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Title: Results of research on field and popcorn in the Everglades area.
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Title: Results of research on field and popcorn in the Everglades area.
Series Title: Results of research on field and popcorn in the Everglades area.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Green, Victor E., Jr.
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station.
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, Fla.
Publication Date: 1954
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076908
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 166141079

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RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON FIELD AND POPCORN
IN THE EVERGLADES AREA 195


by

Victor E. Green, Jr.


This report is based on research conducted
by the Everglades Experiment Station in
cooperation with the Field Crops Research
Branch of the U.SD.A., other experiment
stations, private seed companies and indi-
viduals in North, Central and South America.




EVERGLADES STATION MIMEO REPORT 55-4

Belle Glade, Florida


September 1, 1995


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RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON FIELD AND POPCORN
in the Everglades Area 1954

Victor E. Green, Jr. 3/


Field Corn
Research on field corn in this area is aimed at securing better varieties
for stock feeding and for the making of products for human consumption: meal and
grits. In both cases the goal is superior, high yielding varieties with strong
stalks that are not too tall, with low ears, resistant to leaf blights and other
diseases, resistant to insects both in the field and in the crib, and which produce
sound grain in a reasonable number of days. For the making of grits and meal, a
number of white varieties are needed. For livestock feed, yellow or orange, flinted
corns will probably be the end-product of the research.

This Station works cooperatively with individuals, firms and governments
in both hemispheres in its quest for germ plasm.

In 1954, about 850 lines of corn were tested. Among these were a number
of lines resistant to Helminthosporium leaf blight that were obtained from Dr. C,
C. Wernham of Pennsylvania State University.


Replicated Variety Tests
Spring plantings of corn variety tests in 1954 consisted of three repli-
cated experiments. All entries were planted in one-row plots, rows three feet
apart and running north and south. The stands were thinned to 14,$20 plants per
acre, or to one plant every foot of row. The plot design in each case was a ran-
domized complete block with four replications. The data on each test are shown
below:
SDate Date No. Length
Test Name Planted Harvested Entries Row, Ft.

Early Feb. 1 & 2 July 7 & 8 26 85

Crow Feb. 2 July 13 & 14 21 40

Lhrte Feb. 16 July 12 7 40

These tests were planted on Okeelanta peaty muck soil that had been in
cultivation for about 25 years, but that had not been fertilized for one year prior
to planting. Cropping history for 5 years preceding the tests shows continuous
corn or grain sorghum harvested for grain with the stalks plowed under.

The early experiment was planted to test tropical crosses made at this
Station, new Corneli of Cuba hybrids, and certain Funk G-series hybrids produced
for the Southern United States and to compare all these with such varieties as
Dixie 18 and Cuban Flint.



/ Assistant Agronomist, Florida Everglades Experiment Station, and Collaborator,
Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Field Crops Research Branch, US.D,A,











The test with Crow Hybrid Corn Company hybrids included multiple top-
crosses of the Corn Belt Varieties (Ky 27 x C161), (KI5 x CI21E) and(K4 x Oh4L)
with the tropical varieties Mayorbela Big Joe, Yellow Tuxpan, Francisco Flint,
Brazilian Hybrid and Corneli (Cuba M-) 12 and 13.

The late test utilized three Funk G-hybrids, Corneli (Cuba M-) 11 and 13,
the new synthetic variety produced at Belle Glade, and Big Joe.

In these three tests, insects were controlled by three applications of
DDT at the rate of one quart of 25% emulsion in 100 gallons of water per acre. A~f.t,
cations were made just before emergence and at heights of eight inches and 18 inches
Cutworms and budworms were almost completely controlled by this procedure. Wirewormvs
were controlled by the application of 5 pounds of technical aldrin in 100 gallons of
water per acre disked in two weeks before planting. No chemicals were used to con-
trol earworms or leaf blight.
Data collected in these tests included stalk height, ear height, lodging
and stalk break, moisture at harvest in the grain, yield, ear length, and insect
injury. The last item was obtained from Mr. Walter H. Thames, Assistant Entomolo-
gist. These data included the earworm damage index, injury from insects in storage
and sideworm damage.

Statistical treatment of yield data was performed by Mr. Henry M, Spelman,
III.

Discussion

All yields were below 100 bushels of ear corn per acre, unlike those of
the 1953 season when many varieties yielded above this figure. A generally higher
water table is thought to be responsible for the lower yields. Heavy rainfall
during the pollination period probably contributed, also* As usual, the best var-
ieties were those in the early test, as shown in Table 1. These included a new
Corneli of Cuba release, Corneli Sh, which is being increased in Cuba for plantings
in south Florida in 1955. This variety grew to a height of 9.5 feet and produced
ears that were 5 feet above the soil surface. The leaves remained green after a
severe epiphytotic of Helminthosporium leaf blight in the experiment. The variety
yielded 97.4 bushels per acre of solid ear corn.

Lodging and stalk break were severe in 1954 in both experimental and com-
mercial plantings of corn. It appeared that stalk break occurred when the moisture
content of the grain dropped below 25 to 23 percent. It follows, therefore, that
no delay accompany harvest and artificial drying once that moisture content is
reached.
Not only will this insure easier mechanical picking, but it will allow
less time for the grain to rot or germinate and be subjected to damage by birds
and rodents. A delayed harvest also allows weed growth to interfere with picking
and insect damage progresses. Boggy fields during harvest in the rainy season are
minimized by early planting and early harvest. Corn harvested promptly upon ma-
turity is less likely to be badly infested with rice weevils before storage.











Popcorn

The year 1954 was the third that cooperative tests were conducted with
the Central Popcorn Company of Schaller, Iowa. The experiment was planted in three-
row plots, consisting of 12 varieties in three randonmied complete blocks. Rows
were three feet apart and the stand was thinned to one plant per foot (14520 plants
per acre). The plots were seeded February 1, 1954 and harvested between May 21 and
June 9, as the varieties matured. Stalk and ear heights from the soil surface were
measured following anthesis. Resistance to Helminthosporium leaf blights was checked
on April 26. Cutworms and budworms were controlled by three applications of 100
gallons of water per acre containing 1 quart of 25% DDT emulsion. No measures were
taken to control leaf blight which caused an immature drying of the leaves of most
varieties. The ears were harvested and weighed, and yields were calculated to bushels
of ear corn per acre at 15.5% moisture. Ten-ear samples, representative of each
variety among the replications, were sent to the company for expansion tests. Since
the ears were too dry, the moisture had to be reconstituted, which resulted in lower
than usual expansion ratios. An analysis of variance was performed on the yield data,

The data indicate that a profitable yield could probably be obtained from
Central Hybrid No. 1 in a normal year when there is a demand for popcorn. With a
spray control program to keep larger active leaf areas to maturity, the popping vol-
umes should approach the normal expansion figures,









Table l.--Results of a Field Corn Variety Experiment Planted February 1 and 2 and harvested July 7 and 8, 1954.
Belle Glade, Florida.

Variety Yield, Bu./A. Lodging Height Ft. Length Insect Injury Sideworm Stored Prod.
or Ear Corn at 15.5% % Stalk Ear Ear, In. Index* Damage % Damage, %
Cross
Corneli 54 97.4 18 9.5 5.0 7.9 123 5 29
Corneli (Cuba M-)12 93,3 24 9.0 5.0 2.3 134 5 41
Francisco Flint Sel. 88.8 20 9.0 5.0 7.8 U18 9 31
Corneli (Cuba M-)13 86.0 28 9.0 4.5 7.5 162 6 43
Fran. Flint x Yeltux 82.7 21 8.5 5.0 7.5 133 22
Mavorbela 81.5 20 8.0 4.5 7.6 179 36 9
Corneli (Cuba m-)1l 81.1 22 9.0 5.0 8.0 164 37 39
Brazilian Hybrid 76.7 19 9.0 4.5 6.8 173 8 38
Mayorbela x Yeltux 74.0 19 9.0 5.0 7.8 164 ;3 32
Francisco Flint 73.7 17 8.5 5.0 7.2 121 3 22
Funk G-737 71.3 26 9.0 5.0 6.8 226 9 I6
Tiquisate G. Y. 70Z5 23 9.0 5.5 6.8 125 4 24
Funk G-715 63.5 33 9.0 4.5 6.5 209 21 '57
Guam White 59.9 12 8.5 4.5 6.5 213 61
Big Joe 55.5 15 9.0 4.0 7.5 169 -6 34
Funk G-714A 55.2 35 8.5 4.5 6.5 239 7 56
Yellow Tuxpan 52.4 13 8.5 4.5 7.5 149 '7 26
Cuban Flint 29,3 27 9.0 5.0 6.4 238 3 55
Dixie 18 29.3 18 9.0 5.0 5.7 204 19 167


L.S.D. .05 for yield = 11.3 bu.
L.S.D. .01 for yield = 15.0 bu.


* Thames modification of Method of Walter, B. E. P. Q. Cir. E-745, April, 3194&









Table 2.--Results of a Field Corn Variety Test Planted February 16 and Harvested July 12, 1954, Belle Glade, Florida


Yield, Bu./A
Ear Corn, 15.5%


Lodging
%


Height, Ft.
Stalk Ear


2 Corneli (Cuba M-)11 86,1 8 8.2 4.2 7.7 143 2 24
7 Funk G-740 85.3 4 9.1 4.9 6.8 211 7 48
4 Corneli (Cuba M-)13 83.7 9 9.0 4.6 8.3 165 0 40
6 Funk G-737 A 81.9 2 8.5 4.6 6.9 198 9 42
5 Funk G-737 74.0 4 9.0 4.7 7.4 201 7 40
3 EES Syn 1 60.5 4 8.4 4.5 6,9 162 9 28
1 Big Joe 48.8 1 8.2 4.5 7.3 172 3 28

L.S.D. .05 for yield = 19.1 bu.
L.S.D. .01 for yield = 26.2 bu.


Length
Ear. Tn,


Insect Injury Sideworm Stored Prod,
Tnderi'3 TDama eM> $ Dann 1


+ Thames modification of method of Walter, B.E.P.Q. Cir. E-745, April1948


Variety








Table 3--Results of a Field Corn Variety Test of
Coop,, Crow Hybrid Corn Co.


21 Top-Crosses of Corn Belt and Tropical Varieties.


Name of Corn under Test
and Entry Number*


Yield, Bu./A
No, 2 Ear Corn


Stalk
Break
56


Height, Ft.
Stalk Ear


Ear
Length
In.


Insect Injury
Index**


Sideworm
Damage,%


Stored Prod,
Damage, %


Corneli 13 x Tl
Corneli 13 x T3
Corneli 12 x T2
Yellow Tuxpan x TI
Corneli 12 x T3
Yellow Tuxpan X T3
Mayorbela x T3
Francisco Flin x T2
Mayorbela X T2
Big Joe x T3
Corneli 13 x T2
Francisco Flint x T3
Mayorbela x Tl
Brazilian Iybis yb cl
Corneli 12 x Tl
Big Joe x Tl
Francisco Flint x TI
Yellow Tuxpan x T2
Brazilian Hybrid x T2
Brazilian Hybrid x TI
Big Joe x T2


L.S.D. .05 for yield
L.S.D. .01 for yield


= 14.2 bu.
= 18.8 bu.


* T = (Ky 27 x CI 61); T2 = K 155
*~ Thames modification of method of


x CI 21E; T3 = KU x Oh 4l.
Walter, B.E.P.Q. Cir. E-7U5, April 1948


86.5
84.0
82.7
81.9
79.2
75.9
73,8
73.4
72,9
72.3
71.2
70.1
69.3
67.5
67.3
66.7
61.8
61.0
58.2
56.6
48.9


8.0
7.5
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.8
7.4
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.8
7.5
7.6
8.1
7.5
7.8
7.6
7.6
7.8
7.8
7.9


4.4
4.3
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.3
6.1
4,3
4.1
4.1
4.o
4.3
4,3
6.5
4.1
4.4
4.4
4.1
4,3
4.1
4.3


7.6
8.0
7.3
7.2
7.9
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.3
6.8
6.9
6,6
6.6
6.7


196
208
204
196
206
205
201
188
171
189
191
162
226
213
190
213
217
182
214
250
209









Table L.-The Characteristics and Performance of 12 Popcorn Varieties Grown at Belle Glade, Florida, 1954


Variety Y


C-1
c-I
C-4
P-32
0-2
C-3
C-215
c-1S5
P-31
C-5
0110
Clio
Jap. H.
0-112


Yields, lbs,/A
at 15.5% H90


2990
2270
2200
2080
2020
1980
1670
1600
1480
1380
980
950


Disease
Index 2/


2
2.5
2
3
2.5
2.5
3
2
3

2.5:
4.


Height Ft,
Stalk Ear


6.
5.5
7
6.5
6.5
7
6
7
6
7
6
6.5


3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
2,5
3.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
3.0


Weight/
bushel;


65.5
630A
65.0
65,5
62,0
64.0
61.0
63.5
61.5
61.0
59.5
63.0


Popping Normal
Volume Expansion


32.5
33.5
31.5
31.0
26.0
29.0
26,0
30.0
30.0
30.0
21.5
30.5


L.S.D. for yields: .05 = 750 Ibs; .01 = 1000 lbs.


I C = Central Popcorn Hybrid;
7 Modified method of Ullstrup.


P = Purdue Hybrid
Higher numbers indicate more injury.


__




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