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Potato (Solanum tuberosum) variety and seedling test.
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 Material Information
Title: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) variety and seedling test.
Physical Description: Serial
Creation Date: 1948
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Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00076914:00001

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POTATO (Solanum tuberosum) VARIETY AND SEEDLING TEST

19 48




James C. Hoffman

Everglades Experiment Station

Belle Glade, Florida




















Horticultural Mimeographed Report No. 2.


1;






POTATO VARIETY AND SEEDLING TEST
1 94 8
James C. Hoffman

The test consists of 27 seed stocks planted October 28, 1947, and harvested
January 26, 1948. Each variety or seedling was planted in a randomized block layout
with 5 replications. Each replicate consists of a single row 40 feet in length.
The plots were located on well mature saw-grass peat with a pH of 5.60.
The seed pieces averaged 3/4 of an ounce in weight. The formaldehyde treatment
as described in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1881, page 51, was not used in this test. Some
seed stocks are classed as scab resistant and it was desirable to study th~p resis-
tance as compared to non-resistant stocks. The dormant treatment was not umed asa
all seed stocks had initiated sprout growth.
All rows were spaced 36 inches apart and seed pieces planted 12 inches apart in
the drill. The seed pieces were covered at an average depth of 3 inches.
Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 600 pounds of 0-8-24, 75 pounds-manganese
sulphate, 35 pounds copper sulphate,. 35 pounds zinc sulphate and 15 pounds borax per
acre, in 2 bands 4 inches on each side of the seedbed and 3 inches in depth.
The potatoes were sprayed with Dithane D-14, at a concentration of 2 quarts of
Dithane, 1 pound of zinc sulphate, 3 pound of calcium hydroxide in 100 gallons of
water, and applied at the rate of 125 gallons per acre. Eight applications were ap-
plied at weekly intervals starting on the 14th day after planting. Late blight
(Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary) was controlled on these potatoes by use of
the above formula. After the last spray application blight developed,very rapidly
on the non-resistant stocks.
The crop grew extremely well considering the short day length as a factor not
favorable for maximum tuber development. The temperature for the growing season
averaged 69.80 F. for the period from 6:00 A. M. to 6:00 P. M.-, and 61.7 F. for the
period from 6:00 P. M. to 6:00 A. M. or a general average temperature of 65.80 F.
for the potato growing season. At no time was moisture considered a limiting factor
as the water table averaged 24 inches during the growing season.
The following data, Table 1, are presented from a perfect stand of 10 hills
taken at random and harvested from each replication. The error variance has been
reduced by this method due to no variation in the stand and uniform competition be-
tween plants.
The North Dakota potatoes were supplied by alterr Peterson; Tennessee potatoes
by the Certified Potato Growers of Tennessee; Maryland potatoes by Dr. R. A. Jehloe
and Maine potatoes by Dr. F. J. Stevenson of the United States Department of Agri-
culture.
The late blight rating as listed in numbered column (1) is as follows:
1 very resistant 4 susceptible
2 resistant S seriously damaged
3 slightly susceptible
The data as listed in numbered column (2) is the calculated yield in bushels of
U. S. No. 1 potatoes per acre from 50 hills taken from the 5 replications.
Any difference of 48 bushels per acre between any two mean yields is considered
significant at the 5 percent level and 63 bushels at the 1 percent level.





^42/4








According to these data any variety or seedling which yields 22h bushels per
acre and above is classed in the high yielding brackets with the highest yielding
asedling, B75-43. Other yielding brackets may be established acccrd-ngly. It will
be noted after studying these data that the 5 high yielding stocks are seedling
progeny that have never been introduced or given a variety name. It is evident
from these data that a new potato is desirable for the Everglades area when grown
under the above mentioned conditions and that the present commercial varieties are
very susceptible to late blight and in turn low yielders.
Some significant differences are also evident between varieties furnished by
the several seed sources and also in the case of seedling B61-3. The factors re-
sponsible for these yield variations are beyond discussion as the onoogeny of the
seed stocks is unknown. It can be concluded that if this variation in yield con-
tinues as a uniform characteristic within a variety, the seed source being the
variable, the grower must consider very strongly where his seed stocks are produced
and h6w they are stored and handled.


Table 1. Potato Variety and Seedling Test,
Belle Glade, Florida.


Everglades Experiment Station,


Variety or
Seedling
Triumph
Pontiac
Triumph
1 Md.
B61-3
B73-2
13-129
Katahdin
Pontiac
Sebago
Sebago
Chippewa
Katahdin
Triumph
Pontiac
B61-3
B69-16
B70-4
E70-5
B73-10
B73-16
B'?5-4
B76-43
B91-14
B137-5
x96-.56
X590-7


Seed Source

North Dakota
North Dakota
Tennessee
Maryland
Maryland
Maryland
Maryland
Maryland
Maryland
Maryland
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine
Maine


Late Blight
(1)
5
5
$5
2
O
1
S
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
0

0-4
0
0
5
1
0
3
5
1
5 ..


Mean Yield (Bu.
per Acre) (2)
1t8
188
131 ,
109
202
102
110
128
92
94
151
88
120
172
207
262
125
158
237
279
132
76
287
169
177
2h0
143


(2) Least significant difference at
48 bushels.
Least significant difference at
63 bushels.


the 5 percent point is

the perncit point is


Field
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17..
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.





POTATO VARIETf AND SELLING TEST


Spring 198
James C. Hoffman

The test consists of 28 seed stocks planted February 13, 1918, and harvested
May 7, 1918. These potato seed stocks were grown in ne anad supplied by Dr. F. J.
Stevenson of the United States Department of Agriculture. Each variety or seedling
was planted in a randomized block layout with 5 replications. Bach replicate con-
sists of a single row 32 feet in length. The plots were located on well mature saw-
grass peat with a pH of 5.60.
The seed pieces averaged 3/4 or an ounce in weight. The foraldehyde treat-
ment as described in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1881, page $1, was not used in this test.
Some seed stocks are classed as scab resistant and it was desirable to study this
resistance as compared to non-resistant stocks. The dormant treatment was not used
as all seed stocks had initiated sprout growth.

All rows were spaced 36 inches apart and seed pieces planted 12 inches apart
in the drill. The seed pieces were covered at an average depth of 3 inches.
Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 600 pounds of 0-8-24, 75 pounds man-
ganese sulphate, 35 pounds copper sulphate, 35 pounds zinc sulphate and 15 pounds
borax per acre, in 2 bands h inches on each side of the seedbed and 3 inches in depth.

The potatoes were sprayed with Dithane D-14, at a concentration of 2 quarts
of Dithane, 1 pound of sine sulphate in 100 gallons of water, and applied at the rate
of 125 gallons per acre. Four applications were applied at weekly intervals starting
on the lth day after planting. Late blight (Pytohthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary)
was controlled on these potatoes by use of the above formula i the period of
spray application.
Very little blight was evident late in the season after which time the spray
program was discontinued. Leafainer injury was very severe and has been correlated
with the percent defoliation as listed in numbered column 1, Table 1.
The temperature for the growing season averaged 77.90 F. for the period from
6:00 A. M. to 6:00 P. M., and 64.90 F. f8r the period from 6:00 P. M. to 600 A. U.,
or a general average temperature of 71.4V F. for the potato growing season.
The data as listed in column 2,Table 1, are presented as the calculated
yield in bushels of U. S. No. 1 potatoes per acre from a perfect stand of 10 hills
taken at random and harvested from each replication.
The seedling B70-S is the only progeny that is in the high yielding brackets
with the highest yielding seedling B76-43. This is the third test on the organic
soils that these 2 seedlings have produced yields in the high brackets. The a0dling
B70-5 is being introduced as the variety Excel. It is evident that B76-43 would be
of great value to southern Florida potato growers if introduced as a commercial
variety.







TABLE 1. POTATo VARlBE AND S MLIEDN TEST, EVERGEAO S EMN1tS 1RO,
BEMLE QUA, FLORIDA, SPRI O, 19.8.
Variety Mean Tield
Field or Prentage Defolatisn t. Per Aee
SeIdllM@ (1) ()
1. B87-1 17156 96-345 96.8 156
2. B73-10 tohak x 96-56 32.0 255
3. B.2-7 41956 x 96-56 83.0 157
4. n5s0-10 o 7001o x warsi 99.4 69
5. B75-4i 7562 x 96-28 88.0 97
6. T.8Q--.c. i 8127 x 96-$6 30.0 360
2:. 6 -25 x 528-229 97.2 121
B7 3 964 x $28-170 39.0 387
9. 9641 3895-13 x Earlaine 88. 163
10. B7146 uohak x 96-56 88.6 189
1. B61-3 96-56 x $28-170 68.2 206
12. 96.56 3895-13 x Earlaine 89. 196
13. B89-2 Sebago x 47156 99.2 18
14. B91-14 Sebago x 528-170 83.0 148
15. X403-5 ZRI x Earlaitne 48.0 2o9
16. B70-5 8127 x 96-56 91.0 147
17. Erie 116 x Barlaina 97. 130
18. Marigold 45208 x Earlaine 98.1 218
19. Triunph 99.6 157
20. Sequoia Oreen Ioumtain x Katahdin 85.0 169
21. Sebago Chippea, Katahdin 82.6 %t6
22. Norkota Rural x Katahdin 99.8 123
23. Katahdin 10568 X 262 P8.2 .168
2,. Chippewa 10S68 x Katahdin 99.0 10
25. Teton 53166 x sarlaine 97.2 95
26. Red Ilarber Sport from Warba 100.0 130
27. Kasota 95iA 152
28. Pontiac Triuaph x Katahdin 98.6 177

Least significant different at 5 percent point 11.7 5L
Least significant difference at-1 percent point 15.5 78