Group Title: Popcorn experiments.
Title: Popcorn experiments, 1960
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 Material Information
Title: Popcorn experiments, 1960
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Green, Victor E. Jr.
Harris, Emmett D. Jr.
Publisher: Everglades Research Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, Fla.
Publication Date: February 17, 1961
 Notes
General Note: Everglades Station Mimeo report 61-12
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076904
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Everglades Station Mimeo Report 61-12


1960 POPCORN EXPERIMENTS

by

Victor E. Green, Jr., and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.


This report contains results of research with
popcorn grown on organic soils in southern
FloAida. The work was conducted cooperatively
with the Ames Seed Farms of Ames, Iowa, who
furnished seed and determined expansion ratios
and quality. This is a continuation of the work
reported in Everglades Station Mimeo Report 60-5
that covered 1952 to 1959.


Agronomic Tests

One variety test was conducted in 1960. It included the third trial with
Nebraska 104, the second trial with lopop 6 and 8, Purdue 213, ASF A-88-4496
and 5696,./along with 13 experimental varieties from Ames Seed Farms, hereto-
fore untested at Belle Glade.

Soil tests on samples taken from the plot area and analyzed according to
methods in current use at this Station showed a pH value of 5.90, P of 8 lbs.
per acre, K of 51 Ibs. per acre, Ca of 2050 lbs. per acre, Mg of 727 Ibs. per
acre and Na of 12 Ibs. per acre. On January 11, 1960 300 Ibs. per acre of a
4-8-12 fertilizer containing 1.55 MnO and 120 Ibs. per ton of 25% Aldrin were
disked into the soil to raise the nutrient status of the soil to that estab-
lished for maximum yield of field corn and to control wireworms. Rows ran
east and west and were three feet apart. Plot designs were randomized complete
blocks in 4 replications. Rows were 25 feet long. Seed were dropped by hand
on February 10, 1960 and the stand of plants was thinned to one plant every
12 inches (14,520 per acre). Cutworms were controlled by one spraying of 1
quart of 25% DDT emulsion and budworms by one spraying of 1 pint of Heptachlor
(2 lbs./gallon) in 100 gallons of water per acre.

Reaction of the varieties to Helminthosporium turcicum leaf blight was
determined by Miss L. Robert (CRD-ARS-USDA on May 23, 190. Str
heights were recorded on May 31, 1960, after the tassels were .
The test was harvested on June 30, 1960. The ears were psulle, hand, c d
and husked. After drying in a forced air oven, the yields w~ # "hed, mo
ture samples were taken and 25 ears of each replication of varieXy wer
saved for entomological appraisal. Yields were calculated pounds of/he
popcorn @ 15.5% moisture. A random sample of 10 ears, three\f m each do5
first two replications and two from each of the last two rep l ons, w '
taken for each variety and sent to the Ames Seed Farms for qua r nts.
The characteristics, performance and quality of the 19 varieties aregL n in
Table 1.


I/ Now has the commercial designation A-225.


February 17, 1961











The data show that 1960 was an excellent year for the yield and quality
of popcorn. The lowest average plot yield was 3900 pounds per acre and the
highest was 5655 pounds per acre. Leaf blight disease did not seem to affect
yields or quality in 1960. Ear corn quality indexes were good, very good to
almost perfect for all varieties. All varieties weighed more than 66 pounds
per bushel. Official volume tests (OVT) on the samples showed that all varie-
ties would expand above 37 volumes per volume of raw grain. Two varieties,
ASF A-88-3854 (A-354) and A-88-5696 (A-225), popped above 43 volumes, the
highest ever tested at Belle Glade. In fact, the authors have never seen a
published report wherein that figure was exceeded. Further, the newer weight
volume test (WVT) on these two varieties ran above 1200. Popcorn of this
quality exceeds the limit of the OVT and WVT machines. The exceptionally
good yields are in part explained by the large number of ears per unit length
of row, due to a combination of prolificacy and stooling out of the plants in
1960.

Entomological Tests

Observations to determine average length, ear diameter, and degrees of
earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) and/or Laphygma frugiperda (J. E. Smith),
damage and stored grain insect damage were made on January 9, 1961 following
open storage after harvest (Table 3). About the only stored grain insect in-
volved was the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus). Five representative
ears from each plot were measured to the nearest half centimeter and half inch
for ear diameter and ear length, respectively. Twenty-five ears from each plot
were given an index number (0-5) to indicate the degree of injury by earworms.
An average index for each plot was computed and multiplied by 100. The highest
possible index, 500, would indicate the greatest amount of damage. Because
damage to the side of the ear was practically non-existent, indexing was based
only on damage starting from the tip of the ear, as follows:

Index Fraction of Length of Ear Damaged

0 No damage
1 One-eighth or less
2 Greater than one-eighth but less than one-fourth
3 Greater than one-fourth but less than three-eighths
4 Greater than three-eighths but less than one-half
5 Greater than one-half

To evaluate the degree of damage by stored grain insects, 100 kernels
were taken randomly from each plot after the corn was shelled and the number
with emergence holes made by adult rice weevils was counted.

The Student-Newman-Keuls Test (Federer, Walter T. 1955. Experimental
Design. The MacMillan Company, New York) indicated that ASF A-88-KP28 re-
ceived significantly more earworm damage than each of the other hybrids and
that ASF A-88-3854 was significantly more damaged than ASF A-KP-3138. The
Student-Newman-Keuls test showed no significant differences among hybrids in
respect to stored grain insect damage.











Data on earworm damage (Table 4) and stored grain insect damage (Table
5) were subjected to single degrees of freedom analysis in an attempt to
determine which inbred parents were contributing most to earworm and/or
stored grain insect resistance among experimental hybrids, to determine if
such parents performed in the same manner in reciprocal crosses, and to com-
pare commercial hybrids with each other and with the experimental hybrids.

The results are inconclusive but may suggest inbred number 28 is detri-
mental to earworm and stored grain insect resistance when used as a parent
and that inbred number 96 may be of value in contributing stored grain insect
resistance to a hybrid.

Among the five tests for the effect of reciprocal crosses there was one
instance in which a reciprocal cross resulted in a highly significant differ-
ence in stored grain insect damage to hybrids with the same inbred lines in
their parentage. Otherwise, reciprocal crossing resulted in no significant
differences in respect to either earworm or stored grain insect damage.

Among the commercial hybrids, lopop 6 received significantly less ear-
worm damage than lopop 8. The commercial hybrids did not differ significantly
from the experimental hybrids.






1960.


Table 1. The Characteristics, Performance and Quality of 19 Varieties of Popcorn at Belle Glade, Florida.


Yields, Dis- Ear Wt. Offi- Weight Height, Ft. Ears Shell- Avg.
Lbs./A. @ ease Corn Per cial Volume Stalk Ear per ing Times Yields,
Varieties and 15.5% Index Quality Bu. Volume Test 25'Row Percent- Grown, Lbs./A.
Entry Numbers 2/ Index 3/ Lbs. Test / 5/ No. age Years 15.55
r7 Af A TM P. n a n 4 -7 03 Li 0 115 7 ; 3 R 47 81 4


.r -- --3u. -.
" A-88-KP-28
" A-88-3896
" A-88-3854*
" A-54-38E4
" A-KP-3138
Nebraska 104
ASF A-54-3868&:
" A-88-5696*
Purdue 213
o1pop 8
lopop 6
ASF A-28-38E8
" A-38-KPE8
" A-Pf-KP-38
" A-EP-3861
" A-88-4496
" A-38-2868
" A-30-KPEl


L. V
0.8
1.0
0.8
1.8
2.4
2.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.5
0.9
1.8
0.9
1.5
2.1


..
8.5
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
8.5
9.0
9.0
9.0
8.5
9.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
8.5
9.5
8.5


68.1
66.8
67.7
66.8
67.7
66.4
67.2
67.7
68.6
66.8
66.8
67.7
67.2
66.8
67.7
67.7
66.8
67.2


41.7
42.5
43.3
38.9
37.4
39.2
42.2
43.1
37.3
37.7
37.1
38.1
40.9
41.6
38.1
41.8
40.7
37.6


1160
1200
1220
1110
1055
1115
1190
1200
1025
1065
1045
1085
1150
1180
1080
1180
1155
1065


6.0
7.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
7.0
7.0
6.5
7.0

7.5
7.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0


3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5


85.3
83.1
82.1
80.7
81.1
84.0
82.3
82.2
83.6
82.3
83.2
81.6
83.2
82.9
83.6
84.6
81.0
85.0


3 2620


3925
3820
3915
3665


5435
5195
5170
5140
5040
5040
4930
4795
4755
4720
4675
4575
4575
4510
4245
4160
4080
3905


L~ L.S.D. for yields .05 = 915 Ibs.; .01 = 1220 lbs. Yields joined by the same multiple-range line are not signi-
ficantly different; others are.


2/ 0.5 resistant to 5.0 susceptible to Northern leaf blight.
CRD-AES-USDAA.


Readings on May 23, 1960 by Miss Alice L. Robert,


A score of 10.0 indicates a perfect popcorn ear; 9 is very good; 8 is good.
Popping expansion volume ratio Popped: Raw
Cubic inches of popped corn per pound of raw popcorn grain.
Commercial numbers assigned to these experimental hybrids are: A88-3854 is A-354; A54-3888 is A-104S;
A88-5696 is A-225.
Planted February 10, 1960; Harvested June 30, 1960.


2 3470







Table 2. Average Yields of Popcorn Varieties Grown More Than One Year. 1952-1960. Belle Glade, Florida

Variety Name Yields, Ibs. pers acre @ 15.5% moisture, shelled grain
or Number Times Grown
Comparable/
1 2 3 4 5 6 Average Yield, % 1I
6 Central 4 1860 2270 2990 2255 1615 520 1918 86
SCentral 1 1930 2990 4610 3085 1950 --- 2913 130
Purdue 32 2200 2515 1540 435 2015 --- 1741 78
Central 2 1745 2080 2750 2500 --- --- 2269 102
Central 115 3330 1980 2370 1200 ----- 2220 100
4 Purdue 31 1600 2560 1950 570 ---- --- 1670 75
Purdue 202 2335 985 550 1540 -- -- 1353 61
Central 5 585 1480 2345 --- ---- -- 1469 66
Central 105 1985 1670 1365 ---- ---- --- 1672 75
3 YS(BS)F11 3670 2125 1395 ---- ---- --- 2394 107
ASF 54-3435" 3120 1690 1460 ---- ---- --- 2088 94
ASF 54-3437** 2555 1420 2050 ---- -- 2006 90
Nebraska 104 905 1930 5040 ---- ---- --- 2622 118
Central 3 2065 2020 ---- ---- ---- --- 2043 92
Central 110 2600 1380 -- --- ---- --- 1990 89
Central 112 2780 950 ---- ---- ---- --- 1865 84
ASF 92-3454*** 2735 1350 --- ---- --- 2043 92
2 ASF 2894-3856 1215 1760 ---- --- --- 1488 67
ASF A-81 1120 1375 ---- --- -- 1248 56
ASF 38-5696./ 3050 4795 ---- ---- -- 3923 176
ASF 88-4496 2775 4160 ---- --- --- --- 468 15A
Purdue 213 2880 4755 ---- ---- --- 3818 171
lopop 6 2650 4675 --- -- ---- --- 3663 164
IoPop 8 3110 4720 ---- ---- ---- 3915 176


* Same as Central 7-303

L/ Perccat of the mean of the 23
(222L lbs.).


** Same as Central 7-310


*** Same as Central 7-336


varieties grown the entire period for the actual years each variety was grown


Same as A-225










Table 3. Average Ear Diameter, Ear Length, Earworm Damage, and
Grain Insect Damage Among Commercial and Experimental
Hybrids. Belle Glade, Florida. 1960.


Stored
Popcorn


Ear Earworm Stored Grain
Diameter Ear length Damage Insect Damage
Hybrid (cm.) (inches) Index a_ % Damaged Kernels2/

ASF A-KP-3138 3.0 7.0 164 7.0
" A-KP-3888 3.0 7.0 178 13.3
Iopop 6 3.5 6.0 185 10.3
ASF A-38-KP81 3.0 6.0 188 9.0
" A-88-5696 3.0 6.5 190 8.8
" A-KP-3881 2.5 6.5 193 10.3
Nebraska 104 3.0 6.5 193 12.5
ASF A-88-4496 3.0 6.5 195 6.8
" A-38-KP88 3.0 6.5 200 10.8
" A-54-3884 3.0 7.0 200 11.8
" A-54-3888 3.0 7.0 201 14.5
" A-28-3888 3.0 6.0 203 7.8
" A-38-2888 3.0 6.0 206 20.0
" A-88-3896 3.0 6.5 206 13.3
Purdue 213 3.0 6.0 209 9.3
ASF A-88-KP38 3.0 6.0 217 10.8
Iopop 8 3.0 6.0 226 17.3
ASF A-88-3854 3.0 7.0 241 14.0
" A-88-KP28 3.0 7.0 300 19.8

a/ 0 would indicate no damage, 500 would indicate the highest possible
damage that could be indicated by the rating system.

b/ The Student-Newman-Keuls Test indicated that ASF A-KP-3138 received
significantly less earworm damage than ASF A-88-3854 or ASF A-88-KP28
and that ASF A-88-KP28 received significantly more earworm damage than
any other variety.

c/ The Student-Newman-Keuls Test indicated no significant differences
among the popcorn hybrids.







Table 4. Analysis of Variance for Corn Earworm Damage to Commercial and
Experimental Popcorn Hybrids. Belle Glade, Florida. 1960.


Source of Variation a/ d

Blocks

Treatments 1

Iopop 6(185) vs. Iopop 8 (226)

lopop (206) vs. Purdue 213 and Nebraska 104 (201)

Purdue 213 (209) vs. Nebraska 104 (193)

Commercial (203) vs. ASF Experimental Hybrids (205)

88-KP28 (300) vs. Others with KP (190)

KP-3831 (164) vs. Others with both KP and 38 (195)
All with KP (206) vs. All without KP (205)

91 (191) vs. 88 (198) in presence of both KP and 38
Reciprocal Cross: KP-3888 (178) vs. 38-KP88 (200)

KP-3888 & 38-KP88 (189) vs. 88-KP38
(217)

KP-3881 (193) vs. 38-KP81 (188)
28-3888 (203) vs. 38-2888 (206)

54-3888 (201) vs. 88-3854 (241)

28-3888 and 38-2888 (205) vs. 54-3888 and 88-3854(221)
All with 96 (197) vs. All without 96 (214)

54-3884 (200) vs. All with 88 without KP (206)
88-3896 (206) vs. 88-496 (195)

88-3896 and 88-4496 (201) vs. 88-5696 (190)
Error 5


.f. MS

3 516.65
8 3268.49

1 3362.00
1 76.56

1 496.13

1 58.62

1 41485.71

1 3244.80
1 3.22

1 294.53

1 986.00

1 2090.67

1 50.00

1 18.00

1 3200.00
1 1089.00

1 1701.00
1 126.00

1 253.13

1 315.38
4 813.01


a/ Figures in brackets refer to average earworm damage scores.

b/ F values in brackets were obtained by dividing the error mean square by
the treatment mean square.


I


(1.57)
4.02**

4.14*

(10.62)

(1.64)

(13.87)
51.03*

3.99
(252.49)*

(2.76)

1.19

2.57

(16.26)
(45.17)

3.94
1.34
2.09

(6.45)

(3.21)
(2.58)







Table 5. Analysis of Variance for Stored Grain Insect Damage to Commercial
and Experimental Popcorn Hybrids. Belle Glade, Florida. 1960.
J i L,, 'i ', J J l, l "


Source of Variation a/


d.f. MS F b/


Blocks 3 24.92

Treatments 18 60.17

lopop 6 (10.8) vs. lopop 8 (17.3) 1 84.50

lopop (14.0) vs. Purdue 213 and Nebraska 104 (10.9) 1 39.00
Purdue 213 (9.3) vs. Nebraska 104 (12.5) 1 21.13

Commercial (12.4) vs. ASF Experimental Hybrids (11.8) 1 4.61

88-KP28 (19.8) vs. Others with KP (11.0) 1 262.50

KP-3831 (5.6) vs. Others with both KP and 38 (11.8) 1 76.80
All with KP (11.5) vs. All without IP (12.1) 1 4.65
81 (9.6) vs. 88 (11.6) in presence of both KP and 38 1 18.41

Reciprocal Cross: KP-3888 (13.2) vs. 38-KP88 (10.8) 1 12.50

KP-3888 & 38-KP88 (12.0) vs. 1 4.17
86-KP38 (10.8)
KP-3881 (10.3) vs. 38-KP81 (9.0) 1 3.13

28-3888 (7.8) vs. 38-2888 (20.0) 1 300.13

54-3888 (14.5) vs. 88-3854 (14.0) 1 0.50
28-3888 & 38-2888 (13.9) vs. 54-3888 & 88-3854 (14.3) 1 0.56
All with 96 (9.6) vs. All without 96 (14.1) 1 137.57

54-3884 (11.8) vs. All with 88 without KP (12.1) 1 0.54
88-L896 (13.3) vs. 88-4496 (6.8) 1 84.50

88-3896 & 88-4496 (10.0) vs. 88-5696 (8.8) 1 4.17
Error 54 27.13


a/ Figures in brackets refer to percent kernels damaged by
insects.


stored grain


b/ F values in brackets were obtained by dividing the error mean square by
the treatment mean square.
EES 61-12
300 copies


(1.09)
2.22*

3.11
1.44

(1.28)

(5.89)
9.68**

2.83

(5.83)
(1.47)

(2.17)

(6.51)

(8.67)
11.06**

(54.06)

(48.45)

5.07*

(50.24)

3.11

(6.51)


--




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