Title: Results of research with field corn in the Everglades area.
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Title: Results of research with field corn in the Everglades area.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1958
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076897
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 166140927

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RESULTS OF RESEARCH WITH FIELD CORN IN THE
EVERGLADES AREA

1958

by

Victor E. Green, Jr. and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.

*************#** *******************X x x x


This report contains results of research with field corn grown
on organic soils in south Florida. The studies herein include work with
released and experimental varieties and on grain insect damage. This is
a contain n._n he work reported in Everglades Station Mimeo Reports
55-4, 56g,'57-5a 1,8-10. Research on field corn at this station is
condupd AoQooperati4y with the Corn and Sorghum Section, Crops Research
Divislop, AMS-USDA.
*' tii v-A1-


December 8, 1958


Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-7


Belle Glade, Florida


444444444MMMW %


,,







RESULTS OF RESEARCH WITH FIELD CORN IN THE EVERGLADES
AREA

1958

by

Victor E. Green, Jr. and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.


Variety Tests

Two variety tests were grown in 1958. One test compared varie-
ties that were to be grown at several locations in Florida to obtain data
on adaptability. Eleven released varieties made up the test, comprising
10 sub-tropical and tropical corns and Dixie 18. The second test was
planted to compare three varieties arising from the Rockefeller Founda-
tion program in Mexico with three crosses made by the Crow Hybrid Corn
Company from blight resistant material.

Both tests were planted in the east end of Field 2NW on February
28, 1958. Rows three feet apart were laid out east and west. Hills were
planted one foot apart and the stand was thinned to one plant every foot.
The plot design was a completely randomized block with 6 replications in
the variety test and 5 replications in the Crow-Mexico test.

The plants grew poorly for two reasons: Unusually cool wea-
ther stunted the corn during its early growth and a pH value of the soil
above 6.0 seemed to inhibit minor element uptake.

On May 26, a disease index for Northern leaf blight resistance
was determined by Miss Alice L. Robert, Plant Pathologist, Corn and Sorghum
Section, CRD-ARS-USDA. The approximate date of tasselling was recorded
for the varieties. The figures up to and including 77 days are fairly
accurate, while the figure 85 is a maximum period estimate between 78 and
85 days. Date of harvest was July 30, 1958. At harvest time, the per-
centage of plants remaining erect was calculated as were the yields of
shelled grain at 15.5 percent moisture. These data are shown in Table 1.

The ear corn from each plot was placed in orange sacks and the
sacks were stored in rat-proof cages to allow a population increase of
stored grain insects prior to entomological evaluation of the varieties.

Figure 1 summarizes the average yields of field corn variety
tests for recent years. Good yields have been obtained from Corneli 54,
Funk G-740, Funk G-737A and Cueto 56. Growers who desire to plant Cueto
56 must import seed from Cuba. Since Cueto 56 is a single cross, the ex-
pense of the seed may be a deterrent to their purchase.

Rocamex H-503 appears to be the best white corn variety to plant
in south Florida, but, as above, seed must be imported from Mexico.
_/ Associate Agronomist, and Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, Florida.















11~~1 ~ 1~ ~1111~3~1 U


BIG JCE-----.


FRANCISCO FLINT.


TIOUISATE.-----


CORNELI 5h------4--- -------- -------- -o


FUNK G-7O----- ----.


FUNK G-737A---------

DIXIE 18-- -0


CUETO $6------------

ROCAMEX H-503 -- -------


ROCAMEX H-501--- ---------- o

ROCAMEX H-502--- --------o


Figure 1.


2


2


i 0 50 60 70 80 90
AVERAGE YIELDS, BUSHELS PER ACRE
The Average Yields of Field Corn Varieties Grown at Belle Glade,
Florida for the Indicated Number of Times. 1951-1958.


Illr~~lrllrlrrrrrr~-rrr~rl~lln









Insects Attacking the Field Corn Ear


Corn from the variety trials was examined on November 12 and
13, 1958, for injury by the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) and stored
grain insects. The only stored grain insect present in any abundance was
the rice weevil, Sitophilus pryza (L.). Examinations were made approxi-
mately fifteen weeks after harvest.

Ten ears taken from each plot were given an index number (0-5) to
indicate the degree of injury by stored grain insects and corn earworms.
An average index for each plot was computed and multiplied by 100. The
indexes were then statistically analyzed. The highest possible index,
500, would indicate the greatestamount of injury. The method of indexing
was as follows:

Amount of earworm injury:


To tip of ear


To side of ear


None


None


one-eighth length of ear
or less


greater
greater
of ear.

greater
greater
of ear.


than one-eighth but not
than one-fourth length


than one-fourth but not
than three-eighths length


greater than three-eighths but
not greater than one-half length
of ear.

greater than one-half length of
ear


1-4 kernels


5-9 kernels



10-14 kernels



15-19 kernels



20 plus


Amount of stored grain insect injury.


Number of Injured Kernels


None
1-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41 plus


The average ear length was determined from five ears in each
plot. The average ear length for each variety is shown in Tables 2 and
3.


Index

0


Index

0
1
2
3
4
5








For both earworm and stored grain insect damage in both tests,
there was not a significant correlation between ear length and earworm
damage, ear length and stored grain insect damage, or earworm damage and
stored grain insect damage:
Test No. 1 Test No. 2

ear length earworm 0.0409 ns 0.1411 ns

ear length-stored grain insect 0.0291 ns 0.3617 ns

earworm stored grain insect 0.0836 ns 0.0067 ns

In Test 1, Rocamex H-501, Tiquisate, and Rocamex H-503 had
significantly less earworm damage than both Dixie 18 and Funk G-740
(Table 2). Also, Cueto 56 and Funk G-737A had significantly less ear-
worm damage than Funk G-740.

In Test 2, Rocamex H-503, Rocamex H-501, Rocamex H-502, Corneli
54, and C103xNC27xCr2618 had significantly less earworm damage than
C103xCr2586 and Cl03xCrl200.(Table 2).

In Test 1, Funk G-737A had significantly less stored grain in-
sect damage than all other varieties except Funk G-740, Dixie 18, and
Tiquisate (Table 3). Corneli 54 had significantly less damage from stored
grain insects than Rocamex H-501, Rocamex 1-502, Rocamex H-503, Big Joe,
and Cuete 56. In Test 2, none of the varieties were significantly dif-
ferent in respect to the amount of damage by stored grain insects.





-4-


Table 1. The Characteristics and Performance of Field Corn Varieties
on Organic Soil. Belle Glade, Florida. 1958.


Variety 1/


Yields,Bu/A.
@ 15.5% Mois-
ture


Disease
Index
3/


Erect
Stalks,
%d


Days
to
Flower


Test No. 1


5. Cueto 56(Sc)
9. Funk G-737A
3. Rocamex 1-503
6. Corneli 54
7. Funk G-740
8. Tiquisate
11. Dixie 18
4. Big Joe
10. Francisco Flint
1. Rocamex U1-501
2. Rocamex H-502
L.S.D. .05 : 7


1.0
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.9
2.2


.01 12 bu.


Test No. 2


Rocamex H-503
C103xNC27xCr2618
Corneli 54
Rocamex H-501
Rocamex H-502
C103xCr2586
C103xCrl200
L.S.D. .05 : 5 .01 8 bu.


1.2
1.2
1.0
1.9
1.3
0.8
0.6


1/ C : Conn.; Cr = Crow Hybrid Corn Co.; NC North Carolina; Rocamex :
Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico; Cueto : A Cuban Single Cross.

2/ Readings on May 26, 1958 by Miss Alice L. Robert, Plant Pathologist,
Corn and Sorghum Section CRD-ARS-USDA.
Planted February 28, 1958. 14,520 plants per acre.












Table 2. Corn Earworm Injury to Field Corn Varieties. Belle
Glade, Florida. 1958.


Avg. Length Injury
Variety Inches Index a

Test No. 1

Rocamex #501 7.5 160
Tiquisate 7.3 160
Rocamex #503 6.0 170
Cueto 56 6.7 180
Funk G-737A 7.6 180
Rocamex H-502 7.5 190
Big Joe 7.1 190
Corneli 54 7.3 190
Francisco Flint 7.3 190
Dixie 18 6.7 230
Funk G-740 7.1 240

Test No. 2

Rocamex H-503 7.9 150
Rocamex H-501 7.4 180
Rocamex H-502 7.1 180
Corneli 54 7.1 180
C103xNC27xCr2618 7.5 190
C103xCr2586 6.9 260
C103xCrl200 6.6 300

a Scores joined by the same line are not significantly different;
Scores not joined by the same line are significantly different.










-6-


Table 3. Stored Grain Insect Injury to Field Corn Varieties.
Belle Glade, Florida. 1958.

Variety Avg. Length Injury
Inches Index a

Test No. 1

Funk G-737A 7.6 230
Funk G-740 7.1 300
Dixie 18 6.7 310
Tiquisate 7.3 320
Corneli 54 7.3 340
Francisco Flint 7.3 350
Rocamex H501 7.5 410
Rocamex H502 7.5 440
Rocamex H503 8.0 4-.O
Big Joe 7.1 '50
Cueto 56 6.7 470

Test No. 2

Rocamex H-503 7.9 350
C103xNC27xCr2618 7.5 370
C103xCr2586 6.9 370
C103xCrl200 6.6 380
Corneli 54 7.1 390
Rocamex H-501 7.4 410
Rocamex H-502 7.1 440


a (See "a" footnote, IPble 2).




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