
2. Preserved as silage
3. Artificially dried.
Advantages of mechanical dewatering forage materials:
1. Fed as fresh material
(a) Produces a product uniform in dry matter con-
(b) Utilizes entire plant.
(c) Allows utilization of plant at time of optimum
nutritive value, irregardless of environmental
2. In Bilage production
(a) Production of a material of optimum and uni-
form moisture content for ensilage.
(b) Possibly reduces preservative requirement.
3. In an artificial dehydration program
(a) Uniformity in moisture content of product to
(b) Reduction of fuel cost of dehydration.
(c) Increased dehydrator output.
Problems involved in mechanical dewatering program.
1. All plant materials are not well adapted to the me-
2. Need for a uniform supply of types of materials which
will be adapted to the press.
3. Disposal of press liquors.
4. Large initial capital outlay investment.
Silos and Silage Production
R:'J. 'Allen, Jr.
1. Silage Crops
"Reily available as excess summer growth of pastures.
Requires preservatives or conditioner for best results.
May require supplements, especially carbohydrate, for
B. Corn or Sorghum
Require no preservative
Usually more palatable than grass.
May require protein supplement
Requires land preparation, seed purchase, planting,
2. Silo Structures
A. Temj5rary or portable
Least cost -
Necessary for self-feeding on the organic soils.
Higher initial cost
Usually more annual maintenance necessary.
Not recommended for self-feeding on organic soils.
3. Feeding out of silage.
A. Self feeding
May be most suitable for small herds.
B. Machine handling
Possibly less waste
More control of amount fed
Bitter'adapted to feeding with supplements
May require considerable machinery investment
May be more economical for large herds.
4. Plastic covers for silos
ier to handle
More flexible and elastic
Can be patched
-ess--an-alf the cost of vinyl
Cannot be conveniently patched.
The feeding value of tomato pulp and dried celery tops
C. E. 'aines
Assistant Animal Husbandman
Dried tomato pulp and dried celery tops were included in steer
fattening rations in two feeding trials. These materials are both
waste products of the vegetable industry and were supplied to the Sta-
tion by commercial producers. Concentrate mixtures containing dried
tomato pulp were full-fed to steers on St. Augustinegrass pasture
while steers receiving dried celery top rations were full-fed in drylot.
Forty yearling steers were fed various amounts of dried tomato
pulp in a concentrate mixture for 112 days on pasture. The tomato
pulp replaced citrus pulp in the mixture. At the termination of the
feeding period the steers were slaughtered to obtain carcass and tis-
sue comparisons. The results are shown below:
Tomato Pulp in Concentrei.e 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Number of 'teers 8 8 8 b
Av. Initial wt. 519 517 528 514 521
Av. Final t. 831 860 788 820 807
Av. Daily Gains 2.8 3.1 2.3 2.7 2.6
Av. Daily Feed Cons. 18.8 19.4 16.3 18.4 18.3
Thirty-two steers were fed concentrate mixtures containing dif-
fereintamounts of dried celery tops in drylot for 112 days. The
animals were slaughtered for the purpose of carcass and tissue data.
The results of this study are shown below:
Celery To~s in Ration 0 10% 20 % 30%
Number of'steers 8 6 0 8
Av. Initial wt. 659 665 66o 619
Av. Final wt. 909 920 870 894
Av. Daily Gains 2.2 2.3 1.9 2.5
Av. Daily Cone. Cons. 19.7 19.8 18.1 18.0
Feed/l lb. Gain 8.8 8.7 9.6 7.3
1. Dried tomato pulp'and celery tops were satisfactory feeds in
steer fattening rations.
2. Dried tomato pulp and celery tops did not influence carcass
grades and characteristics, or affect the odor, taste or color
of fat and lean tissues.
3. Total digestible nutrients for dried celery tops was 79.6 percent.
E.E.S. Mimeo Report 59-3.
E.E.S. Mimeo Report 59-13.
Dried tomato pulp for fattening steers
Feeding value and digestibility of dried
celery tops for steers.
Corns ae ucr~bm for' crain aud silge
Victor E. Green, Jr.
Table 1. The yield and protein content of various
advanced stage corn stalks (Corneli 54).
Florida, 1957. 1/
Tassels 59 1 290 170 6.56 11
Stalks 22 34 26,660 5865 5.51 324
Leaves 30 24 13,9o0 4180 10.50 439
Ears, slip-shucked 44 41 16,935 7230 7.79 570
28.7 tone 8.7 tons
1/ Planted February 8: harvested .Tune 8, 1957 in soft dough stage.
2/ For comparison to a 60 bushel corn grain crop (3180 lbe;) @ 9.00'
Spfotein 296 lbs. protein.
Harvesting entire plants gives 460% more protein and 550% more
weight of feed.
The average protein content of entire plants 8.5 .
1. Field corn production in south Florida. Agri. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 582. 1957.
2. Results of research with field corn in the Everglades area
1958. Everglades Station Mineo Report 59-7 1958.
1. 8orghum, sorgo and millet tests in the Everglades area -
1957. Everglades Station Mimeo Report 58-12. 1958.
2. Sorghum, dorgo and millet tests in the Everglades area -
1958. Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-4. 1958.
___~ _ ___ ___ __ _ __ =___
Sugareane for teef cattle
R. W. Kidder
Because of the Migh sugar content ead high yield, sugarcane
as a forage is unequalled ii the production per acre of total di-
gestible nutrients. It is a low protein roughage but is well
adapted as a winter supplement for pastures because it is harves-
ted Wuiing thi aWoths when permanent pastures grow slowly. Chemi-
cal analysis shove that "hole sugarcane contains approximately 300
dry matter. This dry matter contains about 30% fiber,-3.0% crude
protein, 1.5% ether extract, 5.5% asb and 60% nitrogen-free extract.
Sinde uncontrolled grazing will destroy a sugarcane field,
this' fdrage "must be cut and fed to cattle. Under usual conditions,
siigarcane can be fed fresh daily, eliminating the need for storage
facilities and handling costs from storage. It has been fed suc-
cedsfully at the Everglades Experiment Station for more than 20
years. However, sugarcane is injured by frost and the top growth is
killed when the temperature drops below 29o F. Frozen cane is good
forage for 4 weeks or more before it becomes too sour. During this
period it can be cut for silage and fed later.
SThe variety C141-223 will produce 100 tons per acre of total
cane including tops and leaves in the plant crop. This is enough to
feed'30 pounds daily to each of 66 animals for 100 days. Stubble
drops (growth during subsequent years) would be adequate to feed
approimatelyi 46 animals for 100 days at 30 pounds per day. On
idineral soils variety F31-762 will produce an average of 50 tons per
acre for 6 to 7 years.
The development of a satisfactory mechanical method of harves-
ting ashd handling sugarcane will improve its economical usefulness
is a cattle feed. Another approach to this problem would be the
selection of varieties of cane which could be harvested with mechani-
cal equipment now available.
Hormones, antibiotics and tranquilizers for
H. L. Chapman, Jr.
Associate Animal Nutritionist
SSteer feeding experiments have been conducted at the Ever-
glades Experiment Station during the past three years to determine:
1. The effect of several feed additives upon steers being fat-
tened on pasture and in drylot.
2. The effect the level of concentrate feed intake upon the
animals response to so-called "growth stimulants".
3. Relative value of fattening cattle on pasture as compared
Summary of Results:
1. Difthylstilbestrol either orally (10 mg/animal/day) or im-
planted (24 mg.) increased average daily gains of steers
2. There was no significant difference in average daily gain
attributable to method of administration of stilbestrol.
3. Response to stilbestrol by steers being fattened on pas-
ture was variable.
4. Aureomycin (90 mg/animal/day) did not prove of economic
benefit when included in fattening rations.
5. Stiltestrol and/or aureomycin did not significantly effect
intrnisiteshrink, 48 hour cooler shrink, dressing percent,
or carcass grade.
6. Implants of the tranquilizer Hydroxyzine (60 mg/animal)
stimulated average daily gains by 13 percent in steers on
full feed and 19 percent for steers receiving a full feed
of concentrate plus stilbestrol.
7. Hydroxyzine implants did not stimulate average daily gains
for steers receiving no or limited concentrate feed intake.
8. In preliminary studies the tranquilizers Compazine, Thora-
ziie and Stelazine did not stimulate weight gains.
9. Response in growth stimulus to the tranquilizer Trifluo-
mepiazine (5 mg./animal/day) was variable.
10. Tapazole (600 mg./animal/day, during last 63 days of feed-
ing period) did not increase average daily gains at either
level of concentrate feed intake, on pasture or in drylot.
11. Average net returns, above steer, feed and fertilizer
costs, were greater in most cases on pasture than in dry-
Antibiotics for beef calves
'C. E. Haines
Assistant Animal Husbandman
"For several years, weanling calves at this station have been
fed a concentrate mixture for a few months immediately after wean-
ing. The effect of including aureomycin in the concentrate feed
has been studied during this post-weaning period as means of com-
bating certain stress factors.
A study in 1957 used 0, 45, 90 or 180 milligram levels of
auredmycin daily per calf in the concentrate mixture for 84 days.
The addition of aureomycin was of no benefit since the calves in the
control group (no aureomycin) averaged at least 0.3 of a pound great-
er daily gains than any of the groups receiving aureomycin.
This year (1958), the weaned calves were supplied with the same
levels of aureomycin as those shown above while on St. Augustinegrass
pasture." Four pounds of concentrate was provided per calf daily.
Weight gains during a 98 day period and condition ratings were the
criteria used for comparing these four levels of aureomycin supple-
mentation. The results of this study are shown below:
Daily Aureomycin Intake (mg) 0 45 90 180
Length of Feeding Period (days) 9 99 9
Number of'Animals 35 35 35 35
Av. Initial wt. (Ibs) 257 251 257 258
Av. Final wt. (ibs) 381 373 394 395
Av."Daily Gain (Ibs) 1.21 1.25 1.39 1.10
Final Condition Ratings ( )
Good" 15.2 26.5 33.3 34.3
Average 57.5 44.1 45.5 51.4
Poor 27.3 29.4 21.2 14.3
The results of this study are not in agreement with those ob-
taihed in the 1957 study where aureomycin supplementation was of no
apparent benefit. The above data shows that the higher levels of
antibiotic intake-improved the average gains of the weanling calves
aid that it also aided in the thriftiness of the calves. Male calves
gained slightly more than female calves and larger gains were real-
ized from pasture lots that contained ample shade.
SResults of a test just completed, with yearling steers on
pasture, indicated that antibiotics were of some benefit in a con-
ceitrate mixture. Steers receiving five pounds of concentrate per
head daily for 98 days gained an average of 94 pounds. A similar
group' of steers receiving the same treatment plus a combination of
terramycin and oleandoiiycin in the feed gained an average of 125
pounds during the 98 day period.
Progress report of crosebreeding at the Beerglades Station
R. W. Kidder
The results of breeding research conducted at the Everglades
Experiment Station are presented in the following tables.
Table 1. Effect of breed
on average weights of animals at various
Breed ^" Age of Animals in Months
Breed 6 12 id 24 36 Od 60
Angus" 305 389 541 602 711 804 941
Brahman 320 442 581 678 798 856 953
Devon" 342 443 584 717 827 939 987
Braib@mn-Angus 350 487 625 776 822 808 ---
Brahman=Devon 391 528 688 842 919 1019 1054
SDevon-Brahman 374 483 604 760 874 1115 1090
Brahman-Devon 388 519 656 820 938 1016 1215
Table 2. Weight of purebred and crossbred calves at 180 days
---- -- 3.. gLh
ThA~rltTh of flnm
Average we ght
g-mmd%. ^ 4 -- of Da
Brahmnn x Devon
Brahman x Devon
Brahman x Devon
Brahmin x Devon
Brahman x Angus
Brahman x Devon
1. Records indicate that Brahman-British crossbreeds are heavier
at all ages than either purebred parent.
2. A"criss-cross breeding program is simple and adaptable on many
ranches and iU effective in maintaining growth ability.
Breeding of Sire
Chemical control suggestions for common
broadleaf pasture weeds
J.' R. Orsenigo
Compound of choice for certain weeds
a. 2,4-D, 1 1. Ib/A acid equiv. (amine salt formulation*)
Stickerweed, Amaranthus spinosus**
Butterweed, Senecio glabellus (S. lobatus)
b. 2,-4-D and 2,4,5-T mixture 1 1- Ib/A acid equiv. (amine
salt formulation* have mixture at 1 to 1 ratio).
Milkweed, Asclepias sp.**
Jerusalem oak, wormseed, stinkweed, Chenopodium sp.**
Butterweed, Senecio glabellus
Teaweed, Sida sp.**
Method of Application
a. Low spraying pressure, 20-30 psi
b. Low-spray volume, 10-30 gpa
c. Low-mdunted brush broom, adjusted so that flat fan nozzle
tip patterns overlap at top of weed growth.
Conditions of Application
a. Physical drift hazards-of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T herbicides (and
possible vapor or post-volatilization movement) are minimized
by using the above application methods and the amine salt
b. As a general "rule-of-thumb", 2,4-D type herbicides should not
be applied'less than one-half mile from sensitive crops if iad
is more than a light breeze (1-3 mph) or is toward suscep-
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 532, "2,4-D
for post-emergence weed control in the Everglades" by Charles
C. Seale, John W. Randolph, and Victor L. Guzman is suggested
as a reference for further information.
New low volatile formulations are usually slightly more effective
in controlling these weeds than the salt forms.
** If weed growth is old, woody, or very dense it is desirable to
mow tops off and apply herbicides to young regrowth.
Cattle grub control
E. D. Harris, Jr., W. G. Genung, H.L. Chapman, Jr., and C.E. Haines
Experiment I 1957-1958
Purpose: To compare Trolene and Co-ral for cattle grub control and
to estimate the best time for treatment.
Procedure: Yearling cattle were treated with Co-ral and Trolene on
May 6-7, -Tune 3-4, July 8, August 22, and September 16,
1957. Each animal was treated once and with only one of
the insecticides. -Co-ral 'was applied as a spray and Tro-
lene was applied as aS oral drench. Each insecticide was
applied at a dosage equivalent to that recommended by the
manufacturer. Each animal was examined at two-week inter-
vals from October 11, 1957 through April 9, 1958, for the
number of cattle grubs encysted under the skin of the back.
Results: Average number of'grubs per animal at the peak of the
infestation for each treatment:
Insecticide and Application Date
Co-ral in May....... ...... ... ..... . ................
Cowral in June, July, Aug., or Sept., Trolene in Sept..
Co-ral in Seit ..........................................
Trolene in May, July, or August........................
Trolene in June........................................
Untreated Animals .....................................
Co-ral is more effective than Trolene for cattle grub
control. The best time for Co-ral treatments would
probably be in June as reinfestation might occur fol-
lowing a May treatment during some years.
Experiment II -1958-1959
Purpose: To determine if two applications of Co-ral (June and
Sipt.) give better cattle grub control than one appli-
cation (June or Sept.).
Each animal was treated on June 22 or September 12, or
on both dates with approximately 3 pints of an 0.5 per-
cent wettable powder suspension of Co-ral. The backs
were wet thoroughly with the spray.
Time of Treatment
Number of grubs
June and Sept.
Two applications were decidedly more effective than
a 'single application. The single June application
was far more effective than that in September.
EES 59-16 400 copies.