Group Title: sugarcane variety research program at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade ... season.
Title: Sugarcane variety research program at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade ... season.
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076925/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sugarcane variety research program at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade ... season.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Walker, Ray L.
Freeman, Charles E.
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1973
 Notes
General Note: Belle Glade AREC mimeo report EV-1973-8
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076925
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text


Belle Glade AREC iimeo Report EV-1973-8


The Sugarcane Variety Research Program at the
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Belle Glade. 1972-73 Season
1/
Ray L. Walker and Charles E. Freeman-

INTRODUCTION

In recent years the University of Florida's sugarcane variety testing and
selection project has been located on land originally owned by Florida Sugar Corpo-
ration but now the property of Talisman Sugar Corporation. During the 1972-73
season hand labor was not available for harvesting from Talisman Sugar Corporation
and efforts were made to secure labor from other sources. The efforts resulted in
only two of eight tests being harvested by the conventional hand-cut method.

This project is a joint effort between the Agricultural Research and Education
Center (AREC) at Belle Glade, the U.S.D.A. Sugarcane Field Station located at Canal
Point, Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. (1). Replicated trials are
located on cooperating plantations.

Briefly, the project consists of planting several thousand sugarcane seedlings
obtained from the U.S.D.A., selecting from the seedlings for single stalk ten-foot
rows (Stage I), selecting from Stage I for 30 feet of cane row (Stage II), se-
lecting from Stage II for 120 feet of cane row (Stage III), selecting outstanding
varieties for replicated tests (Stage IV). Replicated variety tests are harvested
in three consecutive years as plant cane, first stubble and second stubble. Data
obtained include tons of cane per acre, pounds of sugar per ton cane and tons of
sugar per acre. These data are subjected to statistical analysis and are used
along with data from tests conducted by the USDA Sugarcane Field Station for making
decisions as to which selections to advance and which varieties should be recom-
mended to release to the growers.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

A number of changes in procedure were made in 1972-73 as a result of the
decision by Talisman Sugar Cbrporation to harvest all cane mechanically rather
than import aff-shore labor.

The seedlings and stages I, II, and III were planted at the AREC in a field
which had been used for sugarcane research in years prior to 1970. A replicated
variety test (Stage IV) was planted at A. Duda and Sons.

The eight replicated variety tests harvested included two plant-cane, two
first-stubble and four that were second-stubble.

Two first-stubble tests were harvested using the conventional system of hand-
cutting and weighing all cane from each plot. Ten-stalk samples were taken at
random from each plot and the juice extracted with a three-roller sample mill which
gave approximately 55 percent extraction. The juice was used for determining Brix
and percent sucrose. At harvest the cane was burned, hand cut and piled for weigh-
ing with a truck mounted scale.


I/ Associate in Agronomy AREC and Research Instructor, Cooperative Extension
Service, University of Fla., IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Belle Glade, Florida


August 1973









The other six tests were harvested by an alternate method. In this method the
samples for juice analysis were taken in the same manner as the conventional system.
However, in the alternate method, to secure an approximate cane weight for each
plot, the stalks in each plot were counted and multiplied by the average stalk
weight to obtain the calculated cane weight per plot.

Varietal correction factors (V.C.F.) were used in the calculations (2).
Varieties for which n6 V.C.F. was available were assigned a factor of 1.00, which
is equal to Cl. 41-223 and C.P. 63-588.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Plant cane. The two plant-cane test have identical varieties and plot layout but
are located several miles apart and the soil and weather conditions are considerably
different. Talisman Test No. 1 is located three miles west of the Talisman mill and
Test No. 83 is located about one mile north of the old Florida Sugar Corporation
mill.

In Test No. 1 (Table 1) the variety C.P. 68-1145 was superior to the check
variety C.P. 63-588 in tons of cane per acre and equal to the check in pounds sugar
per ton cane and tons of sugar per acre. In Test No. 83 this variety was superior
to the check in tons of cane per acre, inferior in pounds of sugar per ton cane
and equal in tons of sugar per acre.

In Test No. 1 the variety C.P. 68-1067 was equal to the check variety C.P. 63-
588 in tons of cane per acre, inferior in pounds of sugar per ton cane and equal
in tons of sugar per acre. In Test No. 83 this variety was equal to C.P. 63-588
in tons of cane per acre, pounds of sugar per ton cane and tons of sugar per acre.
C.P. 68-1020 and C.P. 68-1022 were equal to C.P. 63-588 in pounds of sugar per ton
of cane in Test No. 1 and C.P. 63-1022 was superior in Test No. 83, with C.P. 68-
1020 equal to the check. Cl. 41-223 was included in these two tests as a check
variety, since 50 percent of the sugarcane acreage is still in this variety (3).
Data from these two plant-cane tests indicate that several of the newer varieties
are superior to Cl. 41-223.

First stubble. In first-stubble Test No. 76, (Table 2), located in section 36
three miles south of South Bay, the variety C.P. 66-1079 was superior to the check
C.P. 63-588 in both tons of cane per acre and tons of sugar per acre although
inferior in pounds of sugar per ton cane. On January 20, 1971 this experiment was
subjected to freezing temperatures when the plant-cane was 3 1/2 months old. It
was noted at the time that C.P. 66-1079 appeared to be less affected by the cold
than the other varieties in the test.

In Test No. 78, located three miles north of the old Florida Sugar Corporation
mill, the variety C.P. 66-1079 was inferior to both C.P. 62-374 and C.P. 63-588 in
tons of sugar per acre.

These two first-stubble tests were harvested in the conventional manner and in
Test No. 78 the stalks were also counted for use in calculating yield by the
alternate method. The comparison of the two methods (Table 3) provides evidence
that the alternate method can be used with confidence to measure the relative
performance of sugarcane varieties in a test. In this case, a linear regression
analysis revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.95 between the two methods. The
tons of cane per acre are higher for each variety in the alternate method but by
using the alternate method the relative position of the varieties remains about the
same.










Second stubble. In four second-stubble tests, (Table 4) located in the same field
about two miles north of the old Florida Sugar Corporation mill, no variety was
superior to the check varieties in this harvest. However, the total tons of sugar
produced per acre in the three year crop cycle was as follows: In Test No. 66 the
varieties C.P. 56-59 and C.P. 59-73 were superior to C.P. 50-28 which was the check
variety. In Test No. 67, the varieties C.P. 66-1043 and C.P. 66-1079 were equal.
to the check C.P. 50-28. In Test No. 68, the variety C.P. 66-2197 was equal to
the check C.P. 62-374 and in Test No. 73, the variety C.P. 66-2197 was equal to
the check C.P. 63-588.

The lack of labor which forced the change in harvesting method for sugarcane
variety tests in the 1972-73 season is likely to remain serious or become worse
in the coming crops. A change of cooperator from Talisman Sugar Corporation to
A. Duda and Sons will bring relief for the short term since the latter still plans
to use off-shore labor. Eventually, it appears that mechanical harvesting will
completely eliminate hand harvesting. This leads to the consideration of planting
sugarcane variety tests in a manner suitable to mechanical harvesting.

SUI,'ARY

Eight sugarcane variety tests conducted by the AREC were harvested during the
1972-73 season as part of the cooperative sugarcane breeding program of AREC, USDA
and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. Two of these were harvested by the con-
ventional system of hand-cutting and weighing all cane from each plot. A lack of
labor made it necessary to harvest the other six tests by an alternate method. The
stalks in each plot were counted and multiplied by the average stalk weight to
obtain the calculated cane weight for each plot.

In two plant-cane tests the new varieties C.P. 68-1067 and C.P. 68-1145 were
approximately equal to the high producer C.P. 63-588 and far superior to C1. 41-
223, the old standard. In one of the two first-stubble tests the variety C.P. 66-
1079 was superior to C.P. 63-588 and inferior in the other. In four second-stubble
tests no variety has produced well enough to be recommended for release.

The shortage of labor for hand-cutting plots will probably continue and make
necessary year to year adjustments in this project.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors express appreciation to: Talisman Sugar Corporation for providing
the land and maintaining the tests.

The Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. for the grant which helped support this
work.

U.S. Sugar Corporation for supplying labor to harvest one experiment.
REFERENCES CITED
1. Freeman, C. E. and Ray L. Walker. 1972. The Sugarcane Variety Development
Program at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade. Belle
Glade AREC Himeo Report EV-1972-7.
2. Rice, E. R. and L. P. Hebert. 1972. Sugarcane Variety Test in Florida during
the 1971-72 season. USDA, ARS-S-2 Nov. 1972 (p. 5).
3. Hebert, L. P. 1972. The 1972 Sugarcane variety Census for Florida Sugar J.
Vol. 35:22-24.









Table l.--Date of harvest, tons of cane per acre, pounds of sugar
and tons of sugar per acre for twelve varieties planted
of 1971 and estimated by the alternate method.


per ton cane
in the fall


Variety Cane per acre Yield of 960 sugar
per ton of cane per acre


tons


pounds


tons


Test 1 (Harvested 1/29-30/73)


41-223
63-485
63-588
65-357
68-1020
68-1022
68-1026
68-1031
68-1067
68-1115
68-1145
68-1154


56.9
53.1
58.6
58.8
57.4
50.8
55.2
51.0
67.6
59.7
76.2
55.8


b1/
bc-
bc
bc
bc
be
c
bc
c
ab
bc
a
bc


231
229
249
245
255
264
254
224
230
225
235
235


de
de
abc
bcd
ab
a
ab
e
de
e
cde
cde


6.59
6.11
7.34
7.19
7.76
6.69
6.97
5.70
7.76
6.71
8.99
6.56


Test 83 (Harvested 3/20-21/73)


41-223
63-485
63-588
65-357
68-1020
68-1022
68-1026
68-1031
68-1067
68-1115
68-1145
68-1154


59.2
68.1
76.7
64.9
67.3
66.1
69.3
55.9
83.0
73.8
87.8
63.1


fg
cde
be
defg
cdef
def
cde
g
ab
cd
a
efg


cd
de
bc
cd
ab
a
cd
cd
cd
e
d
bc


6.89
7.42
9.32
7.45
8.19
8.68
7.89
6.35
9.63
7.71
9.69
7.56


ef
def
ab
cdef
bcd
abc
cde
f
a
cde
a
cdef


1/ Comparable means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at
the 5% level.


Cl.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


Cl.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.








Table 2.--Tons of cane per acre, sugar
for varieties planted in the


per ton of cane and sugar per acre
fall of 1970.


Variety Cane per acre Yield of 96 sugar
per ton of cane per acre
Plant 1st stubble Plant 1st stubble Plant 1st stubble


tons


pounds


tons


Test 76


12/15/71-1


1/24/73 12/15/71


1/24/73 12/15/71


2/ 45.6
36.6
55.2 a
c 25.3
24.5



4/3/73


b
c

d
d


222 1
250 a
225
156
241 a


248 b
267 a
229 c
157
245 b


5.55
7.90
7.40
d 3.00
5.75


5.65
4.89
6.33
c 1.97
S 3.00


Test 78


1/17/72 4/3/73 1/17/72 4/3/73


:d 222 c
230 bc
S 211
250 a
d 242 ab
236 abc
S 206


d 270
253
d 242
253
265
277
d 242


5.75
7.35
7.20
8.95
6.10
7.45
6.75


d 4.75 c
b 5.27 bc
b 4.73 c
a 6.28 a
cd 3.86
b 5.77 ab
bc 4.95 c


1/ Indicates


2/


date of harvest.


Comparable means followed by the same letter
the 5% level.


do not differ significantly at


Table 3.--A comparison of the conventional method of harvesting a sugarcane variety
test vs the alternate method in tons of cane per acre shown from highest
to lowest.


Test 78 Harvested 4/3/73


Conventional method
Tons of cane/acre
1/
374 49.8 a
i88 41.8 b
59 41.2 b
1079 40.8 bc
i03 39.2 bc
223 35.2 cd
306 29.2 d


Alternate method
Variety Tons of cane/acre


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
Cl.
C.P.


62-374
63-588
56-59
57-603
66-1079
41-223
63-306


57.6
54.4
48.2
45.4
45.1
40.9
32.6


a
ab
bc
bc
bcd
cde
e


1/ Comparable means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at
the 5% level.


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


63-485
63-588
66-1079
67-2001
67-2006


b
a
a


49.6
62.9
65.8
38.4


1/24/73


47.9 b



1/17/72


Cl.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


41-223
56-59
57-603
62-374
63-306
63-588
66-1079


51.7
64.0
68.1
71.8
50.7
63.2
65.5


b
b
a


35.2
41.5
39.2
49.8
29.2
41.8
40.8


Variety

C.P. 6
C.P. 6
C.P. 5(
C.P. 6(
C.P. 5
Cl. 4
C.P. 6


2-
3-
6-
6-I
7-(
1-
3-:






-6-


Table 4.--Date of harvest, tons of cane per acre, average sugar per ton cane and
total sugar produced during a three-year cycle for four tests planted
in the same field in the fall of 1969.

Three year Total sugar
Date harvested and yield of cane per acre average sugar produced
per ton of per acre in
cane a 3 year
Variety Plant 1st Stubble 2nd Stubble cycle


Tons


Tons


Tons


Pounds


Tons


Test No. 66


12/16/701/


33.0
45.5
35.7
43.2
29.5


2/
a
bc
ab
c


1/19/72

46.1 a
48.8 a
36.4 b
44.4 a
23.2 c


214 d
225 c
244 b
227 c
257 a


12.79 b
14.90 a
11.17 bc
14.15 ab
9.31 c


Test No. 67

1/20/72


47.5 a
26.1 b
33.6 b
47.9 a
29.9 b


4/4/73


34.5
17.3
20.9
29.3
26.1


211
271
230
210
234


c 12.53 ab
a 11.40 abc
b 10.51 c
c 13.20 a
b 10.91 bc


Test No. 68


1/20/72

'48.5 a
20.4
34.1 4
48.7 a
44.5 b


Test No. 73

1/20/72


41.2 b
43.6 ab
38.4 b
24.7 c
4.8.8 a


4/4/73


31.5
18.5
14.7
20.8
29.8


233
208
231
240
215


15.56 a
7.84
9.65
14.88 a
12.91 1


4/4/73


24.7
32.8
27.8
19.5
27.1


247
254
227
242
241


13.61 b
16.09 a
c 12.39 c
S 10.20 d
15.42 a


* Some rat damage at time of harvest in 1972.
** Severe rat damage at time of harvest in 1972.
1/ Indicates date of harvest.
f/ Comparable means within a harvest date followed by the same letter do not
differ significantly at the 5% level.
EV-1973-8 450


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


50-28
56-59*
56-63**
59-73
63-306


4/4/73


41.2
38.0
19.5
36.7
19.0


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


50-28
66-1043**
66-1078
66-1079
66-1090


12/16/70

36.6 c
40.1 c
37.5 bc
48.4 a
37.2 bc


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


62-374
65-1002
66-1086**
66-2197
66-2207


1/6/71

54.0 a
29.2
34.5
53.1 a
46.9 b


1/7/71


C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.
C.P.


63-485*
63-588*
65-1063
66-1056**
66-2197


43.5 b
51.0 a
43.5 b
40.2 c
53.2 a




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs