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Popcorn research, Everglades area.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076901/00003
 Material Information
Title: Popcorn research, Everglades area.
Physical Description: Serial
Creation Date: 1969
 Subjects
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00076901:00003

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Everglades Station limeo Report EES 70-2


1969 Popcorn Tests in the Everglades Area

Victor E. Green, Jr. -


Two popcorn variety tests were conducted in 1969. These were on old muck
that had been used for many years for entomological tests in Field 2E3 of the
Experiment Station. Both tests contained established varieties along with new
varieties. There were 12 varieties in each test. Five varieties were common to
both tests. Two varieties came from the Purdue program, three from the Iowa
program, and the remainder from the Ames Seed Farms (ASF) program 2/.


Materials and Methods

Plots consisted of one row of popcorn 20 feet long and spaced 3 feet from
the adjoining row. All rows were bordered with popcorn. Three replications were
used in randomized complete blocks. Ten-foot alleys separated blocks. The plant
spacing goal was one every 4 inches, or 43,560 plants per acre. The experimental
area was plowed, disked three times, and planted on February 6. No fertilizer
was added to the soil. No wireworm control or seed treatments were used so that
no chemical residues would be left in the soil. The tests were cultivated on
March 19 and April 8. Cutworms and budworms were not problems.

The pollen midpoint was recorded for each variety in each replication on the
date that it occurred. On May 6, the number of leaves per plant, the number of
plants per row, and the resistance to Helminthosporium turcicum were recorded.
On that same day, the averagestalk height and ear height for each variety in each
replication was determined. On the day of harvest, percentage lodging and stalk
break were determined. Harvest occurred on June 5-6, when the ears in their
husks were pulled and counted from each row. The ears from each row were put
into individual orange (onion) sacks and the corn dried for 3 days at about 110
F. or until moisture dropped to between 13-14%. The yields were weighed as
snapped corn, ear corn and shelled corn.

Four ears from each plot, or 12 from each variety in each test, were sent to
the Ames Seed Farms where the Weight Volume Test (WVT) was determined, as well as
scores for ear quality, kernels, hulls, flakes, and "mush". Weight per unit
volume was determined at Belle Glade. The Official Volume Test (OVT), for com-
parison with the WVT, was calculated from a new, revised r rcssi:n -rmul-
derived .from comparing all samples to date where WVT and OVT were actually run.


1/ Agronomist, IFAS, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida 33430.
The writer wishes to acknowledge the aid of Michael Foss, Field Assistant.

2/ Seed for the tests and the determination of the industrial characteristics
of the varieties were courtesy of Mr. Larry r!cHone, Research and Sales, Ames
Seed Farms, Ames, Iowa. R. R. No. 2 50010.


December, 1969






- 2 -


The formula is Y = 0.036X 1.0 where X represents INT in cu. in./lb. and Y =
OVT in volume of popped corn per volume of raw popcorn. Yields were not adjusted
for stands; a perfect stand would have been 62 plants. All yields were corrected,
however, to a 13.5% moisture basis.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In Purdue Research Progress Report 353 of February 1969, Ashman and Reed
state that their criteria for comparisons of popcorn hybrids were yield, popping
expansion, standing ability and maturity. Their hybrids were presented in the
tables in a performance order determined by a rating system.

Hybrids in each trial were given a yield score calculated as
follows: The average yield of all hybrids in a trial was subtracted
from the yield of each hybrid. These differences, positive or nega-
tive depending upon whether a hybrid yielded more or less than the
average of all hybrids, were divided by the Standard Deviation -- a
number derived from the statistical analysis of the data whose value
is a measure of the variability within the trial. An expansion score
for each hybrid was calculated in the same manner, and the sum of
these two scores was taken as the rating for the hybrid.


Data for the two tests herein were calculated in a similar manner.

Tables 1 and 2 show the agronomic characteristics of the hybrids in the 2
tests. One of the indications of earliness is the pollen midpoint date, which
varied from April 2S to May 6. Stalk heights varied from a low of 5.2 feet with
an ear height of 1.8 feet for ASF 200 to stalk heights of 6.8 feet with ears 3
feet off the soil level for lopop 6 and 12. Regarding northern leaf blight, the
most resistant varieties were ASF 222 and 4M4, along with Purdue 410, with ratings
of 1.3 to a rating of 3.3 for that last named hybrid.

Number of leaves per plant increased from about 8 per plant for some of the
ASF hybrids to 10 for some of the Iowa and Purdue entries, while ASF 213 averaged
11 leaves per plant. Lodging was not important, with varieties averaging only
1 to 9 percent.

The number of culms per row (20 feet) was recorded. No differential was
made between culms on the same stool (suckers) and individual stalks. Total
culms per row varied from a low of 31 to a high of 64. The number of ears per
row varied from 17 to 35. The year 1969 did not seem to be a good year for
suckering, as some years have been in the past. In addition, no fertilizer was
put under this year's tests. These two factors reflect themselves in yields and
size of the ears, especially butt diameters. Yields did not exceed 2700 pounds
per acre, with only ASF 213 and SX-7 giving good amounts of grain. Unless ear
butt diameters are 3.3 cm or larger, there will be picker losses in harvesting.
Less than half the varieties approached that figure under the conditions of these
experiments in 1969. The first month of growth in these tests included much
cold weather, which evidently affected the ear sizes.







- 3-


Tables 3 and 4 show the industrial characteristics of the hybrids under
test. The density or plumpness, as against chaffiness, of the kernels was measured
with existing equipment. Standard weight per bushel test equipment showed that
the varieties varied from 58.0 to 64.0 pounds per bushel. Ear qualities were all
low this year, again reflecting the cold weather in the critical early growth of
the popcorn. Kernel scores, the number of kernels in 10 grams of grain, varied
from 70 for the large grained 4M4 to 115 for small grained Purdue 213. The
higher the hull score the less objectionable is the hull on the popped kernel.
Hull and flake scores were very similar to those in recent past years, and show
nothing outstanding during 1969.

Popping quality is shown by the WlT figures as the number of cubic inches of
popped corn which can be derived from one pound of raw popcorn. As a continuing
reference to earlier hybrids, the OVT figures are also shown in the tables. This
OVT used to show the number of volumes of popped corn that could be derived from
a volume of raw corn. Averages for WVT in 1969 were: Test 1--926; Test 2--991.
Hybrids popping above 1100 cu. in. per lb. were: ASF hybrids 231, 313, 332, and
SX-7. OVT equivalents for these are 39.3 to 41.5, which are superior.


SUMMARY

In the final analysis, the two factors affecting selection of a variety for
planting by a grower, provided of course that the variety grew to maturity with-
out succumbing to a serious disease of falling flat on the ground, are yield and
expansion of the kernels upon popping. The Purdue method of obtaining a variety
score was claculated for each variety in the tests reported herein. This system
presupposes that yield and expansion are equally rated to arrive at a variety
score. That is:

VARIETY SCORE = YIELD SCORE + EXPANSION SCORE

Table 5 shows scores for these tests. The highest positive score was made by
ASF SX-7, followed by ASF 332 in both tests, ASF 213, and ASF 313. These are,
therefore, the best varieties tested in 1969 at the Everglades Station.











VEG
EES 70-2
400 copies






Table 1. The agronomic characteristics of 12 popcorn varieties at Belle Glade, Florida. 1969.


Entry Variety


Tassel
Midpoint
Mo/Day


Stalk
Ht./ft


Ear
Ht/ft.


Leaf
Blight
Index 1/


Avg. Number
Leaves/Plant


Lodging
%0


Number per 20'
Row of Corn
Culms Ears


Ear
Length
cm


Diameter
at Butt.
cm 2/


Yields, Lbs/
acre, ears


ASF 200
ASF 213
ASF 220
ASF 222
*ASF 328
*ASF 332
ASF 373
*ASF 410
Iopop 12
*Purdue 213
4M4
*SX-7


5-1
4-30
4-29
4-29
5-1
5-1
4-30
5-2
5-2
4-30
4-30
5-2


5.2
6.3
5.8
6.3
6.0
6.3
6.5
6.2
6.8
6.6
6.2
5.8


1.8
3.0
2.8
2.0
2.3
2.0
2.8
2.5
3.0
3.0
2.0
2.2


1.8
2.0
1.8
1.3
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.0
1.8
1.3
1.5


8.3
11.0
8.7
9.0
8.7
8.3
10.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
8.7
9.3


1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10.
11.
12.
1/

*


Table 2. The agronomic characteristics of 12 popcorn varieties at Belle Glade, Florida.


ASF 231
ASF 313
*ASF 328
*ASF 332
ASF 373
*ASF 410
ASF 500
*Purdue 213
Purdue 410
*SX-7
lopop 6
lopop 3595


4-30
4-30
4-29
4-30
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-6
4-30
4-30
4-30


6.3
6.3
6.3
5.8
6.2
5.8
6.3
6 .3
6.0
6.7
6.8
6.3


2.5
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.7
3.3
3.0
3.0
2.5


2.0
2.2
2.5
1.7
1.8
2.5
2.5
2.7
1.3
1.5
1.7
2.2


9.0
8.7
8.3
8.3
9.7
9.0
8.7
9.3
10.0
9.3
10.3
9.7


On an 11 point scale, 0.0=immune to 5.0=susceptible.
3.3 cm (1.3") necessary to minimize harvesting losses.


1969. Test 2.


14.4
15.4
13.6
17.4
16.4
14.1
17.2
12.9
12.3
15.6
12.7
10.9


3.1
3.2
2.8
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.9
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.0


Seed furnished by Ames Seed Farms, Larry McHone, Research and Sales.


On an 11 point scale, 0.0=immune to 5.0=susceptible.
3.3 cm (1.3") necessary to minimize harvesting losses.
Varieties occurring in .oth tests.


16.5
14.3
13.7
15.2
15.7
14.2
17.6
15.0
12.2
13.3
14.8
13.0


3.4
3.4
3.0
3.0
3.2
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.1
3.3
3.4
2.8


1590
2710
1670
2445
1665
2190
1850
1530
1680
1610
1760
1340


1540
2125
885
2290
2015
2105
2290
2170
1125
2570
1400
1605


Test 1.


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


* Varieties occurring in both tests.





Table 3. The industrial characteristics of 12 popcorn varieties at Belle Glade, Florida.


Entry Variety


ASF 200
ASF 213
ASF 220
ASF 222
*ASF 328
*ASF 332
ASF 373
*ASF 410
lopop 12
*Purdue 213
4M4
*SX-7


Weights/
Bushel, lbs.


Ear Quality
Score 1/


61.5
62.5
64.0
63.0
62.0
63.5
62.0
59.5
61.0
61.0
60.5
63.0


Table 4. The Industrial characteristics of 12 popcorn varieties at Belle Glade, Florida.


ASF 231
ASF 313
*ASF 328
*ASF 332
ASF 373
*ASF 410
ASF 500
*Purdue 213
Purdue 410
*SX-7
Iopop 6
lopop 3595


63.0
62.0
62.0
64.0
62.5
58.5
58.0
61.0
60.5
64.0
62.0
61.0


96
92
90
77
86
88
91
115
84
89
95
99


6.5
6.5
5.5
6
5.5
5
5
6
5
6
6
6.5


Varieties occurring in both tests.
An ear quality score of 10 is perfect.
Number per 10 grams.
OVT calculated from revised regression formula: Y = 0.036X 1.
Lower moisture indexes indicate earlier maturing.
The higher numbers reflect better quality (less tough pericarp).
The higher numbers reflect better flakiness.
Very small pieces, usually not eaten.


6.5
7


1969. Test 2.


1130
1155
1015
1120
960
800
850
940
895
1180
915
935


39.7
40.6
35.5
39.3
33.6
27.8
29.6
32.8
31.2
41.5
31.9
32.7


0


Kernel
Score 2/


Flake
Score 6/


Mush
% 7/


Hull
Score 5/


6
5.5
6
5
5
6.5
6


Moisture
index 4/


5.5
6.5
6.5
6
6
6
5.5
5
6.5
6


88
86
104
115
70
89


I'NT, cu.
in/lb.


770
925
1025
1005
965
1085
900
720
925
915
820
1060


OVT,
volume 3/


26.7
32.3
35.9
35.2
33.7
38.1
31.4
24.9
32.3
31.9
28.5
37.2


13.0
13.0
12.8
12.7
13.0
13.2
12.2
12.2
13.2
12.9
12.7
11.9


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/


12.3
13.3
13.0
13.6
13.5
13.9
13.0
12.8
12.4
13.0
13.9
12.9


1969. Test 1.








Table 5. Yield scores, expansion scores and variety scores of 12 varieties of
popcorn in 2 tests at Belle Glade, Florida. 1969.


Test I Test II
Yield Expansion Variety Yield Expansion Variety
Variety Score Score Score Variety Score Score Score

ASF 200 -0.61 -1.38 -1.99 ASF 231 -0.84 1.08 0.24

ASF 213 2.17 -0.01 2.16 ASF 313 0.23 1.27 1.50

ASF 220 -0.41 0.88 0.47 *ASF 328 -2.05 0.19 -1.86

ASP 222 1.51 0.70 2.20 *ASF 332 0.53 1.00 1.53

*ASF 328 -0.43 0.35 -0.08 ASP 373 0.02 -0.24 -0.22

*ASF 332 0.87 -0.23 -0.19 ASP 410 0.52 -1.09 -0.57

ASP 373 0.04 -0.23 -0.19 ASP 500 0.52 -1.09 -0.57

*ASF 410 -0.76 -1.82 -2.58 *Purdue 213 0.31 -0.39 -0.08

lopop 12 -0.38 -0.01 -0.39 Purdue 410 -1.60 -0.74 -2.34

*Purdue 213-0.57 -0.10 -0.67 *SX-7 1.04 1.46 2.50

4M4 -0.19 -0.94 -1.13 Iopop 6 -1.11 -0.59 -1.70

*SX-7 -1.24 1.19 -0.05 Iopop 3595 -0.73 -0.43 -1.16


* Varieties occurring in both tests.