Title: Popcorn research in the Everglades.
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Title: Popcorn research in the Everglades.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Green, Victor E. Jr.
Harris, Emmett D. Jr.
Publisher: Everglades Research Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, Fla.
Publication Date: October 31, 1961
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General Note: Everglades Station Mimeo Report 62-8
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rFJ 6 ,,I,


Everglades Station Mimeo Report 62-8 October 31, 1961


POPCORN RESEARCH IN THE EVERGLADES 1961
By
Victor E. Green, Jr. and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.


This report contains results of research with
popcorn grown on organic soils in southern Florida.
The work was conducted cooperatively with the Ames
Seed Farms of Ames, Iowa, who furnished seed and
determined expansion ratios and made quality and
other measurements. This is a continuation of the
work reported in Everglades Station Mimeo Report
60-5 that covered the period 1952-1959 and 61-12
that covered the work in 1960.


AGRONOMIC TESTS

One large variety test was conducted in 1961. It included the fourth
trial with Nebraska 104, the third trial with Purdue 213, lopop 8 and ASF
A-225, the second trial with lopop 10 (Iowa 4258), and ASF varieties A-KP-3888,
A-54-3884, A-104S, A-354, A-88-IKP-28 and A-88-3896, along with 9 new experi-
mental single and three-way crosses from Ames Seed Farms.

Experimental

Soil tests on samples taken from the plot area and analyzed according to
methods in current use at this Station showed a pH value of 5.50, with a P con-
tent of 5 and a K content of 63 pounds per acre. Five hundred pounds per acre
of an 0-12-16 fertilizer containing the indicated percentage of micronutrients
expressed as the oxide: 1.0% Mn, 0.4% B and 0.4% Zn, and 25 pounds of actual
heptachlor per ton were applied to raise the nutrient status and to control
wireworms. Single-row plots were laid out east and west in six randomized
complete blocks of 20 varieties. Ten-foot alleys separated the blocks. Rows
were 3-feet apart and 25 feet long. Outside rows were bordered by rows of pop-
corn. Seed were hill dropped with hand planters every 12 inches on February 13
and the stand was thinned to one plant per foot (14,520 per acre) after the
danger of loss of stand to frost and soil insects had passed.

The experiment was cultivated twice: on February 27 and March 3. Slight
chilling was performed on March 7 and the plots were layed-by on March 21. On
March 8, budworms were controlled with a spray of 1 pint (2 lbs./gal.) heptachlor.
Budworms were not a problem following the one spraying.

The date on which tasselling was at the midpoint was estimated and recorded "
between April 15 and April 18. The varieties were rated for resistance to
northern leaf blight by Miss Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA on May 18. Individual
plant scores were obtained from 10 plants in each of the first four .eplications,
giving a total of 40 readings. On April 26, the height of 5 stalk4; the distance

',:;,'< .. ...:






-2-


the ears on these 5 stalks were from the soil surface, and the number of leaves
on these 5 stalks were recorded for each variety. On May 29, the number of
stalks including both primary and secondary culms, aes recorded for each plot.

The test was harvested on June 5. The ears were pulled by hand and the
husks were not removed. A count was made of the ears harvested in each plot.
After drying at 1100 F in a forced air oven, the snapped corn was weighed.
Ear corn weights were also recorded, and husk percentage by weight of the
snapped corn was calculated for each variety. Samples were taken before husking
of six ears of each variety (one from each replication) for determination of
the length and condition of husk extension beyond the ear tip, moisture percen-
tage of the grain at harvest, ear length, ear diameter, and shelling percentage.

A 12-ear sample of each variety (2 ears from each replication) of husked
corn was sent to the Ames Seed Farms where the corn was conditioned for mois-
ture for prime popping. Percent sellout was re-determined and ear quality and
weight per bushel (test weight) were determined. The weight volume test (WVT)
and official volume test (OVT) were made on popped samples of the grain. The
number of rows of grain were counted on 5 ears.

Yields were calculated at 13.0% moisture in both pounds per acre and bushels
per acre. An analysis of variance was performed on the yield data. Since a
highly significant F test was indicated, the yield data were subjected to a
functional analysis of variance using orthogonal class comparisons and the
Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test for the separation of means was
employed at the 55 level of significance.

Correlation coefficients were calculated on the effect on yield of thirteen
characteristics of the plants and the ears. Nine other correlations were made
on the effects of some of the 13 characteristics on each other.

Results

Table 1 lists the varieties, the length of time required for and the date
of tasselling mid-point, the leaf blight index, stalk and ear heights, the aver-
age number of leaves per plant, lodging and the number of stalks per row. All
the varieties were at the mid-point of tasselling almost simultaneously since
only four dates were involved, April 15-18, 51 to 54 days after planting. The
varieties most resistant to northern leaf blights as judged by the average of
40 readings were Cux88, A-88-3896, A-354, A-225 and A-88-KP28, all of which
contain ASF line 88, which is evidently an excellent source of resistance. The
average number of leaves on plants of the varieties varied from 10 to 13. Aver-
age stalk heights varied from 68 to 80 inches while ear placement was between
39 to 49 inches. Lodging and stalk break were not problems in 1961 due to an
excellent growing season and since the grain was harvested at about 25 percent
moisture, while the stalks were still strong.

The average number and characteristic of the ears, grain and husk are
shown in Table 2. The average lengths of the ears varied from about 14 to 19
c.m. and the diameter from 3.0 to 3.8 c.m. Average husk extension was as little
as 3 m.m. and as long as 59 m.m. None of the husk coverage could be classed as
tight. The average number of ears per row varied from 32 to 54 among the varie-
ties. Another measure of the husk coverage was the husk percentage by weight






-3-

Table 1. The Agronomic Characteristics and Performance of 20 Popcorn
Grown on Organic Soil at Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


Tasselling Leaves Stalks


Entry

1

2

3

4

5*

6


mid-point
Date Days


Height, in. per per
Stalk Ear plant row


II


Planted February 13,
acre.


1961.


Range 1 F 2NW.


1 plant every foot. 14,250/


Scratched 2/27, 3/3. Hilled slightly 3/7. Sprayed budworms 1 pint
(#f/gal..) heptachlor. Layed by 3/21. 6 reps.
* Entries 5-20 are experimental hybrids from Ames Seed Farms.
** Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 18, 1961.
Avg. of 40.


Varieties


Cross or
variety

lopop 10

lopop 8

Purdue 213

Nebr. 104

A-105 S

A-221

A-KP-3888

A-281

A-282

A-318

A-345

A-54-3884

A-104 S

A-354

A88-KP28

A-440

A88-3896

A-441

A-225

Cu x 88


4-18

4-17

4-16

4-15

4-15

4 16

4-17

4-15

4-17

4-15

4-15

4-16

4-17

4-15

4-15

4-16

4-16

4-16

4-16

4-15


H. tur.
Index**

3.1

2.3

2.4

3.2

2.3

2.8

2.7

3.2

4.1

3.1

2.1

3.2

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.6

1.9

3.3

2.0

1.5








Table 2. Ear Length and Diameter, Length and Condition of the Husk Cover,
Number of Ears per Unit Length of Row, Percentage Husk by Weight
of Snapped Popcorn, Average Rows of Grains on the Ears, and Rela-
tive Maturity as Reflected by Moisture Content at Harvesttime.
Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


Rows
Ears Husk of Adjusted
Ear Husk Per % of Grain/ Moisture
Length, Diam., Extension 25' Snapped Ear at
c.m. c.m. m.m. Cond.* Row Corn Avg. Harvest


1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.


lopop 10 15.3

lopop 8 14.8

Purdue 213 13.8

Nebraska 104 18.9

ASF A-105 S 18.0

" A-221 17.5

" A-KP-3888 16.4

" A-281 17.1

" A-282 18.6

" A-318 17.3

" A-345 16.6

" A-54-3884 18.1

" A-104S 18.9

" A-354 16.2

" A-88-KP 28 16.8

" A-440 17.2

" A-88-3896 15.7

" A-441 17.4

" A-225 15.6

" CuX88 15.3


3.1

3.1

3.6

3.8

3.3

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.0

3.1

3.0

3.3

3.1

3.0

3.2

3.5

3.0

3.-7

3.2

3.2


4.1

6.4

6.3

6.1

7.4

4.0

11.8

7.6

6.7

6.3

6.6

4.5

6.7

3.2

5.4

6.1

9.6

5-9 .

6.3

6.9


16.4

19.2

16.0

18.0

18.0

17.6

14.8

17.2

14.8

16.8

18.0

17.2

18.4

18.8

16.8

17.2

16.8

16.8

15.2

16.8


6 Reps, 25' rows; Rows east and
Planted: February 13, 1961


;est, 3' apart. 14,520/acre.
Harvested: June 5, 1961.


* Condition L = loose, M a medium, T = tight, IM = Loose to medium,
medium to loose.


15.8

19.1

16.2

18.1

17.1

16.1

16.8

17.9

15.4

17.3

15.0

17.4

17.3

15.8

15.1

17.3

16.4

16.8

16.5

17.0


ML =








Table 3. The Yields and Quality of 20 Popcorn Varieties Grown on Organic Soil
at Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


Entry

1.



3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.


I


YE
G
Nj


*


Ye


* Score of 8.5 = good; 7.5 = fairly good. Combined ear corn and shelled corn
appearance.
** WVT = cubic inches of popped corn per pound of raw popcorn; OVT volumes
of popped corn per volume of raw popcorn.


I


Variety or Cross

Iopop 10

Iopop 8

Purdue 213

Nebraska 104

ASF A-105 S

" A-221

" A-KP-3888

" A-281

" A-282

" A-318

" A-345

" A-54-3884

" A-104S

" A-354

" A-88-KP 28

" A-440

" A-88-3896

" A-441

" A-225

" cux88


Yields,
Lbs./A. @
13 HPIO

2925

4470

4755

4085

4460

7295

3760

3230

2635

3320

4010

4795

4290

4180

4185

4160

3360

4375

3485

4205


ears Avg. Shell-
rown Yield out Qual-
lo. Lbs./A. % ity*

2 2170 81.7 7.5

3 4100 80.4 8.5

3 4130 82.0 8.3

4 2990 80.5 8.0

80.4 7.7

82.1 7.5

2 4710 82.8 7.5

80.5 6.5

82.6 8.0

80.3 7.5

83.2 7.7

2 4975 83.6 7.5

2 4610 80.4 7.5

2 4675 82.2 7.5

2 4810 84.1 7.7

80.4 7.5

2 4280 80.0 7.8

83.0 8.3

3 3775 82.9 7.0

80.9 8.5


Wt./
Bu.
Lbs.

66.3

65.8

68.0

66.8

66.8

66.4

67.7

67.2

67.2

66.3

67.7

67.2

67.2

67.7

68.0

67.0

67.7

67.2

66.4

67.7


Expansion
Ratios**
WVT OVT

1080 37.8

1040 36.5

1045 37.3

1050 37.0

1110 39.1

1200 41.4

1170 41.6

1200 41.7

1210 42.2

1210 41.9

1170 41.4

1000 35.6

1095 38.7

1160 41.0

1135 40.6

1150 40.1

1205 42.4

1105 38.7

1225 42.8

950 34.1








of the snapped corn. This varied in the varieties from 3.2 to 11.8 percent.
The numbers of rows of kernels varied from 14 to 22, and the averages are shown.

Table 3 shows the yields for 1961, the average yields for the number of
years tested, shelling percentage, ear corn quality and expansion ratios. The
varieties with the best expansion upon popping were A-225, A-88-3896, A-282,
A-318, A-281, A-KP-3888, A-221, A-345, and A-354, all of which had ratios
greater than 41:1.

Table 4 ranks the varieties from the highest to lowest in yields and sets
forth the parentage of each variety. Since no U. S. standards for popcorn have
been established, yields in pounds were calculated into bushels by using the
prime moisture for popping of 13 percent and dividing by the actual test weight,
which in all cases, exceeded 65 pounds per bushel. Although weight per bushel
had no effect on popping expansion (r = 0.022 n.s.), each variety is penalized
by the test weight over 65 pounds. In the variety Purdue 213 with a test weight
of 68, the penalty was three bushels.

The highest yielding varieties with the greatest expansion were ASF A-354
and A-345. It will be noticed from the data in Tables 3 and 4 that the highest
yielding popcorns were not the best for popping quality.

Where "r" values were calculated on the effect of yield on the popping
quality of the corn, it was found that each year the yielding ability of the
variety had no effect on popping quality, but for cumulated years it was found
that there were highly significant or significant correlations between high
yields and good popping quality. This should not be surprising, since many of
the same factors affect the popping quality affect yield. The individual values
are shown in Table 5.

Table 4 also shows the significance between variety yields. The combined
effect of yield and popping quality can be seen by comparing the varieties
according to expansion per acre in cubic feet in the rightmost column.

In addition to the Neuman-Kuels test, the single degree of freedom analysis
shows yield differences, in this case as affected by parentage. These data can
be seen in Table 6. In comparison 2, the average of lines 54 and 56 was higher
yielding when compared to line 51, when all three-way crosses contained lines
38 and 88. The difference was highly significant. Or, A-106S and A-440 were
better than A-221.

In comparison 4, three-way crosses containing both lines 38 and 88 highly
significantly outyielded all other three-way crosses. A significant difference
in yield in three-way crosses containing lines 88 and 40J was noted when either
line A or 56 was also in the three-way cross, line A being higher yielding than
line 56. In other words, A-281 outyielded A-282. See comparison 5.

In comparison 7, all three-way crosses containing line 38 but not 88 out-
yielded to a highly significant degree those three-way crosses that contained
line 88 but not line 38. Or in other words, A-441 and A-345 outyielded A-318,
A-281, and A-282.





-7-


Table 4. Parentage, Yields of Grain in Pounds and Bushels Per Acre and Signi-
ficance Among Varieties of Popcorn in the 1961 test. Belle Glade,
Florida.

Expan-
Variety Name Yields/A Significance-/ sion
or Parentage @13% H20/I Student-Newman Per A,
Entry Designation Seed Parent Pollen Parent Lbs. Bus. Kuels Test @5%. Cu.Ft.


A-54-3884
Purdue 213
lopop 8
A-106 S
A-441
A-104 S
Cu x 88
A-440
A-354
Nebraska 104
A-88-KP-28
A-345
A-KP-3888
A-225
A-318
A-221
A-88-3896
A-281
Iopop 10
A-282


A
Sgl8
Sgl8
.88-3
31
A
Cu-2
38
A
Sgl8
A
38
A
A
18
51
A
A
Sgl8
56


54
Sg1533
Sg30A
88A
38N
54

88
88
Sg30A
88
81
KP
88
51
38E
88
88
Sg69
88


38 84
Ia28
Ia28 Ia61
54
66
38 88
88
66
38 54
N42
KP 28
54
38 88
56 96
88G
88
38 96
40J
Ia28 Ia61
40J


_/ Yields in Pounds = actual weights of
best popping moisture.


grain extrapolated to acre yields at


Yields in Bushels = Acre yields in pounds divided by test weight of variety.

2/ Bushel means connected by the same range line are not significantly different
from each other. Means not connected by the same range line are signifi-
cantly different from each other.


4795
4755
4470
4460
4375
4290
4205
4160
4180
4085
4185
4010
3760
3485
3320
3295
3360
3230
2925
2635


71.3
70.1
67.8
66.8
65.3
64.1
62.1
62.1
61.8
61.3
61.3
59.1
55.6
52.5
50.5
49.8
49.8
48.1
44.1
39.5


2775
2875
2690
2865
3038
2718
2312
2769
2806
2482
2749
2715
2546
2471
2325
2288
2343
2243
1828
1845




-8-


In comparison 9, those varieties containing lines A, 38 and 88 in four-
way crosses highly significantly outyielded each other on the average when the
other two lines were either 96 or KP rather than 54. In other words, A-104 S
and A-354 were better than A-KP-3888 and A-88-3896.

In comparison 12, in four-way crosses containing line A, lines 38, 54 and
84 highly significantly outyielded the varieties that contained lines 56-88-96
or KP-28-88. Or, A-54-38-84 outyielded the average of A-88-KP-28 and A-88-56-
96. Comparison 13 shows that A-88-KP-28 was significantly better than A-88-56-96.

Comparison 14 shows that the average yields of the four-way crosses were
highly significantly better than the average yields of the three-way crosses.

Iopop 8 outyielded lopop 10 to a highly significant degree. This leads to
the conclusion that line Sg30A is better in the hybrids than line Sg69 since
the other three lines in both varieties are identical. See Comparison 16. The
average yield of Purdue 213 variety was highly significantly better than that
of the lopop varieties. See Comparison 17.

The commercial varieties outyielded at odds of 19:1 the ASP experimental
crosses, accordLng to Comparison 19.


All other comparisons not commented on were not significant.
them were individual only to achieve orthogonality conditions.


Most of


Table 5. Correlation Coefficients of the Effect of
Belle Glade, Florida, 1953-1961.


Yield on Quality of Popping.


Years Involved Varieties r value Signif. Needed

1953 4 0 945 N.S. .950
1954 12 0.544 N.S. .576
1953-54 16 0.634 **
1955 -15 0.068 N.S. .514
1953 thru 1955 31 0.424 *
1956 : 19 0.064 N.S. .456
1953 thru 1956 50 0.335 *
1957 21 0.161 N.S. .433
1953 thru 1957 71 0.418 **
1958 18 -0.016 N.S. -.468
1953 thru 1958 89 0.259 *
1959 23 0.264 N.S. .413
1953 thru 1959 112 0.290 **
1960 19 0.294 N.S. .456
1953 thru 1960 131 0.522 **
1961 20 -0.177 N.S. -.444
1953 thru 1961 151 0.555 **





-9-


Table 6. Analysis of Variance for Yield of Commercial
Varieties. Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


and Experimental Popcorn


d.


Source of Variation


Blocks
Treatments 1
1. 54 vs. 66 with 38 and 88, 3-way x
2. 51 vs. avg. of 54 and 66, with 38 and 88,
3-way x
3. 54-81 vs. 31-66 with 38, 3-way x
4. All with both 38 and 88 vs all other 3-way x
5. A vs. 56 with 88-40J, 3-way x
6. 51-18 vs. Avg. of A-40 and 56-40 with 88,
3-way x
7. All w/38 w/no 88 vs. all 88 w/no 38, 3-way x
8. Reciprocal cross with A 38, 54 and 88.
4-way x
9. 54 vs. Avg. of 96 and KP w/A, 38 and 88.
4-way x
10. KP vs. 96 w/A, 38 and 88. 4-way x
11. 38-54-84, 56-88-96, KP-28-88 vs. 38-54-88,
38-88-96, KP-38-88 all with A. 4-way x
12. 38-54-84 vs. avg. of 56-88-96 and KP-28-88
w/A. 4-way x
13. 56-96 vs. KP-28 with A and 88. 4-way x
14. 3-way x vs. 4-way x
15. Cu x 88 vs. all other experimental hybrids
16. Iopop 10 vs. lopop 8. Sg69 vs. Sg30A
17. lopop vs. Purdue 213
18. Iopop and Purdue 213 vs. Nebraska 104
19. Commercial vs. Experimental
Error 9,


f. MS
367.99
480.07
1 65.33


860.44
114.08
563.57
225.33

177.78
1888.27


1 16.33 (3.10)2


630.38
102.08


1 152.24 3.00


831.36
234.08
421.20
138.14
1680.33
802.77
1.68
216.01
50.69


l/ A value of 3.95 at the 5% level and 6.91 at the 1% level of significance is
required.
(2) p values in parentheses were obtained by dividing the error mean square
(lesser) by the treatment mean square (greater).


F
7.26
9.47
1.29

16.88
2.25
11.12
4.45

3.51
37.24


12.44
2.01


16.40
4.62
8.31
2.71
32.97
15.75
(30.17)2
4.24


_ _


Sig.

**w


N.S,
**





N.S.
**

*L

**








N.S.


**

**
N.S.


*18


*




-10-


Table 7 shows the correlation coefficients of the effect on yield of cer-
tain characters of the plants, leaves, ears, etc. The characters that were
found to affect yields were I) the weight of grain per ear of corn, 2) the dia-
meter of the ear, 3) the number of rows of grain on the cob and the number of
ears per unit of length of row in the field.

Table 8 shows that, in turn, the weight of grain per ear is greatly
affected by the volume of the ear in cubic centimeters and diameter of the ear.
Likewise, the number of ears per row is greatly influenced by the number of
stalks per row of corn.

In a further effort to determine which were the factors that act to cause
high corn yields, data were found in the "Races of Maize" series (see footnotes
to Table 9) on certain characters of the races of corn in Mexico, Cuba, and
Colombia. These data were chosen because the varieties involved were thought
to be closer to the natural state than could be found elsewhere, and because
of the excellent manner in which the data were collected and presented.

The inter-relation of the factors should give some insight into which
factor to stress in a popcorn improvement program. Reference should be made
to Tables 7, 8, and 9. A graphic presentation of these factors is shown in
Figure 1.

Remembering that the ear diameter greatly affected yield, the question
arises, "what affects the diameter to give rise to higher yields?" Figure 1
shows that the answer is kernel length and cob diameter.


Table 7. Correlation coefficients of the effect of certain factors of the
growth of the plants, leaves, ears, etc. on the yield of popcorn.
Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.

Correlation: Correlation
Yield with: Coefficientl
1. Weight of grain per ear of corn 0.520 *
2. Diameter of ear 0.506 *
3. Rows of grain on the ear 0.476 *
4. Number of ears per row of corn 0.453 *
5. Helminthosporium rating -0.387 N.S.
6. Volume of the ear in cu. cm, 0.385 N.S.
7. Number of stalks per row of corn 0.333 N.S.
8. Ear length -0.315 N.S.
9. Ear placement on stalk 0.281 N.S.
10. Area of the ear surface 0.251 N.S
11. Length x Diameter of Ear 0.215 N.S.
12. Height of the stalks 0.087 N.S.
13. Number of leaves per plant 0.036 N.S
I/ Sig @ 18DF: 0.444 @ 5%; 0.561 @ 1%.





-11-


Table 8. Correlation Coefficients of Certain Characteristics of Popcorn with
Other Characteristics of that Plant. Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


X Y r
1. Volume of the ear in cu. cm. Weight of grain per ear 0.826 **
2. Weight of rain per ear Diameter of the ear 0.772 **
3. Number of stalks per row Number of ears per row 0.616 **
4. Weight of grain per ear Rows of grains per ear 0.355 N.S.
5. Weight of grain per ear Ear length 0.288 N.S.
6. Diameter of the ear Number of ears per row -0.242 N.S.
7. Height of the stalk Number of leaves per plant 0.085 N.S.
8. Weight per bushel Expansibility of the kernels 0.041 N.S.
9. Diameter of the ear Rows of grains per ear 0.006 N.S.

I/ Sig. @ 18DF: 0.444 @ 5%; 0.561 @ 1%.


Table 9. Correlations Among Characters in Races of Corn in Mexico, Cuba and
Colombia.


Character Character
X Y Mexicol/ Cuba2/ Colombia_
1. Diameter of the ear Diameter of the cob 0.779 ** 0.929 ** 0.925 **
2. Diameter of the ear Length of the kernel 0,770 ** 0.891 o* 0.843 **
3. Diameter of the a'c'bLength of the kernel 0.309 N.S. 0.355 N.S. 0.740 **
4. Diameter of the ear Number of rows of8 N 0
kerels 0.245 N.s. 0.498 N.s. 0.269 N.s.
kernels
5. Diameter of the cob Number of rows of .363 N.S.
O.10 N.S. 0.059 N.S. 0.363 N.S.
kernels

/ Wellhausen, E. J., L. M. Roberts and E. Hernandez in collaboration with
Paul C. Mangelsdorf. Races of Maize in Mexico, Their Origin, Character-
istics and Distribution. The Lussey Institution of Harvard University.
1952. Data consisted of 25 to 27 entries. Sig. @ 23 DF: 0.396 @ 5%; 0.505
@ 1%. Sig @ 25 DF: 0.381 @ 5%; 0.487 @ 1%.


/ Hatheway, Wm. H. Races of Maize in Cuba.
D. C. 1957. Data consisted of 7 entries.
0.d74 @ 1%.


Pub. 453. NAS-NRC. Washington,
Sig. @ 5 DF: 0.754 A 5%;


/ Roberts, C. M., U. J. Grant, R. Ramirez E., W. H. Hatheway, and D. L. Smith
in collaboration with Paul C. Mangeledorf. Razee de Maiz en Colombia.
Bul. Tec. 2. Min. of Agic. of Colombia, Bogota. 1957. Sig. @ 19 DF:
0.433 @ 5%; 0.549 A 1%. Data consisted of 21 entries.





-12-


The only highly significant correlation coefficients among factors affect-
ing individual ears were the effect of the volume of the ear and the diameter
of the ear on the weight of grain per ear. It should be remembered that the
length of the ear and the length x diameter of the ear had no affect on ear
yields or acre yields. Therefore, the data indicate, that varieties should be
selected that have a larger diameter, and hence a greater volume.

These observations have a mathematical proof. If the ear of the commonly
grown hybrid popcorns is considered to be a cylinder, then it is seen that the
volume is affected much more by diameter than by length, since the volume is
derived by multiplying the value of pi (3.1416) by the square of the radius,
and multiplying the product by the height, with all measurements being in the
same units. Sample calculations showed that increasing the length one centi-
meter was about equal to increasing the diameter one-*enth centimeter as
regards increasing the total volume of the ear. Table 10 shows, with the size
ears common to the present-day hybrids in use, that each increase in diameter
of one-tenth centimeter permits a decrease of one centimeter in length to
maintain the same volume for the ear. Note the underscored values.


Table 10.


Volume of a cylinder with diameters from 3.0 to 3.8 and lengths
from 13 to 19, covering the range of measurements of popcorn ears
in the 1961 test at Belle Glade. V = pir2h.


To nearest cubic centimeter
h
d 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
3.0 92 99 106 113 120 127 134
3.1 98 106 113 121 128 136 143
3.2 105 113 121 129 137 145 153
3.3 111 120 128 137 145 154 162
3.4 118 127 136 145 154 163 173
3.5 125 135 144 154 i63 173 183
3.6 132 143 153 163 173 183 193
3.7 140 150 161 172 183 193 204
3.8 147 159 170 181 193 204 215


Drill Spacing and Population Test


In addition to the variety test, a drill spacing test was planted to
ascertain the optimum spacing between popcorn plants rows three feet apart.
This test was near the variety test on extensions of tne same rows on similarly
treated soil of the same fertility. The two tests received the same fertilizer
and insecticides. The spacing test was planted two days later, on February 15,
and harvested on June 5 and 6, 1961. Plots consisted of 21 rows 3 feet apart.
There were 3 treatments in 3 replications. Treatments consisted of drill spac-
ings 6, 9, and 12 inches in the row giving populations of 29,040, 21,780, and
14,520 per acre. The plot design was the randomized complete block. Total





-13-


plot yield was harvested, shelled and weighed. Samples were taken for moisture
determination, and acre yields were calculated for shelled grain at 13% mois-
ture. An analysis of variance was performed on the data and the means were
separated by the Student-Newman-Kuels test at the 5% level. The data showed
that the six and nine-inch spacings were not significantly different from each
other, but they were both significantly better than the 12-inch spacing as
regards yields.

These data agree with those presented earlier that the yield is influenced
by an increase in the number of ears included in the yield, which in turn, is
highly significantly influenced by the number of stalks per row. On the basis
of this test, all future variety tests will be planted and thinned to single
hills six inches apart. It would seem that optimum spacing and populations
for popcorn more closely approach that for sweet corn than for field corn in
the Everglades.


Table 11. Popcorn Yields as Affected by Drill Spacing, Belle Glade, Florida.
1961.

Plants
Spacing Per Yields, Pounds per Acre @ 13% Moisture
inches Acre I II III Total Average Signifilance*

6 29,040 3716 4288 3948 11952 3984
9 21,780 4148 3123 3461 10732 3577
12 14,520 2809 2646 2841 8296 2765

* Means joined by ohe same line are not significantly different from each other.
Table 12 shows the average yields of a number of popcorn varieties that
have been grown from 2 and 6 years at Belle Glade. It will be noted that the
longer a variety is grown, generally the lower will be the average yield. This
is due to the variety being grown in a number of bad corn years. Of the varie-
ties of which seed are commercially available, the following are recommended
for those who might plant popcorn in southern Florida: Nebraska 104, Purdue
213, lopop 8, and ASF A-225. On the basis of one to two years results, the
following varieties are recommended: ASF A-54-3884, A-106 S, A-441, A-104 S,
A-440, A-354, and A-88-KP-28. All of the above named varieties possess suit-
ably high popping quality, above 36 volumes.

Table 13 shows the average expansion ratio of the varieties grown between 2
and 5 years. The expansion varies from year to year much as the yields do.
The lowest expansions have been obtained in years when leaf blight was a pro-
blem. Two-year average expansion figures of above 40 volumes were common among
the varieties.







The Average Yields of Popcorn Varieties
more than once between 1952-1961.


Grown at Belle Glade, Florida


Times Grown
1 2 3 4


5 6 Total Avg.


Central 4
Central 1
Purdue 32 (K4)
Nebraska 104
Central 2
Central 115
Purdue 31
Purdue 202
Purdue 213
lopop 8
ASF A-88-5696 (A-225)
Cuba Ys(RS)F11 (OP)
ASF 54-3425 (C-7-303)
ASF 54-3437 (C-7-310)
Central 105
Central 5
ASF A-54-3884
ASF A88-KP28
ASF AKP-3888
ASF A88-3854 (A-354)
ASF A54-3888 (A-104 s)
ASF A88-3896
Iopop 6
ASF 88-4496
Iopop 10
ASF 92-3454 (C-7-336)
Central 3
Central 110
Central 112
ASF 2894-3856
ASF A-81


1860
1930
2200
905
1745
3330
1600
2335
2880
3110
3050
3670
3120
2555
1985
585
5150
5435
5655
5170
4930
5195
2650
2775
1415
2735
2065
2600
2780
1215
1120


2270
2990
2515
1930
2080
1980
2560
985
4755
4720
4795
2125
1690
1420
1670
1480
4795
4185
3760
4180
4290
3360
4675
4160
2925
1350
2020
1380
950
1760
1375


2990
4610
1540
5040
2750
2370
1950
550
4755
4470
3485
1395
1460
2050
1365
2345


2255
3085
435
4085
2500
1200
570
1540


1615
1950
2015


520 11510
14565
8705
11960
9075
8880
6680
5410
12390
12300
11330
7190
6270
6025
S5020
4410
9945
9620
9415
9350
9220
8555
7325
6935
4340
4085
4085
3980
3730
2975
2495


Table 12.


1918
2913
1741
2990
2269
2220
1670
1353
4130
4100
3777
2397
2090
2008
1673
1470
4973
4810
4708
4675
4610
4278
3663
3468
2170
2043
2043
1990
1865
1488
1248


_ __ _I




-15-


Table 13. The Average Expansion Ratio (OVT) of Popcorn Varieties Grown at
Belle Glade, Florida more than once between 1953-1961.

Times Grown
1 2 3 4 5 Total Average
Central 4 33.5 39.0 38.0 31.5 37.0 179.0 35.8
Purdue 32 (K4) 31.5 34.0 24.0 31.8 34.7 156.0 31.2
Nebraska 104 33.4 35.2 39.2 37.0 144.8 36.2
"Central 1 32.5 37.5 36.0 34.0 140.0 35.0
Purdue 202 38.0 27.0 35.8 33.5 134.3 33.6
Central 115 35.0 29.0 33.0 29.0 126.0 31.5
Purdue 31 30.0 34.0 24.0 28.0 116.0 29.0
ASF 88-5696 (A-225) 40.1 43.1 42.8 126.0 42.0
lopop 8 36.8 37.7 36.5 111.0 37.0
Purdue 213 35.1 37.3 37.3 109.7 36.5
ASF 54-3435 (C7-303) 30.0 74.0 35.9 99.9 33.3
Central 2 31.0 36.0 32.0 99.0 33.0
ASF 54-3437 (07-310) 29.0 31.8 36.2 97.0 32.3
Central 105 32.0 26.0 34.5 92.5 30.8
Cuba YS(RS)F11 (OP) 23.0 33.0 33.0 89.0 29.6
ASF 88-3896 42.5 42.4 84.9 42.5
ASF A88-3854 (A-354) 43.3 41.0 84.3 42.2
ASF AKP-3888 41.2 41.6 82.8 41.4
ASF A88-KP28 41.7 40.6 82.3 41.2
ASF A54-3888 (A104 S) 42.2 38.7 80.9 40.5
ASF 88-4496 38.6 41.8 80.4 40.2
lopop 10 37.0 37.8 74.8 37.4
ASF A-54-3884 38.9 35.6 74.5 37.3
ASF A-81 37.0 35.1 72.1 36.1
Iopop 6 33.9 37.1 71.0 35.5
ASF 2894-3856 37.5 33.1 70.6 35.3
Central 5 30.0 40.0 70.0 35.0
Central 112 35.0 30.5 65.5 32.8
Central 110 33.0 30.0 63 0 31.5
ASF 92-3454 (07-336) 35.0 27.0 62.0 31.0

EES 62-8
150 Copies







Figure 1. Factors affecting the yield of popcorn and the inter-relation of some of these factors.


Volume
Sof the
ear Ear length

N.S. 'Yield
N Weight
of---- Rows of kernels
Yield --- of ______
Grain
per
Ear
ear .
\* diameter
N.S Number of diameter
Number ears per
Stalks --> unit row Yield
per
row
I.S. ,
Yield---
N. S. Helminthosporium rating
N.S.. Ear height
N.S., Stalk height --.N
S Leaves per plant
N.S., Area of the ear surface
L.S. Length x Diameter of the ear


Kernel length
A,
I Mex.
N.S. Mex.
Cuba
** Colom.
Cob diameter
,Mex.
N.S.i Cuba
I Colom.
--- Rows of kernels


Number of ears
per unit row


LEGEND


N.S. Not significant
* Significant
** Highly significant
Mex. Mexico
Colom. Colombia






-17-


ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

Degrees of earworm damage and stored grain insect damage were evaluated
on September 19, 1961, following open storage after harvest. Each of 25 ears
from each plot were given an index number (0-5) to indicate the degree of
damage by earworms. An average index was computed and multiplied by 100. The
highest possible index, 500, would indicate the greatest amount of damage.
Because damage to only the side of the ear was practically non-existent, in-
dexing was based only on damage starting at the tip of the ear as follows:

Index Fraction of Length of Ear Damaged
0 No damage
1 One-eighth or less
2 One-eighth to one-fourth
3 One-fourth to three-eighths
4 Three-eighths to one-half
5 Greater than one-half

To evaluate the degree of damage by stored grain insects, 100 kernels were
taken randomly from each plot after the corn was shelled; kernels with emergence
holes made by emerging adults were counted. This method only evaluated that
damage caused by insect species able to damage whole kernels.

Earworm damage is caused by either the corn earworm, Heliothis zea(Boddie)
or the fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda (J.E. Smith). The stored grain insect
involved was the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus). The average degrees
of each type of damage to each variety are shown in Table 14.

Varieties did not differ significantly in degree of stored grain insect
damage. When combined with inbreds 38 and 88 in 3-way crosses, the average
degree of earworm damage with inbreds 54 and 66 was significantly less than
that with inbred 51 (Table 15 Comparison 2). The combination of inbreds
38 and 88 in 3-way crosses resulted in significantly less earworm damage than
either used alone (Comparison 4). However, other inbreds were not equally
represented on both sides of the comparison. Inbred 38 resulted in signifi-
cantly less damage than inbred 88 (Comparison 7) in 3-way crosses, but again
other inbreds were not represented equally on both sides of the comparison.
The 4-way crosses had highly significantly less damage than the 3-way crosses
(Comparison 14). Iopop 10 had highly significantly less damage than lopop 8
(Comparison 16); this might imply that inbred Sg69 was able to impart a greater
degree of resistance than Sg30A. Nebraska 104 received highly significantly
less damage than the average of the lopops and Purdue 213 (Comparison 18). The
only inbred present in Nebraska 104 that was not in one or more of the other
commercial hybrids was N42.







Table 14. Average Earworm Damage and Stored Grain Insect Damage Among Varieties
of Popcorn in the 1961 test. Belle Glade, Florida.


Entry
5
12
17
20
4
15
14
7
18

1
13
16
19
3
11
6
9
10
8
2


*


Parentage
Parent/Pollen


Variety Name
or
Designation
A-106 S
A-54-3884
A-88-3896
Cu x 88
Nebraska 104
A-88-KP-28
A-354
A-KP-3888
A-441
Iopop 10
A-104 S
A-440
A-225
Purdue 213
A-345
A-221
A-282
A-318
A-281
lopop 8


Seed
38-3
A
A
Cu-2
Sgl8
A
A
A
31
Sgl8
A
38
A
Sgl8
38
51
56
18
A
Sgl8


a/ 0 would indicate no damage, 500 would
that could be indicated by the rating


indicate
system.


the highest possible damage


b/ The Student-Newman-Keuls Test only indicated a significant difference be-
tween the amount of earworm damage to Entry 2 and that to Entries 6, 8, 9,
and 10.


I


88A
54 38
88 38


Sg30A
88 KP
88 38
KP 38
38N
, g69 Ia28
54 38
88
88 56
Sg1533
81
38E
88
51
88
Sg30A Ia28


Parent
54
84
96
88
N42
28
54
88
66
Ia6l
88
66
96
Ia28
54
88
40J
88G
40J
Ia61


Earworm
Damage b/
Index aL
183
185
186
186
187
197
199
200
203
204
205
206
207
211
213
227
229
229
234
260


Stored Grain
Insect Damage
% Damage Kernels
1.0
1.2
2.2
2.0
2.3
1.3
3.7
2.8
3.3
1.7
2.5
4.3
2.3
2.8
1.8
3.7
2.5
4.5
3.3
3.0





-19-
Ahalysis of Variance for Earworm Damage to Commercial and Experimental
Popcorn Varieties. Belle Glade, Florida. 1961.


Source of Variation
(Earworm Scored are parenthetical) d.f.
Blocks 5
Treatments 19
1. 54(183) vs. 66(206) with 38 & 88,(Entry 5 vs 16) 1
2. 51(227) vs avg 54 & 66(195) with 38 & 88 (entry 6 vs 5,16) 1
3. 54-81 (213) vs 31-66 (203) with 38 (Entry 11 vs 18) 1
4. All with both 38 & 88(205) vs all other 3-way x (221) 1
(Entries 5,6,16 vs 11,18,8,9,10)
5. A (234) vs 56 (229) with 88-40 (Entry 8 vs 9) 1
6. 51-18 (229) vs avg A-40 & 56-40 (231) with 88 (Entry 10 vs 8,9) 1
7. All 38 with no 88 (208) vs all 88 with no 38 (231) 1
(Entries 11, 18 vs 8,9,10)
8. Reciprocal cross (205) (199) with A,38,54,88 (Entry 13 vs 14) 1
9. 54 (202) vs avg 96 & KP (186) with A, 38, 88(Entry 13,14 vs 7,17)
10. KP (200) vs 96 (186) with A, 38, 88 (Entry 7 vs 17) 1
11. 38, 88 alone (196) vs 38,88 comb. (197) all with A 1
(Entries 12, 15, 19 vs 7, 13, 14, 17)
12. 38-54-84 (185) vs avg 56-88-96 & KP-28-88 (202) with A 1
(Entry 12 vs 15, 19)
13. 56-96 (207) vs KP-28 (197) with A & 88 (Entry 19 vs 15) 1
14. 3 way (215) vs 4 way (197) crosses (Entries 5.6,8,9.10,1116,18 1
vs 7,12,13,4 1 i5,17,19)
15. Cu x 88 (186) vs all other experimental hybrids (207) 1
(Entry 20 vs 5-19)
16. Iopop 10 (204) vs lopop 8 (260) Sg69 vs Sg30A 1
17. Iopops (232) vs Purdue 213 (211) Sg 1533 vs Sg30A, Sg69, 1
Ia61
18. Iopops & Purdue 213 (225) vs Nebraska 104 (187) 1
19. Commercial Hybrids (216) vs Experimental Hybrids (206) 1
Experimental Error 95


MS
3723.85**
2356.16**
1496.33
4138.78*
310.88
2944.36*

90.75
14.69
3818.o01*

102.08
442.04
588.00
8.38

1100.03

252.08
7607.31**
2418.03

9296.33**
1708.44

6422.22**
2009.01
726.82


Table 15.




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